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GeoFrame 4.0

ELANPlus Theory

ELANPlus Theory

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© 1999 Schlumberger Schlumberger Austin Systems Center 8311 North FM 620 Road Austin, Texas 78726 U.S.A. All rights reserved. No part of this manual may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or translated in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and recording, without the prior written permission of Schlumberger. Use of this product is governed by the License Agreement. Schlumberger makes no warranties, express, implied, or statutory, with respect to the product described herein and disclaims without limitation any warranties of merchantability or ﬁtness for a particular purpose.

**Version and Program History
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Version 4.0 3.7 3.6 3.5 3.2 3.1 3.0 2.0 1.0 Date May 2001 July 1999 April 1999 July 1998 August 1997 March 1994 June 1993 July 1992 March 1991 Comment Updated for GeoFrame 4.0 Update for GeoFrame 3.7 Update for GeoFrame 3.6 Update for GeoFrame 3.5 Add APS Interpretation Upgrades for GF1.1 standards Commercial Beta First Version

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ELANPlus Theory

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**How to Use On-Line Help
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**About This Document
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This document contains the information you need to know to run this program. It is designed to be used both as a hardcopy document and to be accessed online by means of Hypertext. Click on any item in the table of contents to jump directly to the page on which that topic begins. Mouse Buttons These conventions are used to indicate which mouse button to click: MB1 Left mouse button MB2 Center mouse button MB3 Right mouse button If you are told to click on something, and you are not told which mouse button, use MB1. Hypertext Links In the user’s guide Contents, you can click on any heading to jump to that page. After you have jumped to a reference—even if you have paged forward or backward after jumping—you can return to the original jump point by pressing the GoBack button. Throughout this user’s guide, there are references to other sections in this guide and to other GeoFrame documents. These references are also active Hypertext links. When you click on a phrase that appears in blue, underlined Italic type, you jump to the section or document represented by that phrase. To jump to the beginning of the table of contents at any time click on the ToC ToC button.

ELANPlus Theory

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all items in the table of contents (though they are in black. press MB3 to display the MAKER or VIEWER menu. 3 In the Printer Name ﬁeld. Q Printing This Guide To print this user’s guide from FrameMaker or FrameViewer on a PostScriptcompatible printer. and select the Print option. You may want to use the UNIX lpq command to check the printing status. -4 iv ELANPlus Theory . not blue. select the name of your printer.ToC Index In addition. 1 With the cursor anywhere in the document. you must have the proper Adobe PostScript printer drivers installed for your printer. See your system administrator or on-line man pages for information about this command. 4 Make sure that the Print Only to File button is not selected. 5 Click on the OK button to print the document. type) are hyperlinked. The Index button is not connected at this time. The FrameMaker Print Document window appears. verify that the All option is selected. The Q (Quit) button closes the User Guide and quits FrameViewer (program used to view the Guide). 2 Under the Print Page Range heading. Click on any TOC item to jump directly to the section of the document it represents.

...............................................1 The Purpose of the ELANPlus Application ....................................3 Formation Components..........................................................................4 Mnemonics ......................................................................................................5 Units ........................................................................................................3 Matrices ...............................................................................................................................4 Model..........................8 Summation of Volumes ............................................................................................................................................................................................................7 Flushed-Zone and Undisturbed-Zone Relationships................................7 Lateral Continuity .......................................7 Environmental Corrections ............................................ Depth Matching......8 Qv_effective .................................................................................8 Neutron Porosity .............. Volumes ...........................................................................................................................................................................................6 Assumptions of the ELANPlus Application ....................................................... Patching.....1 Conventions .............................................3 Equations and Tools ......................................................................................................................................................7 Bound Water......6 xxxx ...........................7 Curve Editing—Depth Correction.....ToC Index Q Contents Version and Program History How to Use On-Line Help About This Document Mouse Buttons Hypertext Links Printing This Guide Chapter 1 ELANPlus Program Theory ........................................................................................................4 Summation Expressions ...................................8 Vertical Continuity ................................................................................................6 Borehole Pressure .............. Interpretation Model ......................6 Vectors ...................... Despiking...............................................................8 ELANPlus Theory -3 v .........................................................................................................................8 Summation of Fluids ...................................

.........................................................................................................................18 Response Parameters .................................................................................................................41 Wet and Dry Clay ....................45 SP Response Parameters ........................31 Building an ELANPlus Model ......................................31 Constraints ...............................................................................57 -2 vi ELANPlus Theory ........................................................................................39 Step 8 Set Parameter Values...................................................................................................16 Binding Parameters .................................................................................................................................................................................38 Step 6 Choose Model Combination Method .................................................................................................51 Slowness ..........................................................................20 Salinity Parameters ...11 Invasion Model ...44 Gamma Ray (GR) Response Parameters ................................................16 Global and Program Control Parameters .........................41 Density Response Equation ..................................13 Parameters ......52 Neutron Response Parameters .....................................................................37 Step 5 Label the Model ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................34 Step 1 Select Formation Components ...............................................................9 Formation Components ..........ToC Chapter 2 Interpretation Models ..............................................................................................10 A Simple Response Equation Example .....................................................................10 Response Equations .....35 Step 4 Choose Constraints ..............................................30 Parameter Calculator ....47 Sonic Response Parameters ..........................................................42 General Response Equation ....................................................................56 Linear NPHI ..................................................40 Index Q Chapter 3 Response Equations ............................................................................................................................................................................................................51 Velocity ...............................35 Step 3 Rationalize Formation Components and Response Equations............................................................39 Step 9 Save Your Work ...............................................................................11 The Overdetermined Solution ...............24 Temperature Correction of Parameter Values ....................................................................................................................................38 Step 7 Create Functions .......................................................35 Step 2 Select Response Equations .........................................................................................................................

...........................80 Water Saturation.............66 Recommendations for APS Interpretation ...............................................................108 Carbonate-Clay Example ....................................69 Parameter Tables .................106 Weight Multipliers .........................104 Conductivity....................................................61 Recommendations for Using Neutron Data in ELANPlus Processing ......................................................115 ELANPlus Theory -1 vii ..........................................................................115 Irreducible Water Constraint ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Linear Conductivity ....84 Beware of CUDC_clai ..................................................................................................................................................................................................78 Oil and Gas Model with Rxo ....................................................................................111 Chapter 6 Constraints .....67 Constant Tools ................... SP ................................ Hierarchy .................................................79 Oil and Gas Model without Rxo ...........................................71 Index Q Chapter 4 Conductivity Models .............................84 For Global Parameter Clay = Dry ...............................................113 Internal Constraints .................................................................................................................................................................................103 Balanced Uncertainties .......................................................................................85 Dual-Water Equation ..................................................................96 Chapter 5 Uncertainties ....................................................................................95 Simandoux Conductivity Equation .....103 The ELANPlus Solution Method ..................................89 Linear Conductivity Equation ...............................................................................................84 Conductivity Equations ...........................................................................................................................106 Default Uncertainties .........................................80 Conductivity Input...................................................................................107 Uncertainty Tables ...............................................................................................................................................113 Predeﬁned Inequality Constraints ..ToC Nonlinear Neutron Response Parameters .............................................................................................................................83 For Global Parameter Clay = Wet ..........92 Indonesian and Nigerian Conductivity Equations ........114 Maximum Porosity Constraint ...............................................85 Waxman-Smits Equation ................75 No Rxo Tool .............................................................................................................

116 Conductivity Constraint for Water-Based Mud (Sxo Sw) ............................124 Index Q Chapter 7 Model Combination ...........................................................................................................................................................127 External Probabilities .................................119 Conductivity Constraint for Oil-Based Mud (Sxo £ Sw) .........................................142 Simandoux Equation (A historical perspective).............................................................................................................................139 Reconstructed Logs Can Identify Model Problems ........................140 Use Predicted Value to Check for Inconsistencies.......................127 Model Probabilities ......................123 Sxo Constraint for Oil-Based Mud (Sxo £ Sw) ...........125 Methods for Generating Combined Answer Sets ........123 Sxo Constraint for Water-Based Mud (Sxo Sw) ............................ToC Sonic Clay Volume Constraint ...............................141 Appendix-1 ............................................................................................................................................................................................130 Chapter 8 Quality Control ....................................................................... Using Probabilities ..............................................................129 Final Model Combination...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................125 Individual Models ..............................................................................................................................................................................140 Poor Reconstruction Means There Is a Problem .......140 A Good Reconstruction Can Go With a Wrong Answer ..127 Internal Probabilities ....................................................124 User-Deﬁned Constraints ................................135 Quality Control of the Model ..............149 0 viii ELANPlus Theory .................................140 Summary .......................135 Examples of Bad Hole Models ................138 Quality Control of the Results ............................128 Bad Hole Probability......................142 Glossary .....................

as well. If you do not understand the theory behind it. Although the new user may wish to read this document in its entirety. irreproducible. and assumptions of the ELANPlus program. As much as the ELANPlus User’s Guide. it will remain a mysterious black box. With a ﬁrm theoretical understanding. You can run the ELANPlus application and produce results—even meaningful results—without the information presented in this document. Information on the editors is also found in the ELANPlus User’s Guide. The Purpose of the ELANPlus Application The ELANPlus computer program is designed for quantitative formation evaluation of cased and open-hole log level by level. theory. though.ToC Index Q Chapter 1 ELANPlus Program Theory This document presents theoretical concepts of the ELANPlus petrophysical interpretation program. illogical results. it has been designed to be accessed in small. you can make educated choices of model components and parameter values that will quickly converge to a high quality result. self-contained. Fine-tuning parameter values will remain a frustrating hit-or-miss proposition. single-topic segments. This document often refers to ELANPlus editors such as the Global Parameter editor and Process Editor that are part of the human interface. the ELANPlus program will sometimes appear to produce inconsistent. However. until you understand the underlying concepts. Evaluation is done by ELANPlus Theory 1 .

as in Figure 1. or tools. “What response parameter value(s) should I use to obtain the best ﬁt between the observed logging instrument readings and some believed formation component volumes (often core results)?” A method for solving the cal- 2 ELANPlus Theory . or Solve process. and response parameters are used together in response equations to compute volumetric results for formation components. The relationship is often presented in a triangular diagram. the t represents the tool vector—all logging instrument data and synthetic curves. Index Q t t = Rv v R Figure 1 Petrophysical model used by the ELANPlus application. the ELANPlus program can determine the third. response parameters. Most users think the purpose of the ELANPlus application is solving the socalled inverse problem. uses R and v to compute t. In reality. The v is the volume vector. in which log measurements. and formation component volumes. Given the data represented by any two corners of the triangle. R is the response matrix. given 100% of each formation component.ToC optimizing simultaneous equations described by one or more interpretation models. Here the question is. depth matching. Singe-well ELANPlus can be run anytime after preliminary data editing (such as patching. In Figure 1. t and R are used to compute v. environmental correction) is complete. containing the parameter values for what each tool would read. the volumes of formation components. also known as log reconstruction. A log reconstruction problem is computed for each inverse problem. As stated before. Using t and v to compute R is called the calibration problem. that aspect of the program is only one side of a three-way relationship among tools. The reconstructed logs are compared against input data to determine the quality of volumetric results from the inverse problem. The forward problem. solution of the inverse problem is often considered the main job of the ELANPlus program. In the inverse problem.

how the program produces its results. you must tell the ELANPlus program which minerals.x of ELANPlus. The more technically correct term is equations. Generally.ToC ibration problem has not been implemented in version 2. please read it completely. Index Q Conventions To fully understand the concepts behind the ELANPlus model. If reading this section for the ﬁrst time. most of the material presented here will not be repeated. Formation Components. and so on) are provided by the Function process. Often the primary job of the ELANPlus program is to determine the relative quantities or volumes of the formation components that would most likely produce the set of measurements recorded by the logging instruments. These minerals.0. Chapters 2–8 explain ELANPlus interpretation model concepts and tell how individual models can be combined for wide ranges of formation types. the terms volumes and formation components. Note that the inverse problem solves for formation component volumes only. and ﬂuids are the formation components. are often used interchangeably. the term tool has historical roots in the program. and how to check the quality of results. The term tool comes from the fact that most response equations obtain their input data from logging tools and often use the same mnemonic as the tool data. rocks. and ﬂuids are likely to be present in the formation. response equations. or better. rocks. Finally. The problem will be solvable in Version 3. Also. Equations and Tools Equation and tool will be synonymous in most cases. Tool will be used more conceptually in discussing interpretation models. Volumes When setting up an interpretation model. you must be aware of the conventions used in this document. Though some terms may also be in the glossary. matrix grain density. or just components. That approach allows the program user to control the deﬁnitions of the additional output types rather than having the deﬁnitions hard-coded in the program. the response equations and their associated data are used as tools to produce the desired results. Therefore. equation or response equation will be used when the intent is to focus attention on the structure of the equation. Other traditional log interpretation program results (such as water saturation. ELANPlus Theory 3 .

A model consists of a set of tools. Volumes tends to be used in discussion of equations and output curves. They are often used to establish a relationship between one formation component and another (or others). and ﬂuids likely to be encountered in appreciable quantity and provide the geological description of the types of formations to which the model applies. such as R. a model describes program input data and the solution space over which the ELANPlus optimizer can operate (the allowable results). Cotton Valley model. each model is given a name. Index Q 4 ELANPlus Theory . Mnemonics The mnemonics in this document will be those of the GeoFrame Interpretation Workstation. Often the term model is used interchangeably with Solve process. is of prime importance. such as Sand-Shale model. but not the quantity thereof. Mnemonics will be explained when ﬁrst used. or volumes. The constraints let you set upper and lower limits on the output volumes. The results from each speciﬁc model are combined through the Combine process to produce a final answer for the entire borehole interval being evaluated. and constraints. They are used (primarily in equations) to show how the theoretical concepts are related to the working program. Abstractly. because a different Solve process is usually set up for each general set of equations. rocks. Constraints are a way of supplying the program with local knowledge. and a set of constraints. bold characters. where the constituent. The equations describe the logging data and supplementary response equations that are available. formation components. XYZ E&P Reservoir model. Interpretation Model A model is a way to present information to the ELANPlus program to describe the problem to be solved. response parameters. and other global and model-specific parameters. Matrices Matrices are represented by upper case. The formation components describe the minerals. Model. where quantity carries more importance. Often. Implicitly there are associated curves. or equations. a set of formation components.ToC Usually components will be used in discussing interpretation models. Carbonate model.

nc = 3). regardless of type. ELANPlus Theory 5 . nf. The symbol nuf applies to all ﬂuids. etc.ToC Summation Expressions Many concepts are best described mathematically and involve a summation. Unless otherwise stated. and chlorite. However. including both clays and nonclays unless otherwise stated. i does not take on the values 1. 3. Similarly. In the expression Index Q ∑ Vi i=1 even though the summation index. in the ﬂushed zone only. including all clays that have speciﬁc names (ILLI. etc. irreducible.) as well as the generic clays (CLA1. regardless of type. nfc includes all solids—nonclay and clay alike—and all ﬂuids. among other formation components. MONT. The symbol nxf applies to all ﬂuids. CLA2). the number of clays in a model (in this example. To avoid deﬁning all summation elements and indices after each equation the most common ones are described once here. ns The symbol ns represents the number of solid formation components in a model. note that since bound water (XBWA) is solved for as a dependent variable. Vi represents volume of illite. nuf. nfc does not include it. it takes on the values ILLI. is shown to start at 1 and index to nc. and volume of chlorite in the expanded summation. volume of kaolinite. nfc The symbol nfc represents the number of formation components in a model. 2. includes the clays illite. nxf The symbol nf represents the number of ﬂuids in a model and includes all types of ﬂuids (water. Instead. in the undisturbed zone only. hydrocarbon. i.) in both the ﬂushed and undisturbed zones. kaolinite. The summation indices are used in a unique way in this document. Assume a model which. nc nc The symbol nc represents the number of clays in a model. KAOL. and CHLO.

As stated in the Summation Expressions section. It is also used to refer to any nonspeciﬁc member of a volume. WCLP_i.) indicates the ith ( jth. so that NPHI_i refers to NPHI_QUAR.” the xxxx should be ﬁlled in with RHOB. in “Equation uncertainty parameters.) element of the summation.. such as v. Although the ELANPlus application was designed to be free of such assumptions. k. volumes in a nearby formula. Vi. Q Assumptions of the ELANPlus Application Most formation evaluation programs impose some sort of interpretation model—assumptions about the depositional environment.u. Similarly. say. and others are used primarily in summation expressions. RHOB_i. RHOB_i Index The notations Vi. . Unless otherwise stated. the use of any speciﬁc numerical value at once raises the issue of units.” Vi is used generically to refer to. Unfortunately. should be set such that . or whatever equations are being used in a model.0 (0 to 100 p. DT.. Units Examples are sometimes used to elucidate a concept. The string xxxx is used to indicate that you are to ﬁll in appropriate mnemonics as required by context. Vi. WCLP_i. where the i ( j. is not replaced with an integer. or whichever formation components exist in a model. CEC_j.. in “The range of any output volume... etc. assume English units. For example.. it is virtually impossible to design a working computer program without some sort of assumptions— 6 ELANPlus Theory . . In other situations where the units are not supplied and are not obvious from context. in a sentence like “Cation exchange capacities for the clays are entered using the parameter CEC_xxxx.) being used in a model. clay properties. the i. and so on. TPL. is between 0..0 and 1.ToC Vi. MONT. For example.u. . NPHI. (porosity units). Vi.” the xxxx should be replaced by the mnemonics for the clays (ILLI. ﬂuid interactions in pore space. kth. xxxx_UNC. CEC_j. Vectors Vectors are represented by a lower case bold letter. NPHI_CALC.. not p. k..). but with a mnemonic. j. or similar group. parameter. porosities and other volumes will be given in v/v (decimal porosity). xxxx Most equation and formation component mnemonics contain four characters.

the same type of ﬂuid exists in the ﬂushed zone. lateral continuity. Borehole Pressure Borehole pressure is used in the computation of certain salinity-dependent parameter values. if a model includes undisturbed-zone oil (UOIL). For example. Qv_effective. One notable exception is that the salinity correction for the nonlinear neutron should not be done. Index Q ELANPlus Theory 7 . that is. That is. Flushed-Zone and Undisturbed-Zone Relationships Solid formation components exist in equal number and volume in both ﬂushed and undisturbed zones. Curve Editing—Depth Correction. regardless of the types of ﬂuids ﬁlling the pore space. Depth Matching. neutron porosity. Despiking.465 times depth. some resulting from incomplete knowledge of all variables that affect the solution sought. it must also contain ﬂushed-zone oil (XOIL). summation of ﬂuids. The volume of porosity in the ﬂushed and undisturbed zones is the same. they have had the effects of the borehole contents and geometry removed. and vertical continuity. during minimization. Hydrocarbon density (gas/oil ratio) is the same in both zones. ﬂushed-zone and undisturbed-zone relationships. The ratio of bound water to dry clay is constant for each clay. in feet.ToC some imposed by physics. Bound Water Clays are composed of dry clay mineral and associated (bound) water. bound water. Environmental Corrections All input data curves are environmentally corrected. curve editing. even though the volume of the ﬂuid might be zero in either or both zones. If a model includes an undisturbed-zone ﬂuid. Borehole pressure (in psi) is assumed to be 0. because the salinity correction can be done properly only when the volumetric constituents are known. Patching All input data curves have been properly depth corrected and matched with each other and have been edited to repair spurious effects such as data spikes or gaps. summation of volumes. environmental corrections. The assumptions implicit in the ELANPlus program are related to borehole pressure.

Index Q 8 ELANPlus Theory .ToC Lateral Continuity All solid formation components extend inﬁnitely from the borehole at zero degrees dip. that is. Neutron Porosity All neutron porosities are given in limestone units. near the borehole. That allows for the concept of ﬂuid invasion but uses the simplifying assumption of a step invasion proﬁle.3 (30 p. Fluid formation components exist in one of two annular zones—the ﬂushed zone. The only user-settable parameter for the Summation of Fluids equation is the uncertainty.) porosity. The only user-settable parameter for the Summation of Volumes equation is the uncertainty. The nonlinear optimizer does use results from the preceding level as a starting point when it can. or the undisturbed zone. Summation of Volumes The sum of all formation components must equal 1. farther away from the borehole. Qv_effective Qv_effective (QVSP_N) is internally multiplied by porosity before use. That this multiplication occurs is particularly important to know in the computation of the QVSP_UNC (uncertainty) parameter. This assumption is always added along with the other tools in a model. Summation of Fluids The sum of all ﬂuids in the ﬂushed zone equals the sum of all ﬂuids in the undisturbed zone. Default uncertainty is based on the assumption of a 0.u. This assumption is explicitly added as an equation along with the other tools whenever a model includes both ﬂushed and undisturbedzone ﬂuids. Vertical Continuity The solution of one data level is completely independent from the solution at adjacent data levels. but the solution is still determined only by the program data at each level. There is no vertical continuity logic in the ELANPlus program. VOLS_UNC (as in the Summation of Volumes equation). All formation components are azimuthally homogeneous. the number and volume of formation components at one azimuth is the same as at all other azimuths. VOLS_UNC (as in the Summation of Fluids equation).0.

Response equations are the equations to be solved and their associated input data and uncertainties. and salinity parameters. parameters. The Combine process will be discussed later in this chapter and also in a separate chapter. response equations. the ELANPlus application includes methods by which individual models can be mixed and spliced to provide a combined model for more complex environments and large borehole extents.ToC Index Q Chapter 2 Interpretation Models An ELANPlus interpretation model has four parts: formation components. Each individual model is speciﬁed in a separate Solve process. binding parameters. The discussion that follows considers only a single model and a single Solve process. and constraints. The ﬁnal result is (typically) produced by mixing the results from individual models (Solve processes) in a Combine process. Formation components are the constituents for which volumetric results are desired. ELANPlus Theory 9 . Additionally. as all remarks on a single Solve process apply equally to multiple Solve processes. Parameters are the global and program control parameters. response parameters. Constraints are the limits that the volumetric results must obey.

Rocks do not have default parameter values other than Absent. CaCO3. rocks. oil. by selecting them in the Process Editor. the primary answer sought from the ELANPlus application will be the volumes of certain formation components at each data level. and ﬂuids. or CaSO4. The user must specify the components for which the program is to solve. and other special ﬂuids. Minerals are solids described by a chemical formula. but the default 0. Rocks are considered to be user-deﬁned combinations of minerals. it is usually possible to supply default parameters for minerals. A neutron porosity of 1. 10 ELANPlus Theory . The number of components to be solved can never exceed the total number of equations in use. including water.ToC Formation Components In most cases.0 is pretty safe for water. The simplest linear response equations are of the form nfc measurement = ∑ Vi × Ri (1) i=1 where: Vi = volume of formation component i Ri = response parameter for formation component i Although some linear equations include additional terms. and igneous rock. and the nonlinear equations are more complex. gas. the overall concept is the same: the total measurement observed is determined by the volume of each formation component and how the tool reacts to that formation component. though some defaults are better than others. SiO 2. The formation components selected to be in a model should be only those expected to be present in appreciable quantity. such as silt. Index Q Response Equations A response equation is a mathematical description of how a given measurement varies with respect to each formation component. Fluids are pore-space-ﬁlling substances. It is often possible to provide usable default values for ﬂuids. Because of their well-deﬁned structure.8 gm/cc density of ﬂushed-zone oil could vary appreciably from well to well. Formation components exist in three groups: minerals. for example. carbonate.

the volume of calcite (CALC) is 0.368 g/cm3.71 (3) (2) Index Q Rearranging and solving for φ yields φ = 0.20 and.71 g/cm3 for calcite and a density of 1. and an undisturbed ELANPlus Theory 11 .368 = φ × 1.0 + ( 1 – φ ) × 2. Something so obvious that it is frequently not stated is that Equations (2) and (3) assume that the volume of calcite is given by CALC = 1 – φ (4) The signiﬁcance of Equation (4) is that it points out an assumption implicit in all ELANPlus models: at every depth level. also. Assume that a formation consists of only calcite and water and that a density log was recorded through the formation. Invasion Model Also implicit in the ELANPlus solution method is the assumption of a step invasion proﬁle consisting of a ﬂushed zone.ToC A Simple Response Equation Example The easiest way to discuss response equations is with a simple example.0 g/cm3 for water. the X zone.80. and substituting those values into Equation (2) yields 2. consequently. the sum of the volumes of all formation components present in a model must be 1. Using a density of 2.0. that is nfc 1 = ∑ Vi (5) i=1 Equation (5) is always added to all the other response equations in a model before the set of equations is passed to the ELANPlus optimizer. Assume. You can easily solve for the volume of water by using the density response equation written for a single matrix component: measured density = φ × fluid density + ( 1 – φ ) × matrix density where: φ = the volume of water-ﬁlled porosity. Expressed in ELANPlus terms. that at some depth of interest the density log read 2.

Shallow-reading log measurements are assumed to respond only to volumes of formation components in the X zone. represents the different forms of the nonlinear conductivity equations (such as CXDC_DWA. which controls how much inﬂuence comes from the X zone. are assumed to exist in equal volume in both X and U zones. xxxx_IFAC. Similarly. are assumed to be inﬂuenced by both X and U zones. called the invasion factor. The remaining inﬂuence. grouped by zone. Table 1 lists all curves currently recognized by the ELANPlus application. regardless of zone. _xxx. and others).0 . the U zone. and their response equations contain terms for all formation components. Some tools. deep-reading log measurements are assumed to respond only to volumes of formation components present in the U zone. and contain a special factor. which have a medium depth of investigation. 1. Hence. their response equations contain terms for only the components that exist in the X zone.ToC zone. CUDC_IND. Their response equations contain terms for only the components that exist in the U zone. comes from the U zone. Table 1 Logs and the Zones to Which They Respond L Logs Assumed to Measure Parts of Both Zones BMK ENPA ENPU NPHI NPHU RHOB Index Q Logs Assumed to Measure Only Flushed Zone CCA CCHL CFE CGDM CHY CK CSI CSUL EATT EQHY EX1-EX10 GR PHIT QVSP_N SIGM TPL ogs Assumed to Measure Only Undisturbed Zone CUDC CUDC_xxx SDPT SDPT_N 12 ELANPlus Theory .xxxx_IFAC. isolated porosity (ISOL) and parallel porosity (PARA). All solid formation components and two particular ﬂuid components. In Table 1 the modiﬁer.

) Logs and the Zones to Which They Respond CTI CT1 . the system is underdetermined and cannot be solved until the problem is reorganized by adding independent equations or by reducing the number of unknowns.ToC Table 1 (Cont. If there are exactly as many independent equations as there are unknowns. In a determined system there is exactly one set of values for the unknowns that will satisfy the equations.CT6 CXDC CXDC_xxx DT DWAL DWCA DWFE DWGD DWK DWMG DWSI DWSU DWTH DWTI DWU U VELC WWAL WWCA WWFE WWGD WWK WWTI WWSI WWSU WWTH WWTI WWU Index Q The Overdetermined Solution In any simultaneous solution of a system of equations. and some means must be employed to settle any disagreements among the equations. or deterministic. there must always be at least as many equations as unknowns. the system is said to be determined. If there are more independent equations than unknowns. If there are fewer equations than unknowns. the system is overdetermined. ELANPlus Theory 13 .

especially in any system where the measurements (points) may include some noise. The technique of minimizing the squares of distances from data points to a line is called leastsquares minimization. Often. Figure 2 shows the solution to the problem when there are two points—a determined system. Index Q B A Figure 2 Determined system. D C B A Figure 3 Overdetermined system. To envision how the program operates.ToC The ELANPlus program allows speciﬁcation of determined and overdetermined systems. The points are analogous to tools in the ELANPlus program and the line coefﬁcients are analogous to formation component volumes. There are two unknowns to be solved: the slope and the intercept of the line. A technique called linear regression is usually employed to determine a best ﬁt to the data. 14 ELANPlus Theory . It is generally impossible to draw a straight line through the data when more points are added. the best-ﬁt line is drawn so that the sum of the squares of the distances from the data points to the line is minimized (Figure 3). though. consider the job of trying to draw a straight line through a collection of points.

