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Cold weather concreting using Rapidite 1

1. Introduction
Concrete is a composite construction material, composed of cement (commonly Portland cement) and other cementitious materials such as fly ash and slag cement, aggregate (generally a coarse aggregate made of gravel or crushed rocks such as limestone, or granite, plus a fine aggregate such as sand), water and chemical admixtures. The word concrete comes from the Latin word "concretus" (meaning compact or condensed), the perfect passive participle of "concrescere", from "con-" (together) and "crescere" (to grow). Concrete solidifies and hardens after mixing with water and placement due to a chemical process known as hydration. The water reacts with the cement, which bonds the other components together, eventually creating a robust stone-like material. PORTLAND CEMENT + H2O + ROCK = HARDENED CONCRETE + ENERGY (HEAT)

Concrete is used to make pavements, pipe, architectural structures, foundations, motorways/roads, bridges/overpasses, parking structures, brick/block walls and footings for gates, fences and poles. Concrete is used more than any other man-made material in the world. As of 2006, about 7.5 cubic kilometers of concrete are made each year more than one cubic meter for every person on Earth. Reinforced concrete, prestressed concrete and precast concrete are the most widely used types of concrete functional extensions in modern days.

Concrete has been used for construction in various ancient structures. An analysis of ancient Egyptian pyramids has shown that concrete may have been employed in their construction, although its composition would have differed from modern concrete. During the Roman Empire, Roman concrete (or opus caementicium) was made from quicklime, pozzolana and an aggregate of pumice. Its widespread use in many Roman structures, a key event in the history of architecture termed the Roman Architectural Revolution, freed Roman construction from the restrictions of stone and brick material and allowed for revolutionary new designs in terms of both structural complexity and dimension. Hadrian's Pantheon in Rome is an example of Roman concrete construction.

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Concrete, as the Romans knew it, was a new and revolutionary material. Laid in the shape of arches, vaults and domes, it quickly hardened into a rigid mass, free from many of the internal thrusts and strains that trouble the builders of similar structures in stone or brick. Modern tests show that opus caementicium had as much compressive strength as modern Portland-cement concrete (200 kg/cm2).However, due to the absence of steel reinforcement, its tensile strength was far lower and its mode of application was also different: Modern structural concrete differs from Roman concrete in two important details. First, its mix consistency is fluid and homogeneous, allowing it to be poured into forms rather than requiring hand-layering together with the placement of aggregate, which, in Roman practice, often consisted of rubble. Second, integral reinforcing steel gives modern concrete assemblies great strength in tension, whereas Roman concrete could depend only upon the strength of the concrete bonding to resist tension. The widespread use of concrete in many Roman structures has ensured that many survive to the present day. The Baths of Caracalla in Rome are just one example. Many Roman aqueducts and bridges have masonry cladding on a concrete core, as does the dome of the Pantheon. Some have stated that the secret of concrete was lost for 13 centuries until 1756, when the British engineer John Smeaton pioneered the use of hydraulic lime in concrete, using pebbles and powdered brick as aggregate. However, the Canal du Midi was built using concrete in 1670. Likewise there are concrete structures in Finland that date back to the 16th century. Portland cement was first used in concrete in the early 1840s

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1.1.1 Cement Portland cement is the most common type of cement in general usage. It is a basic ingredient of concrete, mortar and plaster. English masonry worker Joseph Aspdin patented Portland cement in 1824; it was named because of its similarity in color to Portland limestone, quarried from the English Isle of Portland. It consists of a mixture of oxides of calcium, silicon and aluminum. Portland cement and similar materials are made by heating limestone (a source of calcium) with clay and grinding this product (called clinker) with a source of sulfate (most commonly gypsum). 1.1.2 Water Combining water with a cementitious material forms a cement paste by the process of hydration. The cement paste glues the aggregate together, fills voids within it and allows it to flow more freely. Less water in the cement paste will yield a stronger, more durable concrete; more water will give a free-flowing concrete with a higher slump. Impure water used to make concrete can cause problems when setting or in causing premature failure of the structure. Hydration involves many different reactions, often occurring at the same time. As the reactions proceed, the products of the cement hydration process gradually bond
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together the individual sand and gravel particles and other components of the concrete, to form a solid mass. 1.1.3 Aggregate Fine and coarse aggregates make up the bulk of a concrete mixture. Sand, natural gravel and crushed stone are used mainly for this purpose. Recycled aggregates (from construction, demolition and excavation waste) are increasingly used as partial replacements of natural aggregates. Decorative stones such as quartzite, small river stones or crushed glass are sometimes added to the surface of concrete for a decorative "exposed aggregate" finish, popular among landscape designers. The presence of aggregate greatly increases the robustness of concrete above that of cement, which otherwise is a brittle material and thus concrete is a true composite material. Redistribution of aggregates after compaction often creates inhomogeneity due to the influence of vibration. This can lead to strength gradients.

1.1.4 Reinforcement Concrete is strong in compression, as the aggregate efficiently carries the compression load. However, it is weak in tension as the cement holding the aggregate in place can crack, allowing the structure to fail. Reinforced concrete solves these problems by adding either steel reinforcing bars, steel fibers, glass fiber, or plastic fiber to carry tensile loads. Thereafter the concrete is reinforced to withstand the tensile loads upon it. 1.1.5 Chemical Admixtures Chemical admixtures are materials in the form of powder or fluids that are added to the concrete to give it certain characteristics not obtainable with plain concrete mixes. In normal use, admixture dosages are less than 5% by mass of cement and are added to the concrete at the time of batching/mixing.

Concrete Production
The processes used vary dramatically, from hand tools to heavy industry, but result in the concrete being placed where it cures into a final form. Wide range of technological factors may occur during production of concrete elements and their influence to basic characteristics may vary. When initially mixed together, Portland cement and water rapidly form a gel, formed of tangled chains of interlocking crystals. These continue to react over time, with the
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initially fluid gel often aiding in placement by improving workability. As the concrete sets, the chains of crystals join and form a rigid structure, gluing the aggregate particles in place. During curing, more of the cement reacts with the residual water (hydration). This curing process develops physical and chemical properties. Among these qualities are mechanical strength, low moisture permeability and chemical and volumetric stability. 1.1.6 Mixing concrete Thorough mixing is essential for the production of uniform, high quality concrete. For this reason equipment and methods should be capable of effectively mixing concrete materials containing the largest specified aggregate to produce uniform mixtures of the lowest slump practical for the work. 1.1.7 Workability Workability is the ability of a fresh (plastic) concrete mix to fill the form/mould properly with the desired work (vibration) and without reducing the concrete's quality. Workability depends on water content, aggregate (shape and size distribution), cementitious content and age (level of hydration) and can be modified by adding chemical admixtures, like superplasticizer. Raising the water content or adding chemical admixtures will increase concrete workability. Excessive water will lead to increased bleeding (surface water) and/or segregation of aggregates (when the cement and aggregates start to separate), with the resulting concrete having reduced quality. The use of an aggregate with an undesirable gradation can result in a very harsh mix design with a very low slump, which cannot be readily made more workable by addition of reasonable amounts of water. Workability can be measured by the concrete slump test, a simplistic measure of the plasticity of a fresh batch of concrete. Slump is normally measured by filling an "Abrams cone" with a sample from a fresh batch of concrete. The cone is placed with the wide end down onto a level, non-absorptive surface. It is then filled in three layers of equal volume, with each layer being tamped with a steel rod in order to consolidate the layer. When the cone is carefully lifted off, the enclosed material will slump a certain amount due to gravity. A relatively dry sample will slump very little, or will not at all. A relatively wet concrete sample may slump as much as eight inches. Workability can also be measured by using the flow table test. Slump can be increased by addition of chemical admixtures such as plasticizer or superplasticizer without changing the water-cement ratio. Some other admixtures, especially air-entraining admixture, can increase the slump of a mix. High-flow concrete, like self-consolidating concrete, is tested by other flow-measuring methods. One of these methods includes placing the cone on the narrow end and observing how the mix flows through the cone while it is gradually lifted. After mixing, concrete is a fluid and can be pumped to the location where needed.
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1.1.8 Curing In all but the least critical applications, care needs to be taken to properly cure concrete, to achieve best strength and hardness. This happens after the concrete has been placed. Cement requires a moist, controlled environment to gain strength and harden fully. The cement paste hardens over time, initially setting and becoming rigid though very weak and gaining in strength in the weeks following. In around 3 weeks, typically over 90% of the final strength is reached, though strengthening may continue for decades. Hydration and hardening of concrete during the first three days is critical. Abnormally fast drying and shrinkage due to factors such as evaporation from wind during placement may lead to increased tensile stresses at a time when it has not yet gained sufficient strength, resulting in greater shrinkage cracking. The early strength of the concrete can be increased if it is kept damp during the curing process. Minimizing stress prior to curing minimizes cracking. High-early-strength concrete is designed to hydrate faster, often by increased use of cement that increases shrinkage and cracking. During this period concrete needs to be kept under controlled temperature and humid atmosphere. In practice, this is achieved by spraying or ponding the concrete surface with water, thereby protecting the concrete mass from ill effects of ambient conditions. Properly curing concrete leads to increased strength and lower permeability and avoids cracking where the surface dries out prematurely. Care must also be taken to avoid freezing, or overheating due to the exothermic setting of cement. Improper curing can cause scaling, reduced strength, poor abrasion resistance and cracking.

