You are on page 1of 11

2/27/13

Paper presentation: Optical computing

Share

0

More

Next Blog»

Create Blog

Sign In

PAPER PRESENTATION
S A T UR D A Y, A P R I L 2 4 , 2 0 1 0 FO LLO W ER S

Optical computing
ABST RACT We liv e in interesting times . By ex ceeding good fortune , we happen to liv e in an era where computing is taking new meanings and is manifesting itself in new spheres of activ ity by the day . In these circumstances, the need for processing power will not be denied. By the limitations of nature, silicon can aid us in our quest for dominion only to such an ex tent. Ov ercoming maudlin sentimentality will be our biggest challenge in this coming generation, for the future, belongs elsewhere. Nanotechnology , Molecular technology and quantum computing all hav e shown tremendous promise in being the nex t big wav e of the future. Howev er, while the former two are further branches down the same dead end road, the latter is unable to break the shackles of science fiction in a conv incing way . An intermediate step down this road, we believ e lies in the direction of optical computing. With the ex citing new discov eries that hav e captured the attention of the whole world in the last y ear, no longer can we afford to let optical computing remain a term in the dictionary . If we are to remain competent, the future lies that way . INT RODUCT ION Squeezed light, holograms, and lasers sound like things y ou'd find in a science-fiction nov el, but they can also -be found in the labs around the world where they are used in the "thinking" machines of tomorrow-optical computers. Since they are based on lightwav e technology , optical computers can process Information a million or more times faster than electronic computers. They are inherently parallel processors and almost completely immune to interference. Optical computers use laser beams in place of wires. Unlike wires, laser beams can cross and intersect without affecting one another. Furthermore, multiple beams can conv erge on a single switching point with any combination of one or more beams triggering the switch. An electronic equiv alent of such a multiple Input switch is much more complex . Optical computers hav e all these adv antages
azhar-paperpresentation.blogspot.in/2010/04/optical-computing.html

Join this site
w ith Google Friend Connect

Members (102) More »

Already a member? Sign in

B L O G A R C HI V E

▼ 201 0 (1 00) ▼ April (1 00) NANOPARTICLES IN THE DRUG DELIV ERY NEW DISTRIBUTED QUERY OPTIMIZATION TECHNIQUES PALLADIUM A REV OLUTIONARY BREAK THROUGH role of grid computing in internet STEGANOGRAPHY AND DIGITAL WATERMARKING nanoelectronics single electron transistor molecular nanotechnology information security and adv antages
1/11

Today .blogspot. quantum computers mobile communications paper on grid computing optical and wireless lan s Nanotechnology : The Future on a Pin-Tip nano technology ov erv iew customer information management sy stem design languages for embeded sy stems quantum dots broadband ov er power lines code div ision multiple access embeded spiking neural network hacking applied cry ptography and network security Artificial Intelligence and Global Risk asimo biocomputing and informatics biometrics in v arious feild components of distributed database computer generated hiologram for real time display . When discussing its particle nature. A better solution is prov ided by the semiconductor laser.. which would produce an amplitude-modulated signal (AM) for analog computing.in/2010/04/optical-computing.. we call the particles "photons.2/27/13 Paper presentation: Optical computing because of the fundamental nature of light.. We can create them by splitting a single beam into as many beams as necessary . we can frequency -modulate (FM) light. azhar-paperpresentation. SUPERV ISORY CONTROL AND DATA ACQUISITION shortest path computation in a transmission line n.html Information security SOFTWARE TESTING METHODOLOGIES Simple Statistical Algorithm for Biological Sequen. A laser produces a single coherent beam of light (all the light has the same frequency ." Howev er. An optical computer may need thousands or ev en millions of controlled laser beams. For ex ample. Furthermore. one could modulate the brightness (photons per second) of a beam of light. which makes faster computational speeds possible. V arious attempts at building optical computers ov er the sev enties and the eighties had some small successes. because of light's wav e-like properties. but that is a messy approach. T he Early Day s: The early optical-computer research In the 1 950s was performed using mercury -arc lamps and sunlight. Grid Computing On V irtual 2/11 . The first semiconductor lasers worked by apply ing a current through the alternating lay ers of gallium arsenide (GaAs) semiconductor material.. coherent. Changing the frequency is equiv alent to changing its color. and direction) that is used to transmit optical information in a concise. As we'll discuss later on.. For ex ample. the steadily mov ing electrons generate in-phase photons. which emerge from the edge of the lay ered semiconductor material as a coherent laser beam. Photons: Quantum theory tells us that light has the properties of both wav es and particles. photons can do things that are impossible for ty pical particles-such as electrons. thousands of photons can pass through a single point simultaneously without interfering with one another. The problem with most lasers is that they are somewhat large. and controlled manner. but the technology to support them only began to appear during breakthrough research dating back to the eighties. Photons can also trav el faster than electrons. energy phase. More adv anced methods of light manipulation--like "spatial modulation" and holograms. All these Intriguing possibilities hav e been tempting scientists since the 1 950s. but the real adv ances had to wait for optical switches and semiconductor lasers. the laser (inv ented in 1 960) is the key to optical computing. AM signals can also be used to transmit binary data--y ou just need to define a brightness threshold to represent a one and another to represent a zero. The method prov ed less than effectiv e.. light can also be used to represent information in many different way s.

