BY: Wasiatus Sa’diah Annisa Nur I. Irfan Fauzi Misrai Farauk 100210103003 100210103011 100210103018 100210103057

Annisa Farah Dilla 100210103061


CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION 1. Background Animals have a very diverse species, ranging from animals tmemiliki only a simple structure as in the Protozoa until the animal has a very complex body structures such as monkeys, for example. The structure of the animal has a distinctive characteristic, which is not always the same between animals with one another. With the science of taxonomy, we can study a variety of animals with his trademark and memgetahui role for human life that can improve human life. In addition there is also the role of the losses caused by these animals, by learning we can at least avoid losses. In the taxonomy of animals, divided into two major groups namely menjad invertebrate and vertebrate animals. Animals Invertebrates are animals without backbones. These consist of animal Invertebrates Phylum Porifera (porous animals), Phylum Coelenterata (animal bag / hollow), Phylum Platyhelminthes (flatworms), Phylum Nemathelminthes (roundworm), Phylum Annelida (roundworm), Phylum Mollusca (soft animals), and Phylum Echinodermata (thorn-skinned animals). With the taxonomy of invertebrate animals we will be easy to learn and can learn a variety of characteristics and benefits for humans. This paper will discuss the Phylum Mollusca. How the characteristics and benefits for human life. Mollusca is an animal that has a soft body and usually wrapped in a shell. This is the largest animal after the Phylum Arthropoda. There are around 50,000 living species and 35,000 who had become fossilized. This group has a species with a variety of sizes ranging from the microscopic to the giant. Various types of molluscs have great benefits for life. A high content of proein making it one of the nutritious food source. Like the squid is a favorite in many seafood restaurants. 2. Problem formulation - What is the sense of molluscs? - How do the characteristics of molluscs? - How does the body structure of molluscs? - What is included in the classification of molluscs? - What is the role of molluscs? 3. Destination - To know the sense of molluscs. - To know the characteristics of the molluscs. - To know the structure of the body of molluscs.

CHAPTER 2. intestine. octopus. most of life at sea. b. and nautilus. in the mud.5 meters in length and weighs over 225 pounds. sea clams.Tubuhnya soft-bodied animals that are protected by a shell. Most of life at sea and has a varied lifestyle. Regional terrestrial snails only in the humid areas. . Digestion has been fully developed. c. and anus. hidden and available calcium in the soil. like umi-squid Architeuthis. detritus eaters and there is a parasite. In the mouth has been found jagged tongue or radula and almost all types of molluscs have it in her mouth used for eating. He was short. shielded shell.To determine the classification of the Mollusca. The name Mollusca indicates one character that differentiates it from other animals. including the tentacles. predators.To determine the role of molluscs. which is composed of lime produced by glands coat. in lakes. Can weigh up to 450 kilograms (100 pounds). Its evolution is common in coastal areas. Structure Mollusca head growing. stomach. Mollusca is the largest that can grow to 18 meters. reaching 1. and the high seas began to surface area until the area abisal. in water flow. The line extends from the mouth to the anus. squid. Members of this phylum sebagiab an animal that runs slow but some are running fast and active. According to fossil evidence.. This animal is classified as triploblastik selomata. molluscus = soft) is lunak. Only snails (gastropods) that invade the mainland. His body was bilaterally symmetrical. Only gastropods and bivalve who moved into the habitat of brackish water and freshwater. ponds. This is an extraordinary thing. Mollusca have a variety of groups. DISCUSSION I. where food is abundant and varied habitats. among others chitton. such as a reliable hole digger. consists of the mouth. Mollusca of life as herbivores. Digestive gland has been well developed. although some are not shelled. Who live in the reefs in the Indo-Pacific. esophagus short. ranging from the tropics to the polar regions. Members of molluscs that have shells as a very large pincers of Tridacna gigas. As eating the remains of living things. Molluscs can be found in varied habitats. anus opens into the cavity mantelanus is located in the anterior part of the body. Characteristics of molluscs a. II. snails. . Understanding Mollusca (in Latin. while generally 80% of the members of the shells of molluscs only mimilki less than 5cm. with an altitude of 7000 m. namely a soft body. requires bivalve aquatic life around the area. His body was highly variable ranging from simple to complex and size from microscopic to the gigantic.