Note that the actual value of the uncertainty is not the most important part. it applies a second factor. Those values have been determined through both theory and experience. Index Q D Points B and C heavily weighted C B A Equal weighting Figure 4 Overdetermined system with weights applied Uncertainty is the inverse of weight. The ELANPlus program assigns an uncertainty to each response equation. Schlumberger suggests that you use the default values to start and modify them only as conditions warrant. Figure 4 shows the same data as Figure 3. More sophisticated linear regression programs allow different weights to be assigned to each point. Uncertainties. to determine the ﬁnal weight to be applied to each equation in the least-squares optimization.1. a weight multiplier. but often we know that some points are more reliable than others. The equally weighted ﬁt is also shown for reference.ToC Normal linear regression treats each point as having the same weight. It is up to you to set appropriate uncertainties and weight multipliers for the problem at hand. the key is the relative value of the uncertainty of one point with respect to the rest. It is like assigning equal trust to each point. including internal equations such as the Summation of Volumes equation or the Equal Hydrocarbon Ratio equation. but with points A and D assigned a weight of 1 and points B and C assigned a weight of 100.0 and points B and C an uncertainty of 0. After the program converts uncertainties to weights. For more information see Chapter 5. ELANPlus Theory 15 . The same results would also be obtained with the uncertainty of A and D set to 10 and the uncertainty of B and C set to 0.01. so the results illustrated in Figure 4 could be generated by assigning points A and D an uncertainty of 1. All equations have default values for the uncertainties and weight multipliers.

you will use only a small subset for any given model. that are important but do not affect the petrophysical model. and salinity parameters. You can think of them as determining in what mode the program will operate. Uncertainty Channel. such as Pasteboard Option. By selecting Dry you tell the program that the clay parameters values represent only the clay mineral and that values for the clay-associated water will be entered with separate parameters. they take on a single value throughout the processing interval. available on line through the Help menu. The uncertainty curve to be used with a given response equation is selected in 16 ELANPlus Theory . and Processing Mode. There are other program control parameters in the program. For more information see the Wet and Dry Clay section in Chapter 3. and which data are used. For detailed information on other program control parameters. This and the following subsections cover (brieﬂy) only the program control parameters that affect the concept of an ELANPlus model: Clay. see the ELANPlus User’s Guide. Program parameters fall into four general groups: global and program control parameters. and Weight Percentage Option. By selecting Wet you tell the program that response parameters associated with clay will have values that represent a clay-water aggregate. response parameters. program control parameters usually are global. what results are produced. Because they determine the environment in which the ELANPlus problem is set. Special Fluid Attribute. That is. Presponse Equations. Often they are set and never changed for an entire job. Uncertainty Channel Response equation uncertainty values can be supplied to the ELANPlus program either through a zoned parameter (xxxx_UNC) or through a data curve. Global and Program Control Parameters Global and program control parameters control which direction the program will take at certain major branches in the logic. Output Sample Rate.ToC Parameters ELANPlus program parameters give you control over how the program behaves. Clay Index Q The Clay parameter can be set to either Wet or Dry. using the Global Parameter Editor. binding parameters. Although the program has over 3000 parameters.

for example. You set the Special Fluids parameter in the Global Parameter Editor. You may wish to model. diesel invasion from oil-based mud.ToC the Binding Editor in the same way a curve is selected for use by a response equation. so must the other be. but if one is. or maybe carbon dioxide. The value can be set to Linear. or whatever. Do not try to combine special ﬂuids from different processes if they have different characteristics. a certain portion of the formation water. Immovable Hydrocarbon. Immovable Water. a borax solution. ELANPlus Theory 17 . You simply give each solid formation component a generic name like carbonate or evaporite. Fluids are a little more complex. The ﬂushed zone and undisturbed-zone special ﬂuids may have different densities. regardless of the setting of Uncertainty Channel. whether or not there are curves bound to any uncertainty parameters. Immovable Hydrocarbon. Any uncertainty parameter that does not have a curve bound to it will use values from its corresponding zoned parameter. acid. the zoned values will be used for all equation uncertainties. Similarly. and the program treats it like any other formation component. to direct the program to use the relative equation formulation. set the Weight Percentage Option in the Process Editor. Hydrocarbon. to direct the program to use the linear formulation for dry weight percentage data. for example. and Other. the ELANPlus program allows you to model formation components with user-deﬁned characteristics. The attribute chosen for a special ﬂuid in any process is applied to all processes in the session. Special Fluids Index Q To be as general as possible. The options are Water. If Uncertainty Channel is set to False. Weight Percentage Option After you select a Solve process that uses a dry weight percent curve such as DWSI or DWCA. or to Relative. the attribute chosen for the special ﬂuid in the ﬂushed zone (XSFL) and the special ﬂuid in the undisturbed zone (USFL) must be the same. The Special Fluids parameter provides the additional information. Setting the Uncertainty Channel toggle to True in the Global Parameter Editor tells the program to use any curves bound to the equation uncertainty parameter(s). conductivities. Water is the default. Conductivity equations need to know a little bit more about how to treat such user-deﬁned ﬂuids.

18 ELANPlus Theory . the more speciﬁc it becomes. some special response parameters can also be bound to curves. Unlike the other program control parameters. the curve data will not be used unless the global parameter Uncertainty Channel is set to True. Combination Method Index Q Generally the more reﬁned an ELANPlus model becomes. Binding Parameters Binding parameters tell the ELANPlus program which data curve to use for any given purpose. Controlling the splicing of individual models is the purpose of the Combination Method. Finally. Remember that even if equation uncertainties are bound to curves. Table 2 lists the mnemonic and deﬁnition of each parameter that can derive its value from either a zoned parameter or a curve. except the constant tools CT1–CT6 (each of which uses a zoned parameter). All response equations used in a session must be bound to a data curve. The key to efﬁcient interpretation of long borehole intervals or multiple wells in a ﬁeld is the ability to splice together results from a library of well-reﬁned models.ToC Note that because the Weight Percentage Option is set from the Process Editor. as described in the section “Uncertainty Channel” on page 16. The zonation applied to the Combination Method parameter is separate from that of the response parameters. the Summation of Volumes equation. different Weight Percentage Option values can be used for different Solve processes. Response equation uncertainty parameters may or may not be bound to curves. the Equal Hydrocarbon Ratio tool (EQHY). Model Combination. Each entry in the list tells the ELANPlus program which model combination method to use for a given depth range. For more information see Chapter 7. You set them in the Binding Editor. and the Summation of Fluids equation. rather than the Global Parameter Editor. the Combination Method is zoned instead of global and is built with the Combine editor.

ToC Index Table 2 Parameters That Can Use Curve Input GST Parameters GST_PFAC BCA BCHL BFE BGD BHY BK BSI BSUL BTI GST borehole partitioning factor Borehole calcium Borehole chlorine Borehole iron Borehole gadolinium Borehole hydrogen Borehole potassium Borehole silicon Borehole sulphur Borehole titanium Q Saturation Parameters M M_DWA M_WS N Porosity exponent in Indonesia/Nigeria equation Porosity exponent in Dual Water equation Porosity exponent in Waxman-Smits equation Saturation exponent for nonlinear conductivities Invasion Factor Parameters BMK_IFAC ENPA_IFAC ENPU_IFAC NPHI_IFAC NPHU_IFAC RHOB_IFAC Bulk modulus invasion factor Linear epithermal neutron invasion factor Nonlinear epithermal neutron invasion factor Linear thermal neutron invasion factor Nonlinear thermal neutron invasion factor Bulk density invasion factor ELANPlus Theory 19 .

Formation-Component-Endpoint Parameters Index Q Pure-formation-component-endpoint response parameters are the majority of all response parameters. There are two exceptions to the rule: equation mnemonics containing an underbar. and GST response equations. For example. the mnemonic for the density of calcite is RHOB_CALC. see the ELANPlus User’s Guide. The actual values are immaterial. rock. auxiliary parameters that are related to certain formation components. 20 ELANPlus Theory . and auxiliary parameters that are related to certain response equations. you must use the GeoFrame Process Manager DataItem Editor to change the name of the curve so that the name of the curve will be inappropriate for use by the parameter. it will be used whether or not a valid value exists for the corresponding zoned parameter. Each endpoint parameter value is the value that would be read by a logging instrument if it were surrounded by an inﬁnite amount of a particular 100% pure mineral. Any interval in which any response parameter has a value of Absent will produce results containing only Absent values for all formation components for that entire interval. as long as you maintain consistency within the equation and with the uncertainty of the equation. In the case of constant tools. All response parameters must contain valid values prior to the beginning of computation. you make up the endpoint values. For more information on using the Binding Editor and DataItem Editor.ToC If a curve that can be used for any of the parameters in Table 2 is present in the data base. or ﬂuid. the mnemonic for the dry weight percentage of silicon in illite is DWSI_ILLI. Response Parameters Response parameters can be roughly grouped into three main categories: those that represent pure formation component endpoints for each equation. Pure-formation-component-endpoint response parameters usually have mnemonics of the form equation mnemonic_formation component mnemonic. the “logging instrument” is synthetic. If such a curve is present in your data base. See Constant Tools on page 69 for more information about constant tool parameters. available on line from the Help menu. and you want to force the ELANPlus program to use the zoned parameter value.

For the dual-water ﬂushed-zone equation and ﬂushed-zone water. Formation-Component-Related Auxiliary Response Parameters Index Q Table 3 lists the mnemonics and deﬁnitions for the formation-componentrelated response parameters. and Summation of Fluids—that do not have endpoint response parameters that can be modiﬁed. CXDC_DWA and XWAT produce CXDC_XWAT. CSI. There are three internal equations—Equal Hydrocarbon Ratio (EQHY). drop the underbar and everything after it before adding the underbar and formation component mnemonic. for capture. and so on. uses response parameters FSI_QUAR. for fraction. FSI_CALC. CUDC_SIM. FSI_ILLI. For example. and response parameters that begin with F. Any values needed by those equations are set within the program. GST Response Equations GST response equations have mnemonics that begin with C. For undisturbed-zone water. Note that for any given formation component all conductivity equations for a speciﬁc zone (ﬂushed or undisturbed) share the same response parameter. and CUDC_WS all share the CUDC_UWAT response parameter. CUDC. Summation of Volumes. for the SP equation and kaolinite component you have the equation mnemonic QVSP_N and formation component mnemonic KAOL that combine to produce the response parameter mnemonic QVSP_KAOL. ELANPlus Theory 21 . CUDC_DWA. CUDC_IND. the GST capture silicon equation. That is because there can be only one conductivity equation for each zone per model. For example.ToC Equation Mnemonics Containing an Underbar For equation mnemonics containing an underbar.

Response Equations. Table 4 Equation-Related Auxiliary Response Parameters Mnemonic A BCA BCHL BFE BGD BHY BK BSI BSUL BTI Archie A factor Borehole calcium Borehole chlorine Borehole iron Borehole gadolinium Borehole hydrogen Borehole potassium Borehole silicon Borehole sulphur Borehole titanium Deﬁnition Applies to All conductivity equations GST equations GST equations GST equations GST equations GST equations GST equations GST equations GST equations GST equations 22 ELANPlus Theory .and Chapter 4. UIWA.ToC Index Table 3 Formation-Component-Related Response Parameters Mnemonic ARHOB_xxxx CBWA_xxxx CDPT_xxxx CEC_xxxx FLSOS_xxxx RSMSM_xxxx WCLP_xxxx Actual density Apparent bound water conductivity Conductivity as seen by the Deep Propagation Tool Cation exchange capacity Fluid/solid switch Ratio of the skeleton modulus to the shear modulus Wet clay porosity Deﬁnition Applies to All formation components Clays only UWAT. Conductivity Models. USFL Clays only Clays and XBWA All formation components Clays only Q Equation-Related Auxiliary Response Parameters Table 4 lists the mnemonics and deﬁnitions of equation-related response parameters. For more information. see Chapter 3.

ToC Table 4 (Cont. CXDC_WS CUDC_IND. CUDC_SIM. NPHI. CXDC_SIM BMK GST equations CUDC_IND. ENPA. CXDC_WS QVSP_N BMK VELC CUDC_SIM. CXDC_IND CUDC_DWA. RHOB Index Q QV_HYD_FAC SOLID_PAR SONIC_POR_FAC SWSHE xxxx_IFAC QVSP hydrocarbon factor Solids add in parallel switch Sonic porosity factor Water saturation shale effect Invasion factor ELANPlus Theory 23 . CXDC_DWA CUDC_WS. CXDC_IND. CUDC_WS CXDC_DWA. CXDC_SIM CUDC_DWA. CUDC_IND. CXDC_SIM BMK.) Equation-Related Auxiliary Response Parameters Mnemonic C_DWA C_WS DPT_DIS_EXP DPT_DIS_FAC ERSH ERSHO EVCL EXC_FAC EXPXO FLUID_PAR GST_PFAC M M_DWA M_WS MC2 MVCL N Deﬁnition Dual water clay effect coefﬁcient Waxman-Smits clay effect coefﬁcient Texture dispersion exponent Texture dispersion coefﬁcient Simandoux clay exponent Simandoux clay exponent Indonesian clay exponent Excavation effect factor Flushed-zone saturation exponent Fluids add in parallel switch GST borehole partitioning factor Archie porosity exponent Dual-water porosity exponent Waxman-Smits porosity exponent Effective porosity exponent Indonesian clay exponent Undisturbed-zone saturation exponent Applies to CUDC_DWA. CXDC_IND. CUDC_SIM. CXDC_WS SDPT_N SDPT_N CUDC_SIM CXDC_SIM CUDC_IND. NPHU. CXDC_SIM CUDC_IND. CXDC_DWA CUDC_WS. CXDC_IND NPHU CXDC_IND. CUDC_SIM. ENPU.

Fluids are less well deﬁned. however. Use the Parameter Calculator to calculate ﬂuid parameters that contain only the Absent value.) Equation-Related Auxiliary Response Parameters Mnemonic xxxx_UBW xxxx_UNC xxxx_WM xxxx_XBW Deﬁnition Undisturbed-zone bound-water conductivity Response equation uncertainty Response equation weight multiplier Flushed-zone bound-water conductivity Applies to Undisturbed-zone conductivity equations All equations. Some ﬂuid response parameters have default values. Because rocks are deﬁned by the user. The minerals. 24 ELANPlus Theory . In a future release of the ELANPlus program. Salinity Parameters The values of some ﬂuid response parameters depend on the salinity of the ﬂuids. it is impossible to provide default values for rock parameters. The ELANPlus program attempts to help you. including internal equations Flushed-zone conductivity equations Index Q Default Response Parameter Values Every effort has been made to provide reliable default values for response parameters.ToC Table 4 (Cont. by calculating values for the salinitydependent parameters whenever possible. They will always have a default value of Absent. all have reliable default values with the exception of the GR_xxxx and SDPT_xxxx parameters. which are well deﬁned. including internal equations All equations. The values of ﬂuid parameters that have default values are usually a good starting point. though. the Parameter Calculator will be improved to help compute rock response parameters. others contain only the Absent value.

Table 5 lists all salinity-dependent parameters whose values are a strong function of temperature.ToC The following tables list the salinity-dependent parameters whose values can be calculated automatically by the program. ELANPlus Theory 25 . Table 5 Parameters That Are a Function of Salinity And a Strong Function of Temperature CXDC_XWAT CXDC_XIWA CXDC_XSFL* CDPT_UWAT CDPT_UIWA CDPT_USFL* CUDC_UWAT CUDC_UIWA CUDC_USFL* EATT_PARA EATT_ISOL * Index Q EATT_XWAT EATT_XIWA EATT_XSFL* TPL_XWAT TPL_XIWA TPL_XSFL* TPL_PARA TPL_ISOL — XSFL and USFL only if Special Fluids is Water or Immovable Water Table 6 lists salinity-dependent parameters whose values are a weak function of temperature and pressure.

RHOB_UWAT. Another difference is that the parameters in Table 6 have a small pressure dependence.465 times the depth in feet. Salinities are expressed in ppk. The values of the parameters in Table 6 are not updated. In the following discussion of the salinity initialization hierarchy.ToC Index Table 6 Parameters That Are a Function of Salinity And a Weak Function of Temperature and Pressure FCHL_XWAT FCHL_XIWA FCHL_XSFL* RHOB_XWAT RHOB_XIWA RHOB_XSFL* RHOB_UWAT RHOB_UIWA RHOB_USFL* FCHL_PARA FCHL_ISOL * Q SIGM_XWAT SIGM_XIWA SIGM_XSFL* U_XWAT U_XIWA U_XSFL* RHOB_PARA RHOB_ISOL SIGM_PARA SIGM_ISOL U_PARA U_ISOL — XSFL and USFL only if Special Fluid is Water or Immovable Water The program will compute a value for any of the parameters in Table 5 and Table 6 if the parameter value is Absent and the associated salinity value is known. to show how the rules apply to speciﬁc parameter values. the examples are (1) trying to compute the EPT attenuation for ﬂushed-zone water. Assume a formation temperature of 125 ˚F. and (2) trying to compute the density of undisturbed-zone water. The pressure (in psi) used to compute their values is 0. EATT_XWAT. Rules for Initialization of Salinity-Dependent Parameters The rules for initialization of salinity-dependent parameters are as follows: 26 ELANPlus Theory . The main difference between the two groups is that in addition to being initialized by the program. the parameters in Table 5 have their values updated periodically as computations progress—as the borehole temperature changes.

For example. CUDC_UWAT = 37. 4 Leaving the value as Absent. and RWT. If the SALIN_xxxx parameter has an Absent value.) For example. ELANPlus Theory 27 .ToC Not Computing Parameter Values Other Than Absent If a parameter has a value other than Absent.0 Computation of Salinity from RMF. MST. 3 Computing salinity from RMF. Valid Value for SALIN_xxxx. RW. EATT_XWAT = 1700 RHOB_UWAT = 1. the conductivity parameter value and temperature are used to compute salinity. and RWT. For example. its value is not computed. CXDC_XWAT = 12. If the SALIN_xxxx parameter has a valid Index Q value (not Absent and greater than or equal to zero).15 Parameter Value of Absent Requires a Valid Salinity Value A parameter that has a value of Absent will be computed by the program if it can determine a valid salinity value for the parameter. SALIN_XWAT = Absent. If the first two tries fail. The salinity for each parameter is determined by whichever of the following occurs ﬁrst: 1 Finding a valid value for SALIN. 2 Finding an absent value for SALIN but a valid conductivity value associated with the parameter.3 SALIN_UWAT = Absent. the program makes a final attempt to compute values for the xxxx_XWAT and xxxx_UWAT parameters. but the parameter has an associated conductivity parameter that has a valid value. RW. it is used as the salinity value. (However. SALIN_XWAT = 50 SALIN_UWAT = 200 Absent Value for SALIN_xxxx but Valid Conductivity Value. salinities are not computed from conductivities for parallel porosity (PARA) and isolated porosity (ISOL). Either (1) resistivity of the mud filtrate (RMF) and mud sample temperature (MST) or (2) resistivity of the formation water (RW) and formation water temperature (RWT) can be used to compute salinity.

RW = 0. and gradient (GRADI). a zoned parameter. using the Binding Editor. the parameter value is left as Absent. The parameters that it uses are borehole temperature (BHT). RMF = 0. contains valid values.027. The ELANPlus program must know the borehole temperature to compute proper salinity and parameter values. you simply bind it. The temperature between the shallowest depth entered in BHT and the surface is interpolated. If BHT contains only Absent values. MST = 75 ˚F SALIN_UWAT = Absent. then temperature is linearly interpolated between the values. If BHT. The program automatically attempts to bind a curve named TEMP to the temperature.ToC Both RMF and MST must be present to compute SALIN_XWAT.13. If the program cannot perform at least one of the three actions (1. CXDC_XWAT = Absent. the program will compute a temperature from parameter values. CUDC_UWAT = Absent. For example. RWT = 125 ˚F Leaving the Parameter Value as Absent. Though this is the method of last resort. Salinity Editor Because the program needs to know salinities before it can perform some other operations. using the shallowest BHT value and ST. if necessary. Usually a temperature curve already exists in the data base by the time the program is run. SALIN_XWAT = Absent. If no temperature curve is bound by the time that the program ﬁrst needs one. If the curve exists. surface temperature (ST). ST and GRADI are used together to estimate the temperature. the ELANPlus program has a special editor. 2. and both RW and RWT must be present to compute SALIN_UWAT. such as giving the Zoned Parameter Editor proper values. it is actually the most frequently used method. 28 ELANPlus Theory . including those needed to compute a temperature. the Salinity Editor. or 3). Table 7 lists the parameter mnemonics and deﬁnitions for the parameters found in the Salinity Editor. for entering salinity-related parameter values. Borehole Temperature Index Q Temperature plays an important part in salinity computations.

ToC . Index Table 7 Salinity Parameters SALIN_ISOL SALIN_PARA SALIN_UGAS SALIN_XGAS SALIN_UIWA SALIN_XIWA SALIN_UOIL SALIN_XOIL SALIN_USFL SALIN_XSFL SALIN_UWAT SALIN_XWAT RMF MST RW RWT BHT ST GRADI Salinity of isolated porosity ﬂuid Salinity of parallel porosity ﬂuid Salinity of undisturbed-zone gas Salinity of ﬂushed-zone gas Salinity of undisturbed-zone irreducible water Salinity of ﬂushed-zone irreducible water Salinity of undisturbed-zone oil Salinity of ﬂushed-zone oil Salinity of undisturbed-zone special ﬂuid Salinity of ﬂushed-zone special ﬂuid Salinity of undisturbed-zone water Salinity of ﬂushed-zone water Resistivity of the mud ﬁltrate Temperature of mud ﬁltrate (mud sample temperature) Resistivity of formation water Formation water temperature Borehole temperature Surface temperature Earth temperature gradient Q ELANPlus Theory 29 .

the ELANPlus program periodically updates the values (does a temperature correction).ToC Temperature Correction of Parameter Values The value of some parameters changes signiﬁcantly with temperature. 30 ELANPlus Theory . That includes all the parameters listed in Table 5 and Table 9. The temperature correction is applied only internally. Table 8 Fluid Parameters That Are Temperature Corrected CXDC_XWAT CXDC_XIWA CXDC_XSFL* CDPT_UWAT CDPT_UIWA CDPT_USFL* CUDC_UWAT CUDC_UIWA CUDC_USFL* EATT_PARA EATT_ISOL * Index Q EATT_XWAT EATT_XIWA EATT_XSFL* TPL_XWAT TPL_XIWA TPL_XSFL* TPL_PARA TPL_ISOL — XSFL and USFL only if Special Fluids is Water or Immovable Water. Table 9 Clay Parameters That Are Temperature Corrected CBWA_CLA1 CBWA_CLA2 CBWA_CHLO CBWA_GLAU CBWA_ILLI CBWA_KAOL CBWA_MONT CUDC_CLA1 CUDC_CLA2 CUDC_CHLO CUDC_GLAU CUDC_ILLI CUDC_KAOL CUDC_MONT CXDC_CLA1 CXDC_CLA2 CXDC_CHLO CXDC_GLAU CXDC_ILLI CXDC_KAOL CXDC_MONT Because the parameter values change with temperature. during the computations.

They are often used to eliminate physically impossible results. or dry clay values to wet clay. To ensure consistency. You can supply a conductivity to obtain a salinity. the temperature corrections are performed whenever the depth in feet is evenly divisible by 100. If a processing interval bottom depth were 7615. The Parameter Calculator can be used to compute Water parameter values and salinities (if salinity is not entered) Linear neutron dolomite and quartz endpoint values to approximate nonlinear effects and excavation correction Gas density and apparent neutron porosity as well as FHY_XGAS Hydrocarbon density from chemical formula Wet clay to dry clay conversions Most computations are bidirectional. regardless of the depth unit used. temperature corrections would be applied at 7600. At every depth level if any response equation in the process is nonlinear. That is. Parameter Calculator Use the Parameter Calculator! Its use is a key to self-consistent results with the ELANPlus application. You can convert wet clay values to dry clay. and so on. 7500.ToC The parameter values and temperatures that you see in the Zoned Parameter Editor are never modiﬁed by the temperature correction unless you insert or move a zone boundary. Temperature corrections are made under the following conditions: At every zone boundary. Those who do not use it will find that the convergence to a believable answer takes much longer than if the input data are obtained from the Parameter Calculator. ELANPlus Theory 31 . Results from the Parameter Calculator are easily pasted into the Zoned Parameter Editor. and so on. The reference temperature for the parameter is the temperature at the bottom (deeper) depth of the zone. 7315. or a salinity to obtain a conductivity. Use the Parameter Calculator! Index Q Constraints Constraints let you impose absolute limits on the volumetric results of the program. At every 100 foot interval if all response equations in the process are linear. the temperature correction interval is based on feet. not at 7515. 7415.

You can also deﬁne constraints. RHOB.01.0 × XWAT sum of volumes = 1.0. the ELANPlus internal constraints would result in CALC = 1. such as core analyses.ToC Consider a formation modelled as calcite and water. Think of constraints as limiting the volume space available for an answer.71 × 1. you might constrain the results to match results known from some other source. When the forward problem is run to build the reconstructed logs for the example problem. When applied to the results of equations (2-6) and (2-7). using the following system of equations: 2.0 × 0. the ELANPlus program imposes nonnegativity constraints on all formation component volumes and a constraint on the Summation of Volumes.737 = 2.71 × CALC + 1. For example. nor the reconstructed density. a water density of 1.0 = 1. the nonnegative volume constraints.4 ≤ ---------------------------------.0 and XWAT = 0.71. the result is RHOB_REC = 2.0 × XWAT (6) Index Q Solving the equations yields CALC = 1.0 and 2. The imposition of constraints has an interesting side effect. Assuming a calcite density of 2.737.0 = 2.0. and you cannot have negative porosity—but they lie within the uncertainty of the equations. To avoid such situations.71. it is the formation component volumes that are constrained. you can easily compute the volumes of calcite and water. 32 ELANPlus Theory . and the Summation of Volumes constraint results in an available solution space shown as the clear area in Figure 5.6 ILLI + MONT (8) The interaction of the constraint in Equation (8). is constrained.01 and XWAT = -0. there is no uncertainty associated with any constraint.0 × CALC + 1. Both answers are physically impossible—you cannot have more than 100% of a formation.≤ 0.71 (7) Note that neither the input density. and a measured density of 2. It is the result of the volumes being constrained that causes RHOB_REC to lie between 1. Constraints are brick walls. RHOB_REC.0 + 1. One such constraint might be an illite-montmorillonite relationship: ILLI 0.