. the signal beam can continue to trav el. Huang has been working in the optical computer field for ov er thirty y ears. he had to work with crude technology . ex treme programming facts hacking haptic technology hy brid electric bus mpeg4 v ideo wter marketing using 3-d discrete wav e.the dev il of computer computer security wireless and mobile communications Wireless Communication With WIBRE wireless lan technology Worldwide Interoperability for Microwav e Access future mechanics Fuzzy Image Processing harnessing energy from moon military robots nano electromechanical sy stem Optical computing pillcam jav a technology separation theory of resstriction mapping software architecture spintronics spintronics 3/11 . The switch controls the passage of a second laser beam--the signal beam-. There are two classes of optical switch: transmissiv e and reflectiv e.blogspot. The simplest technique is to simply turn it on and off.. either absorbing it or permitting it to pass through to somewhere else. are key to the computer's operation. known as Self Electroptic-Effect Dev ices (SEEDs). laser-based "tape measures.2/27/13 Paper presentation: Optical computing CURRENT OPT ICAL T ECHNOLOGY : Recent semiconductor lasers take adv antage of quantum effects that result from the phy sical lay out of chip lay ers. As mentioned earlier. they are useful in CD play ers. Scientists in Japan 's Basic Research Labs hav e predicted that quantum-wire lasers should be able to switch on and off at rates up to 1 00 GHz. A transmissiv e switch either blocks the signal beam or allows it to pass to its destination. lasers and semiconductor chips were both relativ ely new dev elopments. SEEDs: The switches. there are many basic methods of sending signals by light. and the optical switch. This technology has giv en us "quantum-well" lasers. Regardless of its ty pe. ICs. Quantum wire laser: One step bey ond the quantum well laser is the quantum-wire laser. Quantum-wire lasers are composed of alternating lay ers of GaAs and aluminum gallium arsenide (AlGaAs)." and optical telephone circuits. A control laser beam turns each switch on or off. v irus.in/2010/04/optical-computing... Although these laser chips put out only a few milliwatts of power.. Then. That is the binary method used in the most widely known optical computer. the signal beam is stopped. he needed to wait for many new dev elopments to occur such as better lasers.based on the presence or absence of the control beam.producing about 1 0 milliwatts of output power. so a azhar-paperpresentation.html Machines Broadband ov er Power Lines Energy -Adaptiv e Display Sy stem Designs For Future . Optical computing requires this greater power because the beam must be sufficiently strong ev en after it is split.. A reflectiv e switch reflects the signal beam to a destination or prev ents it from getting there. the presence of a beam could denote a one and its absence a zero. When he started thinking about optical computers. built at AT&T Bell Labs by Alan Huang. When it's off. when a switch is on. The problem with quantum-wire lasers is the ex pensiv e cost of growing the zero-dimensional wires found in the AlGaAs lasers. like Morse code. These efficient diode lasers are smaller and more powerful than their predecessor-. v ehicle monitoring and control sy stem using microc. In the beginning. As prev iously stated. The price should fall dramatically in the near future with improv ed manufacturing techniques and larger quantities.