While covering the space between the mantle and the body called the mantle cavity (pallial cavity). g. Photosensory receptor ranging from simple to complex as it is eye cephalopods. This depends mainly on muscular action for its function. Mollusks that are diesis there and some are monoensis. Body Structure Mollusca Mollusca The body can be said to consist of the head-foot and part viceral mass (Figure 1). the pedal ganglion. k. Gastropods that live on land to breathing with lungs. Breathing was performed by Pulmonum. which have legs. gills (etenidia) located in the mantle cavity. Modification of the head-foot and visceral mass can be seen clearly in the various classes of molluscs. e.di unique structure of the radula and molluscs in the posterior locomotor organs there mouth or feet. there is also a giant squid with a winged torpedo shape is longer than 18 m. All three are connected by nerve fibers. At the head of the mouth and there is a special sensory organ miraculous.d. Two folds of skin. respiratory. Visceral mass is part of the digestive system. In the mantle cavity are the gills (ctenidia) or the lungs and can secrete a shell constituent materials on shelled molluscs. Premises movement system using a muscular foot and shape vary according to the type of molluscs. f. snails are only a few millimeters in length with an oval shape. and locomotor organs (to move). Except cephalopod. Radula . Head-foot is the more active regions. Mollusca sexual reproduction occurs with internal fertilization. HEAD-FOOT Most of the Mollusca there is good separation between the head and body means are indistinguishable. The nervous system consists of molluscs also have esophageal nerve ring with nerve fibers that spread. Modification of the structure of the head-foot and visceral mass is used as the basis for classification. For example. However. metabolic waste substances and acid excretion are issued through the tool nefridia (singular: nephridium). His heart is made up of dorsal surrounded parikardium. Genitals are generally separate (dioseus). resulting in the dorsal part. open circulation. Nervous system in the form of three pairs of ganglion (ganglion). i. Anyone has his mouth there tentakel. circulatory. Mollusca body size and shape vary greatly. sensory organs. h. acts as a protective coat called the pallium. visceral ganglion. Tool in the form of renal excretion or nephridium. j. and coats. epidermis. and reproductive organs. namely sarebral ganglion. Blood can carry nutrients and circulated throughout the body molluscs. III. but some are hermaphroditic external fertilization.

are found in most members except for bivalve molluscs and most solenogaster. Ventral part of the foot is penjuluran his muscular physique. In Chepalopods (squid and octopus) and the mantle cavity muscles generate power used to drive the move. Mantle cavity has an important role for the molluscs. Both ctenedia located on the opposite side of the mantle cavity and arranged so that the cavity is functionally divided into the chamber incurrent and excurrent space. MASS visceral Mantle and mantle cavity Mantle is a sheath of skin that stretches from the visceral mass and hanging on each side of the body. feet modified into tentacles that are useful for capturing prey. Radula is located far from the anterior limiting the number of teeth replaced by a continuous secretion at the posterior end. thus forming mechanism of change. Gills are found lacking was found in members of the Gastropoda. Water is driven by cillia between gill filaments. Direction opposite to the direction of blood movement of water movement. The function of the radula is to attract particles of food and as a conveyor belt that carries the particles to the digestive tract.Radula berpermukaaan separti grated coarse and prominent.pada several groups Mollusca. The space between the mantle and visceral mass called the mantle cavity. . cut or tear the piercing. Radula ribbon like membrane that consists of rows of small teeth that leads to the rear. Foot Foot molluscs are generally used for crawling or moving menggali. The pattern and number of teeth in a specific row is different in each species and used in the classification of the Mollusca. Complexity of the work the radula muscles and supports kartilgo (odonthopore) and exit when the membrane spinning on the tip of the cartilage (Figure 2). which is protected by a shell to protect themselves. ctenedium Mollusca (gills) consists of the long axis of the elongated flat mantle cavity wall consisting of many gill filaments. Many Mollusca can pull the head or foot into the mantle cavity. but there is in most groups of molluscs. Secrete slime which is often used to help move. which protects the soft parts. There are at least 25 000 teeth that can be cleaned. In the mantle cavity are respiratory organs (gills or lungs) which evolved from the mantle and the mantle of gas exchange occurs. In simple form. The exterior of the building blocks of mantle secretes a shell. and diffuse from the blood vessels in the central axis through the afferent fillament.

. There is great variation in shell structure. and growth occurs only at the edge of the shell. In the older part of the shell periostracum often become worn. Periostracum helps to protect the layer of calcium from erosion. which consists of quinond taned proteins. (figure 3). This layer is secreted by glands at the edge of the mantle. Calcium in the nacreous layer is a thin layer. In mollusks that live in the sea. This layer is secreted by folds of the mantle edge. Periostracum is the outermost layer. Freshwater mollusks typically having a thick periostracum that gives some protection from the acid produced by decaying leaves in water. so that more and thicken during the live animal. Middle prismatic layer composed of calcium carbonate formed in the matrix protein. is the deepest layer of the shell is located next to the mantle and continue secreted by the mantle surface. Usually consists of three layers. Nacreous layer. and in some no.Shells Shells of certain Molussca secreted by the mantle and the mantle limit itself. This layer is very thin and wavy so as to produce the colorful pearls. Usually consists of three layers (Figure 3). Periostracum Shells Shells of certain Molussca secreted by the mantle and the mantle limit itself. The first shell came during the larval period and will grow continuously throughout life. Calcium for the shells came from ground water or the environment or from food. shell size and growth occur at the edge of the shell when the animal grows. consisting of an organic substance called conchiolin. periostracum is relatively thin.