Concrete has relatively high compressive strength, but much lower tensile strength and for this reason is usually reinforced with materials that are strong in tension (often steel). The elasticity of concrete is relatively constant at low stress levels but starts decreasing at higher stress levels as matrix cracking develops. Concrete has a very low coefficient of thermal expansion and shrinks as it matures. All concrete structures will crack to some extent, due to shrinkage and tension. Concrete that is subjected to long-duration forces is prone to creep.

Environmental concerns
1.1.9 Carbon dioxide emissions and climate change

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The cement industry is one of two primary producers of carbon dioxide (CO2), creating up to 5% of worldwide man-made emissions of this gas, of which 50% is from the chemical process and 40% from burning fuel. The CO2 emission from the concrete production is directly proportional to the cement content used in the concrete mix. Indeed, 900 kg of CO2 are emitted for the fabrication of every ton of cement. Cement manufacture contributes greenhouse gases both directly through the production of carbon dioxide when calcium carbonate is thermally decomposed, producing lime and carbon dioxide, and also through the use of energy, particularly from the combustion of fossil fuels. 1.1.10 Surface runoff

when water runs off impervious surfaces, such as non-porous concrete, can cause heavy soil erosion. Urban runoff tends to pick up gasoline, motor oil, heavy metals, trash and other pollutants from sidewalks, roadways and parking lots. The impervious cover in a typical urban area limits groundwater percolation and causes five times the amount of runoff generated by typical woodland of the same size. Urban runoff has been identified as a leading source of water quality problems 1.1.11 Urban heat

Concrete surfaces are among the primary contributors to what is known as the urban heat island effect. In this phenomenon Concrete surfaces absorbs a large percentage of solar heat because of their low reflecting power and contributes to the warming of cities. Pavement covers about 30-40% of the surface area this directly affects the temperature of the city and contributes to the urban heat island effect. 1.1.12 Concrete dust

Building demolition and natural disasters such as earthquakes often release a large amount of concrete dust into the local atmosphere.

Health concerns
The presence of some substances in concrete, including useful and unwanted additives, can cause health concerns. Natural radioactive elements (K, U and Th) can be present in various concentrations in concrete dwellings, depending on the source of the raw materials used. Toxic substances may also be added to the mixture for making concrete by unscrupulous makers. Dust from rubble or broken concrete upon demolition or crumbling may cause serious health concerns depending also on what had been incorporated in the concrete. 1.6.1 Concrete handling/safety precautions Handling of wet concrete must always be done with proper protective equipment. Contact with wet concrete can cause skin chemical burns due to the caustic nature of
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the mixture of cement and water. Indeed, the pH of fresh cement water is highly alkaline due to the presence of free potassium and sodium hydroxides in solution (pH ~ 13.5). Eyes, hands and feet must be correctly protected to avoid any direct contact with wet concrete and washed without delay if necessary.

Building with concrete

Concrete is one of the most durable building materials. It provides superior fire resistance, compared with wooden construction and can gain strength over time. Structures made of concrete can have a long service life. Concrete is the most widely used construction material in the world with annual consumption estimated at between 21 and 31 billion tones. 1.1.13 Environmentally sustainable

With its long service life, concrete conserves resources by reducing the need for reconstruction. Its ingredients are cement and readily available natural materials: water, aggregate (sand and gravel or crushed stone). Concrete does not require any CO2 absorbing trees to be cut down. The land required to extract the materials needed to make concrete is only a fraction of that used to harvest forests for lumber. Concrete absorbs CO2 throughout its lifetime through carbonation, helping reduce its carbon footprint. A recent study indicates that in countries with the most favorable recycling practices, it is realistic to assume that approximately 86% of the concrete is carbonated after 100 years. During this time, the concrete will absorb approximately 57% of the CO2 emitted during the original calcinations. 1.1.14 Energy efficiency

Energy requirements for transportation of concrete are low because it is produced locally from local resources. 1.1.15 Fire safety and quality of life

Concrete buildings are more resistant to fire than those constructed using wood or steel frames. Since concrete does not burn and stops fire from spreading, it offers total fire protection for occupants and their property. Concrete reduces the risk of structural collapse and is an effective fire shield, providing safe means of escape for occupants and protection for fire fighters. Furthermore, it does not produce any smoke or toxic gases and does not drip molten particles, which can spread fire. Neither heat, flames nor the water used to extinguish a fire seriously affect the structure of concrete walls and floors making repairs after a fire a relatively simple task.

2. Properties of concrete
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2.1 Workability
Workability is a general term to describe the properties of fresh concrete. Workability is often defined as the amount of mechanical work required for full compaction of the concrete without segregation. This is a useful definition because the final strength of the concrete is largely influenced by the degree of compaction. A small increase in void content due to insufficient compaction could lead to a large decease in strength. The primary characteristics of workability are consistency (or fluidity) and cohesiveness. Consistency is used to measure the ease of flow of fresh concrete and cohesiveness is used to describe the ability of fresh concrete to hold all ingredients together without segregation and excessive bleeding. 2.1.1Definition IS definition:

IS 646 part 8 defines workability as That property of freshly mixed concrete or mortar which determines the ease and homogeneity with which it can be mixed, placed, compacted, and finished. It is the amount of energy to overcome friction and cause full consolidation. ACI definition:

The ACI definition of workability is that property of freshly mixed concrete or mortar that determines the ease with which it can be mixed, placed, consolidated, and finished to a homogenous condition. ASTM definition:

The ASTM definition of workability is Property determining the effort required to manipulate a freshly mixed quantity of concrete with minimum loss of homogeneity. 2.1.2 Need for sufficient workability The degree of workability required depends on three factors. These are the size of the section to be concreted, the amount of reinforcement, and the method of compaction to be used. For the narrow and complicated section with numerous corners or inaccessible parts, the concrete must have a high workability so that full compaction can be achieved with a reasonable amount of effort. This also applies to the embedded steel sections. The desired workability depends on the compacting equipment available at the site. Because the strength of concrete is adversely and significantly affected by the presence of voids in the compacted mass, it is vital to achieve a maximum possible density. This requires sufficient workability for virtually full compaction to be possible using a reasonable amount of work under the given conditions. Presence of voids in concrete
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reduces the density and greatly reduces the strength: 5% of voids can lower the strength by as much as 30%. The need for compaction becomes apparent from the relationship between strength ratio and density ratio. Scan graph on p186. Fig 1

2.2 Factors affecting workability:

The factors helping concrete to have more lubricating effect to reduce the internal friction for helping easy compaction are as follows. 2.2.1 Water content Water content in given volume of concrete will have significant influence on the workability. The higher the water content for cubic meter of concrete, higher the fluidity of concrete, which is the one of the important factor affecting the workability of concrete. Increase of water content is the last resource to be taken for improving the workability even in case of uncontrolled concrete. For controlled concrete one cannot arbitrarily increase the water content. More water can be added, provided correspondingly higher quantity of cement is also added to keep water cement ratio constant. So that strength remains the same.
2.2.2 Mix proportion

Aggregate cement ratio is an important factor influencing the workability. The higher the aggregate cement ratio, the leaner is the concrete, in which less quantity of paste is available for providing lubrication per unit surface area of aggregate and hence the mobility of aggregate is restrained. In case of rich concrete with lower aggregate cement ratio, more paste is available to make the mix cohesive and fatty to give better workability.

