Indian Standard

RECOMMENDATIONSFORDESIGN OFTRASHRACKSFORINTAKES (First Revision )

UDC

627*84*04

BUREAU
MANAK

OF
BHAVAN,

INDIAN

STANDARDS
ZAFAR MARG

9 BAHADUR SHAH NEW DELHI 110002

June 1995

Price Group 3

racks has been added. The following incorporated in this revision: 1) Provisions 2) Requirements 3) Additional for structural formula design of trash of racks racks for pumped have been included. expressing the result of a test or analysis. ) was adopted by the Bureau of Indian Standards. after the draft Sectional Committee. This revision has been prepared in view gained during the course of these years in the use of the standard. The number of significant places retained in the rounded off value-should be the same as that of the specified value in this standard. The design of trash racks should result in minimum hydraulic losses and prevent/minimize ice. observed or calculated. Thts standard was first published in 1985. floating trash and coarse entering the tunnel or channel. the final value. for calculating loss of head For the purpose of deciding whether a particular requirement of this standard is complied with. RVD 11 FOREWORD This Indian Standard ( First Revision finalized by the Intake Structures Division Council.Intake Structures Sectional Committee. through storage scheme for maintenance of the changes have been experience have been added. shall be rounded off in accordance with IS 2 : 1960 ‘Rules for rounding off numerical values ( revised )‘. had been approved by the River Valley be such sediment as to from Trash racks are provided at the entrance of intakes. .

6.IS11388:l!WS Indian Standard RECOMMENDATIONSFORDBSIGN OFTRASHRACKSFORINTAKES (First Revision ) 1 SCOPE This standard lays down recommendations for design of trash racks provided at the entrance of intakes to protect turbines. 5 INCLINATION OF RACKS major trash rack installations where a portion of rack is deeply submerged.Removable section racks which are installed by lowering the sections between side guides or grooves provided in the trash rack structure so that the sections may be readily removed by lifting them from guides. With large units ( and wider spacing of rack bars ) and where mechanical cleaning of racks is provided a velocity up to 1. iii) Requirement of raking.1 The selection of type of rack for an installation depends upon the following considerations: i) Accessibility ment. but are placed adjacent to each other laterally and in an inclined plane to obtain the desired area. 800 : 1984 TM? Code of practice for general construction in steel ( second revision ) ii) Size and and quantity of trash expected. these have to be secured in place with bolts located above the water line. These are generally side bearing type. 1.Trash rack sectionswhich bolted in place below water line. Since rack sections may easily be displaced.75 m/set. the slope should be 10” to 15” with the vertical unless otherwise specified by the trash rack cleaning machine manufacturer’s manual. from objectionably large debris. This type of rack is particularly adopted for completely submerged intakes. pumps. 2 REFERENCES The Indian Standards listed below are necessary adjuncts to this standard: IS No.2 The following criteria should be followed br selecting the type of trash racks for any nstallation: 9 Racks of Type 1 should be used for all ii) Racks of Type 2 should be used for canal head works and for pumping plants where single rack section extends from water surface to the bottom of rack. c) Type 3 . valves. the slope should be 1 vertical to l/3 or l/2 horizontal.1 For low-pressure intakes with small units ( and consequently closely set rack bars~) and where manual cleaning of racks is provided the velocity should be limited to 0. For racks which are to be cleaned by mechanical means. 4 SELECTION OF TYPE are Racks should be installed in slanting position except for guided racks where these can be kept in vertical position as well. b) Type 2 Removable section racks in which the individual sections are not installed between guides in the trash rack structure. 2062 : 1992 Steel for general structural poses (fourth revision ) OF TRASH RACKS pur- 3 CLASSIFICATION The trash racks may be classified into the following types in accordance with their constructional features and the methods of installation: a) Type 1 . For manual raking of the racks. and iii) Racks of Type 3 should be used where power driven cleaning rakes are required for cleaning them.5 m/set should be permitted. for painting or replace- . 6 VELOCITY THROUGH RACKS 6. 4.2 For high pressure intakes the overall economy will determine the velocity to be used in racks. etc. Velocity up to 3 m/set on the gross area of racks may be permitted where serious clogging of trash racks is not expected for high pressure intakes.