There is an open circulatory system with a pumping heart. and are generally simpler than the annelids. gills and lungs secondary. Neurosecretory cells have been identified in the nervous system (in particular water snails) produces growth hormone and function in osmoregulation. according to the eating habits of various Mollusca and are usually equipped with a vast tract cilia. veins. and in particular the respiratory organs such as ctenidia. type of nephridium where eventually forwarded by nephrostome coelom). Digestive tract complex and highly specialized. tract from the kidney found in various forms that also help to release eggs and sperm. blood vessels and blood sinuses. Most Mollusca have a pair of kidneys (metanephridia. and capillaries. and Arthopods. The nervous system consists of several pairs of ganglia connected by nerve cords.Figure 3: Shell structure Functions and Internal Structure Gas exchange occurs through the surface of the body. There are also various types of highly specialized sense organs. Most Chepalopoda have a closed circulatory system consisting of the heart. REPRODUCTION . especially the coat.

namely: Amphineura. Another phase of free-swimming larvae of veliger. regardless of class Amphineura. and cephalopod. Classification of Mollusca For over 50 years Mollusca recognized five classes. as the chiton. In many Mollusca no trochophore. Gastropoda. though some were hermaphrodites.Figure 4: Larva throcophore Most Mollusca is diouseus. bivalves (Pelecypoda). which is also a simple kind of larvae of annelids. Freeswimming larvae that develop from eggs in molluscs called trochophore (Figure 4). Scaphoda. Neopilina species discovery in 1950 to add a class that is Monoplacophora molluscs. Knowing there are fundamental differences between organisms such as other solenogaster Chaetoderma and cause the separation of classes into Caudofoveata and Solenogaster Aplocophora. Cephalopods and freshwater bivalves do not have free-swimming larvae. Direct metamorphosis of the trochophore becomes a young teen. and Hyman argues that solenogasters and chitons form a distinct class (Polyplocophora and Aplacophora). as in many Gastropoda and bivalves. is viewed as a character aprimitive. IV. . juvenile phase directly hatched from the eggs. veliger account after the eggs hatch into free-swimming larval stage only.

but their bodies are covered with scales of calcium. and gender separated. whose length is between 2 to 140 mm. the organ that seems related to food selection and intake. However. This group has a member at least 70 species. Have a radula. with the mantle cavity and gills terminal at the entrance of burrows. They feed on microorganisms and detritus. CLASS SOLENOGASTER . There are no spicules or scales on the pedal shield the mouth. this species may be closer to the ancestral molluscs other than the class of molluscs. They are mostly burrowers and adjust vertically. They do not have shells. although reduced in some species.CLASS CAUDOFOVEATA Members of Caudofoveata (Figure 5) is a marine worm.

pilos: feet) up from the seabed. does not have a shell. However. they are known only from shells in the Paleozoic era. marine worms. Solenogaster also a member of a small. Monoplacophora include small mollusks and shells.Solenogasters (Figure 6) and caudofoveates Aplocophora formerly united in the classroom. are . near the west coast of Costa Rica Neopilina (Latin. In addition to digging (burrower). with reduced head and no nephridia. Both caudofoveatea and solenogasters is. numbering about 250 species. CLASS MONOPLACOPHORA Until 1952 it was thought that Monoplacophora extinct. Are hermaphrodites. and and eat cnidarias. and some zoological preserve Aplocophora name for solenogasters. Neo: new. Her feet and consists of a narrow midventral pedal groove. Solenogasters usually do not have gills and radula (though have the secondary respiratory strruktur). solenogasters living freely in the sea floor. which is now known monoplacophora species. with spicules in integumennya.

Mantle cavity has been elongated along the ventral side of the wide leg. Radula is reinforced with iron-containing minerals. At dinner. Most of the chiton are small (2 to 5 cm). this groove into a closed room. Water enters the . moving only very short distances to find food. while the largest Cryptochiton rarely reach 30 cm. Neopilina have five pairs of auricle. They prefer rocky surface in tidal areas. If separate. The mouth has a radula. one or two pairs of gonads and the nervous system ladderlike with 10 pairs of pedal nerves. open only at the ends. with foot and mantle are firmly attached to the substrate. Chiton was always strongly attached to the stone with his foot a luasdan memggunakan flat. Most chiton sedentary. They have the body shape is elliptical with a horizontal leg which covers the ventral and dorsal surface of the convex plate is marked by a series of eight pieces calcareus which overlap (Figure 8). Head and sensory organs is reduced. radula from the mouth to scrape algae from rocks. six pairs of nephridia. but the photosensitive sruktur (esthetes).round and have legs crawling (Figure 7). Mantel-shaped corset around the edges of the plate and in some species the folds of the mantle closed all plates. CLASS POLYPLACOPHORA: CHITONS Chiton represent a group of somewhat more diversified Mollusca. who owned several chiton eyes that penetrate the plate. chiton can roll up like armadillos for protection. Plate overlapping posterior and usually dull-colored to match the stone which the chiton is attached. although some live in the depths.