2.2.3 Effect of time and temperature A high temperature causes the concrete to have a higher water demand, and increases the temperature of the fresh concrete. This results in an increased rate of loss of slump and in a more rapid hydration, which leads to accelerated setting and to lower long-term strength water loosing rate. When the temperature will be high there will be more loss of water because of evaporation and hence the workability will decrease at a faster rate
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Freshly mixed concrete stiffens with time. It is simply because some water is absorbed by aggregate and some is lost by evaporation and some is removed by the initial chemical reactions. Thus workability goes on decreasing with time.

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Effect of casting temperature on slump

Fig 2 2.2.4Size of aggregate The bigger the size of the aggregate, the less is the surface area and hence less amount of water is required for wetting the surface and less matrix (or) paste is required for lubricating the surface to reduce the internal friction. For a given quantity of water and paste, bigger size of aggregate will give higher workability. This is applicable within the limits only.
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2.2.5 Shape of aggregate The shape of the aggregates will influence the workability in good measure. Angular, elongated and flaky aggregate makes the concrete very harsh when compared to rounded aggregates. Rounded aggregates will have less surface area and fewer voids than angular (or) flaky aggregates and also rounded aggregates will reduce greatly the frictional resistance also. River sand and gravel provide greater workability to concrete than crushed sand and aggregates. The importance of shape of aggregates will be of great significance of present day high strength and high performance concrete, when we use very low water cement ratio in order of about .25. 2.2.6 Surface texture The total surface area of rough textured aggregate is more than the surface area of smooth rounded aggregate of same volume. Rough textured aggregate will show poor workability and smooth or glassy textured aggregate will give better workability. A reduction of inter particle frictional resistance offered by a smooth aggregates also contributes to higher workability. 2.2.7 Grading of aggregate A well graded aggregate is the one which has least amount of voids in a given volume. Other factors being constant, when the total voids are less, excess paste is available to give better lubricating effect. With excess amount of paste, the mixture becomes cohesive and fatty which prevents segregation of particles. Aggregate particles will slide past each other with the least amount of compacting efforts. The better the grading, the less is the void content and higher the workability for the given amount of paste volume.

2.2.8 Use of admixtures

Most important factor which affects the workability is the use of Admixtures, Plasticizers and Super plasticizers greatly improve the workability. Use of air-entraining agent being surface active, reduces the internal friction between the particles thus increasing the workability.

2.3 Measurement of workability

2.3.1 Slump test Apparatus a) Mould - The mould for the test specimen shall be in the form of the frustum of a cone having the following internal dimensions: Dimensions Bottom diameter Top diameter
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The mould shall be constructed of metal ( brass or aluminum shall not be used ) of at least l-6 mm thickness and the top and bottom shall be open and at right angles to the axis of the cone. The mould shall have a smooth internal surface. It shall be provided with suitable foot pieces and also handles to facilitate lifting it from the moulded concrete test specimen in a vertical direction as required by the test. A mould provided with a suitable guide attachment may be used. A typical mould without the guide is shown in fig 1.

All dimensions are in centimeters Typical Mould for slum test Fig 3

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Cold weather concreting using Rapidite 15 b) Tamping rod - The tamping rod shall be of steel or other suitable material, 16 mm

in diameter, O-6 m long and rounded at one end. c) Procedure The internal surface of the mould shall be thoroughly cleaned and freed from superfluous moisture and any set concrete before commencing the test. The mould shall be placed on a smooth, horizontal, rigid and non-absorbent surface, such as a carefully levelled metal plate, the mould being firmly held in place while it is being filled. The mould shall be filled in four layers, each approximately one-quarter of the height of the mould. Each layer shall be tamped with twenty-five strokes of the rounded end of the tamping rod. The strokes shall be distributed in a uniform manner over the crosssection of the mould and for the second and subsequent layers shall penetrate into the underlying layer. The bottom layer shall be tamped throughout its depth. After the top layer has been rodded, the concrete shall be struck off level with a trowel or the tamping rod, so that the mould is exactly filled. Any mortar which may have leaked out between the mould and the base plate shall be cleaned away. The mould shall be removed from the concrete immediately by raising it slowly and carefully in a vertical direction. This allows the concrete to subside and the slump shall be measured immediately by determining the difference between the height of the mould and that of the highest point of the specimen being tested. The above operations shall be carried out at a place free from vibration or shock, and within a period of two minutes after sampling. Slump The slump measured shall be recorded in terms of millimeters of subsidence of the specimen during the test. Any slump specimen which collapses or shears off laterally gives incorrect result and if this occurs the test shall be repeated with another sample. If, in the repeat test also, the specimen should shear, the slump shall be measured and the fact that the specimen sheared, shall be recorded.

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Table 1 Slump and Compaction Factor of concrete. Degree workability Very low of Slump (mm) 0-25 Compaction factor Situations where concrete is suitable Roads vibrated by power operated machines. At the more workable end of the group, concrete may be compacted with hand-operated machine. Roads operated by hand operated machine. Mass concrete work, or lightly reinforced section. At less workable end manually compacted flat slabs using crushed aggregate. Normal reinforced concrete manually compacted and compacted and heavily reinforced concrete with vibrations. For sections with congested reinforcement. Not normally suitable for vibration.











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2.3.2 Compaction factor test Apparatus A diagram of the apparatus is shown in Fig. 3.It shall consist of the two conical hoppers (A and B) mounted above a cylindrical mould (C).

Fig 5

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a)Procedure The sample of concrete to be tested shall be placed gently in the upper hopper, using the hand scoop. The hopper shall be filled level with its brim and the trap-door shall be opened so that the concrete falls into the lower hopper. Certain mixes have a tendency to stick in one or both of the hoppers. If this occurs, the concrete may be helped through by pushing the rod gently into the concrete from the top. during this process, the cylinder shall be covered by the trowels. Immediately after the concrete has come to rest, the cylinder shall be un-covered, the trap-door of the lower hopper opened, and the concrete allowed to fall into the cylinder. The excess of concrete remaining above the level of the top of the cylinder shall then be cut off by holding a trowel in each hand, with the plane of the blades horizontal, and moving them simultaneously one from each side across the top of the cylinder, at the same time keeping them pressed on the top edge of the cylinder. The outside of the cylinder shall then be wiped clean. The above operation shall be carried out at a place free from vibration or shock. The weight of the concrete in the cylinder shall then be determined to the nearest 10 g. This weight shall be known as the weight of partially compacted concrete .The cylinder shall be refilled with concrete from the same sample in layers approximately 5 cm deep, the layers being heavily rammed or preferably vibrated so as to obtain full compaction. The top
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surface of the fully compacted concrete shall be carefully struck off level with the top of the cylinder. The outside of the cylinder shall then be wiped clean. b) Calculations The compacting factor is defined as the ratio of the weight of partially compacted concrete to the weight of fully compacted concrete.

