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Lecture Notes Mechanics Of Solids By


y . z ) or ----right hand tria Displacement (u .Cordinate System ( x . stress vector (force / area) T Stress vector = Force / Area with outward drawn normal Similarly for other plane . w ) or Stress = Linear . v .

..................Newton’s Law . (1) is mass density .....

........(4) Symmetry of stress tensor ......Similarly ........................... (2) .. Neglecting Higher order terms (No body couple) ....................(3) Euler's Equation and Components would contribution all other components are either to x or cross it.........

eqn (1.3 Statics No Body Forces Equation of equilibrium TRANSFORMATION given at a point stress component on any plan .2.3 J=1.3) i=1.2.2.

2. .x2 x3). .3 are called Cauchy formulae are sufficient to define the traction on any plane.PABC Tetrahedron at point P formed by 3 surfaces parallel to coordinate axises with unit normal Let h is the height of the surface between P & ABC Body forces along (x1. vol = and i=1.

NORMAL & SHEAR STRESSES Let and are the normal & shear comps.3 j =1.2.3 .2. On the oblique plan Substitution of i =1.

Cross section =2 cm * 3 cm F = 6000N Find the normal & shear stress components on a equally inclined/plane relative to X1.X2.X3 Normal stress component .

Show that .










3 equations with 6 Unknowns Displacement Components (u . v . w ) 3 Unknowns Stress Tensor 6 Unknowns .

6 equations No. of Unknowns = 6 + 3 + 6 = 15 No. of equations = 3 + 6 =9
Need to have more equations for the unique solution Simplest Relationship (LINEAR)

Superposition Principal ( the law of independence of effects of forces ( )) is developed in the presence of effect) Each of stresses caused by each component of

) on the deformation (


Hooke’s Law for Isotropic Material
Two material constants. Isotropy No directional property (same in all).

Direction of principal (

) stress and Principal strain ( coincide

) must

State of stress and strain in terms of Principal components

Has same effect along 2 and 3 orthogonal directions

Young’s Modulus E


Modulus of elasticity or Young’s Modulus

Poisson’s Ratio

Uniaxial – 1 – D state of stress


Hook’s Law in Shear Cauchy Formula ( Transformation) we Know Bulk Modulus .

k = (Hydrostatic Stress ( Pressure) / Volumetric Strain .


Equation of Equilibrium Isotropic Materials .

we are able to integrate them.Coupled ode not easy to solve them but are consistent and will give the Unique solution provided . .

Geometry Ignorance Mathematical limitations etc.Theories of failure Ultimate Aim DESIGN Failure material failure Uncertainties Material Loading . Simplified Criteria yielding Theories of Principal stress Principal strain are extremum .

Maximum Shear Stress Theory . Maximum-Principal Stress Theory 2.1. Maximum-Principal Strain Theory In case of compressive state of stress 3.

is called Tresca theory useful for ductile material--.cup and cone in simple tension 450 Tresca theory fails in hydro static state of stresses 4. Total strain energy theory --( Beltrami & Haigh) 5. Shear or Distortion Strain Energy Theory .


Energy Method First law of thermodynamics Adiabatic Process Work of Gravity << External force change of internal energy of the material resulting from the surface Then .

traction andbody force (no gravity) elastic material and without hysteresis body will perform the equal but opposite work in the surrounding during the Unloading process. Energy stored in the body as a result of deformation which is equal to the external work done. Strain energy due to Normal stress .

Strain energy due to shear stress Similarly by other components of stresses Super position .

Ex.1 Bar in tension .

L) .Ex.2 Torsion of circular shaft (r .

3 Bending strain Energy –Normal stress .Ex.

Strain energy due to shear in Beam Castigliano Theorem .

Prob. Definition A. Everyone makes / one who works makes the mistakes B. Never accept the single way solution Equation of equilibrium – Navier’s equation .Uniaxial ENGG.

d.e. and it is extremely difficult to solve Are 3 – D equations Simplifications Most of the simple engineering problems belongs to 1 – D problems (i) Uniaxial deformation – Bars (ii) Torsion of shaft – Shaft (iii) One axis symmetric bending – Beams (iv) Combined state of stress problems .Are coupled p.