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Assignment No.

:- 2
Submitted by:-

Submitted To:Mr. Anand

we known that Capacity=bandwidth*log2(1+SNR) Here. SNR is signal to noise ratio. Some codec’s are contained in chips but that nonetheless is a small 'computer' that contain the instructions so it is still a piece of programming. both convert an analog signal to the digital ones . . Demodulator part of the modem and modulator part of the codec .4596 = 41.:.A modem is a piece of hardware. A codec is software. Put the value Capacity=12*log2(1+10) = 12 * log2(11) = 12 * 3. but it is the 'dictionary' with which the information is written. It is an electronic device that communicates over a digital or analog medium (line) to transmit data. I have send a binary signal over 12-Khz channel whose signal to noise ratio is 10 dB.:. it is a program 'key' of sorts that tell the computer how to 'translate' the digital information of a file and present it in an understandable manner. Bandwidth is the bandwidth of channel. if there is any difference ? Justify your answer. 5152 kbps Q. It does not necessarily mean that it is a security measure.2. Ans.1. This data is coded (digitalized) and then converted to fit the medium it is transmitted through (analog or digital) so the information is received on the other end by another modem and is then interpreted.Q. what should my maximum achievable rate ? Ans.

4. How receiver detect that which is information signal and which is carrier signal and how it separate both at destination? Ans. so in its recovery circuit it employs a circuit which does not allow high frequency signals to pass . in the constellation diagram.171. etc. how would you calculate the number of computer attached? Illustrate by giving example. Q. they all have the same amplitude.:.According to the definition of Modulation since the work of demodulator is to demodulate high frequency carrier instead of an IP address. and the domain (the URL) computerlanguage. so amplitude modulation is not being used. However. Although the next version of the IP protocol offers essentially an unlimited number of unique IP addresses (see IPv6).:.64.If all the points are equidistant from the origin. so the encoding is pure phase shift is converted to the numeric IP address (see DNS). the actual IP address can be entered into the browser.IP addresses are written in "dotted decimal" notation. The host part can be further divided into subnetworks . Where the high frequency is carrier signal & information being the lower frequency. but passes the low frequency signal. all the points lie on a circle centered on the origin. for example. 204. If you are given with Ip address. Instead of the domain name of a Web site. which is four sets of numbers separated by decimal points. What kind of modulation is used and why? Ans. the Domain Name System (DNS) exists so users can enter computerlanguage.5. Frequency modulation is never used in constellation diagrams. Q. server. Ans. the traditional IP addressing system (IPv4) uses a smaller 32-bit number that is split between the network and host (client.:.).

how long a station 's' have to wait in the worst case before it can start transmitting its frame over lan that uses the basic bit map protocol? Ans. The fewest are Class A networks.Class A. Thus FDM is the most suitable technique for transmission as compare to TDM.7. Q. is like FDM (frequency division multiplexing). So first it has to wait for (N-1) frame slot.:. several small frequencies are multiplexed over a big carrier frequency which are transmitted on the network. A cable tv system has 100 commercial channels all of them alternating programs with advertizing . More than two million Class C addresses are assigned.The worst case would be when a station wants to transmit (just after its bit slot is passed). so total waiting time is N+2(N-1)d bit slots. and station. which are reserved for government agencies and huge companies. is this more like TDM or FDM ? Justify your answer. an IP address is either Class A. and all of the other stations are transmitting. Then. is the very last station on the map.Based on the split of the 32 bits. s. Ans. quite often in large blocks to network access providers for use by their customers. then entire N bitslot (contention period). In FDM. B and C:. We also provide a fixed bandwidth to every channel and a band guards are provided between each frequency to avoid overlapping of signal. .6. In FDM. B or C. and another (N-1) frame slot. In case of cable transmission we provided a band guard of 6 MHz to every channel. Q. on the next pass all the stations are transmitting again. the most common of which is Class C.A cable tv system has 100 commercial channels all of them alternating programs with advertizing.:.