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IS : 6500 - 1985~

( Reaffirmed 1995 )

Indian Standard CODEOF PRACTICE FOR
1NSTALLATION OF JOINTS IN CONCRETE PAVEMENTS ( f%-s~

Revision )

First-ReprintOCTOBER 1996

UDC 65.S4 : 625.761

: 006.76

BUREAU
MANAK

OF
BHAVAN,

INDIAN
9 BAHADUR DELHI

STANDARDS
SHAH ZAFAR MARG 110002

NEW

Cr5

September 1985

IS :6509

- 1985

in&n

Standard

CODE .OF PRACTICE FOR INSTALLATION OF JOINTS IN CONCRETE PAVEMENTS

-( Firsi
Building Construction

Revision )
Committee, BDC 13
Chairman

Practices Sectional

SnRr C. P. M~LIE; C-4/38 Safdarjung Development New Delhi 110016
Members

Area

Representing

Public Works Department, Government of Uttar Prariesh, Lucknow SHRI R. K. MATII~R ( illfernatc ) Bhabha Atomic Research Centrc, Bombay SHRI D. R. B~TLIVALA SIIRI B:K. CH~~RABORTY Housing and Urban Development Corporation Ltd, New Delhi SHRI S. M. GOEL ( Alfernafc ) Public Works Department, Government of CIIIEF ENGINEER ( BI.DQS ) Tamil Nadu, Madras SUPERINTENDING ENGINEER ( SPECIAL Bu~r~ur~o CIRCLE ) ( Allernnte ) CHIEF F,N~INE~R-CUM-~~,DITIONAL Public Works Department, Government of Rajasthan, SECRETARY ( B & R ) Jaipur EXECUTIVE ENGINEER ( Altcrnalz ) Central Public Works Department, New Delhi CHIEP ENGINEER ( TRAINING ) SUPERINTENDING ENQINEE~ SH,lr If T;;,2r;;o)J &ernate ) Engineer-in-Chief’s Branch, Arm)- Headquarters, New Delhi SHRI A. V. Go~a~rrn.~srrrr.\ ( Altematc ) Research, Designs and Standards Organization DIRECTOR, ARCHITBCTUR~ ( Ministry of Railways ), Lucknow JOINT DIRECTO:~, ARCI~ITECTURX ( Alternate ) Public Works Department, Government of Punjab, SHRI S. S. GILL Chandigarh Builders’ Association of India, Bombay SHRI M. KARTII\-AYAN Institution of Surveyors, New Delhi SHRI R. L. KUMAR SRRI V. G. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~( Alternate ) ( Continued on pup 2 ) Sml 1~.D. A~.~R~AI,

@ Copyright 1985
BUREAU OF INDIAN STANDARDS This publication is protected under the Indian Copyright Acf ( XIV of 1957 ) and reproduction in whole or in part by any means except with written permission of the publisher shall -be deemed to be an infringement of copyright under the said Act.

CHOUDHARY Engineers India Ltd. Bombay SHRI S. Institution of Surveyors. GOKEALE Gammon India Ltd. SHRI SUSRIL KUMA~ New Delhi Public Works & Housing Department. PA1 Concrete Association of India.ZN ( Alternate ) State Bank of India. Bombay Hindustan Prefab Ltd. K.~n~r. BDC 13 : 14 New Delhi Central Public Works Department. PRUTHI Forest Research Institute and College. G.I'S6589 . New Delhi SHRI K. C. KURIEN SHIWG. Bombay SHRI S. Army New Qelhi J. SHRI S. T. SRINIVAS. Bombay SHRI P. S. Dehra Dun Indian Institute of Architects. Bombay REPRBSENTATIVE DEPUTY CHIEF ENGINEER ( NORTH ) ( Alternate ) National Buildings Organization. New Delhi Alternate) SHRI J. K. V. T. S. MANQ. VENKATESULU Ministry of Shipping 8s Transport ( Roads Wing ) SHRI M. SAINI Assistant Director ( Civ Engg-). TAMLIE SHRI B. RANADIVE SRRI RUMMY SIIROFF ( Alternate ) Bureau of Public Enterprises. Bombay SRRI K. N. K. S.-ISI Central Building Roorkee Research Institute ( CSIR ).~ ( Alternate ) SHRI B. *Joints in Strycture Convener SABI HARISX CHANDRA Members LT-COL C. New Delhi REPRESENTATIVE Life Insurance Corporation of India. Ministy of Finance REPRESENTATIVE Central Road Research Institute. SINRA ( Alternate ) SERI P. GUPTA ( Alternate ) R. S. Su. P. Director ( Civ Engg ) SRRI A. R. K. B. RAJACOPALAN ( Alternate) ( Continued on page 20 ) 2 . CHARI SHRI SRRI Subcommittee. V. MAJUMDAR SHRI H. BAJAJ Headquarters. SASTRY ( Alternate ) Director General. New Delhi SARI K. PANDARE SHRI K. S. C. Bombay t S~nr P. 2. ISI ( Ex-officio Member ) SERI G. PAS~ICI~A ( SHRI R. SRINIVASAN DEPUTY DIRECTOR ( Alternate ) National Buildings Construction Corporation Ltd.1985 : ( Continucdfiompage Members SHRI M.~L 1) Representing Tata Consulting Engineers. UNWALLA The Institution of Engineers ( India ). Calcutta SERI G. New Delhi Engineer-in-Chief’s Branch. P. RAMAN.

