Introduction to oscilloscopes

• Triggering • 10x probes • DC coupling vs AC coupling • X-Y mode

Triggering Trigger Slope: Positive/negative: rising or falling edge Trigger mode: Normal: stops if cannot detect trigger Trigger source: Ch 1 Ch 2 Ext/Ext 5 Line: Auto: keeps going even if cannot detect trigger Single: run/stop button .

Triggering 1.5 0 2 2 4 6 8 10 The “sync” output of function generator provides a clean square wave at the same frequency as the output 1.5 y = sin(t)+0.5 0 -0.4cos(10t) ch1 A B 1 0.5 ext 1 0.5 -1 0 2 4 6 8 10 .5 -1 -1.5 0 -0.

144 averages ← initial slope 0.5 2 Time(mS) .5 1 1.Importance of external trigger: recovering signal from noise by averaging (a) Signal(mV) 40 20 0 -20 -40 0 Blue = a single trace Red = 262144 averages 0.5 2 Time(mS) (b) Signal(mV) 4 3 2 1 0 0 262.5 1 1.

Coupling: DC vs AC DC coupled AC coupled Removes all DC information To observe small AC on top of large DC oscilloscope oscilloscope zc = 1/jωC f3db = 1/2πRC .

1 -0.05 0 Time(s ) 0.5 volta ge(V) 10 Hz voltage(V) 1.05 0 Time(s ) 0.5 1 0.5 0 -0.5 80 Hz 0 -0.5 -0.1 .05 0.5 1 0.Coupling: DC vs AC Low frequency waveforms can be severely distorted by the high pass filter AC coupled DC coupled 1.1 -0.1 -0.05 0.5 -1 -1.5 -1 -1.

Oscilloscope probes circuit oscilloscope 30 pF/foot R1 Vac Ccable Rin Vout For scope: Cin Rin = 1 M Cin ~ 20 pF R1 Z1 Vac Rin Cin + Ccable Z2 Z1 and Z2 are frequency dependent and changes for each circuit .

Oscilloscope impedance and stray capacitance can load the circuit R1 Vac Rin Cin + Ccable ω=0 Vac R1 Rin ω=∞ Vac R1 Example: Cin + Ccable R1 = 10k C = 50 pF f3db = 1/2πRC = 320 kHz dB Low pass filter The signal is distorted! log(f) .

Advantages of 10x probe 1. Frequency independent (almost. Input impedance 10 times larger (reduce loading) 2. if tuned correctly) .

Resistive part: R1 9M oscilloscope Vac probe 1M For dc and low frequencies. Cstray = Ccable + Cin ~50pF How to eliminate frequency dependence? 9M Add capacitor to probe 1M Cstray ~50pF . the 10x probe act as 10:1 divider. Input resistance is 10x higher.

independent of frequency They give the same output voltage Xstray Xstray+ 9Xstray 1/jω Cstray 1/jω Cstray+ 9/jωCstray Xstray Remember Quiz 1: .Consider the resistive and capacitive parts separately 9M oscilloscope 1M probe Cstray ~50pF 9M 9Xstray 1M Both dividers are 1:10.

Both dividers give the same output voltage can join the output Xc =1/jωC 9M 9Xstray 9M 9Xstray Cprobe ~ 50pF/9 = 5. To display the actual signal.6 pF 1M Xstray 1M Xstray Cstray ~50pF probe 9M oscilloscope 10x probe divides signal by 10.6pF Cstray ~50pF . 1M Cprobe ~5. we need to tell the scope to multiply its measurement by 10.

If the probe and scope attenuates all frequencies by 10. Tune probe capacitance until the scope shows a good square wave. we should get back a square wave. labeled as “probe adjust” A square wave can be Fourier decomposed into a sum of many frequencies.Tuning the probe The oscilloscope provides a square wave output on its front panel. .

δ1 = δ2 y = B/A x 1 0 0 -1 YT 0 2 XY -1 -2 -2 2 4 4 6 6 8 8 10 10 0 2 ω1 = ω2. δ2 = 0. δ1 = π/2 x(t ) = A cos(ω1t ) y (t ) = B sin(ω1t ) 1 0 YT 0 2 4 6 8 10 -1 XY -2 .Display: YT: displays Ch1 and/or Ch2 as a function of time XY: displays Ch1 as a function of Ch 2 x(t ) = A cos(ω1t − δ1 ) y (t ) = B cos(ω2t − δ 2 ) 2 Example: 2 1 ω1 = ω2.

Lissajous Curves x(t ) = A cos(ω1t − δ1 ) y (t ) = B cos(ω2t − δ 2 ) .

Make sure probe compensation is set to the correct value (1x.Checklist for oscilloscope operation 1. Check trigger source . If you cannot get signal on screen. 10x) 2. press “autoscale” 3. Check DC/AC coupling 4.