BHT-ALL-SPM

CHAPTER 6 — NONDESTRUCTIVE INSPECTION
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Paragraph Number Title NONDESTRUCTIVE INSPECTION 6-1 6-2 6-3 6-4 6-5 6-6 6-7 6-8 6-9 6-10 6-11 6-12 6-13 6-14 6-15 6-16 6-17 6-18 6-19 6-20 6-21 6-22 6-23 6-24 6-25 6-26 6-27 6-28 6-29 6-30 6-31 6-32 6-33 6-34 6-35 6-36 6-37 6-38 6-39 6-40 6-41 6-42 6-43 6-44 General .......................................................................................... Fluorescent Penetrant Inspection Method (ASTM E1417) ............ Introduction ............................................................................... Safety Precautions.................................................................... Personnel Qualification/Certification......................................... Equipment Requirements ......................................................... Developer Application Equipment............................................. Standard Equipment ................................................................. Inspection Material Requirements ............................................ Preinspection Cleaning............................................................. Penetrant Inspection................................................................. Evaluation ................................................................................. Acceptance Criteria .................................................................. Postinspection Cleaning ........................................................... Process Control Requirements................................................. Records .................................................................................... Fluorescent Magnetic Particle Inspection Method (ASTM E1444) Introduction ............................................................................... Safety Precautions.................................................................... Personnel Qualification/Certification......................................... Equipment Requirements ......................................................... Inspection Material Requirements ............................................ Preinspection Cleaning............................................................. Magnetizing Current Application............................................... Magnetic Field Strength............................................................ Magnetic Field Direction .......................................................... Circular Magnetization .............................................................. Longitudinal Magnetization Using Coils.................................... Longitudinal Magnetization Using an Electromagnetic Probe .. Particle Application ................................................................... Evaluation ................................................................................. Acceptance Criteria .................................................................. Demagnetization....................................................................... Post Inspection Cleaning .......................................................... Process Control Requirements................................................. Records .................................................................................... Nondestructive Inspection Eddy Current Method .......................... Scope........................................................................................ Introduction ............................................................................... Safety Precautions.................................................................... Personnel Qualification/Certification......................................... Equipment Requirements ......................................................... Reference Standards................................................................ Inspection ................................................................................. 6-00-00 6-00-00 6-00-00 6-00-00 6-00-00 6-00-00 6-00-00 6-00-00 6-00-00 6-00-00 6-00-00 6-00-00 6-00-00 6-00-00 6-00-00 6-00-00 6-00-00 6-00-00 6-00-00 6-00-00 6-00-00 6-00-00 6-00-00 6-00-00 6-00-00 6-00-00 6-00-00 6-00-00 6-00-00 6-00-00 6-00-00 6-00-00 6-00-00 6-00-00 6-00-00 6-00-00 6-00-00 6-00-00 6-00-00 6-00-00 6-00-00 6-00-00 6-00-00 6-00-00 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 6 6 7 7 7 7 10 10 10 10 10 11 12 12 12 12 12 13 13 14 14 15 15 15 15 16 17 17 17 18 18 18 18 19 19 6-00-00 Page 1 Chapter/Section Number Page Number

16 FEB 2007 Rev. 2

BHT-ALL-SPM

TABLE OF CONTENTS (CONT)
Paragraph Number 6-45 6-46 6-47 6-48 6-49 6-50 6-51 6-52 6-53 6-54 6-55 6-56 6-57 Title Evaluation ................................................................................. Acceptance Criteria .................................................................. Inspection Procedures .............................................................. Process Control Requirements................................................. Ultrasonic Inspection Method......................................................... Introduction ............................................................................... Safety Precaution ..................................................................... Personnel Qualifications/Certifications ..................................... Equipment Requirements ......................................................... Reference Standards................................................................ Inspection ................................................................................. Evaluation ................................................................................. Acceptance Criteria .................................................................. Chapter/Section Number 6-00-00 6-00-00 6-00-00 6-00-00 6-00-00 6-00-00 6-00-00 6-00-00 6-00-00 6-00-00 6-00-00 6-00-00 6-00-00 Page Number 19 20 20 20 22 22 22 22 22 23 23 23 23