is a marine benthic mollusks found from the subtidal zone at depths greater than 6000 m. is used to dig into the mud or sand. but in some circumstances. Breathing through prnapasan water circulating through the mantle cavity by the movement of the feet and cilia.anterior groove. and the larvae metamorphose into trochophore directly to teens. always revealing the small end of the shells to be seen on the water. the edge of the mantle can be tightly pressed onto the substra to reduce water loss. commonly called ivory shells or teeth. Most of the chiton separate sexes. Osphradia pair (sensory organs to collect water) are found in the mantle near the anus chiton. but there is also the smallest and the largest 4mm 25 cm.5 to 5cm long. Dentalium is a genus. They have a slender body covered with a coat and yanh tubular shell open at both ends (Figure 9). Two pairs of longitudinal nerves connected in the buccal region. with no veliger stage. CLASS SCAPHOPODA Scaphopoda. for which do . Legs protruding through the larger end of the shell. Most of Scaphopoda have the 2. Blood is pumped by the three chambers of the heart until it reaches the gills melaului aorta and sinuses. flows into the gills and left posterior. bringing the supply of oxygen to the gills. A pair of kidneys (metanephridia) removing waste from the cavity to the exterior pericardical. the edge of the mantle can be open for limited air. Gas exchange occurs in the mantle. At low tide.

leaves. Radula bring the food to be destroyed in the throat.Bentuk shell varies.Hewan includes 50.Hewan are scattered throughout the earth's surface.000 of whom have been punah. leading to the head of the ciliated (captacula) and then delivered to the mouth nearby. Matel serves to form excretion to form a new shell Gastropods that berhabitat in Mangrove.not have gills. Most of the food detritus and protozoa from the substrate. or round spiral. CLASS gastropods Gastropods derived from the Greek language which means the stomach and gastric podos meaning kaki. but 15. feet.fungsi to melndungi head. Poda-feet). some round.Biasanya stuck in the roots breath. and in the water laut. often ate vegetable cultivation to the detriment of manusia. tentacles and other mollusks osphradia characteristic does not exist. either on land. these animals are herbifor. or without cangkang. and tools inside. There gastropod shells that have single. Captacula can provide some sensory functions. from the very close to the surface of the water until the water away from the surface. because of the high protein content. Separate sexes. but the eyes. based Guttierez (1988) is a gastropod of the genus Littorina. oval. such as snails ( Achatina fulica) and some types of snails. double.Letaknya varied.Jadi Gastropoda means soft-bodied animals that are running by using this perutnya.Namun. except at the near buasanya thin legs.000 species. lately some gastropods have been attempted into food. we observed that berhabitat gastropods at the root of breath mangrove. and trochophore larvae. Shell usually spiral shell asimetri. the shell is closed by epifragma. To know the trend of locomotion to changing tides Gastropoda (geotropisme). This food is caught on the foot cilia or mucus. in freshwater.Pada Generally.Mantel whole body is thick. Inside the shell there is a coat that mambungkus gastropoda. round rough. or . Gastropods are invertebrate animals that perform activities of locomotion with foot-stomach (gastro-stomach. In case of danger.

Seperti gastropods proposed by Hesse (1947) The second factor that stimulates the animal to berlokomosi barrier. and microorganisms not shelled lainnya. And gastropods males were able to distinguish the former path of mucus or mucus to be produced by a female or male (Erlandsson and Kostylev (1995) in Ito and Wada (2005)). prey-prey are exposed on the surface of the substrate making it easier for memangsanya. The first factor of food. Recalcitrant (1974) in Guitterez (1988) informs that mikrofagus Littorina are animals that eat detritus. gastropods males will guard females when copulation would do.Hal gastropods provides information that gastropods are animals active during the day. very aktif.Pada state subsided. Crab is active in the afternoon and evening. when the state of the aqueous substrate because crabs are animals that berlokomosi by swimming and walking (Trueman. At low tide conditions.Saat factor is receding state.branches (Flores (1987) in Guttierez (1988)). Dinter and Manos (1972) in Ito and Wada (2005) states that the gastropod females will produce sex pheromones that are recognized by the male. Based on Ito and Wada (2005). Guttierez (1988) states that the Mangrove gastropods mikrofagus prey animals such as detritus. The factors that cause such differences are: a. 1975). algae and other microorganisms was shelled. Barrier greatly influence the spread of a population due to barriers or obstacles will hinder the survival of individuals or even populations. predatory gastropods in the form of crabs is not currently active. animals tend to live in an area where they can easily get food. sponges. Sunshine . The second factor is the barrier factor. Trends and activities Gastropoda strongly influenced by tidal conditions and the presence of food. sponges. According to Hesse (1947) distribution of animals is based on two factors. ie at low tide. algae.