2.4 Cohesion and segregation

Segregation can be defined as the separation of the constituent materials of concrete. A good concrete is one in which all the ingredients are properly distributed to make a homogeneous mixture. There are considerable differences in the sizes and specific gravities of the constituent ingredients of concrete. Therefore, it is natural that the materials show a tendency to fall apart. Segregation may be of three types 1. Coarse aggregate separating out or settling down from the rest of the matrix. 2. Paste separating away from coarse aggregate. 3. Water separating out from the rest of the material being a material of lowest specific gravity. A well made concrete, taking into consideration various parameters such as grading, size, shape and surface texture of aggregate with optimum quantity of waters makes a cohesive mix. Such concrete will not exhibit any tendency for segregation. The cohesive and fatty characteristics of matrix do not allow the aggregate to fall apart, at the same time; the matrix itself is sufficiently contained by the aggregate. Similarly, water also does not find it easy to move out freely from the rest of the ingredients.

The conditions favorable for segregation are: 1. Badly proportioned mix where sufficient matrix is not there to bind and contain the aggregates 2. Insufficiently mixed concrete with excess water content 3. Dropping of concrete from heights as in the case of placing concrete in column concreting 4. When concrete is discharged from a badly designed mixer, or from a mixer with worn out blades
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5. Conveyance of concrete by conveyor belts, wheel barrow, long distance haul by dumper, long lift by skip and hoist are the other situations promoting segregation of concrete Vibration of concrete is one of the important methods of compaction. It should be remembered that only comparatively dry mix should be vibrated. It too wet a mix is excessively vibrated; it is likely that the concrete gets segregated. It should also be remembered that vibration is continued just for required time for optimum results. If the vibration is continued for a long time, particularly, in too wet a mix, it is likely to result in segregation of concrete due to settlement of coarse aggregate in matrix. 2.5 Bleeding Bleeding in concrete is sometimes referred as water gain. It is a particular form of segregation, in which some of the water from the concrete comes out to the surface of the concrete, being of the lowest specific gravity among all the ingredients of concrete. Bleeding is predominantly observed in a highly wet mix, badly proportioned and insufficiently mixed concrete. In thin members like roof slab or road slabs and when concrete is placed in sunny weather show excessive bleeding. Due to bleeding, water comes up and accumulates at the surface. Sometimes, along with this water, certain quantity of cement also comes to the surface. When the surface is worked up with the trowel, the aggregate goes down and the cement and water come up to the top surface. This formation of cement paste at the surface is known as Laitance. In such a case, the top surface of slabs and pavements will not have good wearing quality. This laitance formed on roads produces dust in summer and mud in rainy season. Water while traversing from bottom to top, makes continuous channels. If the water cement ratio used is more than 0.7, the bleeding channels will remain continuous and un segmented. These continuous bleeding channels are often responsible for causing permeability of the concrete structures. While the mixing water is in the process of coming up, it may be intercepted by aggregates. The bleeding water is likely to accumulate below the aggregate. This accumulation of water creates water voids and reduces the bond between the aggregates and the paste. The above aspect is more pronounced in the case of flaky aggregate. Similarly, the water that accumulates below the reinforcing bars reduces the bond between the reinforcement and the concrete. The poor bond between the aggregate and the paste or the reinforcement and the paste due to bleeding can be remedied by re vibration of concrete. The formation of laitance and the consequent bad effect can be reduced by delayed finishing operations.
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Bleeding rate increases with time up to about one hour or so and thereafter the rate decreases but continues more or less till the final setting time of cement.

2.5.1 Prevention of Bleeding in concrete 1. Bleeding can be reduced by proper proportioning and uniform and complete mixing. 2. Use of finely divided pozzolanic materials reduces bleeding by creating a longer path for the water to traverse. 3. Air-entraining agent is very effective in reducing the bleeding. 4. Bleeding can be reduced by the use of finer cement or cement with low alkali content. Rich mixes are less susceptible to bleeding than lean mixes. The bleeding is not completely harmful if the rate of evaporation of water from the surface is equal to the rate of bleeding. Removal of water, after it had played its role in providing workability, from the body of concrete by way of bleeding will do good to the concrete. Early bleeding when the concrete mass is fully plastic, may not cause much harm, because concrete being in a fully plastic condition at that stage, will get subsided and compacted. It is the delayed bleeding, when the concrete has lost its plasticity, which causes undue harm to the concrete. Controlled re vibration may be adopted to overcome the bad effect of bleeding.

2.6 Density of fresh concrete The density of both fresh and hardened concrete is of interest to the engineer for numerous reasons including its effect on durability, strength and resistance to permeability.

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2.7 setting of concrete Setting is defined as the onset of rigidity in fresh concrete. It is different from hardening, which describes the development of useful and measurable strength. Setting precedes hardening although both are controlled by the continuing hydration of the cement.

Fig.6: Setting of fresh concrete with time.

3. Development of strength
Strength can be defined as ability to resist change. One of the most valuable properties of the concrete is its strength. Strength is most important parameter that gives the picture of overall quality of concrete. Strength of concrete usually directly related to cement paste.
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Many factors influence the rate at which the strength of concrete increases after mixing. Before coming toward the factors that influence the strength gain of concrete, it is important to have concept of these terminologies: Hardening is the process of growth of strength. This is often confused with 'setting' but setting and hardening are not the same. Setting is the stiffening of the concrete after it has been placed. Hardening may continue for weeks or months after the concrete has been mixed and placed.

The strength of concrete is basically referred to compressive strength and it depends upon three factors. 1-Paste 2-Interfacial 3- Aggregate Strength 1. Paste strength: It is mainly due to the binding properties of cement that the ingredients are compacted together. If the paste has higher binding strength, higher will be strength of concrete. 2. Interfacial bonding: Interfacial bonding is very necessary regarding the strength. Clay hampers the bonding between paste and aggregate. The aggregate should be washed for a better bonding between paste and aggregate. 3. Aggregate strength: It is mainly the aggregate that provide strength to concrete especially coarse aggregates which act just like bones in the body. Rough and angular aggregate provides better bonding and high strength. Strength Bonding

Following are the factors that affect the strength of concrete:

3.1 Water cement ratio

This is defined as the mass of water divided by the mass of cement in a mix. The water/cement ratio may be abbreviated to 'w/c ratio' or just 'w/c'. In mixes where the w/c is greater than approximately 0.4, all the cement can, react with water to form cement hydration products. At higher w/c ratios it follows that the space occupied by the
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additional water above w/c=0.4 will remain as pore space filled with water, or with air if the concrete dries out. Consequently, as the w/c ratio increases, the porosity of the cement paste in the concrete also increases. As the porosity increases, the compressive strength of the concrete will decrease. It has an important influence on the quality of concrete produced. A lower water-cement ratio leads to higher strength and durability, but may make the mix more difficult to place. Placement difficulties can be resolved by using plasticizers or super-plasticizers. The water-cement ratio is independent of the total cement content (and the total water content) of a concrete mix. Concrete hardens as a result of the chemical reaction between cement and water (known as hydration, this produces heat and is called the heat of hydration). For every 4 lbs of cement, 1 lb of water is needed to fully complete the reaction. This results in a water-cement ratio of 0.25. In reality, a mix formed with a w/c ratio of 0.25 is too dry and does not flow well enough to be placed, so more water is used than is technically necessary to react with the cement. More typical Water-Cement ratios of 0.4 to 0.6 are used. For higher-strength concrete, lower water/cement ratios are used, along with a plasticizer. Too much water will result in segregation of the sand and aggregate components from the cement paste. Also, water that is not consumed by the hydration reaction may leave the concrete as it hardens, resulting in microscopic pores that will reduce the final strength of the concrete. A mix with too much water will experience more shrinkage as the excess water leaves, resulting in internal cracks and visible fractures (particularly around inside corners) which again will reduce the final strength.