5 1.0 Volume of Illite Volume of illite greater than or equal to zero Volume of montmorillonite greater than or equal to zero Sum of volumes less than or equal to one ILLI/(ILLI + MONT) less than or equal to 0.0 0.4 Figure 5 Solution space subject to constraints.0 0.0 Volume of Montmorillonite 0.5 0. However. do not ELANPlus Theory 33 . just because some constraints are good.6 ILLI/(ILLI + MONT) greater than or equal to 0. User-deﬁned constraints can be very useful for adding local knowledge to the ELANPlus model.ToC Index Q 1.

to fully describe the near-wellbore environment. It is unlikely that anyone will ever have enough measurements. Each well has its zones of interest and distinct geological subdivisions. Remember that there is often a depth difference between core results and log results. ELANPlus computations are usually in volumes. for example. chances are that your time would be better spent reviewing your choice of response equations. That is not to say that one measurement is better than the other. Actually. with sufﬁcient accuracy and resolution in all dimensions. all of the answers will be skewed. For more information. Core results are usually measured by weight. Be especially cautious about core results. compared to logging measurements. Also. 34 ELANPlus Theory . Instead you will settle for a model. The following discussion of a methodology for building ELANPlus models assumes that you do not already have a library of models available. A known “pure” limestone may turn out to have a large amount of microcrystalline quartz. Look for trends. a subset of reality. You should not place too much emphasis on a small number of core results. and parameter values rather than writing more constraints. including a set of constraints that have already been written for you. It is only a suggested method. be wary of your source of local knowledge. Valid comparisons can be performed only after one set of measurements is converted to be consistent with the other.ToC assume that lots of constraints are better. based on experience. These natural subdivisions are the starting point for model deﬁnitions. all formation evaluation problems are vastly underdetermined. Index Q Building an ELANPlus Model The term model means the way in which you present a problem to the ELANPlus program. Modelling only calcite or using a constraint to force zero quartz in that case will make the result of the computation match the local knowledge. and not every well will lend itself to it. Also. Constraints. a model is simpliﬁed description of reality. but that they are simply different. Unfortunately. core measurements are made on a very small volume. If a model requires a lot of constraints. many of which will be common across a ﬁeld. formation components. including porosity and hydrocarbon volumes. Before ever sitting down to the computer. take time to think about the well. see the User-Defined Constraints section of Chapter 6. By no means is this the only way to go about building models.

or whatever—and then combine the results of the models to cover the entire interpretation interval. Step 1 Select Formation Components For each model. select the formation components that you think may be present in signiﬁcant quantity. Step 2 Select Response Equations The available selection of response equations is primarily determined by the logging suite recorded in the well. for example. Each response equation in the model must also be sensitive to at least one of the formation components in the model. it is inappropriate to select any borehole-wall contact tools. Sometimes nature provides little surprises. Those minerals are not radioactive. The ELANPlus application allows you to create several Solve processes (models)—each of which describes a distinct depositional environment. Step 3 Rationalize Formation Components and Response Equations To produce a unique solution. wet formations. time sequence. Do not try to trim the list too much at this point. the wider its applicability. It is usually advisable to include a hydrocarbon in a model to be used for clean. The presence of pyrite. Solving for a feldspar in a quartz sand formation is probably unnecessary unless the volume of feldspar reaches double-digit percentages. The more general a model. In a bad hole model. your model must contain at least as many response equations as formation components. It does no good to include the gamma ray equation in a calcite-anhydrite-dolomite model. An exception might be made either if the uncertainty of the tool is being driven by a curve at least partly determined by hole rugosity. Using the model-combination capability of the ELANPlus application. and the gamma ray tool has the same response (or lack thereof) to each of them. Signiﬁcance may depend on the mineral.ToC Often it is impossible and undesirable to try to describe long wellbore intervals with a single model. Index Q ELANPlus Theory 35 . can be important in volumes as low as a few percent. That is a mathematical fact of life. such as bulk density or EPT attenuation. you can build more speciﬁc and accurate models that can be saved and reused as you encounter the same geological conditions in other wells. Do not select response equations that are inappropriate for the model. or if you very carefully zone the uncertainty parameter. You can always eliminate superﬂuous components later. Select logs that are sensitive to at least one of the formation components you have selected. but it represents only the minimum requirement.

You do not have to select them. than others. and the Summation of Fluids equation. Table 11 An Alternate Method QUAR RHOB CALC U ILLI GR. Most tools are more sensitive to one formation component.ToC When you count response equations. which is present if undisturbed-zone ﬂuids exist in the model. all response equations affect all formation component volumes. NPHI XWAT CXDC. rather than leaving the NPHI equation unassigned. Table 10 Rationalized Formation Components and Response Equations QUAR RHOB CALC U NPHI ILLI GR XWAT CXDC Index Q ∑ volumes XOIL There are no hard and fast rules. 36 ELANPlus Theory . You can use that fact to help establish good. NPHI XOIL ∑ volumes The main point is to write the model so that you can see which equation affects which formation component. or group of components. but they must be counted. Many log analysts who have experience with the ELANPlus program write models an the same form as the one in Table 10. Orthoclase and quartz may as well be the same as far as it is concerned. stable models. Where would it go? Even though there are enough response equations to solve for the number of formation components. In reality. which is always present. The Summation of Volumes and Summation of Fluids equations are added automatically by the program. remember to include the Summation of Volumes equation. which tool would be responsible for the orthoclase? Certainly not the neutron. Look at Table 10 again and consider what would happen if the sand were arkosic and you wanted to include orthoclase in the model. For example. but it is often helpful to think of a particular tool as “solving for” a particular component. you might write the model as in Table 11.

the minor shows might be a tip-off that a potentially proliﬁc. say. the depth intervals for which it applies. you may wish to set some constraints. Whenever you do apply a constraint. For more information see Chapter 6. call it K. If you cannot add another equation. you may need to model the quartz-orthoclase mixture as a single rock. roughly 20%of the quartz volume. The gamma ray tool responds to orthoclase. but that is not recommended. The interpretation makes sense only when everyone can understand what went into it. Constraints. If it is known from some other source that the orthoclase volume is. Perhaps the gamma ray tool could be replaced with thorium and potassium. For now. assume a ratio of quartz to quartzplus-orthoclase.0 – K ) × xxxx_ORTH (9) Index Q You could. simply remember that constraints are absolute limits and that they are not substitutes for equations. Never apply a constraint for the sake of aesthetic effect. but you are already counting on the gamma ray for the illite. To do that. For example. you begin to “draw” the result. A quartz-whatever mixture should be modelled as a rock. Quartz is silicon dioxide and nothing else. Replace QUAR with SAND in the model. a constant tool could be added. The best solution is to provide an additional tool. and the reason for applying ELANPlus Theory 37 . document its composition.ToC The same is true for density and conductivity. It is a good idea to run the computation at least once without any constraints to see how it looks before you start imposing your idea of what the solution should be. Include the name of the constraint. It would be easy to build constraints to limit porosity and to force hydrocarbon volumes to zero. some log analysts dislike seeing porosity or hydrocarbon shows in shales. When you use a constraint. But consider that the shale might be a source rock. of course. Even worse. thinly bedded pay zone is present. document it. Use constraints with care. Suppressing the hydrocarbon hides important information from a geologist. Then compute each of the SAND response parameters as xxxx_SAND = K × xxxx_QUAR + ( 1. simply modify the xxxx_QUAR parameter values in the same manner as Equation (9). Step 4 Choose Constraints If you wish to restrict the volume space available in the solution. Whenever you include a rock in an ELANPlus model. because it could be misleading.

Index Q 38 ELANPlus Theory . Step 5 Label the Model The ELANPlus program allows you to provide your own label for processes in a session. but others cannot read our minds. The ﬁnal combined result may come from Any one of the individual models exclusively. If a model is very general. If a model is very speciﬁc. you should also include the constraint deﬁnition. ones. A weighted combination of all of the models. you need to select (or create) probability expressions to be used. nearly all remarks have been on individual models that exist as individual Solve processes. Good model-building walks a ﬁne line between generality and speciﬁcity. Use words that tell what sets this model apart from other. but it often will have to be reﬁned extensively when reapplied. Modifying zone boundaries in the Combine process editor has no effect on response or other zoned parameters. maybe similar. it usually will require little if any reﬁnement when reapplied. A separate editor. Use that capability to give your model a name that will be meaningful not only to you but to those who follow. Now it is time to enlarge the scope to that of a session.ToC it. Step 6 Choose Model Combination Method Up to now. based on probabilities computed from expressions that you supply to the program. The zonation that controls the depth interval over which a certain combination method will be used is unique. Your efforts will be rewarded on subsequent jobs when you can quickly choose desired models from your stored work. Rigorous documentation may seem like excess work. and 6 weeks down the road you may ﬁnd yourself spending just as much work trying to decipher your own constraint syntax. based on probabilities that were computed externally to the ELANPlus program If you use internally computed probabilities for any model combination interval. Be as speciﬁc as the model. Compromising on speciﬁcity can cause a single well interpretation to require many individual models. the Combine process editor. If you have deﬁned the constraint. is used to specify how the individual models will come together to provide the ﬁnal interpretation for the entire wellbore interval. A weighted combination of all of the models. but its reusability suffers. it can be applied to more wells and larger borehole intervals.

Model Combination. response parameters. it will exist for all response parameters. model probabilities. binding parameters. Step 7 Create Functions The ELANPlus program computes results in formation component volumes. Usually it is desirable to create functions of those component volumes as output data types such as water saturation or grain density. you set them for all processes to which they apply. and function results. which can be set model by model.ToC For more information. The Parameter Calculator helps ensure consistency among parameter values and generally results in a quicker convergence to a believable answer. Use the Zoned Parameter Editor to help you review the values of selected groups of response parameters. When a zone boundary is created for one response parameter. Step 8 Set Parameter Values Parameters come in four types: global and program control parameters. Using Probabilities section of Chapter 7. see the Parameters section of Chapter 2. The lone exception is the Weight Percentage Option. All response parameters can be zoned. which might or might not be important. that those same response parameter values may affect constraint limits. It is especially important to remember that one parameter value applies to all processes when you are ﬁne tuning response parameters. See the ELANPlus User’s Guide (available on line through the Help menu in the single-well section of the ELANPLus program) for details concerning function definition creation and syntax. Interpretation Models. Index Q ELANPlus Theory 39 . see the Final Model Combination. Use the Parameter Calculator to help you set parameter values. Since response parameters are used in the evaluation of some constraints. A Function process uses the data along with function deﬁnitions that you provide to compute additional outputs that may be written to the database. When you set parameter values. Remember. the zonation of response parameters affects the zonation of constraints. too. The ELANPlus application lets you specify any number of Function processes. and salinity parameters. Changing a response parameter value might improve one model but adversely affect another. For more information. which may be driven by data from other processes and from curves present in the data base.

is invaluable to those trying to help you. If you have problems. Index Q 40 ELANPlus Theory . You will be able to call it up later for use.ToC Step 9 Save Your Work Select Save As from the File menu in the main title bar and give your work a meaningful name. the saved ﬁle. the Session File.

Wet and Dry Clay Fundamental in understanding ELANPlus response equations is a knowledge of how clay is handled and the concept of wet versus dry clay. The ratio of bound water to dry clay is assumed to be constant for each clay. SP Response Parameters. you can enter parameter values for the clay-water combination and another parameter. Sonic Response Parameters. The ELANPlus program lets you enter parameters independently for the clay and the bound water by setting Clay = Dry in the Global Parameter editor. The ELANPlus program allows you to work in either domain. by setting Clay = Wet. Neutron Response Parameters. WCLP (wet clay porosity). The most common source of dry clay information is core results. Gamma Ray Response Parameters. even though they can be quite different. which speciﬁes the fraction of bound water in the wet clay. Many log analysts treat wet and dry clays as the same. The relationship ELANPlus Theory 41 . There will be an additional program (GEOPOST) that converts back and forth between the two domains. which normally is in wet units. where wet clays are composed of dry clay and associated (bound) water. making the comparison less than ideal. ELANPlus logic makes use of the Dual Water Model formulation for clays.ToC Index Q Chapter 3 Response Equations The types of response equations discussed in this chapter include Wet and Dry Clay. Alternatively. Such results are often used to judge the log analysis.

unless otherwise speciﬁed. Volume of dry clay Volume of wet clay = ------------------------------------------------------1. Density Response Equation The density response equation is the same for clay and nonclay minerals. Then Equation (11-1b) is used to separate the total volume into volume of dry clay and volume of bound water. the response parameter values must be input as dry clay values. converting them whenever necessary. Response parameters signify dry clay values only when Clay = Dry is speciﬁcally stated. Mnemonics that have a subscript of DC also denote dry clay values. Regardless of whether parameters are input as wet or dry values. The volume of clay in each output clay curve (ILLI.ToC between wet and dry clay values is best shown and understood in the following formulations.0 – Wet clay porosity Density of wet clay – Wet clay porosity Density of dry clay = ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------1. When one or more clays is present in a model (Solve process). the ELANPlus program always works internally with wet clay values. that referring to a volume in a response equation signiﬁes wet clay values irrespective of the value of the Clay switch. though. MONT. etc. The bound water from each clay is summed into the XBWA curve. The program solves for the volume of wet clay (dry clay plus its water). wet clay (Clay = Wet) is the default for parameters and response equations. plus each equation requires a value for the bound-water parameter. Occasionally. the program expects the clay response parameter values to be wet clay values and a WCLP_xxxx value for each clay in the model is required.) is a dry clay mineral volume.0 – Wet clay porosity = Volume of wet clay × Wet clay porosity (10) Index Q (11) (11-1a) (11-1b) (12) Volume of wet clay = Volume of dry clay + Volume of bound water Throughout this text. the ELANPlus program automatically creates a bound water output curve (XBWA). Keep in mind.0 – Wet clay porosity Volume of dry clay × Wet clay porosity Volume of bound water = ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------1. xxxx_XBWA. the subscript WC will be used to emphasize that a particular parameter or volume is a wet clay value. 42 ELANPlus Theory . Note: If Clay = Wet. If Clay = Dry.

Index Q (13) (14) (15) ELANPlus Theory 43 . That is done for the density tool (RHOB) in the following equation. but RHOB_ILLI and RHOB_XBWA are required when Clay = DRY). RHOB = RHOB_QUAR × QUAR + RHOB_XWAT × XWAT + RHOB_ILLI × ILLI where: RHOB_QUAR = density of quartz RHOB_XWAT = density of ﬂushed-zone water RHOB_ILLI = density of illite QUAR = volume of quartz XWAT = volume of ﬂushed-zone water ILLI = volume of illite When Clay = DRY. quartz. Equation (13) is used with the following substitution.ToC Assume that Clay = WetT and the volumes of illite. then the linear response equation needs to be formulated in wet clay terms. (RHOB_ILLI is all that is needed when Clay = WET. and water are being solved.0 – WCLP_ILLI ) + RHOB_XBWA × WCLP_ILLI where WCLP_ILLI = wet clay porosity of illite RHOB_XBWA = density of bound water Inserting Equation (14) into Equation (13) for RHOB_ILLIWC yields RHOB = RHOB_QUAR × QUAR + RHOB_XWAT × XWAT + ( RHOB_ILLI DC × ( 1 – WCLP_ILLI ) + RHOB_XBWA × WCLP_ILLI ) × ILLI WC Most users set Clay = WET when running the ELANPlus program. An advantage of setting Clay to Wet is that only one clay response parameter is needed for each equation. RHOB_ILLI WC = RHOB_ILLI DC × ( 1.

such as the U (volumetric photoelectric cross-section) tool. Equation (16) is used precisely as displayed. The difference is that it is for the U tool instead of the RHOB tool and has been generalized to include XOIL and XGAS (ﬂushedzone oil and gas) in the porosity analysis. the general response equation is reformulated to look like Equation (15): U = U_XWAT × XWAT + U_XGAS × XGAS ns U_i × Vi + U_XOIL × XOIL + ∑ i=1 + (17) ∑ ( U_ j × ( 1 – WCLP_ j ) + U_XBWA × WCLP_ j ) × V j j=1 ns = number of solid formation components. plus all minerals with and without bound water. Index Q U = U_XWAT × XWAT + U_XGAS × XGAS ns U_i × Vi + U_XOIL × XOIL + ∑ (16) i=1 where: ns = number of formation components that are solid U_i = the response parameter for formation component i (if the component is a clay.ToC General Response Equation The simplest response equation is for linear measurements. If Clay = DRY. Equation (16) has the same form as Equation (13). excluding clay U_i = the response parameter for component i Vi = the volume of component i nc = the number of clays in the formation nc where: 44 ELANPlus Theory . U_i is its wet clay response parameter) Vi = the volume of component i (if the component is a clay the Vi is its wet clay volume) If Clay = WET.

respectively. the volume of quartz is 1. nfc GR = ∑ GR_i × Vi (18) i=1 where: GR = the gamma ray tool reading GR_i = gamma ray response parameter for component i For a sand-shale sequence.ToC U_j = the dry clay response parameter for clay j U_XBWA = the response parameter for bound water Vj = the volume of wet clay for clay j Index Q Gamma Ray (GR) Response Parameters The general form of the linear response equation is used for many tools. a commonly used equation for volume of clay from the gamma ray is GR – GR min Volume of clay = -----------------------------------------GR max – GR min (19) where GRmin and GRmax are picked from the logs in a clean sand and a good shale. and ﬂushed-zone oil): GR = GR_QUAR × QUAR + GR_CLA1 × CLA1 + GR_XWAT × XWAT + GR_XOIL × XOIL Set GR_XWAT = GR_XOIL = 0. Compare this to the ELANPlus equation (assuming a model that contains only quartz. An example is the following gamma ray response equation. ﬂushed-zone water. Although straightforward. thus (21) (20) ELANPlus Theory 45 .0 minus the effective porosity (1 – φe) and the volume of clay is zero. then solve for CLA1: GR – GR_QUAR CLA1 = ----------------------------------------GR_CLA1 In a clean sand. in practice it can be confusing to those not familiar with it. a clay.

only one of which is clay. The fact that GR_XWAT and GR_XOIL are not equal to 0. there are defaults for thorium and potassium measurements. and uranium measurements: SGR = 3. That is because the gamma ray signal comes from many sources.3 WWK + 9. though.0 is not intuitively obvious.) See Table 12 for more information. Total GR (SGR for the NGS Natural Gamma Ray Spectrometry tool) comprises a linear combination of thorium. Uranium. that is what is assumed with the traditional pick of GRmin from a clean sand. one would set Index (22) Q GR min GR_QUAR = ----------------1 – φe and (22-1a) GR_CLA1 = GR max – GR_QUAR (22-1b) Note: The preceding equation assumes a similar porosity in the sands and the shales.5 WWU (24) In contrast to a total GR.6 WWTH + 18.ToC GR – GR_QUAR × ( 1 – φ e ) CLA1 = -------------------------------------------------------------------GR_CLA1 To get the same result as the conventional GR equation. There are no default values for the GR tool. is a very mobile. If all radioactive minerals present are being solved for. Picking consistent endpoints for the gamma ray can be difﬁcult. where it represents the GR response of a mixture of quartz and ﬂuids. potassium. However. (CGR represents gamma ray data with uranium signal removed. the following values can be used. 46 ELANPlus Theory . water-soluble trace element whose presence cannot be predicted. As an alternative. one could treat the ﬂuids and clean sands as if they had the same GR response and set GR_QUAR = GR_XWAT = GR_XOIL = GRmin (23) That could work better in areas where there are signiﬁcant variations in porosity.

It must ﬁrst be transformed into a Qv_effective by two programs.5 10. SSP). The work describes the SP deﬂection as a function of the contrast between the wellbore and the formation salinities.0 0.0 201. the values given will require some boosting.0 5.0 15. and SP data. SPBOUNDARY and SPQV.0 Q If a total GR measurement is being used.0 Potassium 0. The SP used by these programs must have its baseline set to 0.0.0 0.0 CGR 0.0 4. Smits.J. depending on the amount of uranium and potassium present.0 27. the salinity of ﬁltrate and formation waters.M.0 97.) The SPQV program requires a value for Qv_shale (or Static SP.0 138. The transform of SP to Qv_effective is an implementation of the work of L. Qv Q v_effective = ----------S xot Equation (24-1a) has been implemented as (24-1a) Qv Q v_effective = ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------S xot + QV_HYD_FAC ( 1 – S xot ) (24-1b) ELANPlus Theory 47 . SP Response Parameters The SP measurement is not directly usable.0 63.0 18. (QVSP_N is the ELANPlus input curve name for Qv_effective.ToC Index Table 12 Values to Use when All Radioactive Minerals Present in Formation Are Included in Model Thorium Quartz Illite Kaolinite Smectite Potassium Feldspar 0. and as a function of the contrast between the electrical charges of the sands and the surrounding shales.

For no hydrocarbon correction. and QV_HYD_FAC and QVSP_UNC are within the program. Calculating QVSP_UNC requires you to know that the processing of the ELANPlus program internally multiplies QVSP_N by porosity. and QVSP_UNC (SP uncertainty). 48 ELANPlus Theory . set QV_HYD_FAC = 1. The QVSP_N response equation used is Index Q nxw nxh nc QVSP_N Vi × WCLP_i + V j + QV_HYD_FAC Vk i = 1 j=1 k=1 ∑ ∑ ∑ (25) = ∑ Vi ( 1 – WCLP_i ) ( CEC_i ) ( ARHOB_i ) i=1 nc where: nxw = number of ﬂushed-zone ﬂuids that have a water attribute Vj = the volume of water component j nxh = number of ﬂushed-zone ﬂuids that have a hydrocarbon attribute Vk = the volume of hydrocarbon component k CEC_i = cation exchange capacity of clay component i ARHOB_i = actual density of clay component i The parameters that control the effect of the SP on the ﬁnal answer are Qv_shale (or SSP).0. or you will have to exit the program to make the appropriate corrections. The ELANPlus default is full hydrocarbon correction: QV_HYD_FAC = 0. Qv_shale and SSP are in the preprocessing programs. The Qv_shale (or SSP) parameter must be set correctly before the ELANPlus program is run.ToC where: Sxot = total water saturation in the flushed zone QV_HYD_FAC = the hydrocarbon correction factor for Qv QV_HYD_FAC is added to the original equation to allow you to adjust the magnitude of hydrocarbon correction. QV_HYD_FAC.

It is easier to set the SP baseline to 0. rather than SSP. especially when hydrocarbons are present.2 0. Uncertainties.6 1 2 0. We recommend that you use the value of Qv_shale.7 1.1 0. as the input into SPQV. see the Conductivity.0 and estimate Qv_shale than it is to estimate SSP. SP section in Chapter5.3 30 20 10 0 0.ToC For more information.0 . One way to estimate the value of Qv_shale is as follows: 1 Use Figure 6 (Qv_shale = 1) and Figure 7 (Qv_shale = 4). 170 Ec (mV) 160 150 140 130 120 110 100 90 80 70 60 0.5 0.04 Index Q Smits SP Chart QvShale = 1 (meq/cm3) Qv (meq/cm3) SP 50 40 0.0 5 10 20 50 100 200 Salinity (ppk) Figure 6 Chart showing Qv shale = 1 ELANPlus Theory 49 .

7 . A normal range of Qv_shale is from 1 to 4. 50 ELANPlus Theory .25 to 10. is common in high-porosity rocks of the Gulf of Mexico.ToC Index 170 Ec (mV) 160 150 140 130 120 0. 3 Put the reconstructed QVSP_N into and run the SPQV program.0 0.6 1 2 5 10 20 50 100 200 1. A value of 1. The program will create a reconstructed QVSP_N from the other tools.1 0.04 0. Exit the ELANPlus program.0 40 30 20 10 4. In older.2 0.0 0 0. The chart that most closely ﬁts the data approximates Qv_shale. 3 Move each entry up to the line representing Qv_shale = 0. Another approach to approximating Qv_shale is the following (Figure 7): 1 Run the ELANPlus program with QVSP_N in a model that is not part of the ﬁnal answer. 5The difference is what the SP (-44 mV on Figure 6) should read in a clean water zone. 2 Note the average value in shales. more consolidated rocks. 4 Move left to the y-axis (as in the example in Figure 6).. The SPQV program handles Qv_shale values continuously from 0.5 2.0 110 100 90 80 70 0.3 Smits SP Chart Q Qv (meq/cm3) QvShale = 4 (meq/cm3) Salinity (ppk) Figure 7 Chart showing Qv shale = 4 2 Enter the x-axis with the salinity of the mud ﬁltrate and the salinity of connate water. 4 Use the QVSP_N output from SPQV in the ELANPlus program. or even lower.5 60 50 1. a value of 4 will be more normal.

If it is not balanced. Neither currently supports the presence of gas. we recommend that new users start with QV_HYD_FAC = 1 (no hydrocarbon correction). with appropriate parameter changes. because there is no industry-accepted way to handle it. even when the deep conductivity tool computes 100% water. the deep and shallow zones are linked mathematically by a Constant Tool. If QV_HYD_FAC is anything but 1. The concept of compaction correction in the Wyllie equation is not directly supported. VELC input curve). That will in turn increase the volume of hydrocarbons in the deep zone (decreased Sw). It must be entered by altering the fluid endpoint. Index Q Sonic Response Parameters Because the sonic tool responds not only to the various mineral and fluid volumes but also to the structure and texture of the rock. Shear velocities or slownesses also are not explicitly handled. the ELANPlus processing will increase the volume of hydrocarbons in the ﬂushed zone in an attempt to correct the imbalance between the two sources of Qv. XOIL = 0. or in deep zone terms. which ampliﬁes the problem (for example. DT input curve) or velocity (Hunt-Raymer-Gardner equation. Shear data must be entered into equations used for compressional data.2 UOIL . ELANPlus Theory 51 . Slowness The slowness equation is simply the Wyllie Time Average equation. the ELANPlus processing will try to justify the Qv_effective input by altering one or more of the answer volumes. UOIL = 5 XOIL ). Some uses for the sonic are Mineral identification Clay from dolomite differentiation Porosity backup in bad hole Hydrocarbon type identification The response equations available for the sonic tool deal with either slowness (Wyllie equation. Because of that. Generally. An example of that is when the Qv_effective from the SP is much higher than the Qv indicated by the other tools. but it is very important to have the SP information balanced with the other tools used in the ﬁnal solution.ToC Either of those techniques may seem overly complex. it less than ideal as a porosity tool.

as shown for a single mineral in Equation (29). DT_XWAT _CP_corrected = DT_XWAT × CP + DT_QUAR ( 1 – CP ) Velocity (29) The velocity expression can be derived from the simplified Hunt-RaymerGardner equation for sonic porosity: 52 ELANPlus Theory .ToC DT – DT matrix φ sonic = ---------------------------------------------------DT fluid – DT matrix Index (26) Q For a sand-water mixture this equation can be expressed in the form of a standard ELANPlus linear equation as DT = DT_XWAT × XWAT + DT_QUAR × QUAR or more generally (27) nfc DT = ∑ DT_i × Vi (28) i=1 where: DT = the compressional slowness measurement DT_XWAT = the compressional slowness of ﬂushed-zone water DT_QUAR = the compressional slowness of quartz DT_i = compressional slowness of component i To include a compaction correction (CP). replace the ﬂuid term (DT_XWAT) with DT_XWAT_CP_corrected.