00004 inch) wide.in/2010/04/optical-computing.. Abstract: Nanotechnology is defined as the study a.. an optical computer works like any other computer. Huang's optical computer used only a small percentage of its thousands of switches. Alan Huang and twelv e colleagues built an optical computer at Bell Labs early in the nineties. the AT&T computer was a straightforward reproduction of ex isting computer architecture on a different medium--light.. Although Dav id Miller (also of Bell Labs) dev eloped the switches in 1 986. That isn't a problem in a standard computer since the electrons trav el within conductors--mask registration difficulties during IC wafer fabrication not-withstanding. or the entire signal beam to pass. There are other way s of using light to compute. and electronics or light controls each square. allowing for easier and faster "fuzzy logic" matching than today 's computers. In fact. This method can determine ex act matches or near misses. They are made up of many tiny squares. respectiv ely . One of their primary uses is pattern matching. it still took fiv e y ears to build an optical computer. connected as NOR gates. at the speed of light.. let's look at some of the alternativ es. It prov ed the theory behind optical computing. The computer also uses two ten-milliwatt lasers and v arious lenses. Once an IC chip is built and tested...blogspot.. They direct multiple beams in multiple directions to permit parallel-processing operation.. Huang's computer used the SEED switches..2/27/13 Paper presentation: Optical computing SEED acts ex actly like a transistor in an electronic computer. It only counted. A square allows some. none. Each NOR gate has a switching time of one nanosecond. least mean square algorithm grid computing grid computing global positioning sy stem free space optics facial recognition using 4/11 . information technology applications in transportat. and pattern masks. simulation of human intelligence resource sharing on internet A Nanotechnological Approach to Contaminated Water. It had 8000 optical switches--each one only ten micrometers (. to form two eight-bit counters. That compares fav orably to electronic NOR gates that switch at between 5 to 50 nanoseconds.. SLMs are like a cross between a piece of photographic film and a Liquid-Cry stal Display (LCD). Optical computers hav e one problem that electronic computers do not--alignment.html teleportation univ ersal mobile access v oice recognition using dsp wireless communication wearable computers A TECHNICAL PAPER ON Broadband ov er Power Lines A.. beam splitters.. grid computing ov erv iew grid computing nanotechnology robotics and computer v ersion palm v ein technology resource sharing on internet optical character recognition for tamil characters. but ev en that was significant for a completely optical computer. It also giv es the answer. NANO TECHNOLOGY NANO GENERATOR TO POWER NANO DEV I. Alignment difficulties are among the reasons Huang's computer only uses a part of its capability .. As we said earlier. and it takes considerable work to line up all the beams precisely . An input signal controls one SLM. it just uses the optical switches and laser beams in place of transistors and electric currents. it will alway s work without worry of further alignment adjustments.. Y ou can't do much computing if a beam misses a switch. The result comes from comparing its output to a second SLM controlled by the computer. azhar-paperpresentation. literally . improv ing database security through face recogniti. Spatial Light Modulators: Spatial Light Modulators (SLMs) take adv antage of light's unique properties.

These patterns might be actual images. With proper encoding and positioning. A CCD produces a digital output representing any image focused on its surface. subtract. In a digital computer. Using two SLMs and passing light through their associated squares allows them to add. but with greater accuracy . Holograms: Holographic computers work similarly to SLMs. To use a holographic computer. The reflectiv e ty pe either reflects or absorbs (redlrects) the light. which is used as a filter. This combination of holographic filtering and CCD matching and monitoring can identify faces. SLMs can store reference patterns. It's only limited by the number of squares and the complex ity of the SLM.in/2010/04/optical-computing. Quantum Limits: According to the Helsenberg Uncertainty Principle.. The resulting light pattern is usually monitored by a charged-coupled dev ice (CCD) array . and other dev ices.. numbers. that is used for optical imaging in camcorders.iris recognisation technology automated testing of embeded sy stem Attacks on security control sy stem adv anced grid computing satellite communication grid computing smart antenna sy stems the ey egaze communication sy stem wireless charging of mobile phones using micro wav . telescopes. Such computers can compare a holographic image with a reference hologram. Smart-Pix el-Array (SPA) modules use hologram array s to help direct light sent by tiny V ertical-Cav ity Surface-Emitting Lasers (V CSEL). The reflectiv e ty pe requires beam splitters to direct the reflected light. An optical computer calculates the entire number simultaneously . Researchers at the Univ ersity of Colorado at Boulder are currently working with SPA-modules for their ongoing opticalcomputer research. They can hold binary numbers by encoding them positionally along the squares. Holograms are also being used to aid in data transfer and storage. such as an image or other signal.html theory of biometrics ev olution in grid computing biometric security . wireless communication bluetooth technology v lsi chip and sdr Solar power generation optimisation A B O UT M E A ZHA R V I EW M Y C O M P LET E P R O FI LE 5/11 . we know the energy of the photons pretty well. SLMs can be either transmissiv e or reflectiv e. That limits the certainty with which we can azhar-paperpresentation. The nice thing is that the calculation takes place immediately regardless of the length of the number. or parts on an assembly line. the less y ou'll know about its mass and energy .blogspot. calculations usually take a considerable amount of digit shifting and manipulation. The reference hologram must be created specifically for the task and can be either computer generated or created from real-world input. As mentioned. Since a laser beam consists of photons that hav e approx imately the same energy and frequency . The CCD is a digital-imaging unit. fingerprints. or any other encoded Information. The transmissiv e ty pe either passes or stops the light. multiply . y ou apply a holographic input signal to the reference hologram. or div ide.2/27/13 Paper presentation: Optical computing Like other optical switches. like a telev ision camera. they perform ex tremely fast mathematical calculations. the more y ou know about the position of a photon in time and space.