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Cold weather concreting using Rapidite 25 The graph showing the relation between the strength and cement ratio of concrete. Fig 7


Voids in concrete can be filled with air or with water. Broadly speaking, the more porous the concrete, the weaker it will be. Probably the most important source of porosity in concrete is the ratio of water to cement in the mix, known as the 'water to cement' ratio. Porosity of concrete is due to the porosity of hardened cement paste. The mechanical strength of cement paste is inversely correlated with porosity. The porosity of a cement paste is mainly dictated by the w/c ratio.

Fig 8

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3.3 Influence of properties of aggregate

Aggregates, which account for 60 to 75 percent of the total volume of concrete strongly affect the concrete's freshly mixed and hardened properties, mixture proportions, and economy. Consequently, selection of aggregates is an important process. Although some variation in aggregate properties is expected, characteristics that are considered when selecting aggregate include: grading durability particle shape and surface texture abrasion and skid resistance unit weights and voids absorption and surface moisture

Grading refers to the determination of the particle-size distribution for aggregate. Grading limits and maximum aggregate size are specified because grading and size affect the amount of aggregate used as well as cement and water requirements, workability, pumpability, and durability of concrete. In general, if the water-cement ratio is chosen correctly, a wide range in grading can be used without a major effect on strength. When gap-graded aggregate are specified, certain particle sizes of aggregate are omitted from the size continuum. Gap-graded aggregate are used to obtain uniform textures in exposed aggregate concrete. Close control of mix proportions is necessary to avoid segregation.

Shape and Size Matter

Particle shape and surface texture influence the properties of freshly mixed concrete more than the properties of hardened concrete. Rough-textured, angular, and elongated particles require more water to produce workable concrete than smooth, rounded compact aggregate. Consequently, the cement content must also be increased to maintain the water-cement ratio. Generally, flat and elongated particles are avoided or
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are limited to about 15 percent by weight of the total aggregate. Unit-weight measures the volume that graded aggregate and the voids between them will occupy in concrete. The void content between particles affects the amount of cement paste required for the mix. Angular aggregate increase the void content. Larger sizes of well-graded aggregate and improved grading decrease the void content. Absorption and surface moisture of aggregate are measured when selecting aggregate because the internal structure of aggregate is made up of solid material and voids that may or may not contain water. The amount of water in the concrete mixture must be adjusted to include the moisture conditions of the aggregate. Abrasion and skid resistance of an aggregate are essential when the aggregate is to be used in concrete constantly subject to abrasion as in heavy-duty floors or pavements. Different minerals in the aggregate wear and polish at different rates. Harder aggregate can be selected in highly abrasive conditions to minimize wear. Soundness of aggregate

If the aggregate in concrete is weak, the concrete will also be weak. Rocks with low strength, such as chalk, are clearly unsuitable for use as aggregate. 3.4 Effect of age To determine the rate of gain of strength of concrete, there is a need to select period shorter than 28 day, as 28 day is considered to be the reference time. In concrete practice, it is accepted that after 28 days concrete usually gains most of its strength. Strength determined at an early stage say after 7th day of placing of concrete can be compared to strength determined after 28 days, which is considered to be the reference time. In this way, rate of gain of strength of concrete can be determined.
Scan img on p303 fig 8 Fig 9

3.5 Curing of concrete Curing is the process of controlling the rate and extent of moisture loss from concrete during cement hydration. It may be either after it has been placed in position (or during the manufacture of concrete products), thereby providing time for the hydration of the cement to occur. Since the hydration of cement does take time days, and even weeks rather than hours curing must be undertaken for a reasonable period of time if the concrete is to achieve its potential strength and durability.
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The curing period may depend on the properties required of the concrete, the purpose for which it is to be used, and the ambient conditions, i.e. the temperature and relative humidity of the surrounding atmosphere. Curing is designed primarily to keep the concrete moist, by preventing the loss of moisture from the concrete during the period in which it is gaining strength. Curing may be applied in a number of ways and the most appropriate means of curing may be dictated by the site or the construction method.

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3.5.1 EFFECT OF DURATION OF CURING ON PROPERTIES OF CONCRETE The strength of concrete is affected by a number of factors, one of which is the length of time for which it is kept moist, i.e. cured. Figure given below illustrates this, comparing the strength (at 180 days) of concrete for which the surfaces have been:

kept moist for 180 days; kept moist for various periods of time and allowed to dry out; and Allowed to dry out from the time it was first made.

As may be seen in this example, concrete allowed to dry out immediately achieves only 40% of the strength of the same concrete water cured for the full period of 180 days. Even three days water curing increases this figure to 60%, whilst 28 days water curing increases it to 95%. Keeping concrete moist is therefore, a most effective way of increasing its ultimate strength. Concrete that is allowed to dry out quickly also undergoes considerable early age drying shrinkage. Inadequate or insufficient curing is one of main factors contributing to weak, powdery surfaces with low abrasion resistance. The durability of concrete is affected by a number of factors including its permeability and absorptivity. Broadly speaking, these are related to the porosity of the concrete and whether the pores and capillaries are discrete or interconnected. Whilst the number and size of the pores and capillaries in cement paste are related directly to its water-cement ratio, they are also related, indirectly, to the extent of water curing. Over time, water curing causes hydration products to fill, either partially or completely, the pores and capillaries present, and, hence, help to reduce the porosity of the paste.

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Cold weather concreting using Rapidite 30 Fig 10 Effect of duration of water curing on strength of concrete.

Fig 11 Effect of duration of water curing on the permeability of cement paste.

3.5.2 Methods of curing

Methods of curing concrete fall broadly into the following categories:

Those that minimize moisture loss from the concrete, for example by covering it with a relatively impermeable membrane. Those that prevent moisture loss by continuously wetting the exposed surface of the concrete. Those that keep the surface moist and, at the same time, raise the temperature of the concrete, thereby increasing the rate of strength gain. This method is typically used for precast concrete products .

3.6 Tensile strength

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Tests are rarely carried out to a measure directly the tensile strength of concrete, mainly because of the difficulty of applying a truly concentric pull. A method for measuring the indirect tensile strength sometimes referred to as the splitting tensile strength. The test consists essentially in loading a standard concrete cylinder (300mm*150mm diameter) across a diameter until failure occurs, by splitting across a vertical plane. For practical concrete mixes such as those used in reinforced and prestressed concrete construction, the splitting tensile strength generally varies from about 1/8 to 1/12 of the cube strength. The determination of the flexural strength of concrete consists essentially of testing a plain concrete beam under symmetrical two-point loading applied at one-third span points. The flexural strength is to be calculated as M/Z, where M is the bending moment at the section where rupture occurs and Z is the elastic section modulus of beam. The flexural strength so calculated is often referred to as the modulus of rupture. The modulus of rupture is usually about 1.5 times the splitting cylinder strength.

3.7 Compressive strength

Compressive strength of concrete is the most common measure for judging the quality of concrete. The characteristic strength of concrete is based on 28 days cube strength; that is, the crushing strength of standard 150mm cubes at an age of 28 days after mixing; 100mm cubes may be used if the nominal size of aggregates does not exceed 20mm.