The minerals are a simple sum of the volumes times the endpoints.6φ = -------------------------------------------------------------------1 ⁄ VELC 1.The response parameters used to generate the Figure 8 plot were assigned the following values: VELC_DOLO = 21.625 DT ⇒ ⇒ ⇒ ⇒ 1 ⁄ VELC – 1 ⁄ VELC matrix 1.700 ft/sec VELC_CALC = 19.6 × VELC matrix × φ = VELC matrix – VELC VELC = VELC matrix × ( 1 – φ ) – 0. It compares the simplified Hunt-Raymer-Gardner sonic transform to the ELANPlus response equation. calcite. the fluids are multiplied by a coefficient called the sonic porosity factor. However. the velocity equation looks like VELC = SONIC_POR_FAC × ( XWAT + XGAS + XOIL + XIWA + XSFL ) ns (30) VELC_i × Vi + ∑ i=1 where: VELC = the compressional velocity measurement SONIC_POR_FAC = sonic porosity factor VELC_i = compressional velocity of component i Note that Equation (30) is different from the standard ELANPlus expression.800 ft/sec VELC_QUAR = 18. and quartz. φ sonic = 0. Figure 8 is a plot of DT versus porosity for dolomite.ToC DT – DT matrix -------------------------------------.000 ft/sec ELANPlus Theory 53 .6VELC matrix × φ VELC = VELC matrix × ( 1 – φ ) + SONIC_POR_FAC × φ Index (29-1a) Q (29-1b) (29-1c) (29-1d) (29-1e) When expressed as a general ELANPlus equation. SONIC_POR_FAC.

i x V. i =1 i Figure 8 DT versus porosity plotted for dolomite.ToC SONIC_POR_FAC = –11. The dotted curves represent the ELANPlus response equation. calcite. Although the two transforms are similar. In Figure 8 the solid curves represent the simplified Hunt-Raymer-Gardner transform. In this example. the value of SONIC_POR_FAC was chosen for calcite.88 30 DOL CLC Index Q 20 QUA PHIT 10 0 40 60 80 100 DT ELAN Response Equation Simplified Hunt-Raymer-Gardner 1000 DT nm = VELC = SPORF x ( VXWA + VXGA + VXOI ) + Σ VELCA. and quartz. a different SONIC_POR_FAC is needed for each matrix to mimic the Hunt-Raymer-Gardner equation exactly. 54 ELANPlus Theory . A crossplot of VELC versus total porosity (PHIT) is one technique for determining a value for the compressional velocity of the matrix and the appropriate SONIC_POR_FAC. Figure 9 is a crossplot of VELC versus PHIT in a limestone reservoir.

VELC) = (0.0.0. on the other hand. The formation crossplotted in Figure 9 contained vugular porosity. SONIC_POR_FAC was computed as follows: VELC = SONIC_POR_FAC × φ + VELC_CALC × ( 1 – φ ) ⇒ VELC = ( SONIC_POR_FAC – VELC_CALC ) × φ + VELC_CALC (30-1a) (30-1b) The curve is of the form y = slope × x + intercept.54 = ----.1) was selected to represent the best fit of the data. VELC_CALC.88 .0 ⇒ SONIC_POR_FAC = slope + VELC_CALC = –5.54 (thousand) ft/sec slope = (SONIC_POR_FAC – VELC_CALC) ∆y 13. 13. A line through the points (PHIT.25 – 0.17 – 19. Observe that perfect agreement between porosity and velocity is nonexistent because of variations in texture (secondary porosity) and trace minerals. The default was selected for intergranular porosity.800 ft/sec. was found to be quite close to the default value of 19.= -------------------------------. ELANPlus Theory 55 . 19.ToC Index 12 Q 14 VELC 16 18 20 22 0 5 10 15 20 25 PHIT Figure 9 Crossplot of VELC versus total porosity (PHIT).= – 25.54) and (25.48 ∆x 0. Evaluating it for the given data yields intercept = VELC_CALC = 19.94 Do not be surprised to find SONIC_POR_FAC for calcite deviating from the default value of – 11.

0 10. and a new response and environmental corrections were introduced in 1986 in SPE paper 15540.5 7. That lead to the classic curved dolomite line shown in Schlumberger chart books from 1972 to 1986. The neutron was recharacterized. 56 ELANPlus Theory . or complex-lithology.8 18.1 Index Q Parameter SONIC_POR_FAC VELC_QUAR VELC_ILLI VELC_KAOL VELC_MONT GOM Compressional –9 18 8 10 7 GOM Shear –5. Sonic response parameters vary. Understanding of the neutron response has improved with time. the nonlinear neutron is fairly well understood. et al. Those calibrated in one area or zone may not apply elsewhere. which are based on hard rock data.” by Gilchrist. The response was encoded in the environmental correction programs and is still output on field logs as the curve named NPHI. “Improved Environmental Corrections for Compensated Neutron Logs. the program does not. explicitly recognize a shear velocity as an input. parameter determination using a crossplot is awkward. Multiple-mineral. soft rocks of Gulf of Mexico (GOM) differ from the default compressional velocities. solves for sonic parameter values in complex lithology.2 4.5 9. It is difficult to determine whether changes in velocity should be attributed to porosity or lithology. CALPAR (not yet released).0 12. Table 13 Typical Gulf of Mexico Sonic Velocities Default ELANPlus Compressional –11. at this time.1 3. although complex. Table 13 shows how sonic velocities observed in the highporosity. A companion program. The apparent dolomite effect was later understood to be related to formation salinity. The shear parameters are included as a starting point for the user. The traditional neutron response was calibrated to field data and showed a larger than expected matrix effect in dolomite.3 5.ToC That example was for one mineral.8 Neutron Response Parameters Unlike the sonic.

ToC

The field output is named TNPH (or NPOR if alpha processed). These new response and environmental corrections also are encoded in the current environmental correction program although the output is still called NPHI. Note: The ELANPlus logic expects all neutron input to be in limestone units. Figure 10 shows the response for the old and new neutron porosity transforms at a salinity of 50 ppk.

30 30

Index

Q

SS SS LS LS DOL DOL

PHIT PHIT

20 20

10 10

0

0 –5 –5

0

0

5

NPHI.LIM NPHI.LIM

5

10 15 20 25 10 15 20 25

Figure 10

NPHI and TNPH porosity transforms at 50 ppk

TNPH Transform ( 50 ppk ) TNPH Transform NPHI Transform ( 50 ppk ) NPHI Transform

In the ELANPlus processing there are linear and nonlinear response equations for the neutron. The linear neutron equation is referred to as NPHI in the Session Editor and uses data from the curve selected for NPHI in the Curve Editor. That can be either the old or new neutron (NPHI or TNPH) with the endpoints picked appropriately. The nonlinear equation is called NPHU and uses data bound to NPHU. It requires a curve from an environmental correction program, to which all corrections except salinity have been applied. Salinity corrections are part of the final solution. Linear NPHI The ELANPlus linear approximation of the nonlinear neutron response equation is adequate for most applications. The approximation is accomplished by adjusting the mineral endpoints NPHI_DOLO and NPHI_QUAR. Such an approximation is valid only over a specific range of porosities and fluid saturations.

ELANPlus Theory

57

ToC

Computing Linear NPHI Mineral Endpoints

Index

To compute NPHI_DOLO and NPHI_QUAR, use the following steps: 1 Observe the average true porosity range. 2 Enter the true porosity on the y-axis of Chart POR-13 of the Schlumberger chart book. 3 Record the limestone porosity values on the x-axis assuming the matrix is dolomite and sandstone. 4 Use these values together with the neutron response equation to solve for NPHI_DOLO and NPHI_QUAR. For example, assume that the average porosity in a dolomite reservoir is 8 p.u. The chart book indicates the limestone neutron porosity is 15.6 p.u. Note: Do not use the difference between the limestone neutron porosity and the true porosity for NPHI_DOLO. The calculations needed are NPHI = NPHI_DOLO × DOLO + NPHI_XWAT × XWAT ⇒ ⇒ ⇒ φ N _LS = NPHI_DOLO × ( 1 – φ ) + NPHI_XWAT × φ (30-2a) (30-2b) (30-2c)

Q

φ N _LS – φ NPHI_DOLO = ---------------------1.0 – φ 0.156 – 0.08 NPHI_DOLO = ----------------------------- ≈ 0.083 1.0 – 0.08 where φ N _LS = neutron porosity, expressed in limestone units.

(30-2d)

The previous example is valid only in water and oil zones (NPHI_XWAT = NPHI_XOIL = 1.00). In gas zones there must be an additional term on the right-hand side of the equation, NPHI_XGAS. It lumps together the neutron value for gas and the excavation correction. For more information see the Nonlinear Neutron Response Parameters section in Chapter 3, Response Equations. You must solve the nonlinear excavation equation to determine a value for NPHI_XGAS, or use the Parameter Calculator (selected from the Options menu in the Session Manager), which requires as input the approximate porosity and water saturation as seen by the neutron.

58

ELANPlus Theory

ToC

Figure 11 is a graph of the NPHI_QUAR and NPHI_DOLO as a function of porosity. The transforms for NPHI and TNPH were used to generate it. Note that except for NPHI_DOLO at low porosities, the response parameters change slowly as a function of porosity. Neutron Response Parameter

10 NPHIA.DOL 5

Index

Q

0 NPHIA.QUA –5

–10 0 5 10 15 20 25

PHIT

TNPH Transform (PPK = 50) NPHI Transform

Figure 11 porosity.

Neutron quartz and dolomite parameters as a function of

The neutron matrix value calculation is also encoded in the Parameter Calculator. Having it there allows appropriate parameters for the neutron to be determined with either transform.

Crossplot Porosity as Total Porosity

There are two exceptions to not putting the same information into a model twice in different forms. They are both uses of crossplot porosity as total porosity (PHIT) in carbonates. In reservoirs that contain dolomite, the addition of PHIT can be very helpful. Crossplot porosity (PXND) in dolomite is a nonlinear function of the densityneutron tools. Binding PHIT to the PXND curve enables the ELANPlus program to use PXND as an apparent-PHIT tool and helps the ELANPlus processing overcome the nonlinearity of the neutron tool by biasing the final answer with a crossplot approximation of total porosity. With PXND as an input, expect the Standard Deviation of Reconstruction, SDR, to increase slightly in dolomites when there are large porosity varia-

ELANPlus Theory

59

setting the Index Q 60 ELANPlus Theory . For sandstones. WCLP_ILLI is used to relate the volume of bound water to the volume of dry clay.) are common examples. and PHIT_GYPS = 0. PHIT_CALC = 0. Instead.0 when using density/neutron crossplot porosity. PHIT_ILLI is used solely in the PHIT response equation.u. select a value for NPHI_QUAR that is representative of the average porosity and use the linear neutron response equation.u. Crossplot porosity for 2.u. which is designed to assist interpretation in radioactive dolomites. and dolomite. If the problem is underdetermined. there are some minerals where it has a nonzero value. Salt (26 p. One comes from a transform built to give accurate porosity when the reservoir is composed of quartz.u. PHIT is also a required input to the Sonic Clay Volume predefined constraint.) and gypsum (36 p.. Set PHIT_HALI = 0. that RHOB_ILLI has a value of 2. Crossplot porosity and the volume of bound water associated with clay are totally different entities.u. when PXND is used as the input curve for the PHIT equation.u.26 or 26. and dolomite yields PHIT_QUAR = 0. (assuming Clay = WET). PHIT is a near-linear combination of density and neutron data and.50 g/cm3 and 36 p. calcite. especially in higher porosity. The Parameter Calculator provides the capability of computing any required crossplot porosities when the density and neutron values of a mineral are known. In sand-shale reservoirs PHIT is not recommended. PXND reads 0 in most minerals. so PHIT_ILLI should be set to 24 p. adding the PHIT equation will not help. There is one more thing to watch out for if PXND is used as the PHIT tool: If the density or neutron log gives an erroneous reading.0 p. calcite. Assume that illite (ILLI) is used in a Solve process. is 24 p.u. However. It is important to realize that PHIT_ILLI has nothing to do with the WCLP_ILLI parameter. and NPHI_ILLI has a value of 36 p.0. Be careful with clays and minerals that exhibit false crossplot porosity.u.50 g/cm3.36 or 36.0p. The other is related to the ratio of the surface area to the density of the clay. NPHI_QUAR varies little. Note: Set the PHIT response parameter for a mineral equal to a value that the input PHIT data would read in the pure mineral. because it adds little to the solution.0 and PHIT_DOLO = 0.ToC tions. Applying that to quartz.

The ELANPlus program assumes that all environmental corrections already have been applied to NPHU except for formation salinity. The nonlinear neutron response equation is given by the following equation: Index Q φ N = φ N _matrix × V matrix + φ N _ fluid × V fluid + ∆φ N _ex (31) where: φ N = the total neutron response φ N _matrix × V matrix = the matrix response φ N _ fluid × V fluid = the fluid response ∆φ N _ex = the excavation effect The matrix response (salinity and porosity dependent) is computed within the ELANPlus program by the response equations as a function of effective salin- ELANPlus Theory 61 . The only problem is that a usable sigma is seldom available. gas. and oil the salinity correction can only be an approximation. You must also increase PHIT_UNC. Noninear Neutron Response Parameters lThe nonlinear neutron tool input curve is NPHU. The sigma measurement must be made at the same time the neutron log is recorded. If the sigma correction is applied. If it is run at a different time. Without a complete solution of the volumes of formation water. which is computed during the simultaneous solution. An even better way to apply the salinity correction is to use a measured sigma. then salinity parameters in the ELANPlus program must be set to 0 to eliminate a double correction.ToC uncertainty for RHOB (RHOB_UNC) or for the neutron (NPHI_UNC) to a high value is not enough. filtrate. The sigma correction is applied before ELANPlus processing. the fluid volumes will have changed and it will no longer reflect the effects as seen by the neutron log. because sigma is a direct measurement of the salinity and absorber effects that perturb the neutron. Applying the salinity correction during optimization is more rigorous and more correct than attempting to apply the salinity correction in an environmental correction program before ELANPlus processing.

u. SALIN_UOIL. is not constant.ToC ity and fluid volumes. φ N _matrix . The response parameter for all waters should be set to 100 p. SALIN_XWAT. SALIN_XOIL. a few general comments are in order. HIhc. Following is a subset of the response parameters required for the nonlinear neutron equation: NPHU_QUAR. as discussed in Schlumberger Interpretation Principles. 2 The response parameter for hydrocarbons can be modeled as a function of its hydrogen index. and excavation effect will be reviewed in detail in the following sections. . 62 ELANPlus Theory . NPHU_XOIL NPHU_XWAT NPHU_UOIL NPHU_UWAT NPHU_ISOL NPHU_IFAC. NPHU_CALC. The hydrogen index of a hydrocarbon can be computed as a function of the hydrogen density. V fluid . Although the matrix response. and apparent fluid salinity. fluid response.ρ hc 12 + X (32) The hydrogen index value can be computed in the hydrocarbon section of the Parameter Calculator and should be entered into the appropriate response parameter (such as NPHU_XGAS or NPHU_UOIL). The basic assumptions are 1 For quartz. calcite. SALIN_UWAT. . SALIN_ISOL. NPHU_DOLO. and dolomite the apparent matrix point. . the hydrogen index is Index Q 9X HI hc = --------------. For a hydrocarbon with a density of ρhc and a chemical formula of n(CHX). NPHU_ILLI. EXC_FAC. PPKfluid. NPHU_ANHY. but rather a function of the volume of pore fluids. The reduction in hydrogen index for water when salinity increases are taken into account by using the matrix term.

SALIN_xxxx (in units of ppk). dolomite. or any water. represents the percentage that the neutron response is inﬂuenced by the ﬂushed zone. if the program ﬁnds that SALIN_UWAT is Absent. that must be entered. If both ﬂushed and undisturbed ﬂuids are present in a model. NPHU_IFAC. The Neutron Fluid Term Index Q The fluid response is defined by the following equation: nxf φ N _ fluid × V fluid = NPHU_IFAC × ∑ NPHU_i × Vi ∑ (33) i=1 nuf NPHU_ j × V j + ( 1 – NPHU_IFAC ) × j=1 + NPHU_ISOL × ISOL + NPHU_PARA × PARA where: ELANPlus Theory 63 . If CUDC_UWAT is also Absent. you should not modify the response parameter for quartz.ToC Each mineral volume has an associated response parameter and default value. The value for SALIN_xxxx can be supplied directly by the user or computed by the program from an associated parameter.0 would indicate that the neutron tool is affected only by the ﬂushed zone. It has a range of 0 to 1. In general. later in this chapter. For example. see the section on Rules for Initialization of Salinity-Dependent Parameters. each ﬂuid term has an associated salinity parameter. The parameter EXC_FAC allows you to adjust the magnitude of the theoretical excavation effect. It has a default value of 1. For more detail on how the program determines salinity values. A value of 1. the program will try to compute salinity from the formation water resistivity RW. For more information see The Neutron Excavation Term section. A value of 0. Also. calcite. it will attempt to compute a salinity from CUDC_UWAT. a value of 0.4 would be typical.0 would indicate inﬂuence from only the undisturbed zone. The invasion factor.

NPHU_IFAC. The response parameter for hydrocarbons should simply be set to the hydrogen index computed in the Parameter Calculator. The Neutron Excavation Term Index Q For a simple mixture of hydrocarbons and water.ToC NPHU_i = nonlinear neutron response parameter for ﬂushed-zone ﬂuid i Vi = volume of flushed-zone fluid i NPHU_j = nonlinear neutron response parameter for undisturbed zone fluid j Vj = volume of undisturbed-zone fluid j NPHU_ISOL = nonlinear neutron response parameter for isolated porosity ISOL = volume of isolated porosity NPHU_PARA = nonlinear neutron response parameter for parallel porosity PARA = volume of parallel porosity If the fluid is water.u. The invasion factor. its response parameter should be set to equal 100 p. the invasion factor has no influence over them. Because isolated and parallel porosity (ISOL and PARA) are viewed as being the same in the flushed and undisturbed zones. is used to define the percentage of the flushed-zone and undisturbed-zone fluids influencing the neutron response. (the default value). Schlumberger Log Interpretation Volume I—Principles approximates the excavation effect as ∆φ N _ex = 2K ( HIw V w + HI hc V hc ) [ ( 1 – HI w )V w + ( 1 – HI hc )V hc ] (34) where: K = a constant deﬁned by the user HI w = hydrogen index of water V w = volume of water HI hc = hydrogen index of hydrocarbon V hc = volume of hydrocarbon 64 ELANPlus Theory .

j=1 ∑ The response parameter for the constant term. DOLO + ∑ i=1 φ N _matrix V i i ELANPlus Theory 65 . is called EXC_FAC. CALC. DOLO (38) ∑ ns. both water and hydrocarbon HI i = hydrogen index of ﬂuid i V i = volume of ﬂuid i In the ELANPlus program the excavation effect is implemented as ∆φ N _ex ≡ 2Kφ N _ fluid V fluid ( V fluid – φ N _ fluid V fluid ) where φ (36) N _ fluid V fluid is the ﬂuid term discussed earlier and nxf V fluid ≡ NPHU_IFAC × ∑ Vi (37) i=1 nuf + ( 1 – NPHU_IFAC ) × V j + ISOL + PARA. K.ToC Index It follows that the general case of fluid mixtures is handled as Q ∆φ N _ex = 2K where: ∑ HIi Vi × ∑ ( 1 – HIi )Vi i=1 i=1 nf nf (35) nf = number of ﬂuids. CALC. It has a default value of 1. ns ≠ QUAR. The Neutron Matrix Term The matrix response is defined by the following equation: φ N _matrix V matrix = φ N _matrix V j j j = QUAR.

63 p. They differ from the linear response parameters because the linear parameters have the excavation effect built in. All water response parameters should be set to 100. φ N _matrix i is a function of porosity and salinity. Schlumberger recommends converting the traditional NPHI curve as input to TNPH. PPK fluid ) N _matrix j fluid φ N _matrix ( V fluid.05.0 66 ELANPlus Theory . Changes resulting from salinity are incorporated in the matrix terms.ToC In general..0. The ∆φ N _matrix j term is a function of porosity and salinity. or in large porosity variations. The oil and gas values for NPHU can be computed in the Parameter Calculator.u. that is why the neutron response equation is nonlinear. 0. PPK fluid ) = NPHU_ j + -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------. For older logs. for quartz. calcite. The parameter EXC_FAC should normally be left at 1. When using the nonlinear neutron. and dolomite is a function of the ﬂuid volumes and excavation effect. The deﬁning equation for φ Q N _matrix i is ∆φ (V . Using it is no problem with new logs. and 0. NPHU_CALC or NPHU_DOLO (2. keep the following points in mind: Do not modify the default values for NPHU_QUAR. The nonlinear neutron (NPHU) is most correct for gas or for carbonates with salt mud. φ N _matrix i values are modeled as constants for all minerals.u. Index and they have the value of the response parameter NPHU_i. The actual matrix response is computed as porosity. It is selected to be consistent with TNPH data and salinity correction. Recommendations for Using Neutron Data in ELANPlus Processing TNPH is the preferred transform to use for the neutron equation (either linear or nonlinear).(39) 1 – V fluid j The NPHU_j term is a constant and generally should not be modiﬁed by the user. However. The matrix response for quartz. and salinity varies.0 p. respectively). calcite. and dolomite.

formation salinity. Channels Index Q The relevant output channels available from both the Maxis and PREAPS are shown in Table 14. The problem with this approach is that in a 18 pu limestone and oil formation APLC will be boosted to 20 pu when in fact no boosting should occur. In salt water the hydrogen index is reduced by the volume fraction of salt resulting in a number less than one. use it to make a formation salinity correction before ELANPlus processing and bind the resulting NPOR_CRC to the NPHU equation.ToC If a measured sigma is available. Response Equation The response equation is identical to the linear neutron equation. In shales. APLC is equal to the measured porosity divided by the hydrogen index of the salt water computed from the logging engineer’s input parameter of FSAL. APLC is also incorrectly boosted. It is identical to APLC/HALC but with no formation salinity boosting. For this reason one should use either the ENPI or HNPI channel in interpretation. The net result is that in a 20 pu salt saturated limestone formation the measured porosity reads 18 pu but APLC is boosted to read 20 pu. NPHI. be sure to set all the SALIN_xxxx parameters to 0 when running the ELANPlus program. Table 14 Available Maxis and PREAPS Output Channels Channel Description Low Resolution APLC ENPI High Resolution HALC HNPI APS Near/Array Corrected Limestone Porosity APS Near/Array Corrected Limestone Porosity except for Formation Salinity (Linear) Do not use APLC or HALC in interpretation. Recommendations for APS Interpretation Following are recommendations for APS interpretation. ELANPlus Theory 67 . The Near/Array porosity is an epithermal measurement which responds almost linearly with hydrogen index. Note: With sigma-corrected data.

the gas methane has a density of 0.1 gm/cc at 150 F and 2000 psi and has 4 atoms of hydrogen for each carbon atom. Light Hydrocarbon End Points In order to determine the correct gas parameters use the Hydrocarbon Parameters computation of the ELANPlus Calculator and enter the density and either the weight percent of hydrogen in the gas or the number of hydrogen molecules associated with each carbon atom. RW and RWT and the ﬂushed and undisturbed zone water parameters are computed automatically. The corresponding ENPI parameters are computed. Water End Points Typically one simply enters the parameters RMF. Mineral End Points Monte Carlo computations were performed to develop an algorithm which related the density and chemical composition of compounds to the ENPI response. 68 ELANPlus Theory . MST. Table 15 shows the mineral end points for clays and other minerals. For example.0 pu for salt. The algorithm was used to compute the clay end points.ToC # x fluids # Minerals ENPI = ENPI_m × V m + ENPI_IFAC × ∑ ENPI_x × V x ∑ x m # u fluids + ( 1 – ENPI_IFAC ) × ∑ ENPI_u × V u u Matrix End Points Index (40) Q Parameters for the clean matrices quartz and dolomite may be computed from the Neutron Matrix Computation of the ELANPlus Calculator. If at any time one wishes to change the estimate of mud ﬁltrate or formation water salinity. Note the large positive value of 20. use the X-Water or U-Water Parameters computation of the ELANPlus Calculator. Simply enter the porosity and salinity and the matrix end points are computed. This results in a gas parameter value of 22.5 pu.

ToC Index Table 15 Mineral End Points Mineral HALI ANHY GYPS PYRI SIDE MUSC ENPI 0. then ELANPlus Theory 69 .430 0.245 0.700 Q Constant Tools Constant Tools provide a way to add more information to a model.200 0. the CTn_xxxx parameters have values like 20 and -100.600 0.020 0.254 0.410 0. They are a means of adding local knowledge to the model through equations. it is easiest to think of them as porosity units. The equation for a Constant Tool is in the standard form for the ELANPlus program: nfc CTn = ∑ CTn_i × Vi (41) i=1 where: n = number of the Constant Tool (currently CT1 through CT6) CTn_i = response parameter for Constant Tool n and formation component i As with all other tools the user must supply an uncertainty ( CTn_UNC). especially when setting the uncertainty. The units used in CTn_xxxx determine the units for CTn_UNC.112 Mineral BIOT GLAU ILLI KAOL CHLO MONT ENPI 0.165 0. they do not represent a curve bound to data. Although the units used for constant tools are arbitrary.028 0. If. Unlike most tools within the ELANPlus application. for example.086 0.

20 and -1. and the geology of the two wells is similar. rather than a data-driven curve. Similarly. CT1 = 0).20 * ORTH and 0 = QUAR – 0. That knowledge can be entered into the ELANPlus program by means of a Constant Tool: If QUAR/ORTH = 20% then QUAR = 0. where spectral gamma ray data (from the NGS tool) are available on one well but not on another. the thorium (WWTH) and potassium (WWK) information must be replaced by external knowledge in order to solve for both illite and orthoclase.ToC CTn_UNC would have a value like 1. The model used for the well with NGS tool data is summarized in Table 16. One way of handling the problem is to replace QUAR and ORTH with SAND to reflect a combination of quartz and orthoclase (so GR_SAND would be higher for this well than GR_QUAR for the previous one).20 * ORTH or 0 = 100*QUAR – 20*ORTH That is of the form CT1 = CT1_QUAR × QUAR + CT1_ORTH × ORTH (42) 70 ELANPlus Theory . if CTn_xxxx parameters had values of 0.5. Using Constant Tools is best illustrated by the following examples. the value of the Constant Tool is supplied as a parameter (for example. Table 16 Model Using Data from NGS Tool Model Tools QUAR RHOB NPHI ORTH WWK ILLI WWTH XWAT CXDC XOIL ∑Volumes Index Q On the well without NGS tool data.015. An alternate approach is to use a Constant Tool. Unlike other tools. then CTn_UNC would be on the order of 0.00. Assume that the orthoclaseto-quartz ratio of the first well is about 20%.

ToC

The new model would be as shown in Table 17. Table 17 Model Using Constant Tool and GR in Place of NGS Model Tools QUAR RHOB NPHI ORTH ILLI GR XWAT CXDC XOIL ∑Volumes

Index

Q

CT1

In this example, potassium was replaced by a Constant Tool, and thorium was replaced by the total GR. If a fairly constant value of uranium was observed in the first well through zones of interest, then the GR parameters must be adjusted accordingly. If the uranium varies significantly in zones of interest, this model will be in error unless the GR was zoned to reflect the variations. The following parameters were used: CT1 = 0, CT1_QUAR = 100, CT1_ORTH = -20, and CT1_UNC = 1.5. The interpretation model could be made more sophisticated by determining an orthoclase ratio for the sands and shales and defining different Constant Tools for each model.