1 VALUES OF FACTOR K FOR VARIOUS BAR SHAPBS 2 NOTE - if actual number . 183 I I I I I I I r k-. NOTE - 7.0.4. much wider spacing is and is generally desirable.45 R -. . +k242 I) i.1 General DESIGN OF TRASH Arrangement V = trash rack. formula x sin CL can also be used: h. Steel supporting members other than trash bars should be designed for a differential hydraulic head of 7.0 m. For permitted b) 8.2 Materials racks.0 m differential hydraulic head.29 protecting power intakes should generally be designed to fail at 6. 2 ).1. 3 using the value of D. 0151 k-o 76 k. it ary to use close spacing of trash large units. corresponding to the diameter of the runner.R= ). 8. 25 to 50 percent of area of racks is frequently obstructed in practical operation where the amount of debris is considerable. The trash rack following loads: 4 Racks __-_i . the spacing of trash bars should be determined from Fig. of Trash Bars 40 mm to is necessbars. angle of bar inclination to horizontal.= loss of head through t= b= v= thickness clear of bars. 1. 8.4 Spacing k-l 67 The clear spacing usually varies from 100 mm. The trash rack should be constructed from structural steel conforming to IS 800 : 1984 and IS 2062 : 1992. computed on gross area. between spacing c1 f_ I” .092 a --ALk-l. 8. The size of each trash rack umt should be proportioned from consideration of hoisting/lifting capacity.1 For Francis type turbines.i&s 11388 : 1995 7 LOSSES AT TRASH RACKS be calculated from hr computed from rhe above formuia is multiplied by a factor 175 to 2’00 to take care of bracings and frame. = where hr . 8 STRTJCTURAL RACKS 8. In case of small turbines.45 . R=----_ net area through the rack bars gross area of the racks and supports ’ and velocity of flow through computed on gross area. between FIG. the following k Allowance should also be made for parttal cloggirg of racks with trash. a= depending on bar shape in k = factor accordance with Fig. Trash rack bars should be so spaced so that the net opening between them should not be greater than the minimum opening between turbine runner buckets. Alternatively. is unknown.! The structural arrangement of racks generally consist of equally spaced trash rack vertical bars supported on horizontal members connected to end vertical members which sit in the grooves of piers (Fig. ~3 ): Net opening bars (m) F x Ds %umber of buckets in runner For preliminary design assume 19 buckers. bars.035 If the minimum opening dimension is not known. it may be approximated from the following equation and the value of <F’ obtained from the curve ( Fig.1 The loss of head should the following formula: Head where K = loss = K -& the trash rack loss coefficient ( 1.3 Design Head should be designed for the velocity of flow through trash rack.

5.4. For deep submerged racks.23 . the minimum thickness should be kept as 12 mm. the spacing between trash rack bars should not be larger than l/5 of the jet diameter at maximum needle opening but in case of very small impulse turbine.0. Trash rack bars should be assumed to fail when tv.4.for diameter of runner varying between 5. b) 150 to 250 mm . 8.015 3 . 8.23 . These members should be assumed to fall at yield point stress but calculations should include stress due to dead weight of the beam members and trash rack bars. in case 8.6 Design of Horizontal Members Members used as horizontal beams in trash rack sections should not require stress reduction to compensate for lack of lateral support. about l/30 of runner diameter of propeller or Kaplan turbine.+_ > 8. To insure rigidity during handling. Racks should be provided with bearing pads not less than 10 mm thick..0. 2 METALLIC TRASH RACK For propeller type of turbines. which come in contact with the concrete grooves thus protecting the protective coating of racks from abrasion..015 3 $ 8. mesh screen should be permttted.7 Check for Stability Against Vibrations Trash racks should be checked for resonance while operating under turbine and pumping 3 > . the spacing of trash rack bars should be determined as under: a) 75 to 150 mm . The laterally length of trash rack bars should not exceed 70 times its thickness.1 Thickness of Trash Bars The minimum thickness of trash bars recommended for Typo 2 and Type 3 trash racks is 8 mm.* 1. the distance from the face of the rack to the spacers or other horizontal members should be unsupported atleast 40 mm.2 where Y.0 and 7.0 m.for diameter of runner varying between 2. For racks which may require mechanical raking.3 For impulse turbines. that is.5 Design of Trash Bars The depth of trash bar should not be more than 12 times its thickness and nor less than 50 mm. L= laterally unsupported and tthickness of bar.IS 41388 : 1995 SECTIONS MS FLATS FIG.5 m and 5. = yield point stress. the lateral deflection of the beam members due to load should not exceed If325 of the span.uestress m the bar reaches the following Failure stress I Y. 8.5 m.. Similarly safe working stress for trash rack bars used to support flash boards should not exceed the following value: Safe stress = 0.66 ( yield point stress ) ( 1. length of bar.

a high ratio be permitted for a short period but the maximum value should not exceed O-65. All flats should be welded to the intermediate horizontal members and the top and bottom horizontal members for better resistance to vibrations and to avoid stress concentration at the external edge of the groove. as the point at which vibration starts is fr/fn 0. frequency. 4 9 STRUCTURAL 9. .IS 11388 : 1995 z: s II z” F= “IN. 3 TRASH RACK BARS SPACING GUIDE FOR FRANCISTURBINE modes and the design and disposition of the members should be so made that resonance does not take place.65 where & and fn = natural fr= forcing frequency. The ratio of forcing frequency to natural frequency should not be more than 0. However. The main consideration should be for limiting the forcing frequency less than natural frequency.1 Structural DETAILS connections in the trash rack should be designed and provided for the failure load of the structural members. The vertical member of the trash rack should be .6 for normal design.so arranged as to apply the load near the inner part of the rack-guide. D3 OF (m) BUCKETS DIAMETER DISCHARGE EDGE OF BUCKETS CROSS SECTION THROUGH BUCKETS CROSS SECTION OF RUNNER PROJECTED OPENING OUTLINE OF DISCHARGE BETWEEN BUCKETS OF RUNNER FIG. OPENING IN RUNNER OF (m) RUNNER X NO.