0. Transverse elastic joint details have been included in the revision. stresses caused due to variation m temperature and mois!ule. after the draft finalized by the Building Construction Practices Sectional Committee had b. the final value. pavements to predetermined joint locations thus avoiding random (racks.2.1 This standard was first published in 1972. *Rules for rounding off numerical values ( recised ). for various types of pavement including prestreszed concrete pavements. 0. shall ‘be rounded off in accordThe number of significant places retained in ance with IS : 2-l 960*. 0. the rounded off value should be the sarrle as that of the >pccific:tl value in this standard. Present revision has been prepared with the assistance of Central ‘Road Research Institute.een approved by the Civil Engineering Division Council.IS : 6509 .c Indian Standards Institution on 28 January 1985.1985 Indiun Standard CODE OF PRACTICE FOR INSTALLATION OF JOINTS IN CONCRETE PAVEMENTS ( First Revision ) 0. and These joints limit the discontinllities in the frictional restraint to sliding. of joints have been Requirements regarding dowel bars and spacing modified.1 This Indian Standard ( First Revision ) was adopted by tl.2 Joints in concrete pavements are provided both longitudinally and Such joints are provided to keep within safe limits the transversely. Transverse expansion joint details have been elaborated New Delhi. FOREWORD 0. observed or calculated.3 For the purpose of deciding whether a particular requirement of this standard is complied with. expressing the result of a test or analysis. 3 .

4.1 Piain Cement Concrete ( PCC ) Pauemenis . are long- 2.4 Construction Joints .1.Mild steel bars provided at transverse load transfer from one slab to the next.Depending upon the absence or provision of the type of reinforcement provided and the manner of its reinforcement.2 ( JRCC is bars Reinforced Cement Concrete ( RCC ) or Jointed Reinforced Cement Concrete ) Pazwnents . 2. conctruction opcrat:ons require them.1.The joints provided in a pavement to relieve formation of irregular cracks due to contraction 2. 2. concrete pavements are classified as given in 2.1. SCOPE 1. standard of joints lays down in concrete general principles.1.1 Type of Pavement .These pavements are provided with longitudinal and transverse 2.1.The joints provided in continuously reinforced concrete pavements. Imt may also be applicable to driveways and industrial TERMINOLOGY the purpose of this standard. which is termed as ‘elastic’ joint. 2. 4 in a pavement joints to affect relative longi- . provision. but painted with a bond-breaking layer for a specified distance on either side of tile joint. ~2. of The general principles shall be applicable for joints in roads and airfield in particular. 2.1 This installation NOTE: pavements pavements.4 Prestressed Concrete ( PSC ) Paoements These pavements provided with high-tensile prestressing steel. design and details pavements for roads and airfields. 2. or hairpin reinforcement at corners.ATo reinforcement provitled in this case except the optional local provision of dowel and tie bars.IS : 6509 . the following definitions shall 2. .1.2 Elastic Joints .0 For apply. w!lile permitting tudinal movement of the slabs. Reinforced which Concrete is discontinued Pauemeks at joints. 2.3 EJ) - reinforcement.The joints ‘provided whpncve:.1 to 2. with Elastic Joints ( CRC- Continuously These are a special type of reinforced concrete pavements in \vhich the steel reinforcement is not discontinued at the contraction joints. but is painted with a bond-breaking agent for certain length on either side of the joint.3 Contraction Joint stressm and to prevent of concrete in :.labs. and prestressed either itudinally or both longitudinally and transversely. through which the steel reinforcement is not discontinued.1985 1.5 Dowel Bars .