Parameter Tables

The response equations previously described require fluid and rock or mineral parameters to function. There are no default values for rocks and for many fluids. Fluid parameters are dependent on hydrocarbon type and water salinity. The Parameter Calculator should be used to determine the different fluid parameters. Rocks (sandstone, shales, carbonates, etc.) are composed of undefined mixtures of minerals. The classical interpretation techniques are based on rocks. The analyst chooses the required parameters from some technique, such as crossplots. Minerals, on the other hand, are more well known and generally have defined values. For example, there is very little debate over the composition of quartz. Clay minerals, though, are an exception. Tables 18, 19, and 20 provide most of the parameter values needed to run a mineral-based interpretation, using the ELANPlus program. These are kept as default parameter values in the ELANPlus data base. Some default values in the data base were updated according to work that was done in Schlumberger-Doll Research center in Ridgefield, Connecticut,

ELANPlus Theory

71

ToC

U.S.A., and documented by M.M. Herron and A. Matteson in their paper, “Elemental Composition and Nuclear Parameters of Some Common Sedimentary Minerals,” Nuclear Geophysics, 1993, Vol. 7, No. 3, pp 383–406. Two sets of values are listed for chlorite and illite in the following tables. The second sets are retained from previous version of this document for poorly ordered chlorite and well-ordered illite. Table 18 gives the Dry Elemental Weight Percent of various minerals commonly found in sedimentary rocks. Table 18 Common Sedimentary Minerals Dry Elemental Weight Percent

Si Quartz Calcite Dolomite Orthoclase Albite Anhydrite Gypsum Pyrite Siderite Muscovite Biotite Glauconite Kaolinite Chlorite (poorly ordered) Illite (well-ordered) Montmorillonite 46.75 0.20 0.60 30.00 30.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.40 21.16 18.20 23.09 20.80 14.00 13.30 24.80 24.40 26.40 Ca 0.10 39.40 21.60 0.10 2.30 29.44 23.28 0.00 0.28 0.10 0.20 0.49 0.10 0.70 0.20 0.50 0.36 1.40 Fe 0.00 0.10 0.30 0.10 0.10 0.00 0.00 46.55 39.98 1.30 13.56 15.52 0.40 20.80 16.28 4.80 3.90 2.00 S K weight % 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.10 0.00 0.00 10.20 0.00 0.50 23.55 0.00 18.62 0.00 53.45 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 7.80 0.00 7.20 0.00 5.94 0.00 0.10 0.00 0.40 0.00 0.03 0.00 0.00 0.00 4.50 5.50 0.66 Al 0.00 0.10 0.10 9.90 11.80 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.70 19.10 6.03 4.35 20.40 9.60 9.58 10.50 14.20 9.10 Mg 0.00 0.20 12.30 0.10 0.10 0.00 0.00 0.00 3.01 0.10 7.72 2.10 0.10 4.80 12.10 1.20 1.69 2.20 Ti 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.48 0.09 1.10 1.30 0.00 0.50 0.30 0.10 Gd 0.00 0.50 1.30 0.30 0.20 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.50 0.00 0.20 4.20 4.30 4.80 Th ppm 0.00 0.00 0.10 1.10 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.40 0.00 1.50 3.00 19.30 11.40 U 0.10 1.40 0.90 0.40 0.00 0.50 0.30 0.00 0.50 0.70 0.70 5.40 3.20 3.60

Index

Q

3.70

12.30

4.80

7.80

26.00

7.10

The General Parameters listed in Table 19 are the most frequently used parameters that are required by the ELANPlus program. Some were derived from parameters listed in Table 18. Note: In Table 19, U represents the Volumetric Photoelectric Factor (unlike Table 18 and Table 20, where the U stands for Uranium).

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ELANPlus Theory

ToC

Except for Wet Clay Porosities WCLP, no default values are provided for salinity-dependent parameters. Use the appropriate formation water salinity or resistivity to compute those parameters with the Parameter Calculator. Table 19 General Parameters

ARHOB g/cm3 Quartz 2.65 Calcite 2.71 Dolomite 2.85 Halite 2.05 Orthoclase 2.57 Albite 2.62 Anhydrite 2.96 Gypsum 2.32 Pyrite 5.00 Siderite 3.93 Muscovite 2.86 Biotite 3.09 Glauconite 2.96 Kaolinite 2.63 Chlorite 3.01 (poorly ordered) 2.82 Illite 2.79 (well-ordered) 2.78 Montmorillonite 2.78 RHOB g/cm3 2.65 2.71 2.85 2.04 2.57 2.60 2.98 2.35 4.99 3.88 2.85 3.04 2.65 2.55 2.81 2.63 2.61 2.49 2.02 WCLP p.u. 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 15.6* 5.8* 10.1* 11.1* 10.4* 15.6* 42.5* NPHI p.u. -6.0 0.0 1.8 -3.0 -1.0 -1.0 -2.0 54.0 0.8 18.4 24.0 13.4 41.0 50.7 58.3 59.6 35.2 47.9 65.0 ENPI p.u. -8.0 0.0 0.3 20.0 -1.0 -1.0 5.6 58.0 16.5 11.1 10.7 8.6 36.0 49.0 71.0 49.6 28.0 37.9 60.0 U 5.0 14.1 9.1 9.7 8.7 5.6 14.95 9.46 82.06 71.6 11.5 21.6 16.5 5.1 21.7 14.96 9.9 7.55 4.4 SIGM c.u. 4.7 7.4 6.92 750 15.3 11.4 11.1 20.0 90.0 54.2 95.3 54.1 90.0 21.9 43.7 34.0 41.0 66.0 † 20.0 EATT dB/m 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 * * * * * * * TPL ns/m 7.2 9.8 8.7 8.2 7.6 7.6 8.4 6.8 8.9 8.9 7.8 12.0 11.0 11.0 11.0 14.0 14.0 16.0

Index

Q

* → Salinity-dependent parameters † → Marine source

The ARHOB values in Table 19 are the true dry mineral densities. The RHOB values are the wet densities as measured by the density tools. The thermal neutron NPHI values are only approximations because of the presence of unpredictable neutron absorbers. The values were derived from the epithermal neutron ENPI data by adding a maximum-thermal-absorbereffect of 10 p.u. to the clay endpoints. That translates into a 10% to 20% correction in normal clay and porosity ranges.

ELANPlus Theory

73

00 30. GST).00 0.00 0.95 4.31 1.00 0.00 1.10 1.00 0.50 48.22 Mg 0.20 0.28 0.60 23.00 4.20 0. ECS.00 3.60 0.00 0.00 0.63 74 ELANPlus Theory .00 4.00 20.00 0.00 0. HNGS.00 1.20 0.00 10.48 Al 0.30 0.90 0.20 0.10 6.99 15.08 3.07 1.30 29.00 0.50 2.55 0.19 5.60 30.10 1.00 0.62 0.20 12.00 0.00 0.00 7.70 0.67 0.63 U 0.13 3.10 9.40 21.00 18.00 0.00 3.11 0.50 0.63 Th ppm 0.60 S K weight % 0.00 0.67 0.73 6.44 15.30 0.00 0.00 0.70 19.82 18.11 Fe 0.32 13.90 11.09 1.02 7.18 21.49 1.20 21.00 0.10 Gd 0.40 0.51 7.00 0.00 0.00 0.40 0.40 21.00 0.75 0.ToC The Wet Elemental Weight Percent values in Table 20 are for spectral tools (NGT.00 0.25 10.80 0.15 3.00 0.16 3.00 0.00 0.70 0.08 2.93 9.50 0.98 0.61 1.00 0.10 39.48 1.60 0.00 0.20 3.00 0.10 0.50 23.20 0.10 0.08 14.00 0.63 Ti 0.47 0.00 0.05 19.00 0.00 0.00 0.48 8.16 18.40 23.30 0.00 7.10 0.00 0.55 4.10 7.00 0.97 14.94 Ca 0. Table 20 Common Sedimentary Minerals Wet Elemental Weight Percent Si Quartz Calcite Dolomite Orthoclase Albite Anhydrite Gypsum Pyrite Siderite Muscovite Biotite Glauconite Kaolinite Chlorite (poorly ordered) Illite (well-ordered) Montmorillonite 46.00 0.70 5.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.40 0.40 0.10 0.86 10.50 0.80 0.00 0.10 4.10 2.10 0.50 0.10 0.62 0.00 0.00 0.30 20.00 0.20 4.70 1.30 0.81 18.00 0.30 0.50 1.74 20.07 0.00 53.75 0.32 5.81 48.50 28.47 Index Q 1.01 0.00 0.00 0.10 1.88 6.60 3.00 5.00 0.00 0. RST.00 0.25 0.10 0.58 10.35 22.00 46.00 11.40 0.

To compare the effects of the different conductivity models of Table 21. choose the water saturation model with which you feel most comfortable. For each ELANPlus model (Solve process) being used. ELANPlus Theory 75 . Table 21 Water Saturation Models Saturation Model Linear conductivity Dual Water Indonesia Nigerian Simandoux Waxman-Smits Undisturbed Zone CUDC CUDC_DWA CUDC_IND CUDC_IND CUDC_SIM CUDC_WS Flushed Zone CXDC CXDC_DWA CXDC_IND CXDC_IND CXDC_SIM CXDC_WS These equations represent different models for the correction of the effects of clay conductivity on the calculation of water saturation. each of which differs from the others only in the conductivity equation(s) used.ToC Index Q Chapter 4 Conductivity Models The ELANPlus program supports the water saturation equations listed in Table 21. create several Solve processes.

It is special in that it is the only model that allows for the concept of conductive minerals that are nonclay minerals. There is a WCLP parameter in the Waxman-Smits model for partitioning the wet and dry clay fractions in the final output. The Indonesian model and Nigerian model are very similar. There are differences in the saturation exponents a and m.ToC The Waxman-Smits and Dual Water models describe the same data base and therefore have many similarities. Both models. In ELANPlus processing. water saturation is not explicitly determined. The Dual Water model uses clay-water conductivity (CUDC_UBWA) and clay-water porosity (WCLP). Translation of parameters from the Waxman-Smits to the Dual Water model and the reverse are supported in the Parameter Calculator. in their basic form. The Waxman-Smits model uses cationic exchange capacity of clays (CEC_xxxx). This parameter does not affect the computation of water saturation. Instead the ELANPlus program solves for volumes of water and hydrocarbon. which can then be converted to conventional water saturation through a Function process. express clay conductivity in Qv (charge per unit volume). though the main difference is the way in which the two models describe clay conductivity. Only two parameter changes are needed to convert one equation to the other. The Linear Conductivity model is a simplification of the Dual Water model. using the equation Index Q UWAT + UIWA + USFL w S w = ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------UWAT + UIWA + USFL w + UOIL + UGAS + USFL hc where: UWAT = volume of “free” water in the undisturbed zone UIWA = volume of irreducible water in the undisturbed zone USFLw = volume of special ﬂuid with a water attribute in the undisturbed zone UOIL = volume of oil in the undisturbed zone UGAS = volume of gas in the undisturbed zone USFLhc = volume of special ﬂuid with a hydrocarbon attribute in the undisturbed zone (43) 76 ELANPlus Theory .

ToC

The relationship between the ﬂushed zone and uninvaded zone can be confusing. With Constant Tools the relationship is loosely ﬁxed. With ﬂushed-zone resistivity (Rxo) and deep resistivity (Rt) measurements there can be strong disagreements between the two solutions. In the volumetric display, moved hydrocarbons means that S Negative moved hydrocarbons (moved water) means that S

Index

Q

w ≤ S xo .

w ≥ S xo .

The flushed zone can have a profound effect on the calculation of water saturation. All log measurements, except deep resistivity and a few other deep reading devices, are dominated by the flushed zone. ELANPlus logic assumes that the volume of minerals and associated porosities are the same in the flushed zone and the uninvaded zone, but it does not make any assumption about the fluid volume relationships. Computing hydrocarbon volumes in the uninvaded zone does not mean that hydrocarbons are present in the flushed zone (as in the case of deep invasion). Any interpretation system—and the ELANPlus system is no exception— must know the volume and type of hydrocarbon in the flushed zone in order to make the proper hydrocarbon corrections (especially gas corrections) to the porosity measurements. There are two ways for the program to establish the flushed-zone volume and type of hydrocarbon: (1) measurements such as R xo and density-neutron that allow for the direct solution and (2) R xo information supplied by the user. Warning: The ELANPlus program believes what the user tells it. Flushed-zone computed values can have a dramatic effect on the uninvaded zone and vice versa, especially when gas is part of the solution. One example is a model, solving for gas in a gas zone, that finds no gas effect on the density-neutron measurements yet has a Constant Tool defining a similar volume of hydrocarbons in both flushed and uninvaded zones. Using balanced uncertainties, the ELANPlus program will see two tools (density and neutron) indicating no gas while the deep conductivity (CUDC) indicates gas. Two against one in an optimized solution will have an answer weighted towards the two tools that agree (no gas). This is an example of a case in which the model does not fit the data. The ELANPlus program will warn you that the tools are inconsistent in this case by showing a reconstructed conductivity that does not match the measured conductivity. For more information see Chapter 8, Quality Control.

ELANPlus Theory

77

ToC

To correct the problem you can either correct the flushed-zone hydrocarbon model or lower the uncertainty of the deep conductivity (CUDC_UNC). If CUDC_UNC is lowered, the deep saturation will be more correct but the density-neutron will not reconstruct and their “corrected porosity” values could be in error.

Index

Q

**No Rxo Tool
**

If no shallow-resistivity device is available, the ELANPlus system still needs to know the distribution of the ﬂushed-zone ﬂuids to accurately predict porosity. Computation of the ﬂushed-zone ﬂuids can be done by assuming some relationship between undisturbed-zone and ﬂushed-zone ﬂuids

1⁄ 5

One common relationship is the Tixier assumption that S

xo = S w

In ELANPlus processing, an approximation of the Tixier assumption can be formalized with the use of a Constant Tool (CTn). Experience dictates that you should assume a hydrocarbon ratio of flushed-to-undisturbed zone rather than water ratio. For example, assume that the ratio of XOIL/UOIL is 0.2. That can be rewritten as XOIL ------------- = 0.2 UOIL ⇒ ⇒ ⇒ XOIL = 0.2 × UOIL 0 = – 1.0 × XOIL + 0.2 × UOIL (43-1a) (43-1b) (43-1c)

0 = CT1 = CT1_XOIL × XOIL + CT1_UOIL × UOIL (43-1d)

Table 22 shows the relevant parameter values necessary to establish an XOIL/UOIL ratio of 0.2 using the constant tool CT1. All other CT1 parameter values would be 0.0. Table 22 Constant Tool Parameter Values for an XOIL/UOIL Ratio of 0.2 CT1 0.0 CTl_XOIL –1.0 CT1_UOIL 0.20 CT1_UNC 0.015

78

ELANPlus Theory

ToC

The equation is equally valid if the signs are reversed, CT1_XOIL = 1.00 and CT1_UOIL = –0.20. In addition, the same result is achieved if CT1_XOIL, CT1_UOIL and CT1_UNC are multiplied by a constant such as 100. They would then become –10.0, 20, and 1.5, respectively.

Index

Q

**Oil and Gas Model with Rxo
**

When both flushed-zone and undisturbed-zone oil and gas are part of the model, two additional equations are required. One defines the ratio between oil and gas; the other defines the relationship of the oil and gas ratio in the flushed and the undisturbed zones. The neutron log is the conventional measurement used to distinguish between gas and oil. (Deep conductivity describes the total amount of hydrocarbons.) However, there is still a need to relate the oil and gas ratio between the flushed and uninvaded zones. That need is handled with an internal tool similar to a Constant Tool (no external data curve used as an input). However, unlike a Constant Tool, this equation is nonlinear. It is referred to as the Equal Hydrocarbon Tool, EQHY. It assumes that the hydrocarbon density in the flushed and undisturbed zones is the same. In other words, the gas-oil ratio (GOR) is the same. XGAS UGAS --------------------------------------------------------- = --------------------------------------------------------XGAS + XOIL + XSFL UGAS + UOIL + USFL (44)

To avoid a divide-by-zero problem at zero porosity, the equation is actually implemented as follows: 0 = XGAS × ( UOIL + USFL ) – UGAS × ( XOIL + XSFL ) (45)

In Equations (44) and (45), special fluids in the flushed-zone (XSFL) and undisturbed zone (USFL) are included only if they have a hydrocarbon attribute. It should be emphasized that solving for gas, oil, and water at the same depth is a tricky problem even under ideal conditions. The presence of clay in a shaly sand environment causes the neutron-density to respond in a manner opposite that of gas. Therefore, some other tool must accurately resolve the clay volume in order to quantitatively distinguish between gas and oil. Experience has shown that EQHY should be used only when an Rxo measurement is in the model.

ELANPlus Theory

79

ToC

**Oil and Gas Model without Rxo
**

Previously when oil was in the model and no Rxo device was present, a constant equation set the ratio of ﬂushed-zone to undisturbed-zone oil. Likewise, when both oil and gas are in a model, and there is no Rxo device, Constant Tools are needed. Speciﬁcally, two Constant Tools are needed to replace CXDC and EQHY, as follows: CT1 = CT1_XOIL × XOIL + CT1_UOIL × UOIL or 0 = – 1.0 × XOIL + k × UOIL and CT2 = CT2_XGAS × XGAS + CT2_UGAS × UGAS or 0 = – 1.0 × XGAS + k × UGAS

Index

Q

(46)

(47)

Note: Use the same ratio of ﬂushed-zone to undisturbed-zone oil as is used for gas, which is equivalent to the assumption made by the EQHY equation. Numerical stability is not maintained when the EQHY equation is used without an Rxo device. To stay out of trouble, stick with two constant equations. For more information, see No Rxo Tool on page 78.

**Water Saturation, Linear Conductivity
**

Following is a very simple example of how water saturation is formulated into a conductivity equation. For the case of no clay, the linear conductivity equation can be derived from the classic water saturation equation. This derivation is written in deep conductivity terms (such as CUDC or UWAT). To express it in flushed-zone terms, replace the U’s with X’s (CXDC, XWAT).

a × Rw n S wt = ------------------m φ × Rt

Assuming a =1 and m = n = 2 yields

(48)

80

ELANPlus Theory

However. The complete equation with mineral conductivities included is CUDC = ∑ i=1 nf CUDC_i Vi × -------------------.+ a ∑ Vj × j=1 ns CUDC_ j (50) where: nf = number of undisturbed-zone formation components that are ﬂuids ELANPlus Theory 81 . what is shown for the linear conductivity equation applies equally to the nonlinear conductivity equations.× UWAT Rt Rw CUDC = CUDC_UWAT × UWAT Index (48-1a) Q (48-1b) (48-1c) (48-1d) Or in the general ELANPlus program form nfc CUDC = ∑ CUDC_i × Vi (49) i=1 where: nfc = number of formation components CUDC_i = conductivity of component i Vi = volume of component i The linear conductivity equation is used because the influence of each of the terms on the volumetric results is more easily observed with this equation.= ----------.ToC Rw 2 ( φ × S w ) = ------Rt ⇒ Rw UWAT = ----------Rt ⇒ ⇒ 1 1 --------.

Index Q CUDC = ∑ i=1 nc nf CUDC_i Vi × -------------------. For more information see the Conductivity Input. linear conductivity allows any mineral to have conductivity associated with it. An example would be the conductivity of pyrite (CUDC_PYRI) or the conductivity of illite (CUDC_ILLI). Often for a clay it is more convenient to supply a value for wet clay porosity (WCLP) and apparent bound-water conductivity (CBWA) than it is to compute the conductivity of a clay-water mixture. including clays for which a valid CUDC_xxxx exists nc = number of clays that have no valid CUDC_xxxx. The conductivity value that was entered for the CUDC_xxxx parameter represents the total conductivity of the rock and any associated fluids. section in Chapter 4.+ a ∑ Vj × j=1 CBWA_k ----------------------a ns CUDC_ j (51) + ∑ Vk × WCLP_k × k=1 where: ns = number of solid formation components. but have valid WCLP_xxxx and CBWA_xxxx 82 ELANPlus Theory .ToC Vi = volume of undisturbed-zone ﬂuid i CUDC_i = conductivity of undisturbed-zone ﬂuid i a = the Archie ﬂuid factor ns = number of formation components that are solids Vj = volume of solid component j CUDC_j = conductivity of solid component j Note: Unlike any other saturation equation. Hierarchy. The ELANPlus application includes an alternative formulation to allow clay conductivities to be specified in this manner. Conductivity Models. Note that the ELANPlus program does not have WCLP parameters for nonclays.

in their hierarchical order.ToC Vk = volume of clay k WCLP_k = wet clay porosity of clay k CBWA_k = apparent bound-water conductivity of clay k a = the Archie fluid factor This water saturation equation is good for illustration. ELANPlus Theory 83 . They are listed later in this section for each water saturation equation.0: Index Q nfc 1 = ∑ Vi = QUAR + ILLI + XOIL + XWAT + … (52) i=1 The other internal equation. Conductivity Models. One equation. Hierarchy There are several ways to enter conductivity of clays into the ELANPlus program. Its validity is limited to when the conductivity of formation water and clay water are similar or when there is no clay. forces the sum of ﬂuid volumes in the ﬂushed zone and undisturbed zone to be equal: nxf 0 = ∑ Vi – ∑ V j j=1 nuf (53) i=1 where: nfc = number of formation components nxf = number of fluids in the flushed zone nuf = number of fluids in the undisturbed zone Conductivity Input. applied only when undisturbed-zone ﬂuids are present. In addition to the main saturation equation. but it is only an approximation. For more information see the Linear Conductivity Equation section in Chapter 4. which is always in effect. the ELANPlus program applies internal equations. forces the sum of all volumes to 1.

and Simandoux. such as CLA1.). _clai. and Simandoux models. Nigerian. 84 ELANPlus Theory . there are three possible input types: (A) CUDC_UBWA (B) CUDC_clai (C) CBWA_clai. Linear Conductivity. Waxman-Smits Index Q There is only one possible input type for Waxman-Smits: (A) CEC_clai Dual Water. Indonesian. For Global Parameter Clay = Wet For global parameter Clay = Wet. insert the representation of an Absent value used in the ELANPlus system.25. CBWA_clai is defined by fluids only. such as illite (ILLI). there are two models. WCLP_clai For Global Parameter Clay = Dry For global parameter Clay = Dry. similar to Rt.) The parameter modifier. there are two groups of models: (1) Waxman-Smits. Simandoux For the Dual Water. represents either a generic clay. To ensure that a parameter is not used. (The default is –999. Nigerian. with two possible input types: (A) CUDC_UBWA (B) CBWA_clai Beware of CUDC_clai Beware: CUDC_clai does not equal CBWA_clai because CUDC_clai is affected by both rock and fluids. Indonesian. Dual Water and Linear Conductivity. Linear Conductivity. like Rw. and (2) Dual Water. Nigerian. (Add WCLP_clai and m. Those designated (A) take precedence over those designated (B). Linear Conductivity. Indonesian.ToC When there are two possible input types. do not enter both. and it becomes CUDC_clai. or other clays.

for example. The effect that clay has on the conductivity measurement has been the subject of numerous publications. you merely replace the U with an X (consistently. of course) to rewrite the equation for the flushed zone. given very fresh waters. Index Q Nonlinear Zone Linear Zone Co X ea “Cl nS ”L and ine Cw F Cw Figure 12 The effect of clay on conductivity. At low salinities the effect becomes highly nonlinear. In the equations in the following subsections the term USFL stands for Undisturbed-zone Special FLuid.ToC Conductivity Equations The nonlinear conductivity equations differ mostly in the way they handle clay. the effect of clay is seen to shift the conductivity of the rock to a higher value. CUDC_UWAT ⇒ CXDC_XWAT. The higher salinity range where the shift in conductivity is essentially constant is called the linear region. At high salinities. The effect is summarized in Figure 12. the effect is to lower the conductivity of the rock. Waxman Smits Equation Equation (54) shows the theoretical form of the Waxman-Smits equation. Although these equations are written in terms of the undisturbed zone. ELANPlus Theory 85 .

φ t S wt C w + ---------.u. mho/m Default 1. 2 Replace any U or u with an X or x for the flushed-zone equation.0 † † Absent Absent Absent 1.0 † 0. Table 23 Notes: 1 All input data are at downhole conditions. a in Archie equation Actual density of dry clay i Cation exchange capacity of clay i Undisturbed-zone conductivity of formation water Undisturbed-zone conductivity of irreducible water Undisturbed-zone conductivity of special fluid Parameter for m* (Qv) computation Parameter for m* (Qv) computation Saturation exponent Wet clay porosity of clay i Uncertainty of the CUDC curve data † → See Table 24. a S wt * Index (54) Q If the term involving Qv is dropped. Clays are made up of molecular sheets of silica tetrahedrons (silica with four oxygens and/or hydroxyls.0 2. Table 23 Waxman-Smits Conductivity Parameters Name A ARHOB_clai CEC_clai CUDC_UWAT CUDC_UIWA CUDC_USFL M_WS C_WS N WCLP_clai CUDC_UNC Unit — g/cm3 — mho/m mho/m mho/m — — — p.065 Symbol a ρdcli CECdcl i Cuwa Cuiw Cusf mws cws n φ cli σ CUDC Description Constant. Default Values Used for Clay. whatever is needed to balance the structure) and aluminum octahedrons (aluminum with six oxygens and/or hydroxyls).ToC BQ v 1 m n C t = -. the Equation (54) reduces to the familiar Archie water saturation equation.8 1. Within the clay lattice there is substitution of Al+3 for Si+4 in the tetrahedron 86 ELANPlus Theory . See Table 23 for the parameters used in it.

= -------------------------------------φt Total pore space cm 3 (54-1) The unit meq stands for milli-ion equivalent and is a unit of charge. there are broken bonds around the edges (at the end of the horizontal sheets of silica tetrahedrons and aluminum octahedrons) of the clay particle. Table 24 shows the default values for clay parameters used by ELANPlus logic: Table 24 Default Values Used for Clay Parameter ARHOB CEC WCLP Illite 2.23 15. K+ or Na+. input to the program via the CEC_xxxx parameter for each clay.25 15. The cations are typically Ca++. The smaller the clay particle. = -------------------------------------------. When submerged in water. resulting in a net negative charge imbalance. The counterion charge per unit pore space is defined as Qv.78 1.09 5. these ions are free to float about and exchange with other positive ions.59 0.15 10. Index Q ρ dcl V dcl CEC dcl meq Counterions Qv --------. The counterions per unit of pore space will depend on the amount of clay and the type of clay.602 × 10-19 coulombs/proton). In CEC you can set the units of meq per gram of dry clay.6 Kaolinite 2.5 As shown in Table 24. Additionally.82 0. An ion equivalent is the amount of charge in a mole of protons (6. Mg++. Electrical neutrality is maintained by positive ions (cations or counterions) being adsorbed on the exterior of the clay particle.ToC and Mg++ for Al+3 in the octahedron. contributing to the charge imbalance. The wet clay porosity is part of the Dual Water model and will be discussed in the following section.96 0. ELANPlus Theory 87 .1 Smectite 2.8 Chlorite 2.6 Glauconite 2.00 42. the greater the number of broken bonds. Nature requires clays to be electrically neutral.79 0. CEC is related to the WCLP (Wet Clay Porosity) parameter.023 × 1023 protons times 1.