The body structure of Gastropoda Bilateral symmetry larva's body remained the later development of the body the back and the tools it has almost formed by bending or Vaginula.Seluruh lingkaran. because the sunlight is absorbed by the body of water will produce heat in the waters (Odum. At the time of tide. the water temperature is lower than the water temperature during the day hari. Temperatures that are too low may be harmful can even lead to hipotermik in animals that lead to death. The water temperature At night.Kecuali naked snails Gastropoda limb protected by a shell berkatup one so-called univalve. toxic compounds (toksit) as well as heavy metals. So that sunlight will increase the temperature so it becomes warmer waters. will be carried away by water. 1993). . c.Pada this section there are two pairs of tentacles and mouth.Sunlight is the main source of heat in the waters. Tentekel contained in the head includes a pair of tentacles with eyes (specifically that live on land) and a pair of tentacles to sense of smell (Figure 10). The structure of the head was visible jelas.Suhu water is one factor that can influence the activity and stimulate or inhibit the proliferation of aquatic organisms. These materials are derived from the watershed areas and coastal settlements and towns sidelines and in the region or industrial waste into the sea. Snail's body consists of head and body. Chemical content of sea water The sea water around the islands a thousand had no doubt have suffered chemical contamination mainly pollutants. So would endanger the survival of living gastropods. b.

seminal reseptakel. the eggs will hatch.Di addition.Gastropoda has grown baik. While the eggs produced will be forwarded to the oviduct.Letaknya mouth at the anterior end.Setelah sex partner that they split and each Gastropoda lay fertilized eggs and protected by a gelatinous substance in a dark place.Pulmonum is interwoven between the blood vessels that relate directly to the heart. sometimes the mantle cavity can also perform the function respirasi. Although Gastropoda merupaka hemaprodit organisms. Body divided into head. The tool consists of a snail blood circulation of heart and blood vessels are still sederhana. Tool in the form of gills for respiration Gastropoda that live in water and lung Pulmonum for living in darat. equipped with the jaws of the horn and substance of the tongue or radula scar at the base perutnya. When I was shaped larvae.Anus located in the anterior part of the body. Reproductive tool called ovotestis. ie an ovum and spermproducing entity. and tools in (visceral). and finally out through the hole sex. body bersimetri Gastropoda bilateral. Under the head there are mucous glands that produce a moist . deposited on rocks or junk. Due to the influence of environmental temperature. neck. At the head there is a pair of short tentacles as a means of smell and a pair of long tentacles as a visionary tool.Peredaran located in the cavity is a blood circulatory system open. Snails reproduce by mating and are hemaprodit.Reproduksi reproduction begins when the two approached each other and mutually Gastropoda memasukkanpenis respectively into the holes to move sperma. but are unable to do autofertilisasi.Jantung consists of porch and ventrike parikardial.. but after experiencing adult body bending so that it becomes no symmetry (asymmetry). so that there still needed two individu. legs. Accommodated in the sperm sac and removed through the mating tool. Sperm produced will be forwarded to the vas deferens. The fertilized eggs will be protected by a shell of lime.

esophagus. cache. salivary glands. stomach.Darah (plasma and red corpuscle) colorless and serves to circulate oxygen throughout the body. Excretion system . food is cut into pieces by the horns and chewed by the jaws and radula wetted with lenders from glands ludah. Circulatory system Open circulatory system with heart and blood vessels as organs transportasi. Organ systems in the body Gastropoda 1. 3.Kemudian dutelan food to the esophagus and into the row cache.Kaki useful for switches is actually composed by the stomach muscles are very strong. and removed through the anus is located on the head. gastric glands. 2.lenders so easy bergerak. 4. digestive anus.Saluran shaped letter U. while those living on land berespirasi with mantle cavity that serves as the lungs. and carried the rest of the combustion. Digestive system The digestive tract include oral cavity. Most Gastropoda have a conical shell kanan. Shells of Gastropoda have the same constituent lapidan shell bivalves.Kaki foot wide flat and always wet merayap. The heart consists of porch and chambers yag parikardium protected cavity.Di usually threaded into the shell of the organs contained in the following threaded shell. The respiratory system Animals that live in water berespirasidengan gills.