4. Hardened concrete
4.1 Elasticity
The modulus of elasticity of concrete is a function of the modulus of elasticity of the aggregates and the cement matrix and their relative proportions. The modulus of elasticity of concrete is relatively constant at low stress levels but starts decreasing at higher stress levels as matrix cracking develops. To calculate the deformation and deflection of structural members, we have to know the relation between stress and strain. The relation between stress and strain is of vital interest over the full range, in structural design. Like many other structural materials, concrete is, to a certain degree, elastic. A material is said to be perfectly elastic if strain appears and disappears immediately on application and removal of load .This doesnt imply a linear stress-strain relation. Concrete behaves nearly elastically when load is first applied. However under sustained loading, concrete exhibits creep i.e. strain increases with time under a constant stress,
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even at very low stresses and under normal environmental conditions of temperature and humidity. Steel on the other hand, creeps only at very high stresses at normal temperature or even at low stresses at very high temperature, and in both cases a time dependent failure occurs In contrast, in concrete subjected to a stress below about 60-70 % of short-term strength, there is no creep rupture or static fatigue. The importance of creep in structural concrete lies mainly in the fact that creep deformation is of the same order as the elastic deformation 4.1.1 Stress-strain relation and modulus of elasticity
Scan img p225 fig 12

The modulus of elasticity is defined as the ratio of stress to strain. The modulus of elasticity is determined by subjecting a cube or cylinder specimen to uniaxial compression and measuring the deformation by means of dial gauges fixed between certain gauge lengths. Dial gauge reading divided by gauge length will give the strain and load applied divided by area of cross section will give the stress. A series of reading is taken and the stress strain relationship is established. It can also be determined by subjecting a concrete beam to bending and then using the formulae for deflection and other parameters. The modulus of elasticity found out from actual loading is called static modulus of elasticity. The stress strain relationship of concrete is very peculiar and shows complex behavior. So the modulus of elasticity if concrete is defined in different manner and different ways and has been illustrated on the stress strain curve in below figure. The modulus of elasticity found out with reference to the tangent drawn to the curve at the origin and this is known as Initial Tangent Modulus. This modulus does not give a satisfactory value for higher stress values. The modulus calculated with reference to a tangent is called Tangent modulus. It also does not give a realistic value of modulus for the stress level much above and much below the point at which the tangent is drawn. If the modulus is calculated with reference to slope of line it is called secant modulus. It is the most commonly used modulus of elasticity. It is measured at stress levels ranging from 3 to14 MPa. Modulus of elasticity increases with the square root of strength. The IS456: 2000 gives the modulus of elasticity as Ec = 5000 (fck) short term static modulus of elasticity in N/ mm2. 4.1.2 Factors affecting modulus of Elasticity Moisture condition Properties of aggregate Age of concrete.

.Where Ec is the

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Cement content

4.2 Poissons ratio

The design and analysis of some concrete structures require the knowledge of Poissons ratio.viz the ratio of the lateral strain accompanying an axial strain to the applied axial strain. Generally, Poissons ratio lies in the range of 0.1- 0.2. for design calculations, a value of 0.15 is usually assumed. Weaker the concrete, larger will be the Poissons ratio and wet concrete will have higher Poissons ratio because there will be large lateral deformations.

4.3 Creep
Creep in concrete Concrete creep is defined as: deformation of structure under sustained load. Basically, long term pressure or stress on concrete can make it change shape. This deformation usually occurs in the direction the force is being applied. Like a concrete column getting more compressed, or a beam bending. Creep does not necessarily cause concrete to fail or break apart. Creep is factored in when concrete structures are designed. 4.3.1 Factors Affecting Creep Aggregate Mix Proportions Age of concrete

1. Influence of Aggregate Aggregate undergoes very little creep. It is really the paste which is responsible for the creep. However, the aggregate influences the creep of concrete through a restraining effect on the magnitude of creep. The paste which is creeping under load is restrained by aggregate which do not creep. The stronger the aggregate the more is the restraining effect and hence the less is the magnitude of creep. The modulus of elasticity of aggregate is one of the important factors influencing creep. It can be easily imagined that the higher the modulus of elasticity the less is the creep. Light weight aggregate shows substantially higher creep than normal weight aggregate. 2. Influence of Mix Proportions:
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The amount of paste content and its quality is one of the most important factors influencing creep. A poorer paste structure undergoes higher creep. Therefore, it can be said that creep increases with increase in water/cement ratio. In other words, it can also be said that creep is inversely proportional to the strength of concrete. Broadly speaking, all other factors which are affecting the water/cement ratio are also affecting the creep. 3. Influence of Age: Age at which a concrete member is loaded will have a predominant effect on the magnitude of creep. This can be easily understood from the fact that the quality of gel improves with time. Such gel creeps less, whereas a young gel under load being not so stronger creeps more. What is said above is not a very accurate statement because of the fact that the moisture content of the concrete being different at different age also influences the magnitude of creep.

Effects of Creep on Concrete and Reinforced Concrete

In reinforced concrete beams, creep increases the deflection with time and may be a critical consideration in design. In eccentrically loaded columns, creep increases the deflection and can load to buckling. In case of statically indeterminate structures and column and beam junctions creep may relieve the stress concentration induced by shrinkage, temperatures changes or movement of support. Creep property of concrete will be useful in all concrete structures to reduce the internal stresses due to non-uniform load or restrained shrinkage. In mass concrete structures such as dams, on account of differential temperature conditions at the interior and surface, creep is harmful and by itself may be a cause of cracking in the interior of dams. Therefore, all precautions and steps must be taken to see that increase in temperature does not take place in the interior of mass concrete structure. Loss of prestress due to creep of concrete in prestressed concrete structure.

5. Permeability and durability

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5.1 Permeability
Permeability is governed by the capillary pores in the cement paste. Pores that are too large will result in a high permeability, while pores that are small will result in a low permeability. If concrete is impermeable, corrosive agents cannot penetrate and attack it. Concrete basically has two types of pores, which determine permeability. These are capillary pores (with a diameter varying between 0.01 to 10 micron) in the cement, paste which coats the aggregates and larger micro voids, between 1 mm to 10 mm, which are caused by faulty compaction of fresh concrete. When voids are interconnected because of their larger number and size a continuous link is formed, which makes the concrete permeable.

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5.1.1 FACTORS CONTROLLING PERMEABILITY There are three major factors which determine the permeability in concrete. (a) Water cement ration, (b) Compaction and curing. Each factor is equally important, if one of these factors is not controlled, the result will be increase, in permeability. It can be shown that permeability increases as water cement ration increase. Typically, at a water cement ratio of around 0.4, permeability is practically nil.

Fig 13

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Fig 14 5.2 Durability

Durability is defined as the capability of concrete to resist weathering action, chemical attack and abrasion while maintaining its desired engineering properties. It normally refers to the duration or life span of trouble-free performance. Different concretes require different degrees of durability depending on the exposure environment and properties desired. For example, concrete exposed to tidal seawater will have different requirements than indoor concrete. Concrete will remain durable if: The cement paste structure is dense and of low permeability. Under extreme condition, it has entrained air to resist freeze-thaw cycle. It is made with graded aggregate that are strong and inert.

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The ingredients in the mix contain minimum impurities such as alkalis, Chlorides, sulphates and silt

5.2.1 Durability of Concrete depends upon the following factors

Cement content

Mix must be designed to ensure cohesion and prevent segregation and bleeding. If cement is reduced, then at fixed w/c ratio the workability will be reduced leading to inadequate compaction. However, if water is added to improve workability, water / cement ratio increases and resulting in highly permeable material.


The concrete as a whole contain voids can be caused by inadequate compaction. Usually it is being governed by the compaction equipments used, type of formworks, and density of the steelwork


It is very important to permit proper strength development aid moisture retention and to ensure hydration process occur completely


Thickness of concrete cover must follow the limits set in codes Table 2
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Exposure Mild Moderate Severe Very severe Extreme Permeability

Minimum cover (mm) 20 30 45 50 75

It is considered the most important factor for durability. It can be noticed that higher permeability is usually caused by higher porosity .Therefore, a proper curing, sufficient cement, proper compaction and suitable concrete cover could provide a low permeability concrete

5.3 Types of Durability : There are many types but the major ones are:

Physical durability Chemical durability

Physical Durability

Physical durability is against the following actions Freezing and thawing action Percolation / Permeability of water Temperature stresses i.e. high heat of hydration

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Chemical Durability

Chemical durability is against the following actions Alkali Aggregate Reaction Sulpate Attack Chloride Ingress Acid attack Corrosion of reinforcement

6. Temperature problems in concreting

6.1 Cold weather concreting
In India certain regions experience sub-zero temperatures in winter. Concrete structures in such regions undergo cycles of freezing and thawing and there durability is affected due to frost action. Fresh concrete contains considerable quantity of fresh water which gets converted into ice lenses at freezing temperature. The ice formation in fresh concrete results in about 9% rise in volume and causes permanent damage to concrete and structural integrity cannot be recovered even if the concrete is made to harden later at high temperature. Even during hardening the concrete should be protected from extremely low temperature hence while concreting in cold weather ensure that the temperature of fresh concrete is maintained above 0 C and temperature during first six hrs of casting should not be less than 5 C. IS 7861 part II defines Cold Weather Concreting as Any operation of concreting done at about 5C atmospheric temperature or below. ACI 306 Cold Weather Concreting defines cold weather concreting as a period when for more than three (3) consecutive days, the following conditions exist: The average daily air temperature is less than 5C (40F) and, The air temperature is not greater than 10C (50F) for more than one-half of any 24 hour period.