TABLES
Table Number 6-1 6-2 6-3 6-4 6-5 Title Fluorescent Penetrant Process Control Tests — Frequency and Requirements Fluorescent Magnetic Particle Process Control Tests — Frequency and Requirements...................................................................................................... Probe Frequency Selection................................................................................. Reference Standard Materials Non-Critical Components ................................... Reference Standard Materials for Components Listed in Chapter 4 and Chapter 5 (Airworthiness Limitations/Inspections and Component Overhaul Schedule)............................................................................................................ Page Number 9 17 20 21 21

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Rev. 2

16 FEB 2007

SAFETY PRECAUTIONS 1. Avoid contact with All personnel performing NDI shall be certified to meet or exceed Level II requirements as established in the latest revision of NAS 410 or alternate approved document. GENERAL penetrant inspection materials by wearing gloves. PERSONNEL QUALIFICATION/ CERTIFICATION Nondestructive inspections included in this chapter are fluorescent penetrant. 8. creating both a fire and health hazard. Exercise extreme caution when handling penetrants which have been heated to a point where some lighter constituents are driven off. Temperatures in excess of 120°F (48. 6-4. Excess penetrant is removed from the part surface with penetrant remaining in the discontinuities. 6-5. do not look directly into the black light as unfiltered black lights or a damaged filter on a black light may damage eyes. and stores have been met. Individuals who have successfully completed and passed the Level I Special Bell Helicopter training course may perform routine inspections for acceptance on components as listed in the Chapter 4 Airworthiness Limitations Schedule for retirement life parts and as listed in Chapter 5 Component Overhaul Schedule for components requiring an overhaul interval providing the applicable MM and or the CR&O provides the detailed instructions to perform the inspection. dry area protected from direct sunlight. 5.BHT-ALL-SPM NONDESTRUCTIVE INSPECTION 6-1. Use only low sulfur and low halogen content penetrant materials. Personnel that have successfully completed the level I Special NDI training course at Bell Helicopter are qualified to perform fluorescent penetrant inspections in accordance with the applicable maintenance and overhaul manuals. Be sure to grasp the black light only by the handle. Continual exposure to penetrant inspection materials may cause skin irritation. Developer is then applied to the part surface to provide a blotting action which allows the penetrant to emerge from the discontinuities. emulsifier. 6-3. Individuals who have successfully completed and passed the Level I Special Bell Helicopter training 6-00-00 Page 3 16 FEB 2007 Rev. or developers. Black lights generate considerable heat during use. Prolonged or repeated inhalation of vapors or powders may result in irritation of mucous membrane areas of the body. This is done by applying penetrant to the surface of the part which then penetrates the surface discontinuity. 3. Avoid exposure of pressurized spray cans to open flame. The ASB or other Bell Helicopter approved written directive must indicate in the document that a Bell Helicopter trained Level 1 Special individual is qualified to perform such task and may be responsible for product acceptance. Provide adequate ventilation when handling cleaner. Indications become visible by the fluorescence of the penetrant under ultraviolet light. penetrants. 2. Wash exposed areas of body with soap and water. Make sure safety requirements for using electrical equipment near aircraft fuel cells. Volatile fumes may occur. FLUORESCENT PENETRANT INSPECTION METHOD (ASTM E1417) INTRODUCTION Penetrant inspection is a nondestructive test for discontinuities open to the surface in parts made of nonporous materials. 6. 2 .8°C) may cause bursting of pressurized spray cans and injury to personnel. 4. or as specifically authorized in an ASB or other Bell Helicopter approved written directive. The employer of NDI Level I Special personnel must have an established written practice which meets the requirements of ATA 105 for qualification and training of NDT personnel as described in the Bell Helicopter Customer Training Academy (CTA) NDI training course. Store all pressurized spray cans in a cool. 6-2. To prevent injury to the eyes. oxygen systems. 7. Penetrant containing excessive sulfur or halogens may cause stress corrosion cracking in titanium parts. magnetic particle and Eddy Current.