Reproductive system In gastropods there are animals and there are monoesis. but can not fertilize sendiri. and then into the uterus and then into the oviduct.The organs of excretion of nafridium located near the heart and ureter tract located near anus. This egg is carried through the channel hermafroditus to receive albumin. 5. Ovotestis also produce eggs. Examples of Gastropoda. 6. the pedal ganglion.Pada diesis monoesis animals male and female genitalia found in one animal.Untuk to conceive should be preceded by copulation. At the bottom of the pedal ganglion contained a pair of balance or statosit. in the oviduct sperm fertilized the egg of other animals. Ovotestis produce sperm that is channeled into the vasa deferensia and finally into the vagina of other animals with the mediation of the penis that can be removed from the genital opening. Nervous system Nervous ganglion of the nerves branching throughout tubuh. namely the visceral ganglion.Sistem Gastropoda consists of three pairs.Alat renal excretion in the form contained in a channel near this jantung. among others: a) Vivipara javanica (kreco) b) Limnaea truncatula (snail intermediate fasciolosis) c) Melania testudinaria (sumpil) d) Achatina fulica (snail) e) Ampularia ampulacea (snail gondang) .Ginjal excretion and leads to a coat. and the cerebral ganglion.

Subclass Prosobranchia Breathe using gills. such as snails . (Snail leech) Gastropod class is divided into three subclasses: 1. most of whose members are snails that live in sea water (including tidal areas and estuaries).f) Limnaea trunchatula (snails as intermediate Fasciolahepatica) g) Murex siphelinus (graft spiny and live in the sea) h) Vaginula sp. single shells. either dekstral (follow-clockwise) or sinistral (anticlockwise). (Naked snails) i) Filicaulis sp. Subclass Opistobranchia Breathe using gills located at the rear. but some are not shelled (commonly called nudibranchs or "sea hares". such as snails (A. Subclass Pulmonata Live on land. escargot (Helix pomatia). there is also nicknamed the "Spanish Dancer" because red and may swim in the sea of dancers dress like the people of Spain / Latin America).variegata). while the shells are not snail nude / naked snail. 3. is one of the typical food served raw Hawai'i. irregular (eg Siliquaria anguina or worm tube). shaped hat (from the family Patellidae commonly called "limpet" or "shells hat". Although some types of Gastropoda can be used as food ingredients. called "opihi"). the snails are labih much to cause damage by eating crops. Form of its shell is very diverse.fulica) and sea slugs (Lifforina and Buccinum). there is shelled. 2. shaped tabungyang circular. ranging from very simple. Examples of the types of shells are snail / Giant African Snail (Achatina fullica / A. breathes with lungs. and most members are hermaphrodites (hermaphrodite). but the majority of spiral or coiled. especially land snails.

2. most of whose members are snails that live in sea water (including tidal areas and estuaries). especially land snails. there is also nicknamed the "Spanish Dancer" because red and may swim in the sea of dancers dress like the people of Spain / Latin America). such as freshwater snails (Limnaea) intermediate host heartworms. Examples of the types of shells are snail / Giant African Snail (Achatina fullica / A. There is also a snail-eating marine bivalves of value as goods dagangan. Subclass Pulmonata Live on land. .variegata). while the shells are not snail nude / naked snail. there is shelled. There is also a snail-eating marine bivalves of value as goods dagangan. either dekstral (follow-clockwise) or sinistral (anticlockwise). but the majority of spiral or coiled. such as freshwater snails (Limnaea) intermediate host heartworms. is one of the typical food served raw Hawai'i. Subclass Prosobranchia Breathe using gills. the snails are labih much to cause damage by eating crops.fulica) and sea slugs (Lifforina and Buccinum). breathes with lungs. but some are not shelled (commonly called nudibranchs or "sea hares". 3. Form of its shell is very diverse.Beberapa snail species. ranging from very simple. called "opihi"). irregular (eg Siliquaria anguina or worm tube).commonly called "limpet" or "shells hat".and golden apple snail.Beberapa snail species. single shells. such as snails and golden apple snail. Although some types of Gastropoda can be used as food ingredients. and most members are hermaphrodites (hermaphrodite). shaped hat (from the family Patellidae . such as snails (A. Gastropod class is divided into three subclasses: 1. Subclass Opistobranchia Breathe using gills located at the rear. escargot (Helix pomatia). shaped is tube circular.

shell umbo as a growth center ( Hickman. hinge ligament tissue that connects the left and right shells. Shells are usually symmetrical two pieces that can be closed and opened by using the adductor muscle in his body. valve = valve) or class of shells. giant clam (Tridacna sp. there are shells on the dorsal hinge serrations that serves as a pedestal when the shells open or closed. And mussels (Mytilus viridis). Shells connected by elastic hinges.). To close the shells carried by the transverse muscle located at the end of both ends of the body near the dorsal. and there are about 2000 species. Pelecypoda word comes from the Greek meaning Pelekys hatchet. This shell serves to protect the body. This class has two shells. Graft shells are composed of three layers (Fig. the anterior and posterior adductor muscle. 11). 1996). while Podus means foot. graft amounted to two (a pair) in the anterior and the umbo (the enlarged / stand) there is section posterior (back). Phylum class is referred to as class bivalves (bi = two.CLASS bivalves (PELECYPODA) Morphology Pelecypoda identificate as clams (Anadara sp. namely: Figure 11: Layers shell in bivalves . Pearl oyster (Pinctada margaritifera and Pinctada mertinsis). Thick shell on the dorsal and ventral parts thinner.).