Juhasz.8.4. resulting in an average value of 0. which is measured in units of mho/m per meq/cm3.28 + 0.75. For very fresh waters the Rwa term in the denominator becomes very large. with Shell. the conductivity computes to be 1. The product BQV in Equation (54) is the conductivity of the clay counterions. because of the parameter m*. Retain the same porosity.25. using an m* of 1.0.22 ( 1 – e Qvφ t ------------Y≡ 1 – φt – 17. The B term is known as the equivalent conductivity. Index Q 2 – 1.ToC The CEC values in Table 24 were determined by taking the average of the literature values. The cementation factor varies much more strongly with the Qv of the formation when using the Waxman-Smits model than with the Dual Water model. Assume that the temperature is 60 C.1 to 0. An empirical algorithm relating the cementation factor to the Qv and porosity for the Waxman-Smits model is given by m* = m ws + C ws ( 1.225 Temp – 4. Temperature is expressed in degrees Celcius. To give you an idea of the precision of the CEC values.059 × 10 –4 Temp B = ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------1. that is not the case.) For a 20% porosity formation with no clay. developed the following empirical formula to use for the clay counterion equivalent conductivity.3Y )) (56) (57) As an example assume that the water resistivity is 0. which causes the equivalent conductivity to approach 0. If you examine Equation (54).128Y + 0. It is a function of temperature and the salinity of the water surrounding the clay. the literature values for illite ranged from 0. adding clay to the system can only increase the conductivity.27 ) (55) The equivalent conductivity is basically a quadratic function of temperature. which has been found to increase with the Qv of the formation.045 Temp – 0.38. it appears that for the same porosity. (Conductivity is 25. Actually. The equi valent conductivity computes to be 10. but change the matrix so that it is 20% 88 ELANPlus Theory .04.23 1 + R wa ( 0.

respectively. resulting in a more numerically stable and faster equation for the nonlinear solver. the same uncertainty parameter (CUDC_UNC) can be used for all conductivity equations. One more important factor needs to be mentioned about the Waxman-Smits equation. the ELANPlus program not only takes the square root of Equation (54). the ELANPlus program takes the square root of both sides. C w + C bw ---------a S wt S wt by using these substitutions (59) β C bw ≡ -----------H αV Q H XBWA S wb ≡ ----------------. it takes the square root of all nonlinear equations.C w + --------- a S wt S wt which can be rewritten in bound-water terms as (58) S wb 1 m n S wt – S wb C t = -. First. That translates to an m* value of 2.8.38.78 and 0. Two advantages arise from taking the square roots. Assume the clay is montmorillonite and has a CEC value of 1.0 and a density of 2. Using the new cementation value of 2. Second.78.= αV Q Qv φt (60) (61) ELANPlus Theory 89 . a much smaller value than the original 1.36.φ t S wt ------------------------. the conductivity computes to be 0. The Qv and Y values are 2.695. Because of these advantages. Rather than using Equation (54) as it is written.8. Dual-Water Equation The theoretical form of the Dual Water equation is Index Q H m n S wt – αV Q Qv 1 βQv C t = -.ToC dry clay. the square root makes the variation with water volume closer to linear.φ t S wt ----------------------------------.

2 Replace any U or u with an X or x.u.0 — Absent Absent Absent Absent Absent Absent Absent 1.065 Symbol a ρdcli Cbwi Cucli Cubw Cuwa Cuiw Cusf Cupar mdw Cdw n φcli σ CUDC Description Constant. Table 25 Notes: 1 All input at downhole conditions.0 † 0. a in Archie equation Actual density of dry clay i Bound-water conductivity for clay i Conductivity of clay i Undisturbed-zone bound-water conductivity Used only when Clay = DRY Undisturbed-zone conductivity of formation water Undisturbed-zone conductivity of irreducible water Undisturbed-zone conductivity of special ﬂuid Undisturbed-zone conductivity of ﬂuid contributing parallel conductivity Parameter for m (Qv) computation Parameter for m (Qv) computation Saturation exponent Pure wet clay porosity of clay i Uncertainty of the CUDC curve data → See Table 24.0 2. Default Values Used for Clay. Table 25 Dual Water Conductivity Parameters Name A ARHOB_clai CBWA_clai CUDC_clai CUDC_UBWA CUDC_UWAT CUDC_UIWA CUDC_USFL CUDC_PARA M_DW C_DW N WCLP_clai CUDC_UNC Unit — g/cm3 mho/m mho/m mho/m mho/m mho/m mho/m mho/m — — — p. on page 87. 90 ELANPlus Theory . mho/m † Index Q Default 1. respectively.ToC See Table 25 for the parameters used in the equation. for the flushed-zone equation.8 1.

0 + 8. Qv and Cbw. but it uses an algorithm that is a function of temperature only: H Index Q Temp ( °C ) + 8. Both models predict a decreasing clay conductivity at low salinities. V Q . ELANPlus processing uses the wet clay porosity parameter for each of the clays: H H XBWA = ∑ Vi × WCLP_i i=1 nc (63) H αV Q ρ dcl CEC dcl i i WCLP_cla i = -----------------------------------------------------------H 1 + αV Q ρ dcl CEC dcl i i (64) As with Waxman-Smits. The β has the same meaning as the B term of the Waxman-Smits equation.258Y + 0.28 cm3/meq at room temperature. set Cdw = 0 and mdw to 2. this is – 16. causing the conductivity of bound water to decrease.5 (62) V Q is called the clay water volume factor. It has a value of 0.0.ToC The relationships between β. the m in the Dual Water equation is dependent on Qv.8.5 β = --------------------------------------22.4Y )) (65) (66) ELANPlus Theory 91 . It can be thought of as a volume of bound water per counterion charge. In the Dual Water equation V Q increases with decreasing salinity. To use a fixed m = 2. In the Waxman-Smits equation B decreased with decreasing salinity. To compute the volume of bound water (XBWA) and the bound-water saturation (Swb). The mdw has a default value of 1.2 ( 1 – e Qvφ t Y ≡ ------------1 – φt In ELANPlus terms. Swb are more familiar to the log analyst. m = m dw + C dw ( 0. although somewhat differently.

92 ELANPlus Theory .× V w + ---------.ToC ∑ Vi ( 1 – WCLP_i )CEC_i × ARHOB_i i=1 Y ≡ ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------1.0 – ( V hc + V wf + V bw ) where: (67) nc Index Q Vhc = sum of all ﬂuids that are hydrocarbons Vwf = sum of all ﬂuids that are nonclay waters. realize that the square root of the conductivity is used internally by the nonlinear solver to improve numerical stability and speed. Once again. including irreducible water Vbw = sum of all clay-bound waters The Parameter Calculator (selected from the Options menu of the Session Manager) is a customized program used for computing parameters that are peculiar to ELANPlus processing. Equation (69) is the more general form of the equation. Linear Conductivity Equation The Linear Conductivity Equation in its theoretical form is Ct = nc Cw C bw ------. It is capable of computing all of the relevant Dual-Water parameters shown.× Vi × WCLP_i a a i=1 ∑ (68) which can be rewritten in ELANPlus terms as CUDC = ∑ i=1 nf Vi × CUDC_i + ------------------- a ∑ (V j × j=1 ns CUDC_ j ) (69) In Equation (68) the term Vi × WCLP_i represents the quantity of bound water associated with the various clay volumes defined in the model.

m.065 Symbol a Cbwi Cmini Cucli Cubw Cuwa Cuiw Cusf Cupar m n φ cli σ CUDC Description Constant. respectively. a in Archie equation Bound-water conductivity for clay i Conductivity of nonclay component i Conductivity of clay i Undisturbed-zone bound-water conductivity Used only when Clay = DRY Conductivity of undisturbed-zone free water Conductivity of undisturbed-zone irreducible water Conductivity of undisturbed-zone special ﬂuid Conductivity of undisturbed-zone ﬂuid contributing parallel conductivity Cementation exponent Saturation exponent Pure wet clay porosity of clay i Uncertainty of the CUDC curve data → See Table 24. Table 26 Linear Conductivity Parameters Name A CBWA_clai CUDC_i CUDC_clai CUDC_UBWA CUDC_UWAT CUDC_UIWA CUDC_USFL CUDC_PARA M N WCLP_clai CUDC_UNC Unit — mho/m mho/m mho/m mho/m mho/m mho/m mho/m mho/m — — p. are both 2. The derivation is presented below. mho/m † Index Q Default 1.0 Absent Absent Absent Absent Absent Absent Absent Absent 2. Default Values Used for Clay. The Linear Conductivity equation is an approximation of the Dual Water equation.ToC Table 26 shows the parameters used in the linear conductivity equation. Start with the Dual Water equation and assume that the cementation factor. on page 87. 2 Replace any U or u with an X or x. ELANPlus Theory 93 .0. and the saturation exponent.u. Table 26 Notes: 1 All input data are at downhole conditions.0 † 0. n.0 2. for the flushed-zone equation.

× V w × V bw + ----------------------------a a a C w + C bw – 2 C w × C bw + ----------------------------------------------------------------a Neglecting the last term results in (73) ⇒ or 2 1 C t = -.× ( C w × V w + C bw × V bw ) a (74) ⇒ Ct = Cw C bw ------.ToC Index S wb 1 m n S wt – S wb C t = -. It is equivalent to the Dual Water equation. or if C w + C bw C w × C bw ≈ ------------------------2 Relation (76) is satisfied when C (76) w ≈ C bw .( V w + V bw ) × ( C w × V w + C bw × V bw ) a 2 2 C w × V w ( C w + C bw ) × V w × V bw C bw × V bw C t = ---------------------. provided the formation is totally clean or 100% bound water.φ t S wt ------------------------.× V bw a a (75) The last equation is the Linear Conductivity equation used in ELANPlus processing.+ 2 ----------------------------. C w + C bw ---------S wt S wt a ⇒ 1 C t = -.+ ----------------------------a a a (70) Q (71) ⇒ (72) The term ( 2 ⁄ a ) × C × C w bw × V w × V bw is added to and subtracted from both sides to get ⇒ 2 2 C w × C bw C w × Vw C bw × V bw C t = ---------------------.+ --------------------------------------------------------------.× V w + ---------. 94 ELANPlus Theory .

on page 87. Table 27 Indonesian and Nigerian Conductivity Equation Parameters Name A CBWA_clai CUDC_clai CUDC_UWAT CUDC_UIWA CUDC_USFL M MC2 EVCL MVCL N WCLP_clai CUDC_UNC Unit — mho/m mho/m mho/m mho/m mho/m — — — — — p.u.0 † 0.0 0.0 Absent Absent Absent Absent Absent 2.0 0.065 Symbol a Cbwi Cucli Cuwa Cuiw Cusf m mc2 evcl mvcl n φ cli σ CUDC Description Constant. mho/m † Default 1.φ e a n --0. Index Q Ct = ( evcl – mvcl V cl ) C uwa C ucl V cl + -----------------. The Indonesian equation.0.0 and MVCL = 0.5 2.4 and MVCL = 0.0 1. a in Archie equation Bound-water conductivity for clay i Conductivity of clay i Conductivity of undisturbed-zone formation water Conductivity of undisturbed-zone irreducible water Conductivity of undisturbed-zone special ﬂuid Cementation exponent Porosity correction for cementation factor Exponent of Vcl in saturation equation Vcl multiplier for exponent of Vcl Saturation exponent Pure wet clay porosity of clay i Uncertainty of the CUDC curve data → See Table 24. The Nigerian equation uses EVCL = 1.5.ToC Indonesian and Nigerian Conductivity Equations The theoretical form of the Indonesian and Nigerian equations is identical. the default. Default Values Used for Clay.5 ( m + ( mc2 ⁄ φ ) ) V uwa 2 e --------------φ (77) e See Table 27 for the parameters used in the equation. uses EVCL = 1. ELANPlus Theory 95 . They differ only in the numerical values used for the EVCL and MVCL parameters.

the water and clay parameters require an x rather than a u. and resistivity to porosity. clay content and clay resisitivity.0.5 p.ToC Table 27 Notes: 1 All input data are at downhole conditions. Observe that the equation blows up when Vcl is 100%. 2 Set EVCL = 1.4 and 0. Vuwa.u.0 and 0.= -----. so that the equation contains a zero-dividedby-zero term. and N with EXPO for the flushed-zone equation. Experience has shown that it is a good idea to write a constraint to force the volume of water to be greater than about 0. Enquiring minds who refer to the original Simandoux paper of 19631 (and can read French) will ﬁnd that the paper is in fact a report on laboratory experiments to measure the complex dialectric constant at 1MHz of material samples that relate the dialectric constants and losses to water saturations. for example.5. when using the Indonesian or Nigerian equation.0 for Nigerian equation. respectively. 4 Replace any U or u with an X or x. Vxwa rather than Cuwa. In addition. by the following equations: K – C∗ 2 ζε 1 + ε′ = ζε 1 + εδ + ASw + BSw = Kζε 1 ------------------------------------------------2 ( K – C∗ ) 2 + ( G∗ ⁄ ω ) and G∗ ⁄ ω 1 2 ε″ = -.+ ------R R m R sh (EQ 3) 96 ELANPlus Theory . 3 Set MVCL = 0. Cxwa.4 for Nigerian equation. except that the water saturation exponent parameter is expo rather than n. Simandoux Conductivity Equation The actual form and derivation of the “Simandoux”equation as quoted and used in ELAN has a long and tortuous history. Default values for EVCL and MVCL are 1. To use the Nigerian equation you must manually change them to 1. but for water ﬁlled formations only. because water and effective porosity will be zero.( ASw + BSw ) = Kζε 1 ------------------------------------------------2 µ ( K – C∗ ) 2 + ( G∗ ⁄ ω ) Index Q (EQ 1) (EQ 2) and 1 1 p -. respectively. The flushed-zone Indonesian Conductivity equation is the same for an undisturbed zone.

+ -------m Rsh Rt aRw ( 1 – V ) sh m n (EQ 4) ELANPlus Theory 97 .= ( 1 – Vsh ) ---------------------------------. This gives: φ e Sw 1 Vsh ----. saturation models that are variations of a laminated model are termed “Simandoux”equations. describing the ratio between the active capacity of the apparatus walls and that of the sample = (K/ε1)/C0 C0= Active capacity of apparatus cell. ω = Angular frequency of the current 2πf µ = Proportionality of the coefﬁcient between ε’and ε” K= Capacity of the apparatus insulating walls C*= Apparent capacity of the cell-sample combination G*= Apparent conductance of the cell-sample combination A= Constant B= Constant p= Clay content of the sample R= Radius of apparatus external walls in the case of a cylindrical cell Rm= Resistivity of the equivalent clean formation Rsh= Clay particle resistance Sw= Water saturation Index Q It may be seen from the form that the above equation is strictly valid for laminated layers of clean sand and shale only.ToC Where: ε1 = Dialectric constant of apparatus walls ε’ = Real dialectric constant of the sample ε” = Dialectric losses of the sample δ = Thickness of the ionic double layer ζ = Dimensionless coefﬁcient.For this reason many. in fact most. The actual form of the equation in ELANPlus is based on the same concept as Simandoux of laminated sand-shale layers but originally derived from an equvalent parallel resisitor model.

with no reference to Simandoux.4. Combining equations 6 and 7 and using m. However.Sw m Rt Rsh aRw ( 1 – V sh ) And then for the non-laminar behaviour of real clays: (EQ 5) n m c φ e Sw Vsh 1 ----. the 1972 Log Interpretation Principles book uses the standard R0=aRw/φm to obtain: R clay R clay ( V sh = V silt + V cl ) → ( I Silt = V silt ⁄ V Sh ) → R sh = ------------------------.4 and 2.= ----------------------------x ( 1 – V silt ⁄ V sh ) x ( 1 – V silt ) (EQ 7) where x is empircally found to range between 1.+ ---------------------------------------------) Sw (x – c c m–1 Rt R cl ( V cl + V silt ) aRw ( 1 – ( V cl + V silt ) ) (EQ 8) 98 ELANPlus Theory .ToC Index This equation was ﬁrst modiﬁed for a reduced effect in hydrocarbon bearing formations: Q n m φ e Sw ˙ Vsh 1 ----.= ------------------------------------------. the 1972 Schlumberger Log Interpretation Principles book directly references the original Simandoux paper as the basis of the 1972 equaiton. and a instead of 2.+ ---------.2 and 1 : n m x φ e Sw V cl 1 ----.Sw m–1 c Rt Rsh aRw ( 1 – V sh ) (EQ 6) This equation was ﬁrst published in the 1972 Schlumberger Log Interpretation Principles2 book with the assumption of m=n=2.= --------------------------------------------------------------. which means it has a form of Phi x Sw plus linear Vclay. 1972. In his 1985 review of saturation equations Paul Worthington3 classiﬁes the original Simandoux equation as a “Type 1”.= ( 1 – Vsh ) ---------------------------------. whereas the above equation is classiﬁed as a “Type 2” where Sw is raised to a power and Vclay contains an Sw term. n. depending on clay distribution type.+ -------.He attributes this equation to Schlumberger. and Vsilt is the silt index or volume. and also the paper by Poupon et al4 in 1967 as the development of the model. Considering that Shale is a mixture of clay and silt.

-------------. The usual value assumed for mc2 is 0. With the x = ‘ersh’ and the c = ‘swshe+1’in ELANPlus terminology. three further assumptions were made : • 1) The difference between the exponent of (m-1) and 1.ToC ‘x’ and ‘c’ were usually taken equal to 2 for practical reasons: it allows reduction of the equation to a quadratic form that may be solved using a slide rule or simpe calculator.0 for shale term in the ﬁrst denominator is not signiﬁcant enough to consider for shaley sand. not unity. and with conductivity replacing resistivity. a in Archie equation Bound-water conductivity for clay i Conductivity of clay i (78) Conductivity of undisturbed-zone formation water Conductivity of undisturbed-zone irreducible water Conductivity of undisturbed-zone special ﬂuid Cementation exponent ELANPlus Theory 99 . the Simandoux Conductivity Equation is written: n -2 ( m + ( mc2 ⁄ φ e ) ) V uwa n ersh V uma C ucl V cl -------------.0 Absent Absent Absent Absent Absent 2.0. This produces the form of the equation as implemeted.+ -------------.19.-----------------------------------------------------------------------a ( swshe + 1 ) ( ersh – swshe – 1 ) 1 – ( V cl + V silt ) ( V cl + V silt ) See Table 28 for the parameters used in the equation.0 Symbol a Cbwi Cucli Cuwa Cuiw Cusf m Description Constant. 2) The Sw in the second term should be to the power of n/2. φe C uwa φ e φe C t = -------------------------------------------------------------------------------. Table 28 Simandoux Conductivity Equation Parameters Name A CBWA_clai CUDC_clai CUDC_UWAT CUDC_UIWA CUDC_USFL M Unit — mho/m mho/m mho/m mho/m mho/m — Default 1. and therefore (m-1) is assumed 1. Index Q • • 3) ‘m’ may vary with porosity as per the Shell formula.

1963. and that of swshe as 0=>1.F.5.5 2.19 .4. The ELANPlus default values for ersh and swshe are 1. In tight formations for which this was developped (actually very low prosity limestones!).0 0. pp 193-215 2) Schlumberger Log Interpretation Principles/Applications.0 and 0.0 1. mho/m † Index Q 0..0. The expected range for ersh was given above as 1.0.4=>2. which correspond to an ‘x’of 1. to determine the applicability of the equation outside the strict model of a laminated shaley sand. This essentially assumes that by default in ELANPlus the silt behaves in the same manner as clay in relation to the conductivity. and also the range of industry accepted values for the above exponents beyond those quoted. 2 Replace any U or u with an X or x.0 † 0.ToC Table 28 (Cont.) Simandoux Conductivity Equation Parameters MC2 ERSH SWSHE N WCLP_clai CUDC_UNC — — — — p. References: 1) Simandoux. Table 28 Notes: 1 All input data are at downhole conditions. Measures diélectriques en milieu poroux. The reader is refered to the refernces below and other referecnes in the literature. ERSH with ERSHO.815 100 ELANPlus Theory . 1989. Default Values Used for Clay. the value is usually taken as 0.0 and a ‘c’of 1. The default value of mc2 is 0. pp 8-14. such as the SPWLA Shaly Sand Reprint.. and N with EXPXO for the flushed-zone equation.u. on page 87. Revue de l’I.5. P.P.065 mc2 ersh swshe n φ cli σ CUDC Porosity correction for cementation factor Exponent to compute Cush from Cucl Simandoux shale effect Saturation exponent Pure wet clay porosity of clay i Uncertainty of the CUDC curve data → See Table 24.

. J. A.. Strecker. Index Q ELANPlus Theory 101 . I. The Log Analyst 26(1) 23-40.. P. 4) Poupon.ToC 3) Worthington. 1985. SPWLA Symposium. A review of Log Interpretation Methods used in the Niger Delta.. 1967. and Gartner. The evolution of shaly-sand concepts in reservoir evaluation. F.

ToC Index Q 102 ELANPlus Theory .

. The ELANPlus Solution Method The ELANPlus program solves the inverse problem by creating the incoherence function and standard deviation: 1 ( RHOB_REC – RHOB ) × RHOB_UNC_WM 2 incoherence = -.+ . . For a given situation the correct uncertainties often require a subjective decision by the user. Actually. there may be more than one mathematically valid answer. but without some knowledge of uncertainties you will have a difﬁcult time reaching a believable answer. 2 RHOB_UNC × Largest Weight (79) standard deviation = sqrt [ 2.0 × incoherence ⁄ ( num of tools ) ] × Largest Weight (80) where: RHOB = density input curve (bound to RHOB equation) NPHI = neutron porosity input curve (bound to NPHI equation) xxxx_REC = xxxx curve.ToC Index Q Chapter 5 Uncertainties Uncertainties are a difﬁcult concept for many users. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------. reconstructed from output formation components ELANPlus Theory 103 . .

Theoretically. the uncertainty of QUAR is dependent on the response of the various tools to quartz and to the uncertainties of the various tools. The program selects as its solution the volumes that minimize Equation (80). and model uncertainty. Either uncertainty parameters or uncertainty data channels (or both) can be used to put uncertainties into the ELANPlus program. solution uncertainties are made up of two parts: tool uncertainty. 104 ELANPlus Theory . quantifying the uncertainty of a saturation model for induction versus a porosity model for RHOB is quite difﬁcult. the uncertainties can be computed and used for quality control before the volumes are actually computed. However. Uncertainties resulting from counting statistics and rough borehole can be quantiﬁed through modelling and laboratory experiments. aside from a zonable weight multiplier. Because the volume uncertainties are independent of the volumes. but those channels may not be appropriate for ELANPlus processing without rescaling. There is one term in the summation for each equation used in the Solve process. Index Q Balanced Uncertainties Calculating solution uncertainties is difﬁcult. Quality Control. but the density log is inﬂuenced by counting statistics and rough borehole. Tool uncertainty can be illustrated with the induction and density tools. The absolute accuracy of the induction log is excellent (in the proper fresh mud environment). but not to the actual volume of quartz being computed. In other words. The environmental correction programs have uncertainty channels as output. Uncertainties in this discussion relate speciﬁcally to the tool uncertainties. Uncertainties do not include the volume of the mineral. see the Quality Control of the Results section in Chapter 8.ToC xxxx_UNC = uncertainty of the xxxx curve RHOB_UNC_WM = Weight Multiplier Largest Weight = Maximum Weight of all weights encountered For more information on Standard Deviation. the user cannot adjust channel input (short of exiting the ELANPlus program and functioning the channels). The fact that the volume uncertainties do not depend on the absolute value of the volume means that balanced uncertainties can be created. In addition.

For linear equations. The maximum would be the density of dolomite.027 100.5 p.).05 RHOB_UNC = -------------------------. a trace amount of pyrite). balanced uncertainties result in a model with the minimum resolution number for a given com- 105 ELANPlus Theory . the balanced uncertainty value can be determined easily by the following steps: 1 Assign an uncertainty value to the Summation of Volumes equation (VOLS_UNC). The volume summation equation has a range of 0 to 1.0 (100 p. a technique to scale the broad variety of input data so that they are weighted equally in the ﬁnal answer.0 – 0. which is about 1.015 (1.× 1. For a quartz-calcite-dolomite model.u. the minimum for the density tool would be the density of the water in the pore space (RHOB_XWAT).× VOLS_UNC MAX vols – MIN vols For the preceding density equation and quartz-calcite-dolomite model (expressing the summation of volumes in p. and so on) and take on the responsibility of choosing the correct uncertainties for a given situation. 3 The uncertainty value that leads to a mathematically balanced set of equations can be determined by MAX tool – MIN tool Balanced Uncertainty = ----------------------------------------------. First. What is important is its value relative to the others. The suggested approach is to start with balanced uncertainties. the default uncertainty is 0.ToC Finally. If the mineral exists only in trace quantities (for example. That means that each tool in the model affects the resultant volumes equally.5 ≈ 0. Remember that the absolute uncertainty value is not important. Thus.85 – 1.85. that would be 2. NPHI_UNC.u. Balanced uncertainties are useful for two reasons. in effect. RHOB_DOLO = 2. 2 Determine the range for all the other equations from the minimum and maximum response parameters of the major minerals and ﬂuids in the model.). opening additional data channels increases the program execution time.u. most log analysts use the uncertainty parameters (RHOB_UNC. Those values reflect the values from 100% porosity to 100% dolomite.05. do not use it for the maximum or minimum value.).0 (82) (81) Index Q Using balanced uncertainties is.

0 CUDC_UNC = -----------------------------------------------------. He gives these tools a multiplier value of 1. Consider the following scenario.5 100. Your job is to evaluate those results and modify the uncertainties to improve the ﬁnal result.0 means that the tool will inﬂuence the answer as strongly as the Volume Summation tool. More speciﬁcally. Therefore. and the log analyst wants the density and neutron tools to determine the porosity. volumes. The SP also is special because the input is multiplied by porosity. for the deep conductivity equation (CUDC) would be CUDC_UWAT – 0.× 1. it has a multiplier value of 0. if the borehole was in good shape.50. He gives UCUDC a multiplier value of 0. He gives UCXDC a multiplier value of 0. Index Q Conductivity. Within the ELANPlus system the square root of conductivity is used for all water saturation equations.0 with a similar expression for the ﬂushed-zone equation.50 to account for the increased statistics present when two tools are multiplied together.00 – 0. Second.ToC bination of tools.75 so that it does not affect the estimation of porosity as much as the density-neutron. An understanding of how a tool can affect the results and a knowledge of tool physics is required to select the multiplier values. The SP measurement is most useful in areas of high porosity. Since the U tool is formed by multiplying the PEF and RHOB measurements. MAXtool – MINtool becomes (Qv_shale – 0)(φ). ELANPlus uncertainties have incorporated within their computation an additional term.0. all the tools will equally affect the results when you run the ELANPlus program.3 is used in the default computation. therefore a value of φ = 0. a multiplier that is based on log analyst experience. Therefore. and endpoints. SP The conductivity equation is special. (83) Weight Multipliers Before use. because he has selected the SXO > SW constraint and if a conﬂict between CUDC and CXDC arose. A multiplier value of 1. the log analyst has more conﬁdence in CUDC. the expression MAXtool – MINtool becomes MAX tool – MIN tool. The ELANPlus program uses the following algorithm: 106 ELANPlus Theory .

2 Convert to internal representation (units). and Table 31 show the basis for the default uncertainties used in the ELANPlus program. They are particularly convenient to use when the input uncertainties are obtained from uncertainty curves. Uncertainty is the inverse of a weighting factor.0. if necessary. and the ELANPlus solution method. each weight is multiplied by the user-zonable parameter xxxx_WM to produce the weight actually used by the solver. Using laboratory-based and theory-based uncertainties is in fact a conceptually cleaner way to handle uncertainties. and when all weights have been calculated. you must be very familiar with the meaning of the laboratory uncertainties. To use that method. Note: the MIN/MAX values used are the full expected range of the measurement. Weight multipliers allow them to modify the theoretical uncertainty values to produce balanced results. the program normalizes the largest weight to a value of 1. 3 Limit the value (to avoid dividing by zero). the eigenvalues and principle components. Default Uncertainties Table 29. not just what is seen on the log. the program keeps track of the largest weight encountered.ToC 1 Take the xxxx_UNC value supplied by the user or a default table. Truthfully. Default weight multipliers are based on experience in using ELANPlus processing to solve various problems. 4 Invert the uncertainty to produce a weighting factor.0 ⁄ xxxx_UNC Weight = -------------------------------------. Table 30. one can never completely turn the tool off with uncer- ELANPlus Theory 107 . Finally. 1. If a log value is used as a reference range for one of the tools. In the process.× xxxx_WM Largest Weight (84) Index Q Weight multipliers allow modiﬁcation of balanced uncertainties in a consistent way without any computations. A small weight multiplier applied to the balanced uncertainty means that the equation is not being weighted as heavily as an equation with a larger multiplier. some users would rather work with laboratory-established values for tool uncertainties. however. Also. Dividing the multiplier by four is close to having the tool ignored in the solution. then all tools must be rescaled appropriately.