The joints provided to relieve stresses due to warping by allowing angular movement with or without permitting relative movement to accommodate contraction.The joints generally at right angles to the cc&e pavernent.8 Joint Sealing Compound . Climatic conditions of the locality ( maximum annual and daily temperature range ! and season of the year which during concrete will be laid.10 Skew Joint . 2.IS: 2. 2. fill the gap 2.13 Warping Joint . whether summer or winter.The material used to provide a seal at the top of the joint to prevent ingress of water or other foreign matter.9 Longitudinal Joint . 3. and of sub-grade and size land type of the aggregate is to be laid.6 Expansion Joint - 6509 .A transverse centre line of the pavement. while permitting angular warping movement. execution pavements.11 Tie Bars . design. These are provided m the longitudinal direction.Steel bars.1 For ethcient planning. 2. on which 5 pa.1985 The joints provided in a pavement at suitable intervals so as to relieve compressive stresses and prevent buckling during expansion of concrete in slabs. provided in a pavement which are line and to the surface of the 2. Tie bars arc bonded to both the slabs on either side of’ the joint. to be used.7 Joint Filler . provided at longitudinal joint to prevent shifting apart of the adjacent lanes.ement . Concrete proposed Nature mix proportions. DESIGN AND PLANNING DATA and placing of joints in 3.The compressible material between adjacent pavement slabs at the expansion used to joints. 2. joint which in a pavement which is not at right angle to the 2. the following data are needed: a) b) 4 d) Area and layout of the projects.12 Transverse Joint -.The joints provided are parallel to the centre line of the pavement. liquid or solid.

1 The joints shall be so arranged as to avoid acute angles and The angles at the corner of slabs should preferably re-entrant angles.2.1. MATERIAL 4. *Specification for preformed fillers for expansions test in concrete pavement and structure ( non-extruding and resilient type: Part 1 Bitumen-impregnated fibre ) (Jrst revision ).2 Fuel and heat-resisting joint sealing compound shall be similar in general properties to the material described in 4. spalling and disintegration. medium tensile steel and high yield strength steel deformed bars for concrete reinforcement ( revised 1. iSpecification for mild steel and medium tensile bars and hard-drawn steel wire for concrete reinforcement: Part 2 Hard-drawn steel wire ( third revision ). q]Specification for hot rolled mild steel. fSpecification for bitumen primer for use in waterproofing and damp-proofing $Specification for mild steel and medium tensile steel bars and hard-drawn steel wire for concrete reinforcement: Part 1 Mild steel and medium tensile steel bars ( third evision ). It shall not deteriorate under any weather conditions and shall confirm with the requirements as given in IS : 1838 ( Part 1 )-1983* 4.1 Ordinary joint sealing compound shall comply with Grade A of IS : lH%-19847. 5. 6 .2. be not less than 90 and not more than 180”. ?Spccification for hot-applied sealing compound for joints in concrete (Jrst seoision). DESIGN 5.3 Dowel Bars aqd Tie Bars shall be made from steel conforming to IS : 432 4.X Dowel bars ( Part 1 )-19825.2 Joint Sealing Compound 4. 4.2.1 Layout shall be made from steel conforming to either IS : 432 or IS : 432 ( Part 2 )-198211 or IS : 113919667 OI CONSIDERATION of Joints 5.3.3. *‘Specification for cold-worked steel high strength deformed bars for concrete reinforcement ( second reoision ).The joint filler shall be of premoulded type and sha!l be resistant to insects and decay in burried positions.1 Joint Filler .IS :6509 -1985 4. and shall be capable of adhering to the concrete without cracking. 4.2 Tie bars ( Part 1 )-1’1825 IS : 1786-1979**. A primer conforming to IS : 33841965: shz?dl be used to improve adhesion. softened by immersion in kerosine or petrol and shall comply with Grade 13 of IS : 1834-19847.1 for -ordinary sealing compound except that it must not get. 4.

in adjacent lanes may be kept in one line cracking which is likely to develop if the 5. The joint filler shall extend to the entire width of the pavement and from the subbase to 25 to 30 mm below the surface of the pavement. The slab edge adjacent to the joint shall be formed truly vertical. If at any other place. For slab thicknesses greater than 200 mm.1. 7 .These may be of dummy groove type in concrete.1. No dowel bars should however. 5.1. If the joint is at the site for an expansion joint. plus the height of the parting bottom pavement thickness. particularly over weaker foundations.2 Details of Joints 5.IS : 6509 . plastic or asbestos strips as indicated in Fig.2. be provided in expansion joints at junctions with st. 1. 5.3 Skew joints shall be avoided as they may lead to cracking at the acute angled corners and may tend to make the slab move sideways. it is advisable to provide inserts at the bottom of the slab before casting in order that a vertical crack may be formed at the joint.1985 5. The depth of the groove on top shall not exceed one-third the 5. l/4 the pavement thickness and shall be 8 to 10 mm wide.2. These are intended to create a plane of weakness through concrete slab along which the concrete may crack when contraction or shrinkage takes place.1 Transverse expansion joints ( PCC. the construction joint shall extend to the full depth of the pavement and preferably be provided with dowel bars for load transfer.2 The transverse joints in order to avoid sympathetic joints are staggered.2 Transverse contraction joint .1 Transverse Join&s 5.2.Such joints are provided when concrete laying is suspended for more than 30 minutes. Except for emergency stops the construction joints shall be located at the site for an expansion or contraction joint.2.3 Transverse construction joint .1. Provision of dowel bars is -imperative for load transfer and maintenance of continuity of surface levels.1. The basic principle governing the design of such joints is that the thickness of joint filler provided shall not be less than two times the maximum estimated expansion of the concrete slab on one side of t&joint so that the filler material will not be compressed to more than 50 percent of its thickness. JRCC or CRC-EJ Pavemen/s ) - These joints shall be~continuous from edge to edge of the pavement through all lanes constructed at the same or different times. regular expansion joint shall be provided. Thpe shall have a depth equal to l/3 to.uctures. These inserts may be of metal.