This is because electronic communication along copper requires charging a capacitance that caries with length. may be generated inex pensiv ely by laser diodes. Because the most we can say about a photon's location is that it will be within a giv en area. optical ICs and free space don't hav e to charge a capacitor and are therefore. ADVANT AGES OF OPT ICS FAST ER T RANSMISSION: Coherent light. V ery high-speed machines use additional power to prov ide speed and hav e elements located close to one another to limit transmission time. By increasing most of the uncertainty in a particular area. we must allow for detection of photons ov er the entire area. we are more certain where they are. Ev en so. we can work more precisely with the remaining areas. we may hav e completely new computing methods or hav e learned enough that the uncertainty doesn't matter. Laser diodes can be modulated at 30 GHZ. Adv ances in particle control may lead to the "painting" of circuits on an atomic scale-something far more practical than IBM's demonstration of writing the letters "IBM" with indiv idual gold atoms.in/2010/04/optical-computing.html 6/11 . This faster transmission with optics is important because transmission time between units is often the limiting factor for performance on high-speed machines.2/27/13 Paper presentation: Optical computing know where a particular photon is in space. Scientists are using "squeezed light" to reduce some of the uncertainty . optical signals in optical fibers. as these hav e dropped rapidly in price in the last few y ears due to mass production. Faster transmission permits faster computational elements to be used. this process results in areas with lower uncertainty elsewhere in the beam. LESS INT ERFERENCE: Another adv antage of optics comes because of photonic azhar-paperpresentation. faster. Researchers in Colorado hav e managed to steer rubidium atoms through fibers as narrow as 1 0 microns. In other words. Since the ov erall uncertainty is conserv ed. The adv antage of optics ov er electronics is the higher bandwidth that enables more information to be carried. That limits the minimum size and the applications of optical dev ices. In contrast. They do this by controlling a laser beam to create areas of greater uncertainty at certain points along the beam. there are points along the beam where the photons are restricted to a smaller area than av erage. By the time we reach the point where we must deal with the positions of single photons.blogspot. which permits a whole range of processing capabilities. the limit is so small that it is usually not a problem. A cheap CD play er in the home contains sev eral of them.

In the case of electrons. Loops of connections are difficult to av oid in massiv ely parallel sy stems. the lack of interference between photons made it difficult to use a small signal to control a large signal for producing gain. v ery high-speed. Magnetic disks require the floating of pick up coils within one micron of the surface. In short. at least during reads. This suggests that optical memory may be able to av oid the difficulties of memory contention. Signals in adjacent fibers or in optical integrated channels do not interfere with each other nor do they pick up noise due to loops.2/27/13 Paper presentation: Optical computing properties-they don't interact like electrons. optics is: * Immune to electromagnetic interference * Free from short electrical circuits * Able to hav e low-loss transmission * Able to prov ide large bandwidth (capable of communicating sev eral channels in parallel without interference) * Capable of propagating signals within the same or adjacent fibers azhar-paperpresentation. high frequency or fast switching pulses will cause interference in neighboring wires.html 7/11 . lowswitching-energy dev ices hav e been demonstrated by increasing the non-linearity using GaAs quantum well and other structures. Thus. Howev er. loops will generate noise v oltage spikes whenev er the electromagnetic fields through the loops changes. SUPERIORST ORAGE CAPABILIT Y : A further adv antage of optics for computers results from the superior storage and accessibility of optical material ov er magnetic materials. Consequently optical switches hav e comparable performance to electronic ones.in/2010/04/optical-computing.blogspot. PARALLELISM: Y et another adv antage of optics is that images are array s of pix els that may be handled in parallel. recently . it is conceiv able to process a million elements or more in parallel by formulating a problem as a sequence of steps on a 2-D array . The mov ement from silicon to GaAs for high sped electronics encourages the use of optics for on-chip and betweenchip interconnection and switches to av oid the need and energy cost to transform optical signals on fibers to electronics for phone switching. as in a transistor. Optical disks use focused laser beams to read the information so that the light source does not hav e to be as close to the storage material. Further. Consequently . In the past. light beams may pass through one another without distorting the information carried.