vs. The temperature controller shall be capable of maintaining the oven temperature at ±15°F (±8. Excess penetrant and penetrant/emulsifier mixtures shall be removed by manual spraying. Aqueous Type Developers. 3. Prior to electrostatic spray application refer to the manufacturer's product data to determine if the penetrant is compatible with this method of application. Adequate ventilation and personal protective devices shall be provided as instructed by the penetrant materials manufacturer. Hydro-air nozzles may be used with a maximum of 20 PSI added air pressure. Water temperature shall be between 50 – 100°F (10 – 37. Dry Type Developers. 6-8. Brush application is prohibited. the spray unit shall be capable of dispensing the concentration recommended by the manufacturer. Drying equipment shall be recirculating hot air ovens. flowing. conventional or electrostatic spraying so that the entire part is covered with penetrant. EQUIPMENT REQUIREMENTS d. or audible alarm which operates should the oven temperature exceed 160°F Rev. brushing. uniform coating can be applied. 6-7. c. Drying oven temperatures shall be at least 120°F (48. emulsifier. Penetrant/Emulsifier Application Equipment.8°C) and shall not exceed 160°F (71. 2. scratch). Actual inspection of such parts needs to be supported by a certified Level II in the method employed. Penetrant. flowing. If application is by immersion. 6-6.5°C) of the oven temperature.7°C).3°C) from set point and the temperature indicator shall be accurate to ±10°F (±5. All tanks shall be provided with covers to avoid contamination of the materials when not in use. Equipment for applying hydrophilic emulsifiers shall provide complete part coverage by immersion or spraying. electrically heated and thermostatically controlled. Penetrant application equipment shall provide a means of application by immersion. NCSL Z540-1. General.1°C). STANDARD EQUIPMENT 1. Drying Ovens. Air pressure type spray units equipped with a means to continuously agitate the developer mixture during use may be used so that a thin. Developer shall be applied in an enclosed cabinet. The rinsing area shall be provided with a black light to monitor the progress of penetrant removal and to prevent over-washing/under-washing. DEVELOPER APPLICATION EQUIPMENT 1. Non-Aqueous Type Developers. If application is by spraying. Temperature/pressure indicators and controls shall be calibrated at six month maximum intervals in accordance with ISO 10012-1. and is not intended as a final means of acceptance or rejection. a. and to characterize indications found visually (crack. and aqueous developer tanks shall have drain racks. or spraying so that the entire part is completely covered.BHT-ALL-SPM course may only perform evaluations on components if the MM or CR&O do not provide the required detailed instructions. Rinsing/Wash Apparatus. 2 16 FEB 2007 . Portable kits (Method C) may be employed for inspection of localized areas of components and parts installed on aircraft. the bath or parts shall be agitated during immersion. which disperses the powder in a manner resulting in a uniform coating being applied to the entire surface of the part. Equipment used to apply suspension type developers shall be capable of agitating the mixture to maintain a uniform suspension. The cabinet shall be equipped with a viewing window to allow for visual verification of cloud formation. 6-00-00 Page 4 1. a person certified to meet or exceed a Level II requirement will be responsible for the acceptance or rejection of that indicated part. Examples include assessment of a damaged bare metallic skin for evidence of cracking. The preferred application of non-aqueous developers is by commercially available aerosol containers. If during the course of the evaluation an indication is found. Equipment for applying lipophilic emulsifiers shall provide complete part coverage by immersion or flowing. Fluorescent penetrant inspection (FPI) equipment shall be designed specifically for the purpose intended and constructed from materials compatible with the chemicals used. An evaluation is performed for information purposes only. visible alarm. The equipment shall be arranged to facilitate part flow through the process and be capable of providing a repeatable operation. b. The rinsing apparatus shall deliver a coarse spray of water having a maximum pressure of 40 PSI (276 kPa). The equipment shall provide a means of application by immersion. The drying oven shall be equipped with a safety shut off. Hydro-air nozzles may be used with a maximum of 20 PSI (138 kPa) added air pressure. or a calibration system approved by Bell Helicopter.