excepting that the steel reinforcement shall be allowed to continue through them.f$ : 6509 . As due to the ‘elastic’ or spring action of steel.2. il L -9 f NWIZ - n generally FIG. 2 ELASTIC JOINT FOR CRC-EJ 8 PAVEMENT . the joint groove at the top may be filled with a plastic or ply insert immediately after formation and may not be sealed with the sealing compound.- E?AI>: IC 0 JOINT !/. 2 ).1985 !A PLASTICS INSERT BOND BROKEN BY PAINTING 18 CORRUGATELj ASBESTOS SHEET INSERT L -T length of dowel or the bar d = slab thickness All dimensions in millimetres.1. varies between 3 and 4. and shall be painted with a bond-breakin g layer for a specified distance on either side of the joint ( see Fig. FIG.These shall be of dummy groove as in case of PCC or JRCC pavement. 1 type INSERTSPROVIDED AT CONTRACTION JOINTS 5. the movement at these joints is much smaller than that for the dummy joints in PCC or JRCC pavement.4 Transoerse elastic joint . CON:‘ilNvOi!S t?E!NFORCEMENT WITS r:CND A!’ ---___‘:HE PAINTED I?REAf(ING JO!NT i LAYER __ .

These joints at the edge of construction lanes may be of plain butt.1985 5. the depth of groove being l/3 to l/4 the pavement thickness.2. Where the thickness is more than 200 mm these may preferably be of the tongue and groove type keyed to provide load transference.These joints shall be formed in the same way as transverse expansion joints excepting that no dowel bars shall be provided in this case. FIG. the joints are provided A channel is provldctl in the subslab under the with RCC subslabs. The dummy groove type will be applicable in cases where pavers are employed for concreting over 6 m width at a time. keyed or dummy groove type. For air-fields.3 Typical shown in Fig.1. longitudinal warping joints shodId be provided witch tie bars to prevent progressive Tie bars are opening of the joints due to lateral movement of slabs. 5. to drain out any rainwater which m. This type of joint is also suitable for provlslon at the ends of continuously reinforced concrete pavement. 5. joint plate.2. illustrative sketches for different types of joints are 9 . Where necessary. ties may be provided at the joints nearest the extreme edges of the paved area.5 Trar2suerse expansion joint ( PSC or CRC-E3 ) pavement Yrestressed concrete pavements are normally provided with steel-plate type~expansion joint ( see Fig. DOUBLE LAYER OF POLYETHYLENE RCC SUB-SLAB NOTE 2 Reinforcement and fixing arrangement for joint plates not shown. necessary at curves for pavements on expansive soils or fills or when the pavement is subjected to heavy traffic.2.ges.2.IS : 6509 . 4. To provide adequate support to the joint ed.2 Longitudinal warping joints .2.2. 5.2 3 EXPANSION JOINTFOR PSC PAVEMENT Longitudinal Joint 5.2.i$ht find its way therein.1 Longitudinal expansion joint . 3 ) to accommodate large joint movements.

‘.rPRFhmLCC” DOWEL FILLER LH DUMMY GROOVE JOINT WITH TIE BAR 4 J EXPANSION JOINT WITH DO. d = siab thickness t = expyion joint width FIG. CtTAlL DUMMY’ All OF GROOVE FOR tiROOVE JOINTS dimensions~in millimetres. -OOvfEL BbtR ._ qY$--iq / BOND .WEL-BAR LK EXPANSION JOINT WITHOUT DOWEL CAR DCTCIL OF SEALING GUTT JOINTS AND GROOVE F. 4 TYPICAL DETAILS OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF JOINTS 10 .CCR KEYED JOINT’.C BROYEN BY P*INTING BUT? JOINT WITH DOWEL BAR L!IJ KEYED JOINT CE KEYED JOINT WITH TIE BAR LF rrte DUMMY GROOVE JOINT EAR BONDETJ ON BcJfH SIDES 4’5 DUMMY GROOVE JOINT WITH BAR .m BONDED \ .\ L4 PLAIN ] BUTT JOINT [ yry-----i---=_ 68 BUTT JOINT WITH TIE BAR .