Arbitrarily this level can be fixed at a height of atleast 5 metres above the Minimum Draw Down Level (MDDL). so that the same can be used as maintenance platform. should be 10.1.5 If no crane is provided for handling the racks. Chains may be attached to these hooks and the end of the chains may be tied to the top platform to facilitate lifting of the ra.4 In case of Type 1 trash racks. they should be made in sections sufficiently light for manual removal and replacement. The frequency of cleaning of the racks would depend upon the rate of accumulation of trash.1. Not more than 50 percent of the trash rack area should be allowed to clog the racks at any time. so that cleaning rake operates satisfactorily while passing up and down the screen.2. the height of unit should be equal to spacing of horizontal concrete arch ribs of intake structure or convenient fraction of the same.1 Construction 10.1 Suitable arrangement should be made for cleaning the racks mechanically or manually at regular intervals. The level of the platform should be fixed such that the water level in the pond or reservoir should go below the platform level atleast once in a year.2.2.2 Type 1 racks. should be arranged as far back as possible from the upstream face of the bars so as not to interfere with the movement of rake.1.4 The bars of any panel should be directly in line with the corresponding bar above or below. 10. a platform should be provided at a suitable level above the trash rack structure. the trash rack .1s 11388 : 1995 9. if used. for cleaning.1. 10.1.3 The guides of the trash racks should be so proportioned that the side members ( if the same are not rigid enough to carry dead load of upper rack sections ) get lateral support from guides after deflection to take up the clearance in the slots.cks. 10. 9. 10. wherever necessary.2 In case of intakes of Type 1 located in a reservoir.3 Hooks should be provided in each rack to enable lifting of the rack in Type 1. 10 CONSTRUCTION 10. pilot shoes and pilot pins should be provided. 9. AND MAINTENANCE OF TRASH RACKS 10. The spacers. where used in tiers. be 10. 9.5 For proper seating of one trash rack unit above the other.2 Design Requirements for Maintenance 10. equipped with dowels of sufficient size to ensure proper alignment of the racks in the guides.1 The trash bars should preferably fabricated from flats with rounded edges. panels should be identical.3 To simplify site erection.2 Lateral support to the bars should be provided intermediately between end supports.

235 04 42 I 235 15 19. in the course of implementing the standard. I. Scheme CALCUTTA 700054 : SC0 335-336. 1986 to promote harmonious development of the activities of standardization. FARIDABAD. marking and quality certification of goods and attending to connected matters in the country. 331 13 75 Regional Central Eastern Northern Southern Western Offices : : Manak Bhavan. Issued Since Publication Date of Issue Text Affected BUREAU OF INDIAN STANDARDS Manak Bhavan. P. such as symbols and sizes. : Manakalaya. Road. 34-A. I. BOMBAY IV Cross E9 MIDC. if the review indicates that changes are needed. This Indian Standard has been developed from Dot No: RVD 11 (58). T. Sector Marg. THIRUVANANTHAPURAM. Printed at New India Printing Press. type or grade designations. 400093 Marol. Review of Indian Standards Amendments are issued to standards as the need arises on the basis of comments. GUWAHATI.Bureau -of Indian Standards BIS is a statutory institution established under the Bureau of Indian Standards Act. Copyright No part of these publications may be reproduced in any BIS has the copyright of all its publications. Standards are also reviewed periodically. PATNA. of necessary details. Campus. T. BLS. Users of Indian Standards should ascertain that they are in possession of the latest amendments or edition. CHANDIGARH Road. 9 Bahadur NEW DELHI 110002 : l/14 C. form without the prior permission in writing of BIS. MADRAS Andheri : C. 378626. BHOPAL. India VII M. it is taken up for revision. New Delhi 110002 Telegrams : Manaksanstha ( Common to all offices ) Telephone Shah Zafar Marg Maniktola 160022 600113 37 8499. ( East ) Branches : AHMADABAD. HYDERABAD. . Amendments Amend No. Kburja. This does not preclude the free use. I. 331 01 31 37 85 61 378662 60 38 43 I 60 20 25 235 02 l-6. V. BANGALORE. 632 78 58 632 78 91. 235 23 15 632 92 95. 632 78 92 BHUBANESHWAR. JAIPUR. GHAZIABAD. a standard along with amendments is reaffirmed when such review indicates that no changes are needed. LUCKNOW. COIMBATORE. KANPUR. 9 Bahadur Shah Zafar Telephones : 331 01 31. Enquiries relating to copyright be addressed to the Director ( Publications ).