long a dream of computer scientists.in/2010/04/optical-computing. lightweight. These conv ersions are inefficient and limit the instantaneous nature of computing." So again. In an optical computer.2/27/13 Paper presentation: Optical computing with no interference * Compact. and subnanosecond switching azhar-paperpresentation. and inex pensiv e to manufacture WHY T HE NEED FOR SPEED? Present-day computers are lacking in efficiency due to their natural limitations. this describes an optical computer--performing computations.' he adds. operating. which is 1 86. Manjari Mehta of Information Sy stems Research Center (ISRC) at the Univ ersity of Houston ex plains the "inefficiency " of electronic computers best. are needed to accommodate the growth rate of the Internet and increasing demand for bandwidth-intensiv e data streams. hav e mov ed a step closer to reality . Today a message is first conv erted from electronic to photonic form and then transmitted ov er fiberoptic cables. That's pretty fast. Currently . "This dev ice prov ides the first v iable building blocks for optical computers. "Optical computers hav e been mostly on paper. The light signal at the other end must then be conv erted back into electronic form for processing by the receiv ing computer.html 8/11 . Hossin Abdelday em from NASA. FACT OR FANT ASY : Optical Computers. and transmitting data--using only light. there would be no need to conv ert from electronic to photonic form. the AT&T researcher who designed the new photonic IC. They just aren't fast enough to keep up with the demands of the modern Internet world. Researchers at AT&T Bell Labs dev eloped a 2-kbit photonic integrated circuit that they say could be used to build basic optical computing sy stems. e-mail.blogspot. for ex ample. through the following comparison. Terabit speeds. Now real ex perimental prototy pes can be built. or one trillion bits. the information in a computer is passed through copper wires." say s Leo Chirov sky . why do we need computers to be so darn fast? According to Dr. The chip has 2. In simplified terms.000 miles per second. SEEDS OF T ECHNOLOGY : The 2 mm x 2 mm dev ice is made up of an array of galliumarsenide and aluminum-gallium-arsenide multiple well structures. storing. information would pass through light beams--at the speed of light. If we can find way s of storing the optical message in photonic format and then processing those light encoded signals. "Take.048 elements.

not just as a bistable dev ice.5 pj of energy hav e been measured. But instead of electrons. The optical modulator transmits data by turning on and off.2/27/13 Paper presentation: Optical computing speeds requiring only 2. Problems with bistability and cascadability of the dev ice hav e held back dev elopment of photonic ICs. The dev ice. gallium arsenide -. called an optical modulator. Until now parallel processing at the chip lev el just has not been possible in photonics or electronics. just like electronic pulses create the ones and zeroes that compose the binary language of computers. Scientists at Intel hav e created another dev ice made of silicon that can encode data onto beams of light at v ery fast speeds. The faster 1 /0 speeds allow the chip to achiev e massiv e connectiv ity . greatly increasing its processing speed. memory cell. Each element on the chip is a sy mmetric self electro-optic effect dev ice (S-SEED). Speed is optical computing's greatest asset. Till this point.lithium niobate.in the tens of gigahertz -. Each element can operate as a logic gate. The most sophisticated photonic chip prior to AT&T's was a 1 -kbit chip dev eloped by NEC. We are try ing to bring 1 /0 up to speed with processing capability . A key to the new dev ice is that it ov ercomes some of the stumbling blocks encountered with photonic ICs. But the Bell researchers say they hav e ov ercome these problems and made a more robust chip.in/2010/04/optical-computing. But the speed of any computer is determined by the speed of the input and output of data. At Intel they 're doing it all on silicon. The dev ice acts just like a transistor.that are hard to manufacture and v ery ex pensiv e.meaning it can cy cle about 1 billion times a second. The optical 1 /0 capabilities of the AT&T dev ice mean data can be mov ed in and out simultaneously . This can get made alongside other products and in azhar-paperpresentation. or a switch. It makes it much easier to operate because the dev ice is tolerant of non uniformities and the biases which are applied to it.but they are not based on silicon. and thus a high degree of parallel processing. Other optical modulators work at ev en higher rates -.html 9/11 . a technology first dev eloped at Bell Labs in 1 987 . a chip's processing efficiency is reduced when its 1 /0 ports form data gridlocks. It does not hav e optical inputs and functions only as a memory dev ice. The chip has all optical inputs and outputs. operating as a three-terminal dev ice. ev ery one has been building optical dev ices out of ex otic materials -.blogspot. will lead to dramatically faster and more powerful microchips that shuffle data around the Internet using light instead of electricity . the modulator creates flickers in light beams that can operate at a speed of roughly 1 gigahertz -. Similar to a large city that has only one-lane highway s to get into and out of it.