At the ends of the section.2.Recommended spacing for expansion joints shall also apply to longitudinal expansion 11 .1.3. For PSC pavements.3.3 Transverse construction joiht .3. shall be provided at other locations only when the concreting has to be suspended due to unforeseen reasons. the spacing of joints shall be such as to avoid the formation of c~racks at places other than joint locations. the more important of which are the coefficient of thermal expansion of the concrete.4 Reinforcement in Slab . and at junctions with structures. 5. the temperature during placing. the maximum slab length beirg of the nrder of 140 m. 5. In case of CRC-EJ pavements. the transverse and longitudinal expansion joints shall be so positioned as to divide the pavement into approxirnate square bays.1 Transverse Joints . Longitudinal expansion joint .3.1. 5. 5. For unreinforced concrete slabs. elastic joints shall be provided at the X0 expansion joints same spacing as dummy joints for PCC pavements. shall got be carried across an expansion or contraction joint but may be carried across a construction or warping joint. the spacing of joints shall be related to the amount of reinforcement provided so that formation of hair cracks is~controlled. are provided within a continuous section of CRC-EJ regardless of its length. the frictional restraint of the sub-grade to the movement of the slabs. For reinforced slabs. 5.3.The construction operations shall be so planned that the location of the construction joints coincide Construction joints with either an expansion joint or a contraction joint. the thickness of’ the slab ancl amormt of the reinforcement.1 transverse joints.IS : 6509 . if provided.3 Spacing 5.The reinforcement in the slab. In case of airfield pavements.1 Transverse expansion joints shall be so spaced that they will permit thermal expansion over a range of temperature from the lowest at which any slab in a complete pavement is placed to the maximum likely to be attained. only expansion joints ( steel-plate type ) are provided between consecutive slabs.2 The recommended spacings for both expansion and contraction joints are given in Table 1 for PCC and JRCC pavements.1.The spacing of transverse joints depends on sever-al factors.3. a series of 4 to 5 dowelled expansion joints at the same spacing as adopted for elastic joints within the CRC-EJ section or single expansion joint of the type used in case of PSC pavements is provided.1985 52.2 Longitudinal Joint 5.

10 - (5) m 45 36 25 12.20 0.15 0. SPACING OF CONTRACTIOX JOINT (1) i) Reinforced slabs with joints only (2) concrete expansion (3) m 0.5 Elastic joints at 4.10 0. TYPEOFSLAR THICKNESS OF SLAH MASS OF REINFOKCEiXENT (4) kg/m’ . *Width of expansion joints = 20 mm.2 ) SPACING OF JOINTS* AND SL No.5 51 45 :: 36 (6) m 17 1.3.5 m.In case of thicker airfield pavements. etc. 12 .5 3.3.2 Longitudinal warping joints .2.1.5 4.5 4.25 0. 7. is provided below the pavement.8 2’:. Type ofcement and its early strength development characteristics also have a bearing on contraction joint spacing.Spacing of such joints is determined by the lane widths to be provided in the carriage way but shall be limited to a maximum of 4.:5” 3. Whereas limited experience with higher spacings indicates the possibility of increasing the c cntracticn joint spacing to 6-7.5 m and expansion joint spacing to about-60 m. each case may need individual consideration in view of variety of [actors involved.5 m intervals ii) Reinforced concrete slabs with expansion and dummy contraction joints Unreinforced concrete slabs iii) - 2’: At ends of CRC-EJ section or junctions with structures only.5 4. 5 expansion joints at 45 m intervals or a single~steel plate expansion joint iv) Continuously reinforced concrete pavement with elastic joints v) Prestressed concrete pavement - Steel plate expansion joint between slabs ( MUX slab length of the order of 140 m ) - NOTE .20 and above O-15 0. 5.7 5.TABLE 1 -RECOMMENDED SPACING OF EXPANSION CONTRACTION JOINTS ( Clause 5.8 2.25 0’20 O-15 0’10 0. Construction joint spacings could be increased to some extent in case a ‘smooth’ under-layer of sand and polyethylene sheeting. somewhat higher expansion joint spacings may be permitted particularly when construction is mainly carried out during summer months.