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Concrete placed during cold weather will develop sufficient strength and durability to satisfy intended service requirements only if it is properly produced, placed and protected.

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Effect of temperature on strength development Fig 15

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Fig 16 What Happens When Concrete Freezes?

Pore water in concrete starts to freeze around -1C (30F) As some water freezes the ion concentration in the unfrozen water goes up, further depressing the freezing point. At around -3 to -4C (25 to 27F), enough of the pore water will freeze so that hydration will completely stop, and depending on the extent of hydration, and thus the strength of the concrete, the forces generated by the expansion of ice

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(ice occupies ~9% more volume than water) may be detrimental to the long term integrity of the concrete.

Objectives of Cold Weather Concreting

The objectives of cold weather concreting are to:

Prevent damage to concrete due to freezing at early ages Assure that concrete develops the required strength for the safe removal of forms Maintain curing conditions that foster normal strength development without using excessive heat Limit rapid temperature changes in the concrete to prevent thermal cracking

For every 10C (18F) reduction in concrete temperature, the times of setting of the concrete double, thus increasing the amount of time that the concrete is vulnerable to damage due to freezing. Concrete that is protected from freezing until it has attained a compressive strength of at least 3.45 MPa (500 psi) will not be damaged by exposure to a single freezing cycle. Concrete that is protected and properly cured will mature to its potential strength despite subsequent exposure to cold weather. Except in heated, protective enclosures, little or no external supply of moisture is required for curing during cold weather.
6.2 Deleterious Effects:

Following deleterious effect may occur due to cold weather concreting Hydration will be hampered Setting time will be prolong Disruption of freshly placed concrete because of freezing Low workability Freezing and thawing effect Improper curing Workmanship is affected Deicing effect

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6.3 Recommended Practices and Basic Principles Curing and Protection Where a specified concrete strength must be attained in a few days or weeks, protection at temperatures above 10C (50F) is required. Temperature Records Temperature of the concrete determines the effectiveness of protection, regardless of air temperature. Maintaining temperature records of concrete in place is essential.
Heated Enclosures

Must be strong enough to be windproof and weatherproof. Combustion heaters must be vented to the outside to prevent carbonation. Exposure to Freezing and Thawing Concrete should be properly air entrained if it will be saturated and exposed to freezing and thawing cycles during construction. Slump All else being equal, lower slump and/or lower water/cement ratio mixes are particularly desirable in cold weather for flatwork. This reduces bleeding and decreases setting time. Truck Travel Time The distance from the plant to the point of placement can have a severe effect on the temperature of concrete. Hot Water While hot water improves setting time of cold weather concrete, after the first few batches of concrete hot water heaters may not be able to maintain hot water temperature. Later in the pour, concrete may be cooler than at the beginning of the pour.

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Temperatures for Placement and Protection in Concrete Weather Table 3

6.4 Acceleration of Concrete Hydration in Cold Weather

The reduction of setting time and the acceleration of strength gain often result in substantial savings due to shorter protection periods, faster form reuse, earlier removal of shores, and less labor in finishing flatwork. Setting time is more important in flatwork finishing Early strength gain is more important for early form removal
Acceleration may be encouraged by using:

Type III Portland cement 20% additional Type I or II cement to provide Type III response Set-accelerating admixtures such as Rapidite.
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Calcium chloride is the most cost effective accelerator available, but it causes corrosion of embedded metals in the presence of oxygen and moisture. This is why limits exist on the use of chlorides in concrete .

7. Admixtures
7.1 Definition
IS 9103 : 1999 defines admixture as A material other than water, aggregates, and hydraulic cement and additives like pozzolana or slag and fibre reinforcement used as an ingredient of concrete or mortar and added to the batch immediately before or during its mixing to modify one or more of the properties of concrete in the plastic or hardened state.

7.2 Benefits of Admixtures

Admixtures confer several beneficial effects on concrete including reduction in water requirements, increased workability, controlled setting, accelerated hardening, improved strength, better durability, desired coloration and volume changes. The major reasons for using admixtures are: 1. To reduce the cost of concrete construction . 2. To achieve certain properties in concrete more effectively than by other means. 3. To maintain the quality of concrete during the stages of mixing, transporting, placing, and curing in adverse weather conditions. 4. To overcome certain emergencies during concreting operations. Despite these considerations, it should be borne in mind t hat no admixture of any type or amount can be considered a substitute for good concreting practice.

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Rapidte is a commonly used admixture in Kashmir during winter to accelerate the strength gain of concrete. It falls under Type C on the basis of ASTM classification i.e., it acts as accelerator. It also acts as anti freeze, depressing the freezing point of water and hence protecting the fresh concrete.

RAPIDITE 2 IN 1 is a specially developed Concrete Set Accelerator, a ready-to-use, liquid admixture. It accelerates initial setting time (cement-water chemical reaction HYDRATION) of normal mortar and concrete and acts as anti-freeze within cement concrete. It improves workability and strength while fastening the hydration of cement . It makes the mix easier to place and speeds construction by shortening the initial set and curing time. Time and labor are saved, because forms and other protection can be removed earlier, and finishing can be started.


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RAPIDITE 2 in 1 is recommended for use during cool and cold weather to accelerate the set time and reduce the risk of frozen mortar and concrete mixes .

Accelerates initial set time . Increases compressive strength. Provides Anti freeze properties. Speeds up hydration of cement. Increases workability of concrete or mortar mix in colder temperatures.

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8. Experimental Investigation.
8.1 Objective
The objective of our project is to study the effect of a commonly used admixture RAPIDITE in Kashmir on the strength of concrete when the temperature during first 24 hrs after casting will fall below zero. We will be conducting the casting in the period from November to February. In our project we will vary the % of RAPIDITE and find its affect on the strength, we will be doing two castings for every percentage of rapidite ,one plain and one with admixture, and will find relative increase in the strength of concrete. Thus we will find the optimum amount of admixture to be used during winter. 8.2 Preliminary work 8.2.1 Calculation of Quantities. 8.2.2 Grading of coarse and fine aggregate used. 8.2.4 Cement used Ambhuja 53 grade. 8.2.3 Tests Conducted on RAPIDITE. Color Lemon-Orange Appearance Clear bright Liquid Relative Density (g/ml) 1gm/ml
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8.3 Tests conducted on fresh concrete (in situ tests)

Compaction factor test Only compaction factor was done to check the workability as the sump in most of the cases was zero. Compaction factor test was started 3 minutes after the completion of mixing.

8.4 Tests conducted on hardened concrete

Compression test This test is conducted on cubes (150mm and 100mm) which are loaded on their opposite faces in a Compression Testing Machine (CTM).Sixteen samples were casted in each casting, out of which eight were plain and eight were with admixture. out of these 4 cubes from each set were tested at 7 days and remaining 8 were tested at the age of 28 days. The load at which first crack appears is considered as failure load and the compressive strength is calculated corresponding to this particular value of load.