This results in a canceled light signal -. optical computing can no longer be relegated to the shoe closet that it was stagnating in since the end of the prev ious decade. In that spirit. or 20 million cy cles per second. Lumera. The ability to use ex isting manufacturing processes and techniques and apply personal computing economics to the dev ices will dramatically reduce costs and sizes. we hope. then this info has to make y ou a believ er. CONCLUSION: Although no single person has the correct or official perspectiv e on such a dy namic field as optical computing.the digital equiv alent of a zero. So as y ou can see. -Optical modulators which till recently were the size of big shoebox es are now as small as their electronic counterparts. the researchers altered the phy sical properties of one of the two wav eguides.blogspot. This also makes it plausible for inv entors to consider replacing ex isting optical modulators with ones made of silicon. -Optical digital signal processors (the size of an IC) hav e been dev eloped.2/27/13 Paper presentation: Optical computing the long term hav e electronics put on it. the best silicon optical modulators operated at the comparativ ely slow speed of 20 megahertz. There were a number of amazing breakthroughs in a number of aspects of optics. optical computing is well out of the fiction books and into y our homes. Lenslet.the equiv alent of wires for light. Intel.in/2010/04/optical-computing. if y ou are still in disbelief about the practicality of this technology . Last y ear was a particularly successful y ear for the optical computing community . if not the azhar-paperpresentation. After all these quotations in the last two pages. The new dev ice is about 50 times (faster than) the prev ious world record in silicon. it may be useful to consider the ruminations of two green thumbs still struggling to think through its implications. An optical modulator works by directing laser beams into two wav eguides -. Y ou don't need a dedicated facility for it. the stuff of dreams is coming true. Boulder Non-Linear Sy stems all came forward with new innov ations that could radically change the innards. As we hav e made abundantly clear in the last few pages. Prev iously . causing light to pass through the altered guide more slowly . -Carbon nanotubes hav e been prov en to act as optical antennas which will make optical transmission work like a cinch. we hav e offered this purely personal perspectiv e. The peaks and troughs of the slowed-down wav es interfere with those in the untouched wav eguide. By also feeding electric current into the modulator. With the adv ent of ground breaking technology .html 10/11 . which outstrip their electronic competition by far.

In this contex t. We hope our small.HighBeam Research. ignorance of this topic would be tantamount to a sin.in/2010/04/optical-computing. This paper is basically an attempt to bring this subject out into the spotlight to take its rightful place along with all the hotly pursued topics of today such as Bluetooth.blogspot. stuttering baby steps hav e accomplished something worthwhile.2/27/13 Paper presentation: Optical computing face. Com m ent as: Google Account Publish Preview Newer Post Home Older Post Subscribe to: Post Comments (Atom) azhar-paperpresentation. ne or omn. John Caulfield Northeast Photo sciences Inc. Nanotechnology and the like. BIBLIOGRAPHY : • Poptronics “Computing with Light” . • R & D Microprocessor timeline encompasses multiple technologies • Poptronics “Optical computing the wav e of the future”HighBeam Research.H. of computing as we know it. • “Perspectiv es On OpticalComputing” .html 11/11 . P O S T ED B Y A Z HA R A T 1: 02 P M N O C O M M E N T S: PO ST A C O M M E N T Etryu cmet..