 Periostrakum is the outermost layer. (Prawirohartono.  prismatic layer. Sexual organs separately on each individual or there is a hermaphrodite. The function of the foot for edging and digging mud or sand. When the shells open out the legs to move (Figure 12). mouth fitted labial palp. 1990). the gills are equipped silis as filter feeding (eat by filtering the solution). Fertilization occurs internally and eksternal. Gills are generally shaped slabs amounted to one or two pairs. Figure 12: How to move Pelecypoda No head.  nakreas layer is often called mother-of-pearl layer is the deepest layer. (Umaryati. glochidia on freshwater. composed of layers of calcite (carbonate) are thin and parallel. so that this animal is also called Lamellibranchiata (in Latin. branchia = gill).Pembuahan produce a . This class will be alive in fresh water and some are living in the sea. lamella = sheet. a thin dark and composed of chitin substance that serves as a protector. 2003). His legs were shaped ax (pelecypoda) and muscular. a thick middle layer is composed of crystals of lime (CaCO3) in the form of a prism. through the development and viliger trucophora in marine and fresh waters. without jaw or radula.

the pedal ganglion. and posterior ganglion is the same thing is also found in the Gastropoda Life cycle . While the food groups of animals shells are small animals found in the waters.zygote which will then become larvae. shells of other animals. or boats because secrete an adhesive substance. Nervous System Pelecypoda nervous system consists of three pairs of ganglia are interconnected. esophagus. Three anterior ganglion is the ganglion. Food debris expelled through the anus. intestine and ultimately boils down to the anus. Pelecypoda who live in mud siphon has a larger than life at sea. Figure 13: Anatomy of Pelecypoda Digestive System Digestive system starts from the mouth. Food is digested in the stomach with the help of digestive and liver lymph. Pelecypoda able to adhere to rocks. The anus is located on the same channel with a channel for water discharge (Figure 13). stomach.

squid (Loligo pealii). Fertilized eggs develop into larvae glochidium. Cuttlefish (Sepiella maindroni). the larvae will exit from its parent and attached to the fish as a parasite. After a few days earlier the cyst will open up and eventually the young shells out this live freely in nature (Figure 14). Animals that are included in Chepalopoda octopus (Octopus vulgaris). then becomes a cyst. Here fertilization by sperm released by males. . which have been cooked egg will be removed from the ovary. These larvae are in there that have some type of tool hooks and some are not. CLASS cephalopod Cephalopod is derived from the Greek meaning chephalo podos meaning head and legs.Figure 14: Life Cycle Pelecypoda In freshwater mussels. Furthermore. So is the cephalopod molluscs legged on the head or her head encircled by the legs modified into tentacles. Then go into the room suprabranchial.

including a fossilized (nautiloid groups and ammonoids) who lived during the Mesozoic era (60 million years ago). This animal has two pairs of gills and two pairs of nefridia and do not have chromatophores and ink sac. a pair of nefrida. . in the body shell made of chitin. Tetrabranchiata have the outer shell of limestone and has some arm twisting. Order dibranchiata divided into two sub-orders.  Octopus vulgaris. pampilus. .This cephalopod has features that can make it easier for us to recognize it. Examples representing the nautiloids nautilus is a genus that can be found in the Pacific ocean and seas of Indonesia. . or have a bag of cuttlefish ink. two pairs of gills. Having eight arms and two tentacles.  ink bag & kramatofora Order Tetrabranchiata: Tetrabranchiata include the number of species that are numerous. Order Dibranchiata: Dibranchiata has in shells or none at all with less than tetrabranchiata arm. in the body shell is made of limestone. among others are:  foot on thehead  tentacles have adhesive cells  fins on the side of the body to thesteering equipment  Loligo indica or have a bag of squid ink. These animals have the ink bag. Which they have 2 pairs of nefridia. namely: a. The suborder decapoda. Having eight hands. located on the outside shell is made of limestone. example: loligo pealeii and sepia officinalis. Characteristic. and have chromatophores.  Nautilus has no ink sac.  Sepia sp. One family is the family of the order tetrabranchiata nautilidae. do not have shells. Having eight arms and two tentacles. cantohnya pompilus nautilus.ill have fromatofora & ink bag. a pair of gills.outer shell. or have a bag of ink.

