University of Malta - Centre for Communication Technology

Semester 1 2010‐2011

What is Consumer Behaviour?

Communications Overview
2010 2011 2010-2011
The behavior that people display in searching for, purchasing, using, evaluating, and disposing of products, services, experiences & ideas that they expect will satisfy their needs.

Dr Noellie Brockdorff

Includes material from:  Schiffman & Kanuk (2006) /  Solokmon, Bamossy, Askegaard & Hogg (2006) / Kotler, Keller, Brady, Goodman & Hansen (2009)

Why Study Consumer Behaviour?
The study of consumers helps companies improve their marketing and marketing communications strategies by understanding issues such as:

Why Study Consumer Behaviour?

how consumers think, feel, reason, and select between different alternatives (e.g., brands, products); how the consumer is influenced by his or her environment (e.g., culture, family, the media); the behavior of consumers while shopping or making other marketing decisions; how limitations in consumer knowledge or information processing abilities influence decisions, marketing outcome f and reactions to marketing communications; how consumer motivation and decision strategies differ between products that differ in their level of importance or interest that they entail for the consumer; and how marketers can adapt and improve their marketing campaigns and marketing strategies to more effectively reach the consumer.

Knowledge of how consumers behave is one of the cornerstones of marketing. Also important to anyone who needs to get ideas across to people, e.g., Social Marketing, Public Policy, those who work in the media, politicians, NGOs, etc. politicians NGOs etc We are all consumers.

© Noellie Brockdorff 2010

status. organizes. shelter) Ad designed to appeal to Social Needs Social need . and acceptance Motivates people to make friends. order. stability) Physiological Needs (Food. self esteem) Social Needs (affection. water. and interprets g p information to create a meaningful picture of the world • Sights • Sounds • Smells • Taste • Texture • EYES • EARS • NOSE • MOUTH • SKIN Exposure Attention Comprehension Memory © McGraw-Hill 2004 Figure reproduced from Hawkins. security. selects. and to associate with others. Retention Internal Influences: Motivation Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Need for Self-Actualization (Self-fulfillment) Ego or Esteem Needs (Prestige. belonging) Safety and Security Needs (Protection. © Noellie Brockdorff 2010 . to become members of groups.Centre for Communication Technology Semester 1 2010‐2011 Model of Consumer Behaviour Internal Influences: Perception Perception is the process by which an individual receives. belonging. air. & Coney (2004). friendship.University of Malta . Best.the desire to have satisfying relationships with others & feel a sense of love. affection.

Internal Influences: Learning Consumer Learning Processes Observational Learning Based on observing others and copying their behaviour. evaluation of. Consumers may hold attitudes toward: Individuals Brands Companies Organizations g Product categories Retailers Advertisements Media Ways to influence or change Attitudes Increase or change the strength or belief rating of a brand on an important individual’s overall feelings toward or individual s toward. Change perceptions of belief ratings for a competing brand. Change consumers’ perceptions of the importance or value of an attribute.Centre for Communication Technology Semester 1 2010‐2011 Internal Influences: Attitudes Attitudes are learned predispositions to respond toward an object . Add a new attribute to the attitude formation process. Pavlovian model of Classical Conditioning Unconditioned Stimulus Meat Paste Unconditioned Response Salivation Conditioned Stimulus Bell Behaviorist Learning Based on conditioning through association or reinforcement. an object. AFTER REPEATED PAIRINGS Cognitive Learning Intellectual evaluation comparing attributes with values. Conditioned Stimulus Bell Conditioned Response Salivation Courtesy Prentice Hall © Noellie Brockdorff 2010 .University of Malta .

University of Malta .Centre for Communication Technology Semester 1 2010‐2011 Classical Conditioning applied to influencing product attitudes Unconditioned Stimulus A model of Instrumental (or Operant) Conditioning Try Brand B dA Unrewarded Legs t ti ht L too tight Pleasant Situation Unconditioned Response Pleasant Feeling Conditioned Stimulus Product Stimulus Situation (Need goodlooking jeans) Try Brand B Try Brand C Try Brand D Unrewarded Too Tight Unrewarded Too Baggy ggy AFTER REPEATED PAIRINGS Conditioned Stimulus Product Conditioned Response Pleasant Feeling Reward Perfect fit Repeat Behavior From Schiffman & Kanuk (2004) Cognitive Learning Process Model of Consumer Behaviour Goal Purposive behavior Insight Goal achievement © McGraw-Hill 2004 © Noellie Brockdorff 2010 .

co-workers Market-controlled sources Ads. appearance. salespeople. warrantee. Subjective criteria . image Marketer’s view: Product is a bundle of attributes Evoked Set of Brands Brand B Brand F Brand M Brand I Brand E Consumer’s view: C ’ i Product is a set of consequences Functional consequences are concrete. examining.University of Malta . tangible outcomes Psychological consequences are abstract and subjective © Noellie Brockdorff 2010 . Out of stock Dissatisfaction New needs or wants Related product purchase Market-induced recognition New products Information Search Personal sources Friends. relatives.price. for Communication Technology Semester 1 2010‐2011 Sources of Problem Recognition Problem recognition is caused by difference between the consumer s ideal state and the actual consumer’s state. using Evaluation of Alternatives All available brands Brand A Brand F Brand K Brand B Brand G Brand L Brand C Brand H Brand M Brand D Brand I Brand N Brand E Brand J Brand O Evaluation Criteria Dimensions or attributes of a product or service used to compare alternatives Objective criteria . etc. displays Public sources Print ti l P i t articles. news reports t Personal experience Handling.

messages. search. G.University of Malta . and are influenced by. allows us to design better communications. J. and an understanding of the factors that affect these processes. & Wisenbilt. y p p . or time givens to purchase Model of Consumer Behaviour © McGraw-Hill 2004 External Influences on Consumers Culture Final Comment The study of how people .. 2010. Kanuk L. or time givens to purchase Limited problem-solving problem solving Extensive problem-solving problem solving More expensive products Infrequent purchasing High consumer involvement Unfamiliar product class & brand Extensive thought. etc – react to. audiences. Consumer Behavior 10th ed. Recommended Reading: Schiffman L. Global Edition ISBN 978-0-13-700670-0. search.Centre for Communication Technology Semester 1 2010‐2011 Types of Consumer Decisions Routine response behaviour Low-cost products Frequent purchasing Low consumer involvement Familiar product class & brand Little thought. Subculture Social class Reference groups Situations © Noellie Brockdorff 2010 .L.consumers.