Compressive strength

= Load at failure /Cross sectional area {in case of 150 mm cubes}

Where, cross-sectional area = (150150) mm2 = (100100) mm2 {in case of 100 mm cubes}

Failure mechanism

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a. At about 25-30% of the ultimate strength, random cracking are observed b. At about 50% of ultimate strength, cracks grow. c. At about 75% of the ultimate strength major cracks are formed. The major cracks keep growing while smaller cracks tend to close. d. At the ultimate load, failure occurs when the major cracks link up along the vertical direction and split the specimen

Cube before loading

Cube at failure

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Split test The test is carried out by placing a cylindrical specimen, horizontally between the loading surfaces of a Compression Testing Machine and the load is applied until failure of the cylinder, along the vertical diameter. The loading condition produces a high compressive stress below the two surfaces to which the load is applied. But the larger portion corresponding to depth is subjected to a uniform tensile stress acting horizontally. It is estimated that the compressive stress is acting for both (1/6) th depth and the remaining (5/6) th depth is subjected to tension. The horizontal tensile stress is given by the following equation: Horizontal tensile stress=2pL/DL Where, L D P = Load at failure

= Length or height of cylinder (300mm) = Diameter of cylinder (150mm)

Loading arrangement for Split tensile strength test.

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Cylinder before loading Flexural test.

cylinder at failure

Flexural strength test of concrete is performed on beams. The loading applied on the beam is a two point loading in which loads are applied at (1/3) rd points of the beam. The beam is placed in the testing machine in such a way that the load points are 16.6 cm apart from each other as well as from each support. The load is increased until the specimen fails and this load is noted as failure load. Flexural strength is then calculated from the following formula:

Flexural strength =2pl/bd2 Where, l b d P = (Load at failure)/2

= Length of beam between supports (500mm) = Breadth of beam (100mm) = Depth of beam (100mm)

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Two-point loading arrangement for Flexural Strength test.

Beam before loading

Beam at failure

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8.5 Test Results

In total five castings were done at the Rapidte percentage of 0.5, 1, 1.25, 1.4 and 1.5% and the minimum and maximum temperature during the first 24 Hrs after casting was observed. The Temperature during first 24 Hrs after casting along with the results of various tests are shown in tables below: Variation of Increase in 7 day strength and C.F with Rapidite %:
Temperature during 1st 24Hrs of casting (C) Rapidite % Min Max Avg. -1 -1 -2 -4 -2.5 7 6 6 7 6.5 3 2.5 2 1.5 2 0.50 1.00 1.25 1.4 1.50 Average in 7 day Compaction factor strength % 150mm cube 3.6 8.3 106.3 -30.2 -22 100mm cube 8 16.8 96.2 -26.6 -20 0.74 0.88 plain 0.77 0.74 0.68 Admixtu re 0.88 0.81 0.77

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Variation of Increase in 28 day strength and C.F with Rapidite %:

Temperature during 1st 24Hrs of casting (C) Rapidit e% Min Max Avg. Average in 28 day strength % in Split tensile streng th 2.9 6.4 53.5 -12 -17.4 Compaction factor

150m m cube 2.6 5.2 38 -42.6 -18

100m m cube 5.3 10.4 30.6 -26 -23

in Flexural plain tensile strength 3.2 6.7 53.1 -21.1 -17.5 0.77 0.74 0.72 0.73 0.73

Admixtu re

-1 -1 -2 -4 -2.5

7 6 6 7 6.5

3 2.5 2 1.5 2

0.50 1.00 1.25 1.4 1.50

0.88 0.81 0.77 0.8 0.88

Variation of C.F for plain concrete and concret with admixture for different % of rapidite S. No
1 2 3 4 5

Rapidte %
0.50 1.00 1.25 1.4 1.50

0.77 0.74 0.72 0.73 0.73

0.88 0.81 0.77 0.8 0.88

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9. Discussions.
In order to study the variation in the rate of gain of strength with respect to the Rapidite percentage, a comparative study of the test results achieved at different Rapidite percentage is performed. Following Variations are studied: Variation of increase in 7 day strength with Rapidite % Variation of in 28 day strength with Rapidite % Variation of split and flexural tensile strength with Rapidite % Comparison of Avg. in 7 and 28 day strength for 150mm cube Comparison of Avg. in 7 and 28 day strength for 100mm cube Variation of compaction factor on adding Rapidite.

The results graphs and tables represent the comparative study:

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From the study of G1 it is clear that the by adding Rapidite the 7 day strength increases when compared to the plain concrete casted at the same temperature. Also it can be seen that the at the 1.25% there is maximum increase in strength, beyond this value there is a decrease in the strength of concrete with admixture ,when compared with plain one. Also the 100mm cube shows more increase in strength when compared with 150mm cube, except at the optimum amount, the increase in strength of 150mm cube is more than 100mm cube.

The G2 also shows same trend i.e, the 28 day strength also goes on increasing upto the percentage of 1.25, beyond which it decreases.Also the 100mm cube shows more increase as compared to 150mm cube except at the optimum amount.

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G3 shows that there is an increase in both split and flexural tensile strengths up to the 1.25% of rapidite, beyond this value the strength decreases in both the cases. Also the two graphs almost coincide showing that both strengths increase by equal amounts, flexural strength increasing slightly more than split strength.

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G4 shows that although both 7 and 28 day strength for 150mm cube increases and reaches there maximum at the Rapidite percentage of 1.25% ,the increase in 7day strength is 180% more than increase in 28 day strength.

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G4 shows the same trend, that although both 7 and 28 day strength for 100mm cube increases and reach there maximum at the rapidite percentage of 1.25% ,the increase in 7day strength is 214% more than increase in 28 day strength.which is higher than in case of 150mm cube.

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G6 shows that the compaction factor always increases when compared with the plain concrete,thus workability increases by the addition of rapidite.

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9.1 Conclusion
After analyzing the test results following important conclusions are drawn:

All the three strength parameters viz, compressive strength, split tensile strength and flexural tensile strength of concrete increase when compared with plain one. The increase in strength reaches the maximum value at the Rapidite percentage of 1.25%, beyond which it starts decreasing. It must be noted that the avg temperature during the 1st 24 hrs after casting is almost constant. The increase in 7 day strength is much higher than increase in 28 day strength, in case of 150mm cubes former is 180% more increase and in case of 100mm cubes former shows 214% more increase. Thus increase in early strength is more significant than increase in lateral strength. The increase in early strength shows that the freezing of fresh concrete was not there, as such the admixture also acts as a antifreeze,depressing the freezing ppoint of water and protecting the concrete from the affects of freezing in early age. Adding Rapidte has shown increase in the workability of mix with respect to the plain mix.

9.2 Recommendations

The quantity of Rapidite to be added needs to be carefully controlled as there is a decrease in the strength of concrete if the value passes 1.25% by weight of cement. The manual which comes with the Rapidite recommends the percentage of Rapidite to be used in the range of 2-6%, which in excess of the optimum value of 1.25%.Thus the amount of the Rapidite should be limited to the 1.25%. When concreting is to be done in the period from November to February, Rapidte should be used to accelerate the early gain of strength and protecting the fresh concrete from the effects of freezing, as Rapidite acts as Antifreeze cum accelerator. When there is intention of using Rapidite during warm weather for the purpose of early removal of formwork, proper performance tests testing should be done to check the beahavoiur of rapidite at the high temperature, as the behavior of a admixture depends on the temperature. Further proper testing should be done to check the compatibility of the Rapidite with the type of cement to be used in actual construction.

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Admixture should be uniformiy distributed throughout the mix,and this best achieved by dissolving the admixture in mixing water. Trial tests should be carried out using the actual constituents of the mix to be used.Also,adequate supervision should be provided at the batching stage so as to ensure correct levels of dosage of the admixture.

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Cold weather concreting using Rapidite 66

1. Concrete Technology 2. Concrete Technology 3. Properties of concrete 4. IS Codes M.S.Shetty A.M.Neville.J.J.Brooks A.M Neville IS:456-200 IS: 383-1970 IS 7861 part II Basics of concrete science L.Dvorkin and O. Dvorkin

5 Cold weather concreting, ACI 306R, American Concrete Institute.

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