It also shows the values used to derive the uncertainties.ToC tainties.0 400.0 20.0 10.0 1.0 1.500 0.75 0. then the MAX value used in the uncertainty computation should be at least twice the observed log value in shales.0 1.0 50.67 0.0 0.500 Weight Multiplier 0.0* 1.3 1. GR and SDPT values have been added to the table as a guide.250 37. Table 29 Linear Uncertainties Equation Uncertainty CUDC_UNC CXDC_UNC DT_UNC EATT_UNC ENPA_UNC GR_UNC* NPHI_UNC PHIT_UNC RHOB_UNC SIGM_UNC TPL_UNC U_UNC VELC_UNC VOLS_UNC MIN 0.0 100. Linear Uncertainties.027 0.2 0.0 0.600 0.5 1.0 43.0 0. For the gamma ray. contains the default uncertainties and weight multipliers for the ELANPlus linear equations.5 1.0 0.0 0.015 6.600 0.0 189.0 108 ELANPlus Theory .7 1.065 0.0* 0.0 0.8 50.4 –12.500 1.015 0.0 15.0 MAX 20.065 2.4 20.0 2.0 7. The default within the ELANPlus program is Absent because these logs have such a high degree of variability. Index Q Uncertainty Tables Table 29.0 Balanced Uncertainty 0.0 1.0 0. if an assumption is made that there is seldom more than 50% clay in shales.0 0.000* 0. the equation must be removed from the model (Solve process). To be totally out of the solution.5 0.0 2500.015 0.225 0.5 0.5 0.0 0.

0* 0. ELANPlus Theory 109 . Nonlinear Uncertainties.3 9.036 0. Table 31.0 0.0 0.0 20.015 0.0 0.0 0.0 20.065 0.0 × 0. It also shows the values used to derive the uncertainties.5 1.0 1. contains the default uncertainties and weight multipliers for the ELANPlus nonlinear equations.0 1. Table 30 Nonlinear Uncertainties Equation Uncertainty BMK_UNC CUDC_xxx_UNC CXDC_xxx_UNC ENPU_UNC NPHU_UNC QVSP_UNC SDPT_UNC* EQHY_UNC MIN 0.0 8. Unlike the other ELANPlus equations.0* 0.0 0.14* 0.0015 Weight Multiplier 0.67 0.ToC * GR uncertainty has no default value within the ELANPlus program because of high variability.1 Balanced Uncertainty 0.0 0.5 1.015 0.065 0. The values shown are only suggested as a starting point.0 1.0 1.0 * SDPT_N uncertainty has no default value within the ELANPlus program because of high variability.0 MAX 10. Geochemical Uncertainties.15 0.5 0. those used on elemental concentrations do not lend themselves to simple MIN/MAX calculations to determine the proper balanced uncertainties.0 0. The values shown are suggested only as a starting point. Index Q Table 30.

05 0.021 0.019 0.00256 0.0 1.0 1.125 0.016 0.0018 0.0515 0.5 0.020 0.0 1.0 1.065 0.010 0.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.002 Absent 0.0 1.ToC shows the default uncertainties and weight multipliers for the elemental equations.0 1.0 1.7 0.011 0.0028 0.0026 0.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1. Table 31 Geochemical Uncertainties Equation Uncertainty DWAL_UNC DWCA_UNC DWFE_UNC DWGD_UNC DWK_UNC DWMG_UNC DWSI_UNC DWSU_UNC DWTH_UNC DWTI_UNC DWU_UNC FCA_UNC FCHL_UNC FFE_UNC FGD_UNC FHY_UNC FK_UNC FSI_UNC FSUL_UNC FTI_UNC WWAL_UNC WWCA_UNC Balanced Uncertainty 0.0 1.028 0.0 1.031 0.0 1.01 Weight Multiplier 1.0 Index Q 110 ELANPlus Theory .010 0.

0 1.0 Index Q Carbonate-Clay Example The following carbonate-clay example illustrates how uncertainties affect the answer.0 1.0 1.ToC Table 31 (Cont.0145 0.) Geochemical Uncertainties Equation Uncertainty WWFE_UNC WWGD_UNC WWK_UNC WWMG_UNC WWSI_UNC WWSU_UNC WWTH_UNC WWTI_UNC WWU_UNC Balanced Uncertainty 0.047 0. The user set DT_UNC = 10 (4.64 0.00235 0. ELANPlus Theory 111 .45 0.0 1.4 times normal.019 0.0018 Absent Weight Multiplier 1. Figure 13 shows the result in the clay section where there was bad hole. The same effect could have been obtained by setting DT_WM = 4. The job was run without zoning. turning it off) in the carbonate section.0 1.4 and not changing the DT_UNC default.0 1.0016 0.0 1.0 1.

The same result would be obtained by setting DT_WM to 0.0 ROBT 2.ToC Index Q NPHT 4.44 of normal) to overcome the problem of invalid density-neutron data in the washed-out zone yields the results shown in Figure 14.0 UNPHI = 2.0 0 2.0 (0.0 UNPHI = 4.0 0 2.8 RHOB 2.016 UDT = 10.0 112 ELANPlus Theory .0 0 2.0 NPHI 4.8 RHOB 2.8 120 120 DTT 60 DT 60 URHOB = 0.0 ROBT 2.0 NPHI 4.0 Figure 14 Carbonate-Clay Example with DT_UNC = 1.0 Figure 13 Carbonate-Clay Example with DT_UNC = 10 Zoning DT_UNC to 1.44 and not changing the DT_UNC default value.0 0 2. NPHT 4.48 UDT = 1.8 120 120 DTT 60 DT 60 URHOB = 0.

bad hole). It is written as follows: Vi ≥ 0. and the sum of all volumes not being greater than 1. The positive volume constraint is always used by the program.ToC Index Q Chapter 6 Constraints Constraints are absolute minimum and/or maximum limits on ELANPlus formation component volumes. constraints are absolute limits. They are based on physical limits. Constraints typically are used for imposing geological or petrophysical information. which are weighted by uncertainties. such as a volume not having a negative value. and constructing minimum clay indicators. Constraints fall into three categories: 1 Internal constraints 2 Predefined constraints 3 User-defined constraints Internal Constraints Internal constraints are imposed by the program on the optimized solution and cannot be changed by the user.0 (85) ELANPlus Theory 113 . Unlike constant tools. limiting anomalous tool response (for example.

0 (85-1a) i=1 nfc ∑ Vi ≥ 1. Predeﬁned Inequality Constraints Predeﬁned constraints are commonly used constraints available in the ELANPlus program. two more internal constraints are used whenever a model contains both undisturbed-zone and ﬂushed-zone ﬂuid volumes. The effect of the constraint pair is that the sum of volumes must be exactly equal to 1.ToC Another constraint always used by the program is the Summation of Volumes constraint.0: Index Q nfc ∑ Vi ≤ 1.0 (85-1b) i=1 where nfc = number of formation components in the model.0. Note that the predeﬁned constraints are not automatic but are made available at the user’s discretion. the other limiting the sum to be greater than or equal to 1. excluding any undisturbed-zone ﬂuids. these constraints ensure that the sum of the ﬂuid volumes in the ﬂushed zone is equal to the sum of the ﬂuid volumes in the undisturbed zone. Used together. nxf ∑ Vi – ∑ V j ≤ 0. one limiting the sum of volumes to be less than or equal to 1. a pair of inequality constraints is used to establish an equality.0.0 j=1 nuf nuf (85-2a) i=1 nxf ∑ Vi – ∑ V j ≥ 0. Finally.0 j=1 (85-2b) i=1 As with the sum of volumes constraints. It is actually implemented as a pair of constraints. There are seven such constraints: Maximum Porosity Constraint 114 ELANPlus Theory .

Irreducible Water Constraint The Irreducible Water Constraint limits the sum of all waters in the undisturbed zone to be greater than or equal to the minimum of either the zonable parameter BVIRR or the input curve PHIT. Set PHIMAX to the maximum porosity observed in the good hole.ToC Index Irreducible Water Constraint Sonic Clay Volume Constraint Conductivity Constraint for Water-Based Muds ( S Q xo ≥ S w ) Conductivity Constraint for Oil-Based Muds ( S ≤ S ) xo w xo ≥ S w ) Sxo Constraint for Oil-Based Muds ( S ≤ S ) xo w Maximum Porosity Constraint The maximum Porosity Constraint limits the sum of the ﬂushed-zone ﬂuid volumes to be less than or equal to the zonable parameter PHIMAX. The same constraint is applied to the ﬂushed zone. which might be caused by bad hole. perhaps) also helps the nonlinear solver to be more stable and run faster. PHIT ) where: UWAT = undisturbed-zone water UIWA = undisturbed-zone irreducible water USFL = undisturbed-zone special fluid if the global parameter Special Fluids is set to Water or Immovable Water XWAT = ﬂushed-zone water (86-1a) (86-1b) ELANPlus Theory 115 .5. UWAT + UIWA + USFL ≥ minimum ( BVIRR. PHIT ) XWAT + XIWA + XSFL ≥ minimum ( BVIRR. Setting PHIMAX to less than 1. Sxo Constraint for Water-Based Muds ( S nxf ∑ Vi ≤ PHIMAX (86) i=1 The main application of the Maximum Porosity Constraint is to control excess porosity.0 (0.

Observe the crossplot of Vmatrix versus Umatrix in Figure 15. The constraint has very useful applications in distinguishing between clay and radioactive dolomite. The Irreducible Water Constraint is applied to prevent the computation of unrealistically low water saturations. and D = coefﬁcients computed from response parameters The concept of the Sonic Clay Limit Constraint relies on the fact that. Index Q ∑ VDCi ≤ A × U + B × VELC + C – D × PHIT i=1 where: VDCi = volume of dry clay for clay i nc (87) U = value of the volumetric photoelectric cross-section curve VELC = value of the sonic velocity curve A. the sonic velocity is sensitive to the amount of clay in the matrix. CGR. as can happen in low porosity or when the resistivity tool is spiking to high values. especially when a computed gamma ray. (gamma ray minus uranium) is unavailable. B. in a carbonate. C. 116 ELANPlus Theory .ToC XIWA = ﬂushed-zone irreducible water XSFL = ﬂushed-zone special ﬂuid if the global parameter Special Fluids is set to Water or Immovable Water BVIRR = value of the bulk volume irreducible zoned parameter PHIT = value of the curve bound to PHIT The PHIT limit is for very low porosity carbonates and will be active only when there is an input PHIT curve. Sonic Clay Volume Constraint The Sonic Clay Volume Limit Constraint limits the sum of all the clays to less than or equal to a clay volume that is based on a sonic matrix velocity (Vmatrix) versus matrix volumetric photoelectric cross-section (Umatrix) relationship.

0 U_CALC – U_DOLO b = – --------------------------------------------------------------------------- VELC_CALC – VELC_DOLO U_CALC × VELC_DOLO – U_DOLO × VELC_CALC c = --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------VELC_CALC – VELC_DOLO (88) The fraction of the matrix rock that is illite (F ILLI) is given by the ratio of the distance from the point (Umatrix. Vmatrix) to the limestone-dolomite line to the distance from the illite point (U_ILLI. a × U matrix + b × V matrix + c ILLI F ILLI = ------------.ToC 24 DOLOMITE CALCITE Index Q 22 Vmatrix 20 18 16 ILLITE 14 6 8 10 12 14 16 Umatrix Figure 15 Matrix velocity versus matrix photoelectric cross-section. VELC_ILLI) to the limestone-dolomite line. The equation of the line connecting the limestone and dolomite points is given by 0 = a × U matrix + b × V matrix + c where: a = 1.= --------------------------------------------------------------------------------a × U_ILLI + b × VELC_ILLI + c 1 – φt where: (89) ELANPlus Theory 117 .

= A × U matrix + B × V matrix + C 1 – φt Expanding the deﬁnitions of Umatrix and Vmatrix yields (90) U – φ t × U fluid VELC – φ t × SPORF ILLI ------------. 118 ELANPlus Theory .ToC ILLI = volume of illite (wet clay) φt = total porosity Index Q U – φ t × U fluid Umatrix = --------------------------------------1 – φt Vmatrix = -------------------------------------------------1 – φt Introduce the following deﬁnitions: VELC – φ t × SPORF DC ≡ a × U_ILLI + b × VELC_ILLI + c a A ≡ -------DC b B ≡ -------DC c C ≡ -------DC Then Equation (89) can be written (89-1a) (89-1b) (89-1c) (89-1d) ILLI ------------.= A × --------------------------------------- + B -------------------------------------------------. + C (91) 1 – φt 1 – φt 1 – φt Finally. multiply both sides by 1 − φt to get ILLI = A × U + B × VELC + C – φ t × ( A × U fluid + B × SPORF + C ) (92) The value computed for ILLI in Equation (92) is the value used as the upper limit for the sum of all dry clay volumes in the Sonic Clay Volume Constraint.

ToC In order to evaluate the Sonic Clay Volume Constraint. It is best explained by reviewing an example of effective porosity. Notice that ﬂushed-zone water spikes to a value less than that of the undisturbed-zone water. Conductivity Constraint for Water-Based Mud (Sxo ≥ Sw) The Conductivity Constraint for Water-Based Mud (Sxo Sw) can be confusing. No harm is done if it is used in shaly sands. undisturbed-zone water. The Sonic Clay Volume Constraint is normally used in carbonates. the illite wet clay parameters are converted to matrix values according to Equation (89). Table 32 Parameters and Tools Required by the Sonic Clay Volume Constraint Parameters U_CALC U_DOLO U_ILLI U_XBWA U_XWAT VELC_CALC VELC_DOLO VELC_ILLI PHIT_ILLI SPORF WCLP_ILLI *PHIT is required input! Index Q Tools U VELC PHIT* If the global parameter Clay is set to Wet. the program requires values for all of the parameters and tools in Table 32. and ﬂushed-zone water in a clean formation (Figure 16). because the limiting value is generally greater than the volume of clay computed by the ELANPlus program. ELANPlus Theory 119 .

Otherwise.0 0. For water-based muds. MSFL) are considered to be less accurate than the undisturbed-zone conductivity (as in rough hole or unusual mudcake conditions) and (b) you wish to force the Sxo ≥ Sw condition. the water saturation of the ﬂushed zone is expected to be greater than or equal to the undisturbed-zone-water saturation. using only conductivity data. the Conductivity Constraint for Water-Based Mud relies exclusively on the deep conductivity (CUDC) for the limit.0 Figure 16 Porosity contents in a clean zone with no constraints applied The Conductivity Constraint for Water-Based Mud is designed to limit the volume of water computed in the ﬂushed zone by the volume of water computed in the undisturbed zone. Conceptually.0 Flushed-zone water volume Effective porosity 0. use the Sxo Constraint for Water-Based Mud.25 0.25 0. the constraint can be written as Xwater ≥ Uwater + PHI_OFFSET where: (93) 120 ELANPlus Theory .ToC Index Q Undisturbed-zone water volume 0. Therefore.25 0. As indicated by its name. the invading ﬂuid is water. Use the Conductivity Constraint for Water-Based Mud when (a) the ﬂushedzone tools (EPT. assuming that the undisturbed-zone water is correct.

ELANPlus Theory 121 .× UWAT (95) a 2 Solve for the undisturbed-zone water. and expand Xwater to a formal summation.ToC Xwater = the sum of all ﬂushed-zone water volumes Uwater = the sum of all undisturbed-zone water volumes PHI_OFFSET = a small offset to Uwater The form in which it is implemented can be derived as follows: 1 Start with the linear deep conductivity response equation.× V j a (94) j=1 where: ns = number of solid formation components CUDC = value of the deep conductivity measurement a = the Archie porosity factor Assuming that the effect of undisturbed-zone irreducible water and special fluid is negligible compared to undisturbed-zone water yields CUDC = ∑( i=1 ns CUDC_UWAT CUDC_i × Vi ) + -----------------------------------. Equation (93). CUDC – ∑( ns CUDC_i × Vi ) (96) i=1 UWAT = ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------CUDC_UWAT -----------------------------------a 3 Substitute the right hand side of Equation (96) for Uwater into the constraint. Index Q CUDC = ∑( i=1 ns nuf CUDC_i × Vi ) + ∑ CUDC_ j --------------------.

ns nxf CUDC_UWAT Vk – PHI_OFFSET × -----------------------------------. rearrange to isolate the conductivity measurement.+ ( CUDC_i × Vi ) ≥ CUDC (98) a k = 1 i=1 ∑ ∑ Equation (98) is the form in which the constraint exists in the program. Figure 17 allows you to compare the results of applying the Conductivity Constraint for Water-Based Mud with PHI_OFFSET = -0.+ PHI_OFFSET CUDC_UWAT -----------------------------------a ∑( ns Index CUDC_i × Vi ) (97) Q 4 Finally.ToC nxf CUDC – k=1 i=1 ∑ Vk ≥ ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------.02 to the data from Figure 16. The conductivity from the solids summation term ns ∑i = 1 ( CUDC_i × Vi ) usually is exclusively from clays. 122 ELANPlus Theory . they will be included. If other conductive rocks or minerals are present.

The Sxo Constraint for Water-Based Mud limits the volume of water in the ﬂushed zone to greater than or equal to the volume of undisturbed water. As in the water-based constraint. The only difference is that the direction of the inequality is reversed. (99) ELANPlus Theory 123 .0 Flushed-zone water volume Effective porosity 0. because it better reﬂects standard constraints.0 UWAT + PHI_OFFSET 0.ToC Index Q undisturbed-zone water volume 0. Therefore.25 0.25 0. the water saturation of the ﬂushed zone is expected to be less than or equal to the undisturbed zone. Xwater ≤ Uwater + PHI_OFFSET Sxo Constraint for Water-Based Mud (Sxo ≥ Sw) The Sxo Constraint for Water-Based Mud is more commonly used than the Conductivity Constraint for Water-Based Mud.0 Figure 17 Porosity contents in a clean zone with the Conductivity Constraint for Water-Based Mud applied Conductivity Constraint for Oil-Based Mud (Sxo ≤ Sw) When oil-based mud is used. the limit is based on deep-reading conductivity. on the basis of the normal response equations.25 0. the invading ﬂuid is a hydrocarbon. The derivation of the constraint is the same as for the water-based constraint.25 0.0 0.

User-deﬁned constraints are a very powerful and ﬂexible means of controlling volumetric results. see the ELANPlus User’s Guide. User-Deﬁned Constraints User-deﬁned constraints are created by the user to constrain volume solutions as a function of the input tools. In addition to program variables.ToC The Sxo Constraint differs from the Conductivity Constraint in that a single tool does not determine the undisturbed water used to constrain the ﬂushedzone water. and a combination of tools and constants. Any curve available in the current data focus and any user-accessible variable known to the ELANPlus application can be used. 124 ELANPlus Theory . you can create and use as many convenience and intermediate variables as you desire. Its application is similar to the Conductivity Constraint. available on line from the Help menu in the Single Well mode of the ELANPlus program. This constraint differs from the Conductivity Constraint for Oil-Based Mud in that a single tool does not determine the undisturbed water used to constrain the ﬂushed-zone water. but it can be applied more generally. The constraints are deﬁned in a syntax much like that of the C programming language. Its application is similar to the Conductivity Constraint but it can be applied more generally. Index Q Sxo Constraint for Oil-Based Mud (Sxo ≤ Sw) The Sxo Constraint for Water-Based Mud limits the volume of water in the ﬂushed zone to less than or equal to the volume of undisturbed water on the basis of the normal response equations. The syntax includes the most common arithmetic operators and logical comparisons. the constants. For details on syntax and user-deﬁned constraints.

each potentially with different formation components. the Session Editor might look like Figure 18.ToC Index Q Chapter 7 Model Combination An ELANPlus model can never solve for more formation components than the number of response equations (including any internal response equations) in the model. but they can. optimizing each model for a particular geology or even a speciﬁc formation. it might seem that wells with widely varied geology cannot be evaluated. the problem could not be solved. If the data did not match the prebuilt models. and Bad_Hole. response equations. and constraints. Methods for Generating Combined Answer Sets To combine results of different processes (models) you must ﬁrst create a Combine process and associated dependencies. For example. if three models. ELANPlus Theory 125 . Previous programs have handled the complex lithology problem with internally deﬁned geological models. Carbonate. Only the ELANPlus program can explicitly deﬁne and process multiple models in a single pass. Shaly_Sand. Since the number of logging measurements available from any given well is often small. The results from the individual models can then be combined in a variety of ways. The models can be combined after individual ﬁne tuning or while the Solve Processes are being executed. using the Session Editor. The volumes for each model are solved independently. were being combined. parameter values.

click on the Combine process icon. then select the Process option from the Edit menu. or modiﬁed. The results of probability combination depend on whether the probability maximum or probability average method is used. Zone boundaries can be added.ToC Index Shaly_Sand S1 Carbonate S2 Bad_Hole S3 Q Combine C1 Figure 18 Three Solve processes being combined. To do that. a combination method is chosen. deleted. there are ﬁve possibilities for the combination method: Individual model External maximum External average Internal maximum Internal average 126 ELANPlus Theory . It contains a list of zones (maybe only one zone at the start) and zone boundaries. Probabilities can be determined from an external source or computed internally. Models can be combined by two main methods: individual models and probabilities. the Combine Editor can be activated. The Combine Editor is the means by which the order and method of model combination are controlled. The zone boundaries in the Combine Editor are different from the boundaries used by the zoned parameter editor. Once a Combine process exists. For each zone. All together.

At each zone boundary there is an instantaneous change from the volumes computed by one model to those computed by the next model in the list. Model Probabilities Sometimes. in nature. Zone 4. Using individual models. External Probabilities The ELANPlus program allows computation of model probabilities by an external source. Shaly_Sand. assigned to a model to indicate its suitability according to volumetric results and/or curve data. Whatever the source of the probabilities. If the probability value of any model lies outside the range 0. A model probability is a value between 0. At each data level. Bad_Hole. Zone 3.0 indicates suitability. Shaly_Sand.ToC Only one method can be chosen for each zone. For example.0 to 1. a value of 1. but any combination of methods can be used in different zones. Shaly_Sand. inclusive. for the session depicted in Figure 18. Carbonate. The individual model method provides direct control of the appearance of the combined results. it is clipped. abruptly alternating environments make manually zoning and selecting models impossibly tedious.0. It reﬂects the fact that. abrupt facies changes are common.0 indicates that the model does not ﬁt.0 and 1. Index Q Individual Models When an individual model is selected as the combination method for a zone. A value of 0. some custom or proprietary code. PRB2 for probability of model 2. the model assigned to be model 1 takes on the probability value from the curve bound to PRB1. Zone 2. gradual transitions occur. The volumetric data can come from any model in the session for which results are available. The curve data can come from any available database curve. Zone 5. Model 2 takes on the probability value from the curve bound to PRB2 and others. and so on. Sometimes. the models might be combined as Zone 1. or even a previous run of the ELANPlus program. the results are from that model used exclusively for that zone. the curves are bound to PRB1 for probability of model 1. The source might be a facies identiﬁcation program. Model probabilities are well suited to either problem. Model combination then ELANPlus Theory 127 .0. assume that there are ﬁve zones.

model combination proceeds. Suppose that you wanted the Carbonate model of Figure 18 to have zero probability when the volume of calcite computed by that model is less than or equal to 40%. Once all probabilities are computed. The entry SOL.SOL2 . Good model probability expressions are something of an art but are well worth the effort.ToC proceeds as discussed in the Final Model Combination. any model that does not have a probability expression is assigned a probability of 0. Model Combination.2 indicates that the probability is to be applied to Solve Process number 2.40x + y 1.1.SOL2 indicates that the mineral volume used is the calcite volume from Solve Process number 2. The probability expression that you would enter in the Combine Editor would be prob(SOL.6 are the coefﬁcients that were computed from the system of equations (100). CALC_VOL. For more information see the Final Model Combination. The entries can be obtained from an ASCII ﬁle or typed in. Note that the Carbonate model in Figure 18 is marked S2. Using Probabilities section in Chapter 7.0 = 0. particularly when the formation is highly laminated. RHOB_UNC_WM = Weight Multiplier Largest Weight = Maximum Weight of all weights encountered Internal Probabilities Internal probabilities are computed from probability expressions entered in the Combination Probability Expression section of the Combine Editor. indicating the Solve Process number. Using Probabilities section. and have a probability of 1. 4. When internal probabilities are used.6) The keyword prob indicates the introduction of a probability expression.0*CALC_VOL. The 4.0. The values required for a probability expression required to impose those conditions can be computed from the system of equations 0. y = −1.0 = 0.0.65x + y (100) Index Q from which the values x = 4.2.0 and -1. Finally.0 when the volume of calcite exceeds 65%. 128 ELANPlus Theory .6 result.

0). Using Probabilities section in Chapter 7. DCAL_CH.5)/(2.2)/(0.1.ToC Bad Hole Probability Bad hole data (data corruption by enlarged or rough hole) is a common problem in log analysis.0. 1. eliminating tools that would respond poorly in bad hole. Because of the way the ﬁnal model combination is set up.0 when it reads 0. regardless of hole size. 0. Model Combination. The bad hole probability may then be computed as PCAL = (DCAL_CH . there exists a special bad hole probability. like the ELANPlus program. To allow for the problems caused by bad hole. the bad hole model takes precedence over all others.2) prob (BADHOLE.5 (inches) or less and the probability should be 1. PRUG. For more information see the Final Model Combination. Assume that the probability based on differential caliper should be zero when DCAL_CH reads 1. The parser provides many other useful functions as well. such as RHOB.1. often the weighting on one tool or another changes as a function of hole size. That works sometimes.5 or higher. and so on. Probability based on hole rugosity will be set to zero when HRUG_CH reads 0.5 .5) PRUG = (HRUG_CH . Since fewer tools are available. TPL.0. The desired result is to have the bad hole probability high if the hole is washed out (large DCAL_CH) or if the borehole wall is rough (high HRUG_CH). It is used to switch over to a speciﬁc model when certain conditions are met. and the probability will be 1. In programs using optimization solvers. In addition to probabilities for individual models.0)) where min and max are the minimum and maximum functions provided by the expressions parser. but in reality tools are seldom just a percentage bad. Many techniques have been developed to handle it.0 when it reads 2. Their measurements are usually good or bad (unrecoverable). assume a bad hole probability based on the hole rugosity curve.3 or higher. such as a linear transform that could have been used in place of the explicit arithmetic in the PCAL and PRUG expressions.3 . For example.2 or less. min(max(PCAL. bad hole models typically use a limited number of formation components as well. A bad hole model usually uses a subset of available logging measurements. HRUG_CH. and differential caliper curve. the ELANPlus application includes the concept of a bad hole model. Index Q ELANPlus Theory 129 .

and the model with the largest probability value is selected as the sole model to be used for the current data level. the individual model results are combined. Final Model Combination. it should always be assigned the ﬁrst position in the Combine Order. In general. Probability Maximum If the chosen combination method is external maximum or internal maximum.ToC For details on probability expression syntax. see the ELANPlus User’s Guide (by selecting from the Help menu from within the single-well part of the ELANPlus program). Let us consider the example shown in the session in Figure 18) . Carbonate (S2) and Bad_Hole (S3) feeding 130 ELANPlus Theory . It is an ordered list of the processes feeding into a combine process. using rules based on these: 1 Combination order 2 Whether Probability Maximum or Probability Average is selected 3 Bad hole probability Combination Order Index Q Part of the Combine Editor is dedicated to something called Combine Order. the primary geological model should be the last process in the Combine Order. the ﬁnal probability of a model is based on: • • Its original probability. Each process involved in the model combination is assigned a combination order number based on its position in the list. Using Probabilities Once the individual and bad hole probabilities have been computed (whether externally or internally). It is also used for resolving ties. There are three processes Shaly_Sand (S1). If a bad hole model exists. The order is used in the ﬁnal stage of the internal average and external average combination methods. If there is a tie between probabilities. the individual model probabilities are examined. Probability Average and the Bad Hole Model When either the external average or internal average method is selected. the primary geological model wins. Its position in the Combine Order list.