1 decapoda (shelled). Example: octapoda among others Argonauta argo.  In the Shell: as the protector of the inner organs. most do not have a shell except the genus Argonauta. 1 pair of gills: (2 suborders).  Pharynx the front of the esophagus serves to suck food from the mouth and wet it with mucus.  Mouth Vacuum: the entry of food. Anatomy of Cephalopoda The parts of the body of a cephalopod is as follows (Figure 15):  Tentacle: as a means of motion. The ink will be sprayed when the squid was disturbed to arrival / or meet the predator. The suborder octapoda.b.  Cardiac: as a place to pump blood. which contain ink.  The ink sac: sac membranes contained in the squid.  Eyes: as visual organ. examine and tentacle prey.  Heart: take the food in the blood and as a place producing bile  esophagus: a channel behind the oral cavity serves to connect the mouth and stomach. octopus Octopus vulgaris and bairdi. feel.  Kidney: as a place of excretion. .  Gills: organs as respiratory organs.  Ovaries: egg-producing cells.  Anus:removing metabolic waste.  Stomach: as part of digestion.  Rectum: as an open rear portion of the intestine to the anus. Which they have a nefridia pairs. a.

Digestive System The organs of digestion starts from the oral cavity surrounded by tentacles. stomach. Habitat cephalopod Cephalopod habitat is in the waters of the sea water. Ink gland are common. esophagus. makes a very agile animal.Gambar 15: Cephalopoda Anatomy b. and in succession to the pharynx. squid. small intestine. this is another part highly modified legs. c. and ends at the anus. and this can be disposed of in a cloud of ink if the animal feels threatened. e. Movement in the form of jet propulsion system that expels water through channels called Hypomone. Cephalopod that lives in the waters of the sea water for example: octopus. d. Way of life All cephalopod are active predators. Nervous System . Hypo-mone may be directed. and cuttlefish. especially in octopi. capture prey with their tentacles and then use their mouths a strong center that has a parrot-like beak to bite. In the pharynx there is a radula and heart.

Beberapa is the largest cephalopod species. Reproductive System These animals reproduce sexually.Sistem nervous system consists of three pairs of nerve ganglion. Snails are also often the hosts for the parasites. because they live in territorial waters. resulting in considerable damage to wooden boats and docks. As in the cephalopod is the squid are much favored by seafood lovers. beautiful shape and made widely available from most members of Mollusca shells favored by collectors unique objects. Slugs can damage gardens and other vegetation. Some molluscs also cause damage. Genitals separately. Sensory also highly developed senses and comes with two tools stasista and smell. The role of molluscs Most of the Mollusca dimanfaaatkan as a food ingredient. some are not affected even though it was painted with tar). f. REFERENCES . Cephalopoda have two married reproductive organs (dioseus). Pearls produced from the shells of bivalve. One class of molluscs also produces a high value jewelry that pearl. the dock should be painted with tar or stiffen the structure of the building (unfortunately. V. Fertilization takes place internally and produce eggs. so that many species of molluscs are dead.The nervous system is centered on his head which resembles otak. many collectors molluscs shells that do not pay attention to the preservation of molluscs living in the shell.Betina produce eggs to be fertilized in the cavity mentel. However. g. Respiratory System The respiratory system in the cephalopod is to use the gill. Many variations. each genitals are near the end of the mantle cavity with an open channel to the funnel sifon. such as giant squid (Architeuthis princes) which has a total length of 15 meters. The system is similar to fish. Marine worm digger. the fertilized egg wrapped with capsules from materials infertebrata gelatin. several species of bivalves. Then. To prevent damage caused by marine worms (shipworms). (Online). Jakarta: Bumi Aksara. ( America.html). A.blogspot. (http://muammarfaperik. (http://zalfaaqilah. Prawirohartono. Taksonomi Avertebrata.Yogyakarta: Kanisus.blogspot. Diakses tanggal 3 Oktober 2011. Gastropoda. P. 1990. Morfologi Gastropoda.S. Cetakan Pertama. Ten Edition. . S. Diakses tanggal 3 Oktober 2011. 2007.blogspot. Ortia.Aqilah. Satrio. USA. (Online). 2010. 2003. (http://ortipulang. Muammar. B. 2011. (Online).Zoologi. Penelitian Tentang Cypraeidae. Jakarta: Universitas Indonesia Press. (http://lariajamift.html). (Online). Diakses pada 30 September 2011.C. Hickman.html). Umaryati. Diakses tanggal 3 Oktober Sains Biologi 1. Zalfa. Radiopoetro. Mollusca. Intergrated Principles oF Zoology. 2009. Diakses tanggal 3 Oktober 2011. (Online). Miftha.1990. Laporan Praktikum Klasifikasi 1996.