TABLE 2 RECOMMENDED MINIMUM REQriIREMENTS IN HIGHWAY PAVEMENTS All dimensions PAYEiWNT 'I‘IIIC:i_\ESS 150 200 250 DOWEL DIANETER 25 25 32 in-millimetres. 150 mm thick. 5.’ In case of transverse expansion joints.3 various TABLE The recommended minimum requirements of dowel thicknesses of airfield pavements are given in Table 3.1 Dowel bars are required to transfer wheel loads to the adjacent slab. This bond-breaking layer shall preferably be provided on opposite sides of the joint~in adjacent dowel bar.4 Provision of Dowel Bars 5.1 Dowel bars are not satisfactory and shall not be provided for slabs less-than for slabs of small thickness.1965 5. 5.4.2 Recommended minimum requirements of dowel bars for different thickness of highway pavements are given in Table 2. when the wheel is located on the slab edge next to the transverse joint.IS : 6509 .4. 3 RECOMMENDED FOR MINIMUM AIRFIELD REQUIREMENTS PAVEMENTS in mil~imctres. Cotton waste or other compressible material shall be inserted but not tightly packed before fitting the cap over the painted end of the dowel bar so that there is sufficient gap between the bar end and the inside of the cap. DOWEL LENGTIX 500 500 500 DOWEL SPACING 200 300 300 OF DOWEL BARS 5. the unbonded portion of the dowel is provided with expansion cap at the end.1.4. One half of the dowel bar is painted with a bond-breaking layer of bitumen.4. DOWEL LENGTH (3) 500 500 '550 550 600 bars for OF DOWEL BARS All dimensions PAVEMENT THICKNESS (1) 200 250 300 350 400 DOWEL DrAiwe'rER (2) 25 32 36 36 40 DOWEL SPACINU (4) 300 300 350 350 350 13 .

1 ‘Transuersc Expansion Joint . b = distance between joint in question and the nearest free joint or edge in m.5. weight per ni2 of concrete slab in N. In addition to the calculated length L an allowance of about 75 mm may be added to account for inaccuracies in placing the tie bar during construction. CONSTRUCTION 6. 5. cross-section area of one tie bar in mm2. allowable bond stress in the tie bars in N/mm2.IS:6569 -1985 of Tie Bars 5. the maximum tension in the tie bars across any joint being equal to the force required to overcome friction between pavements and sub-base. and their spacing. not more than 750 mm so as to avoid concentration of tensile forces.1.The premoulded expansion joint filler and dowel bars shall be held accurately in place during the placing This may be achieved by means of bulkheads and finishing of concrete. length of tie bars in mm. tie bars shall be designed to withstand tensile stresses only. from the joint in question to the nearest free joint or edge.5 Provision 5. with holes drilled along the centre-line to accommodate the dowel bars. or a metal channel 14 . and perimeter of one tie bar in mm.h= allowable working stress in steel in N/mm2.5.1 Whenever provided. f= w= Lx a :-_ coefficient of friction between pavement and subgrade or sub-base ( usually taken at l-5 ). B= p= The diameter of tie bars should not be greater than 20 mm so as to facilitate angular warping movement at the joints. consisting of hardwood beams of appropriate section.1 Transverse Joint 6. .2 The diameter. spacing and length of tie bars may be computed from the following foxmulae: where A = area of steel per m length of joint in mm2. 6.

Holes to accommodate dowel bars shall be accurately bored or punctured out in the premouldec! joint filler.1. parallel iugs not less than 50 mm deep. 5 ). between 12 and 18 h of laying of concrete under moderate climatic conditions.5 mm in 100 mm. and surface of tht pavement with sufficient stakes to hold them in the specified position. Under extreme cold conditions tllis period may be suitably increased on the basis of experience. in place of bulkhead suitable mild steel reinforcement assembly to hold the joint filler dowel bars securely in place shall be used as an integral part of the joint assembly.2 The metal channel cover. Dowel bars should be placed to each other and parallel to the surface and centre lind of the pavement. 6. The joint filler may be introduced initially against the buikheads or after the first slab has been cast and bulkheads have been removed and held against the hardened concrete. or metal channel cover (see Fig.1. one at the joint location. The bulkheads shall be securely staked in place at right angles to the centreline of.1. that is.1. 6. has set sufficiently so as not to flow back into the groove.1. The bulks which form on either side of the joint shall be smoothed out by trorvelling using a wooden float and finished to match the surface texture of the remainder of the slab.4 In case it is desired IO proceed continuoilsly with constrhction on the other side of the expansion joint.2 Transoerse Coulraction Joint . Concrete shall be allowed to harden sufficiently so as not to disturb the joint assembly before removing the bulkhead. joint material will remain straight‘as the concrete is placed and finished. and the other some distance away to hold the projecting ends of the dowel bars to maintain their alignment so that they are parallel to cenire line of the pavement as well as to hits surface.1.3 Thorough compaction s!lalI be ensured for concrete around the dowels by giving additional compaction rvith the internal vibrator. 5. 15 . shall be of 3 mm thick steel having two equal. the slot may be formed by sawing the concrete with joint cutting machine when the concrete has sufficiently hardened. 6. when used. For dowels of 25 mm diameter the tolerance shall be kO.1. The maximum permissible tolerance in the alignment of dowels shall be 21 mm in 100 mm for dowel bars of 20 mm or lower diameters.The dummy groove type joint may be formed by driving or vibrating into the fresh concrete a flat m<!t~l bar or the web of a T-bar.1 Bulkheads when employed shall be used in pairs.1.1985 cap or other approved method ( two-piece split bulkheads may be used.1. The metal cover shall be placed over the top of the expansion joint material in the sub-grade by flat metal stakes spaced so closely together that the. The metal bar shall be withdrawn as soon as the concrete Alternatively. An oiled or greased mild steel rectangular section or metal channel cover shall be placed at the top of the joint fi!ler for protection of the sealing groove over it during construction layout for construction of transverse expansion joints using bulkheads is illustrated in Fig.IS : 6509 . 6. 6. held on its edges by guides. parallel if considered more convenient ).