Index Q Shaly_Sand(S1) the main geological model is listed at the bottom of the list and Bad_Hole(S3) the badhole model is on the top. ELANPlus Theory 131 .ToC into the Combine process. The ﬁnal probability of the badhole model (ﬁrst in the list) is given by prob ( SOL3 ) = prob ( SOL3 ) 0 + prob ( BAD ) × ( 1 – prob ( SOL3 ) 0 ) where: prob(SOL3) = the new probability of model S3 prob(SOL3)0 = the original probability of model S3 prob(BAD) = the bad hole probability The following relationship between prob(3) and prob(BAD) results from Equation (101): prob ( SOL3 ) 0 . if prob ( BAD ) = 0.0 if prob ( BAD ) = 1.0 (102) (101) Remember that prob(BAD) = 0. Once the bad hole probability has been applied to the ﬁrst model.0 prob ( SOL3 ) = 1. The order in which these models are listed in the combine order is shown in the ﬁgure below. the remaining probabilities are readjusted as follows (again using the example in Figure 18).0 if no bad hole probability expression exists.

assume that before ﬁnal combination prob(1) = 1. It may seem backwards that the primary geological model is accorded only the leftovers of the secondary models.0. prob(2) = 1. It gets whatever remains after the models listed above it have removed their share of the probability.0 as a result of the cascade. When the ﬁnal combination is applied. If no probability expressions exist.0.0 × (1. all individual model probabilities are zero. their probabilities are zero or low most of the time.0 – prob(SOL2)) × (1. and prob(BAD) = 0.0 – prob(SOL3)) (1. At such point a specialized model takes over. the models listed earlier in the list are exceptions. since its probability will be 1.0. Table 33 Probability Cascading Used for Final Probability Values prob(SOL3) = prob(SOL2) = prob(SOL1) = (prob(SOL3)) (prob(SOL2)0) × 1. model 2 will receive 100% of the ﬁnal probability.0 – prob(SOL3)) Index Q For example.0. and model 1 will receive 0%. the higher-numbered models take precedence over lower-numbered models. No probability expression is required for model 1(the last model in the list). prob(3) = 0. the probability cascading method causes all volumetric results to be obtained from the last model in the list. The ﬁnal volumetric results are obtained as nmod Vi = ∑ Vi ( j ) × prob ( j ) (103) j=1 where: Vi = volume of the ith component in the union of all formation components from all models 132 ELANPlus Theory . The idea is that in most cases.ToC Using the cascading scheme of in Table 33. In that case. As such. The primary model gets all or most of the probability until an exceptional condition occurs.

ToC nmod = number of models being combined prob(j) = ﬁnal. cascaded probability of model j Index Q ELANPlus Theory 133 .

ToC Index Q 134 ELANPlus Theory .

0. Neither the resolution number nor the relative volume uncertainties are output by the program. Resolution number is the average sensitivity of the results to small changes in the parameters or tool response. Although the ELANPlus program has no knowledge of how appropriate a model is geologically. two pieces of information can be computed that provide an indication of the mathematical validity of the model: resolution number. A relative volume uncertainty is the uncertainty for an individual volume.ToC Index Q Chapter 8 Quality Control ELANPlus quality control consists of developing appropriate models and controlling the quality of the results. A value greater than 6 indicates poor resolution. A value of less than 4 indicates good resolution. normalized so that the smallest uncertainty has a value of 1. They are used ELANPlus Theory 135 . When all relative volume uncertainties are less than 10. but the same concept can be applied to nonlinear models. Quality Control of the Model Model development involves taking known information about the geological area and building appropriate ELANPlus models. the results warrant a high level of conﬁdence. and relative volume uncertainties. The resolution number and relative volume uncertainties are derived from the response matrix and can be computed only for linear models.

For example. which can result when one tool is weighted much more heavily than the others. Uncertainties. Table 34 An Example Model Components Equations QUAR RHOB NPHI ILLI GR XWAT CXDC XOIL ΣVolumes Index Q Resolution Number = 2.0000 XOIL = 1. consider the model in Table 34. the best way to improve the resolution is to add an additional measurement that responds to a volume being solved.3235 XWAT = 1.4741 ILLI = 4.ToC here to show how changes to a model affect the mathematical stability of results.36 ELANPlus Theory 136 . as shown in Table 35. For a model with balanced uncertainties.86 QUAR = 3. While there are good reasons to weight a tool more heavily in a particular well (for example. during model development you should keep the uncertainty matrix balanced. The balanced uncertainty matrix discussed earlier provides the lowest resolution number for any given model For more information see the Balanced Uncertainties section of Chapter 5.8322 Now extend the model by adding orthoclase feldspar (ORTH). Table 35 Model with Orthoclase Added Components Equations QUAR RHOB ORTH NPHI ILLI GR XWAT CXDC XOIL ΣVolumes Resolution Number = 6. A poor resolution number or poor relative volume uncertainties may be the result of an unbalanced uncertainty matrix. sonic in bad hole).

ToC QUAR = 210. To solve for orthoclase requires an additional measurement.95 ILLI = 36. That suggests that the tools provided do not have sufﬁcient resolution for the model. Note that the resulting resolution number and the relative volume uncertainties are very poor. In Table 35 orthoclase was added.7494 Note that the models of Table 34.865 XWAT = 1. That is. Table 34 is a quartz-clay model. Table 36 Model with Orthoclase and Potassium Added Components Equations QUAR RHOB NPHI ORTH WWK ILLI GR XWAT CXDC XOIL ΣVolume Index Q Resolution Number = 2. Extend the model by adding the potassium measurement (WWK)..0000 XOIL = 1. Neither tools nor volumes can be arbitrarily added or subtracted from a model.404 Obviously the solution of Table 35 is not very believable. again results in a well-deﬁned model. Adding additional information in the form of constant equations. the number of unknowns is less than or equal to the number of equations. and Table 36 are all possible. however. The choice must come from external knowledge in one of three basic forms: Adding more individual models and limiting the types of minerals found by each model. Adding the potassium measurement in Table 36. as shown in Table 36. so the results obtained from ELANPlus processing would be very poor.28 ORTH = 189. ELANPlus Theory 137 .2834 ILLI = 4.89 QUAR = 2. Table 35.0000 XOIL = 16.1606 ORTH = 1.0862 XWAT = 1.

CT1. a model needs to be deﬁned with a more limited number of volumes and tools. A bad hole model example is shown in Table 37. the primary model for the sands is shown in Table 38. for example. some models lose their validity.) In cases where the bad hole is in more than just one facies. a similar model could be built even when no DT data are available. Notice that the model is overdetermined because of the relationship established by the constant tool. Table 37 A Bad Hole Model Components Equations QUAR DT ILLI GR XIWA CUDC UIWA ΣVolumes XIWA=UIWA CT1 Note that hydrocarbons are not included in this model! Therefore. Thus. bad hole is limited to a single facies (as perhaps only the shales wash out). a sand-shale section. Take. Table 38 Sand-Shale Model Components Equations QUAR RHOB NPHI ORTH WWK ILLI WWTH XWAT CXDC XOIL ΣVolumes ELANPlus Theory 138 . consider using the constant tools. Thus. (The CUDC equation can be an excellent rough-hole porosity tool in zones where clearly there are no hydrocarbons. Index Q Examples of Bad Hole Models In rough hole conditions.ToC Constraining the results of an individual model to a known solution space. the model is appropriate only when the bad hole is in sections believed to be nonproductive. Often.

the ELANPlus processing provides a set of logs reconstructed from the volumetric results of each Solve or Combine process in the session. as for example in Table 39.ToC If there are some sections where hole rugosity causes the RHOB and CXDC equations to be in error.15. SDR provides an overall indication of how well the logs reconstruct. you can deﬁne a second model where those measurements are replaced with constant equations. CT2 and their parameters are determined in good hole. ELANPlus Theory 139 . CT1 controls an average porosity for the sands.65*QUAR+2. To determine which logs are being affected. Another way of handling bad hole is through the use of a constraint. Reconstructed log quality information is available in two forms: the curve SDR (standard deviation of the reconstruction). an SDR greater than 0 theoretically means that one or more of the logs do not agree with the other logs.85*DOLO+1.15) If density is less than 2.15: constraint(Min_Density.5*ILLI+2. An example is limiting volumes such that the reconstructed density is greater than 2.15. For an overdetermined model. SDR could theoretically approach 0.71*CALC+2. themselves. 2. The actual values for CT1. Quality Control of the Results The primary quality control mechanism for ELANPlus results is the use of reconstructed logs. Table 39 Sand-Shale Model for Rough Hole Components Equations QUAR CT1 NPHI ORTH WWK ILLI WWTH XWAT CT2 XOIL ΣVolumes Index Q CT2 controls an average moved hydrocarbon ratio. the constraint will affect the answer as if the density had a value of 2.0*XWAT 2. For a determined model. and the individual reconstructed logs. With real data the value of SDR may be low but will not reach 0. The basic model and the bad hole model are combined using ELANPlus model combination logic.

The user must make sure that the chosen model makes petrophysical sense for the area being interpreted. Poor Reconstruction Means There Is a Problem Poor reconstruction means that there is a problem that may lie with the log that does not reconstruct. which is underdetermined. Use Predicted Value to Check for Inconsistencies Using the predicted value for a log (reconstructing a log from a model that does not use the log directly) is a powerful technique to check for parameter inconsistencies such as wrong Rw and to check the validity of a particular log.ToC Reconstructed logs are an important tool for quality control of ELANPlus results. It means the data ﬁt the model. a problem is indicated in a sand-shale model when RHOB_REC = 2. Reconstructed Logs Can Identify Model Problems Reconstructed logs can identify model problems such as data outside the model or inconsistency within models. Rw. the density log should reconstruct (unless there is bad hole). Inconsistency Within Models Reconstructed logs can help identify problems caused by inconsistency within models. that will compute a very geologically questionable 50% dolomite and 50% clay in shaly zones. invalid data (for example. a constraint. there is a problem. For example.5. and set the uncertainty very high. After model tuning is complete. bad hole data).8. another log. For example. An example is an average carbonate model. If it does not. ELANPlus Theory 140 . There are two methods: use the log from one model with the volume from other models. The high density must be rationalized. but RHOB = 2. hydrocarbon type). perhaps a dolomite stringer. Data Outside the Model Index Q Reconstructed logs can help identify problems caused by data outside the model. The most likely cause is the presence of a heavier mineral. A Good Reconstruction Can Go With a Wrong Answer A good reconstruction does not necessarily mean that the answer is correct. oil parameters input for NPHI and gas parameters for RHOB. Here are some points to remember about reconstructed logs. the selection of one or more parameters (for example.

Setting the value very high only de-emphasizes the input. It is then up to you to determine the cause of the inconsistency. the SDR curve will point out areas in which log reconstruction is poor. Setting the Uncertainty Very High Q Set the uncertainty very high for the log in question (assuming the original model was overdetermined). A common way to run the ﬁrst ELANPlus pass is to have CUDC_UNC high to see if there is an Rw problem. Remember that a good SDR does not always mean good results. always ask. it never completely eliminates the inﬂuence of the data in the ﬁnal answer. then balance for the ﬁnal computation. As a ﬁnal check.ToC Using the Log from One Model and the Volumes from Others Index Have the log in one model and use the Combine Editor to choose the volumes from other models to use for reconstruction. Summary In summary. “Do the volumetric results make sense?” ELANPlus Theory 141 .

(EQ 9) 2 ( K – C ∗ ) 2 + ( G∗ ⁄ ω ) and G∗ ⁄ ω 1 2 ε″ = -.ToC Index Q Appendix-1 The Simandoux Conductivity Equation (A historical perspective) The actual form and derivation of the “Simandoux”equation as quoted and used in ELAN has a long and tortuous history. but for water ﬁlled formations only.= -----. clay content and clay resisitivity.( ASw + BSw ) = Kζε 1 ------------------------------------------------2 µ ( K – C∗ ) 2 + ( G∗ ⁄ ω ) and (EQ 10) 1 1 p -.+ ------R R m R sh 142 ELANPlus Theory . by the following equations: K – C∗ 2 ζε 1 + ε′ = ζε 1 + εδ + ASw + BSw = Kζε 1 ------------------------------------------------. and resistivity to porosity. Enquiring minds who refer to the original Simandoux paper of 19631 (and can read French) will ﬁnd that the paper is in fact a report on laboratory experiments to measure the complex dialectric constant at 1MHz of material samples that relate the dialectric constants and losses to water saturations.

ToC (EQ 11) Index Where: ε1 = Dialectric constant of apparatus walls ε’ = Real dialectric constant of the sample ε” = Dialectric losses of the sample δ = Thickness of the ionic double layer ζ = Dimensionless coefﬁcient.= ( 1 – Vsh ) ---------------------------------. in fact most. This gives: n m φ e Sw 1 Vsh ----. saturation models that are variations of a laminated model are termed “Simandoux”equations. describing the ratio between the active capacity of the apparatus walls and that of the sample = (K/ε1)/C0 C0= Active capacity of apparatus cell. ω = Angular frequency of the current 2πf µ = Proportionality of the coefﬁcient between ε’and ε” K= Capacity of the apparatus insulating walls C*= Apparent capacity of the cell-sample combination G*= Apparent conductance of the cell-sample combination A= Constant B= Constant p= Clay content of the sample R= Radius of apparatus external walls in the case of a cylindrical cell Rm= Resistivity of the equivalent clean formation Rsh= Clay particle resistance Sw= Water saturation Q It may be seen from the form that the above equation is strictly valid for laminated layers of clean sand and shale only. The actual form of the equation in ELANPlus is based on the same concept as Simandoux of laminated sand-shale layers but originally derived from an equvalent parallel resisitor model.For this reason many.+ -------m Rsh Rt aRw ( 1 – V sh ) ELANPlus Theory 143 .

= ------------------------------------------.+ ---------. n. the 1972 Schlumberger Log Interpretation Principles book directly references the original Simandoux paper as the basis of the 1972 equaiton.= ----------------------------x ( 1 – V silt ⁄ V sh ) x ( 1 – V silt ) (EQ 15) where x is empircally found to range between 1. Considering that Shale is a mixture of clay and silt.+ ---------------------------------------------) Sw (x – c c m–1 Rt R cl ( V cl + V silt ) aRw ( 1 – ( V cl + V silt ) ) (EQ 16) ELANPlus Theory 144 .2 and 1 : n m x φ e Sw V cl 1 ----.Sw m–1 c Rt Rsh aRw ( 1 – V sh ) (EQ 14) This equation was ﬁrst published in the 1972 Schlumberger Log Interpretation Principles2 book with the assumption of m=n=2.He attributes this equation to Schlumberger. 1972.= --------------------------------------------------------------.Sw m Rt Rsh aRw ( 1 – V ) sh m n (EQ 13) And then for the non-laminar behaviour of real clays: n m c φ e Sw Vsh 1 ----. depending on clay distribution type. whereas the above equation is classiﬁed as a “Type 2” where Sw is raised to a power and Vclay contains an Sw term. and Vsilt is the silt index or volume.ToC (EQ 12) Index Q This equation was ﬁrst modiﬁed for a reduced effect in hydrocarbon bearing formations: φ e Sw ˙ Vsh 1 ----. the 1972 Log Interpretation Principles book uses the standard R0=aRw/φm to obtain: R clay R clay ( V sh = V silt + V cl ) → ( I Silt = V silt ⁄ V Sh ) → R sh = ------------------------. which means it has a form of Phi x Sw plus linear Vclay. and a instead of 2.4 and 2. and also the paper by Poupon et al4 in 1967 as the development of the model.= ( 1 – Vsh ) ---------------------------------. However. with no reference to Simandoux. Combining equations 6 and 7 and using m. In his 1985 review of saturation equations Paul Worthington3 classiﬁes the original Simandoux equation as a “Type 1”.4.+ -------.

and therefore (m-1) is assumed 1.-----------------------------------------------------------------------a ( swshe + 1 ) ( ersh – swshe – 1 ) 1 – ( V cl + V silt ) ( V cl + V silt ) (EQ 17) See Table 28 for the parameters used in the equation. 3) ‘m’ may vary with porosity as per the Shell formula. The usual value assumed for mc2 is 0.ToC Index ‘x’ and ‘c’ were usually taken equal to 2 for practical reasons: it allows reduction of the equation to a quadratic form that may be solved using a slide rule or simpe calculator. a in Archie equation Bound-water conductivity for clay i Conductivity of clay i Conductivity of undisturbed-zone formation water ELANPlus Theory 145 . φe C uwa φ e φe C t = -------------------------------------------------------------------------------.0 Absent Absent Absent Symbol a Cbwi Cucli Cuwa Description Constant. With the x = ‘ersh’ and the c = ‘swshe+1’in ELANPlus terminology.19. not unity.0 for shale term in the ﬁrst denominator is not signiﬁcant enough to consider for shaley sand.+ -------------.0. the Simandoux Conductivity Equation is written: Q n -2 ( m + ( mc2 ⁄ φ e ) ) V uwa n ersh V uwa C ucl V cl -------------. three further assumptions were made : 1) The difference between the exponent of (m-1) and 1. and with conductivity replacing resistivity. This produces the form of the equation as implemeted. -------------. 2) The Sw in the second term should be to the power of n/2. Table 40 Simandoux Conductivity Equation Parameters Name A CBWA_clai CUDC_clai CUDC_UWAT Unit — mho/m mho/m mho/m Default 1.

The default value of mc2 is 0. 3 The ELANPlus default values for ersh and swshe are 1. mho/m Absent Absent 2. ERSH with ERSHO. This essentially assumes that by default in ELANPlus the silt behaves in the same manner as clay in relation to the conductivity. Table 28 Notes: 1 All input data are at downhole conditions. 2 Replace any U or u with an X or x. to determine the applicability of the equation outside the strict model of a laminated shaley sand.0. the value is usually taken as 0. and N with EXPXO for the flushed-zone equation. and also the range of industry accepted values for the above exponents beyond those quoted.0 1.4=>2.0 † 0.5.u.ToC Table 40 (Cont.4. Default Values Used for Clay. such as the SPWLA Shaley Sand Reprint. The reader is refered to the refernces below and other referecnes in the literature. on page 87.0 0.0 0.) Simandoux Conductivity Equation Parameters CUDC_UIWA CUDC_USFL M MC2 ERSH SWSHE N WCLP_clai CUDC_UNC mho/m mho/m — — — — — p. ELANPlus Theory 146 .0 and a ‘c’of 1.19 .0 and 0. In tight formations for which this was developped (actually very low prosity limestones!).5 2. and that of swshe as 0=>1.0. which correspond to an ‘x’of 1. The expected range for ersh was given above as 1.5.065 Cuiw Cusf m mc2 ersh swshe n φ cli σ CUDC Conductivity of undisturbed-zone irreducible water Conductivity of undisturbed-zone special ﬂuid Cementation exponent Porosity correction for cementation factor Exponent to compute Cush from Cucl Simandoux shale effect Saturation exponent Pure wet clay porosity of clay i Uncertainty of the CUDC curve data Index Q † -> See Table 24.

. A. 1963. 1967.. Revue de l’I. pp 8-14. SPWLA Symposium. Q ELANPlus Theory 147 . 4) Poupon.. J.ToC Index References: 1) Simandoux. F. pp 193-215 2) Schlumberger Log Interpretation Principles/Applications. I. Strecker. The evolution of shaly-sand concepts in reservoir evaluation.F. Measures diélectriques en milieu poroux.815 3) Worthington.. The Log Analyst 26(1) 23-40.. 1985.P.. P. A review of Log Interpretation Methods used in the Niger Delta. P. 1989. and Gartner.

ToC Index Q ELANPlus Theory 148 .

volume of ﬂushed-zone water ≥ 0. Absent cane set to any number. a value that is unlikely to occur in borehole data from logging tools and that produces a speciﬁc. recognized by the ELANPlus program as representing invalid data. balanced uncertainties Equation uncertainties chosen so that each equation has approximately the same relative inﬂuence on the volumetric results. Note: an Absent curve is not the same as a missing curve. A missing curve simply does not exist in the database. alpha processing Alpha processing is a signal processing technique that uses high frequency information from a short spacing detector on a multi-detector tool to enhance the vertical resolution of the tool. calibration problem In a linear algebra expression of the type Ax = b.25. absent A special numerical value.ToC Index Q Glossary alpha processed. The Absent value has historically been -999. A constraint can be used to impose an absolute upper or lower limit on an output volume (for example. volume of montmorillonite ≤ 0. An alpha-processed curve is a curve that has undergone alpha processing. the calibration problem is that of determining A. constraint ELANPlus Theory 149 . A limit imposed on the volumetric results of the ELANPlus optimizer. Contrast with inverse problem. If necessary. when b and x are known.25 times the volume of illite).03) or it may establish a relationship among volumes (for example. easily recognizable bit pattern on certain computers. An Absent curve is a curve in the database that contains only Absent values.

local knowledge such as “We know that the XYZ sand contains no more than 20% calcite cementing. When properly provided to the ELANPlus program. where t is the tool. A mathematical expression based upon the deviation of reconstructed tools from the true tool reading. It is named for the fact that the matrix A must be inverted to obtain the solution. rocks or ﬂuids assumed to be present to some degree in a borehole interval under study. Index Q Function process hypertext incoherence function inverse problem local knowledge Information specific to a localized area. which is taken as truth.In the ELANPlus program. A system of links between parts of a document or documents that allows the user to click on a link in one document to display the relevant information in (and to navigate among) other documents and return to the same place in the original document. the inverse problem is that of determining x. In the ELANPlus program. A part of the ELANPlus application that provides the capability to combine the results of several Solve process computations into a single set of answers. The part of the ELANPlus application that takes input and produces output according to one or more predeﬁned or user-deﬁned functions. It is this function that the optimizer tries to minimize to achieve the most probable answer. Contrast with inverse problem. given t and R. In a linear algebra expression of the type Ax = b. the linear response equations can be written in this form and are usually written t = Rv. the forward problem is that of determining b. taking also into consideration the uncertainty of each tool. In a linear algebra expression of the type Ax = b. The data obtained from instruments lowered into a borehole.ToC curve (data curve) Combine process formation component forward problem A depth-indexed array of real-valued data such as logging data or environmentally corrected data. log measurements ELANPlus Theory 150 . usually a well or field. One of a set of minerals. R is the matrix of response parameters and v is the formation component volume vector. or log data. sometimes referred to as tools. when A and x are known. The concept of the inverse problem applies whether the equations are linear or nonlinear.” can help produce a more accurate interpretation. vector. the forward problem is also called log reconstruction. when A and b are known. The object of the inverse problem is to obtain v.

The number of clays in a model.u. etc.0. or values between 0. Unless otherwise stated. A process can be of type SOLVE. CLA2). Reconstructed logs are mathematical reconstructions of measured logs. note that since bound water (XBWA) is solved for as a dependent variable. The number of fluids in a model. Porosity Unit. nfc includes all solids—nonclay and clay alike—and all ﬂuids. Internally. formation components. irreducible. in the selection of inputs and outputs. Applies to all ﬂuids. in the undisturbed zone only. Index Q model nc nf nfc nuf nxf ns parameter process p. results are written to a ﬁle (either in memory or on disk) at the same depth as the input data. A set of response equations. The number of fluids in a model. Porosity units are 100 times the decimal units.0.) in both the ﬂushed and undisturbed zones. hydrocarbon. irreducible.) in both the ﬂushed and undisturbed zones.0 and 100. Output curves that are generated from computed formation components and from response parameters using ELANPlus response equations. However. etc. A computation component speciﬁed by the user for an ELANPlus session.0 and 1. nfc does not include it. regardless of type. inclusive. etc. or FUNCTION. in the ﬂushed zone only. MONT. including all types of fluids (water. constraints. including all types of fluids (water. and each type of process performs a speciﬁc type of computation. including all clays that have specific names (ILLI. and parameters that deﬁne the problem to be solved by the ELANPlus program. or to control program flow. hydrocarbon. regardless of type. the ELANPlus program always works in decimal porosity. The number of formation components in a model. When computations for the current depth level are complete.) in both the ﬂushed and undisturbed zones.ToC level by level An analysis in which data from input curves are all obtained from the same depth. The number of fluids in a model. including all types of fluids (water. reconstructed logs ELANPlus Theory 151 . etc. values ranging between 0. irreducible. that can be set by the user and is used by the program in the evaluation of expressions. that is. The number of solid formation components in a model. A numeric or alphanumeric value. hydrocarbon. Applies to all ﬂuids. with no consideration to the data values at adjacent levels.) as well as the generic clays (CLA1. COMBINE. including both clays and nonclays unless otherwise stated.

water. Measurements from logging devices. RHOB_QUAR. the results warrant a high level of conﬁdence. and potassium (alone) would result in a very high resolution number.. For a formation composed of calcite and water. In addition to log measurements. the resolution number is the base 10 logarithm of the ratio of the largest eigenvalue of the response parameter matrix to the smallest eigenvalue.. A response equation relates a set of measured logs such as density. thorium. Using density and conductivity. even though there are more than enough equations. since these logs are insensitive to any differences between calcite and water. usually zonable.ToC relative volume uncertainty The uncertainty for an individual volume. joined by an underbar (for example. illite. gamma ray. oil. A value greater than about 6 indicates that at least one formation component exists for which the input logs all react in a similar way. A part of the ELANPlus application that uses input logs to compute the volumes. would produce a low resolution number. using the equations for gamma ray. normalized so that the smallest uncertainty has a value of 1. A value in the range of 3 to 4 generally indicates that the input logs are sensitive to the selected formation components. and bound water.. to a set of formation volumes such as quartz. DT_XWAT.0. resolution number A number that represents the relative degree to which the equations selected in a model respond to the selected formation components. reconstructed logs. There are therefore (number of tools) times (number of formation components) response parameters available in the ELANPlus program. gamma ray. A parameter. response equations A mathematical expression whose form is known to the ELANPlus application. The numerical value expressing the level/degree of uncertainty of how a response equation will contribute to the ﬁnal solution of an instantiated ELANPlus model. Values assigned to formation components such as quartz. Strictly speaking. for any response matrix. on the other hand. such as bulk density.). CT1_USFL . whose value represents the reading of a tool when surrounded by 100% pure formation component. oil. tools may also be constant or zoned values. When all relative volume uncertainties are less than 10. and Standard Deviation of Reconstruction (SDR). etc. and deep conductivity. The mnemonic for a response parameter consists of its tool mnemonic and its formation component mnemonic. These values are calculated from logging measurements and response Index Q response parameters Solve process tools uncertainty volumes ELANPlus Theory 152 .

The term volumes is often used interchangeably with formation components. Index Q ELANPlus Theory 153 . A zone can be deﬁned by a top depth and a bottom depth or by a top depth and an interval. zoned parameter A parameter whose value varies with the depth interval in which it is deﬁned.ToC parameters.

ToC Index Q 154 ELANPlus Theory .

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