the inspection area shall be darkened adequately with dark canvas. b. Form a — Dry Powder Form b — Water Soluble Form c — Water Suspendable Form d — Non-aqueous 3. Westbury. 6. photographer's black cloth. Westbury. Hydrophilic Sensitivity Level 3 — High Sensitivity Level 4 — Ultrahigh 2. Penetrants: NOTE Method B (Lipophilic Emulsifier) may be substituted in place of Method D (Hydrophilic Emulsifier) provided Sensitivity Level 4 penetrant is used. Stationary inspection areas shall be shielded adequately to assure the white light background does not exceed 2 foot-candles at the examination surface. The DSE-100X Light Meter (Spectronics Co. NiCr. Black Light Source. NY) or equivalent is acceptable. 7. Visible Light Meter. NY) or equivalent is acceptable. They shall provide a black light intensity level of not less than 1000 microwatts per square centimeter (μW/cm2) when tested at a distance of 15 inches (38. System Performance Test Panels. Inspection Viewing Area. Portable black light units shall be of the spot bulb type. methods and sensitivity levels. FPI systems covered by this document shall be of the following types. Type I — Fluorescent Dye Method B — Post Emulsified. 2. When portable inspection is required. Developers: NOTE Developers shall be of the following forms..BHT-ALL-SPM (71. The oven shelves (if so equipped) shall allow free air circulation. The DSE-100X Light Meter (Spectronics Co. Lipophilic Method C — Solvent Removable Method D — Post Emulsified. The area where parts are inspected shall be kept clean at all times and free from excessive fluorescent contamination. 6-9. Black light sources shall be filtered to pass a wave band of 3200 to 4000 Angstrom units.1°C). Panels used for testing system performance shall be Chrome. or other methods to provide satisfactory viewing of indications..1 cm). 2 . The black light meter shall be capable of measuring black light intensity in μW/cm2 within the spectral range of 3200 – 4000 Angstroms. Solvent Removers: NOTE Solvent removers shall be of the following classes. 4. Black Light Meter. Fixed black lights shall provide a black light intensity level of not less than 1000 μW/cm2 at the surface of the inspection work table. Penetrant Systems. The visible light meter for measuring white light background in the inspection area shall be capable of measuring a light level of at least one foot-candle. or those conforming to Pratt & Whitney Aircraft drawing number TAM 146040. 1. 5. Fixed Black Light Sources. Portable Black Light Units. Class 1 — Halogenated 6-00-00 Page 5 16 FEB 2007 Rev. a. INSPECTION MATERIAL REQUIREMENTS NOTE All penetrant materials shall conform to MIL-I-25135. 3.

Rewipe with a dry cloth to remove any solvent residue. the preferred method of application is brushing. SENSITIVITY LEVELS IN EXCESS OF LEVEL 2 SHOULD NOT BE USED. For components identified in Chapters 4 and 5 (Airworthiness 6-00-00 Page 6 THE INSPECTION AREA SHALL NOT BE FLUSHED WITH SOLVENT OR WIPED WITH SOLVENT-SATURATED CLOTH WHEN PERFORMING PENETRANT REMOVAL. After the penetrant is applied. 3. Lipophilic post emulsified penetrant systems (Method B) shall be removed by water immersion or with a water spray rinse after application of an emulsifier and an appropriate emulsifier dwell time.5°C). unless otherwise specified. PREINSPECTION CLEANING The inspection surface shall be clean. THE USE OF A HALOGENATED SOLVENT REMOVER ( C L A S S 1 ) O R A H A L O G E N AT E D NON-AQUEOUS DEVELOPER IS PROHIBITED. 6-11. etc. flow-on. the inspection area shall be precleaned using solvent and a clean. dry. oil. and free of contaminants such as grease. After contaminants are removed. Lipophilic emulsifiers shall be applied by immersion or flowing. After the emulsifier dwell time. Minimum penetrant sensitivity levels for inspection shall be level 2 or greater. CAUTION WHEN PORTABLE INSPECTION KITS ARE USED ON TITANIUM OR NICKEL BASE ALLOYS. For specific components which have been identified in Bell Helicopter manuals as having potential for stress corrosion cracking. 5. 4.4 and 15. PENETRANT INSPECTION CAUTION DO NOT PERFORM PENETRANT I N S P E C T I O N AT T E M P E R AT U R E S BELOW 40°F (4.BHT-ALL-SPM Class 2 — Non-halogenated Limitations/Inspections and Component Overhaul Schedule). shall be 3 minutes. The penetrant dwell time shall be a minimum of 30 minutes. CAUTION CAUTION DUE TO EXCESSIVE BACKGROUND RELATED TO HIGH SENSITIVITY PENETRANT MATERIALS WHEN USED FOR INSPECTION OF COMPONENTS MANUFACTURED FROM SAND CASTINGS. plastic media blast and/or liquid strippers to reveal the bare metal for inspection. or spraying. 6-10.4°C). Lipophilic emulsifiers shall not be applied by spray or brush and shall not be agitated while on the surface of the part. 2. For localized inspections on assemblies. 2 16 FEB 2007 . except as stated in the above caution. emulsification shall be stopped by agitated immersion rinse or water spray. brushing. Penetrant may be applied to the inspection surface by dipping. dry cloth followed by a cloth moistened with solvent. unless otherwise specified. dry cloth (refer to Chapter 5). check the inspection area for adequate coverage and to assure that the penetrant is not contaminating non-inspection areas. Organic coatings such as paint may be removed by hand sanding. Dwell time shall be doubled when the part temperature is between 40 and 60°F (4. Solvent removable penetrant systems (Method C) shall be removed by using a clean. Allow the inspection area to dry completely before applying penetrant. (EXAMPLE: MAGNESIUM TRANSMISSION CASES). minimum penetrant sensitivity levels for inspection shall be level 3 or greater. Actual dwell times shall be the minimum necessary to produce an acceptable background. Parts that have excessive background or appear to be over-emulsified must be cleaned and reprocessed. Maximum dwell times. dwell times shall be a minimum of 120 minutes. Check the inspection area with a black light for adequate Rev. 1.