5 LAYOUT FOR CONSTRUCTION TRANSVERSE OF EXPANSION JOINT IN CONCRETEPAVEMENTS USING BULKHEADS 16 .IS:6509 - 1985 “4 K BULKHEAOS SECTION YY EXPANSION JOINT LOCATION BIJLKUEAD MAINTAIN TO DOWEL STEP I FORMATlON OF FIRST SIDE OF THE JOINT SECTION PROJECTING PORTION GF DOWEL BARS COATED WITH BITUMEN TO PREVENT BONDING XX STEEL OVER GROOVE OR TIMBER JOINT FILLER FOR JOINT SECTION TO FORM SEALtNG EXPANSION CAPS EXPANSION INTRODUCED HOLES OF SECOND SECOND SIDE SIDE FOR OF OF JOINT AFTER DOWEL THE THE FILLER BARS BOAR0 PROVIDED ON DOWEL BAR ‘1 ENDS WITH COTTON WASTE STEP II FCRMATION CONCRET!NG PROVIDING JOINT JOINT BEFORE SECTION Pu’OTEHolding devices for hulkheads XX not shown. and formwork FIG.

Same transverse expansion joint sha!i be adopted.These joints. chopped fibre. 6. the procedure as follo~~cd for transverse contraction joint shall be adopted. except that the dowel liars need not be provided. 6. In the case of’ dummy type joint.3 The contact faces of joints ous paint which shall be allowerl shall be primed with a thin bituminto dry before the sealing compound is 17 . The’contact faces of the joint shall be cleared with a rvire-brush to remove loose materials and shall be r.1985 .IS : 6509 . ‘The faces of the o!d concrete sLrbs shall be painted with bitumen before placing of fresh concrete.4. The level on both the sides of the joint shall IV ‘The general level oi‘ checked. 6.These joint< shall be so constructed that when work is resumed. the lower portion of the groove may be filled with fibre board strip.3 Tie bars lvhen provided shall be well supported so as not to be displaced during construction operations.2. the surface shall conform to the grade and cross-section of previously laid pavement. any difference in level shall be corrected.3 Tramverse Construction Joint . The-procedure for construction is similar to transverse expansion joint except that the premoulded joint filler is not provided. The joint opening shall be thoroughly cleared of all foreign matter before the sealing material is placed.1. These shall be bonded in the slabs across the joints.z:-facc * dry when the seaiing compound is poured. 6. 6.2 In the case of deep grooves.4 Sealing of Joints 6. if of outt type shall be formed by placing the concrete against the faces of the slabs concreted earlier.1 After the curing period is over and before the pavelnetlt ii opened to traffic. and no expansion caps are necessary in case of dowel bars.2-2 Longitudinai ltVarping300int . leaving the top 25 mm of the groove to be filled with sealing compound.6.2 Longitudinal Joint procedure as followed for 6. the surface shall be checked with a straight edge across the joint allr/ any irregularity in excess of 3 mm shall be corrected.3 The edges of all joints shall be rounded with an edging tool haviny a radius of 6 mm. tarred rope or other suitable material. and holes should be provided in the side slnuttering to accommodate the tie bars.2. the intruded materials in all joints sha!l 1~ rc!~lr~~(~tl completely and the joint groove filled in with t’he sealing compoun(I.4. 6.1 Loqitudinal Expamiou ]oint . 6.4. For tongue and groove type butt joint the formwork of the slab concreted earlier shall have projection of suitable dimensions.

The primer may be prepared by fluxing a soft straight run bitumen with light cresote oil and solvent naphtha.2 is suspected because the sealing compound is becoming loosened or hard.2 Letting in of %rit .The sealing compound may become soft or be pulled out of position by traffic. if necessary. worked well with a trowel. the old seal should be removed and the joint re-sealed. 7. in winter the sealing compound may be filled to a depth 3-4 mm below the surface.4 Sealing compound shall be poured into the joint opening in such a manner that the material will not get spilled on the exposed surface of the concrete. Bituminous emulsions shall not be used as primers. The edges of the patch should be trimmed vertical and thoroughly wetted with a thin layer of neat cement paste applied to the faces. solvent naphtha shall be added.1 and 7.The defective edge should be cut away to a depth of not less than 50 mm and to a width normal to the joint from 75 to 150 mm. 6. The joint edges shall then be rouned off.2. The period of curing may be reduced if high early strength cement is used. If spalling has occurred this should be repaired as described in 7.2.1 Letting in of Water . When cold. struck off and finished with a wooden float to match the surface texture of the adjacent slab. leading to spalling of the edges of the slab.The sealing compound comes away from the joint faces and admits water to the sub-grade. 6. 7.2.3.2.1985 applied. The patch should be cured for a period not less than ten days. 6.4. MAINTENANCE OF JOINTS 7.5 It is recommended that while in summer the joints may be sealed flush with the adjacent pavement surface. Concrete of as dry a mix as possible of suitable proportions not linear than 1 : 14 : 3 is then placed in position.2 If either of the failures referred in 7.It is good practice to make a detailed inspection and record of the condition of each joint once every six months.4. or because there are obvious signs of grit in the joint. 7. allowing stones and grit to be pressed into the compound or to become wedged in the joint. Any excess filler on the surface of the concrete pavement shall be removed immediately and the pavement surface cleaned. 7.4. 18 .6 To prevent tackiness or pick up under traffic. 7.IS : 6569 . The bitumen shall be melted and fluxed with the oil. The primer shall be applied with a brush.S Repair of Spalled Edges .1 Routine Inspection of Joints . the exposed surfaces of the sealing compound shall be dusted with hydrated lime.

5 Where the filler has deteriorated or the joint has been filled with an extruding type of material the defective material should be removed and a compressible material such as impregnated fibre board chopped into small pieces. any stones or the concrete 7. 7. grit or other extraneous material should first be removed.4 If the sealing compound requires only replenishing.1985 Alternatively.IS:6509. The ioint should then be primed and sealed. 19 . surface primed and new sealing compound added. the repair may be carried out with suitable resin-sand afterpriming the prepared surface with the resin formulation. hemp or sawdust packed firmly but not rammed hard to about 25 to 30 mm of the top surface. in which case the repaired portions may be opened to traffic the next day.

SHAH SHRI J. SHRI P. Pan~r. M. Bombay SHRI DATTA MALIH Concrete Association of India. Roorkee SHRI M. New Delhi Central Building Research Institute ( CSIR ). R. Pornbe) Dn M. K.I G. SHRI K. B.~EETHARAMAN SHRI PRAFULLA Kuv~a ( Ahnate 1 Tirath Ram Ahuja Pvt Ltd. P. V. JAIN ( fl&?‘nnta ) M. S. R. SRINIVASBN ( Alternate ) Central Road Research Institute. SRIXIVASA~. KUJXARHI SHRI D. JAIY~NGH SHRr R. GHOST ( Alternate) Indian Institute of Architects. I(. B. Dastur & Company (1’) Ltd. LAL ( Altcrnalc ) National Ruilding Construction Corporation Ltd. RAMAJUJKTHY SHRI R. GUPTA ( Ahernate ) National Buildings Organization. SETH ( Altcrnatc) Ministry of Shippings& Transport ( Roads Wing ) Saw S.IS -: 6509 . New Delhi WORKS ( CZ ) SURVEYOR OF WORJX ( CZ ) ( Alternafc) 20 . New Delhi Sriar Y. New Delhi SHRI R.1985 ( Continued from page 2 ) Members SHP. 1’. Calcutta Sllcr s. SRRI A. SHRI SUSFIIL KUIUR New Delhi SHRI’DALJIT SINGH ( Alternate ) SUPERINTENDIXG SURVEYOH OF Central Public Works Department. JAHAGIRIJ. New Delhi SHRI T. SETHI ( Alf~rnate ) Directorate General Border Roads.N. New Delhi SI~I K. P.\I: Rcprcsentirg National Industrial Development Corporaticn Ltd. NAYAH. L.

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