shall not exceed 2 minutes. color. 6-13. the concentration shall not exceed 5%. then the part shall be cleaned and reprocessed. Dwell time shall be the minimum required for adequate penetrant removal. and water as necessary. 10. 9. application of the hydrophilic emulsifier and then a postrinse. The oven temperature shall not exceed 160°F (70°C) and drying time shall not exceed that necessary to adequately dry the part. 6-12. Mark relevant indications of concern for further evaluation and/or disposition. the emulsifier or part shall be mildly agitated. ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA Unless allowed by a specific procedure. but unless otherwise specified. the part shall be cleaned and reprocessed. EVALUATION Penetrant indications may be evaluated by wiping once with a solvent moistened cotton swab followed by re-development. Nonaqueous or dry developer residues may be removed by wiping with a clean cloth. 6. 6-14. If excessive application of developer has occurred. 2 . the part shall be rinsed with water. FPI materials dispensed from closed containers and discarded after one use are exempt from the testing requirements of step 4 through step 10. Hydrophilic post emulsified penetrant systems (Method D) shall be removed with a water prerinse. If over-removal is suspected. Inspectors shall be continually alert to any changes in performance. The parts shall be dried prior to the application of dry or nonaqueous developer. The hydrophilic emulsifier shall be applied by immersion or spray. Observe any obvious bleed-out as the developer dwells. other penetrant residues shall be removed from the inspection area using solvent or other approved methods. After the application and dwell of the emulsifier. 1. Perform inspection under black light. Developer dwell time shall be a minimum of 10 minutes and a maximum of 4 hours. Evidence of over-removal shall require the part to be cleaned and reprocessed. For spray applications. followed by a rinse. 8. If determined to be detrimental to the service of a component. Excessive background may be removed by additional (touch up) application of the emulsifier provided the maximum dwell time is not exceeded. consistency. For immersion applications. Developer dwell time shall be a minimum of 10 minutes and a maximum of 1 hour. CAUTION DO NOT WEAR PHOTOSENSITIVE. nonmetallic bristles). The following specific process control tests shall be accomplished according to the minimum frequency indicated in Table 6-1. the concentration shall not exceed 35% by volume. the area shall be cleaned and reprocessed. indications of cracks shall be cause for rejection. If touch up application of the emulsifier does not produce an acceptable background. odor. The prerinse shall be applied for the minimum amount of time to achieve removal of the bulk surface penetrant. 6-15. Nonaqueous developer shall be applied by lightly spraying. or brush (with soft. 7. PROCESS CONTROL REQUIREMENTS CAUTION A HEAVY COATING OF DEVELOPER WILL MASK INDICAT IO NS. For immersion applications. POSTINSPECTION CLEANING Remove developer residues as soon as practical after completion of inspection. OR P E R M A N E N T LY S H A D E D L E N S E S WHEN PERFORMING INSPECTION. Complete inspection after developer dwell time is complete. Parts that are not inspected before the maximum dwell time shall be cleaned and reprocessed. Parts shall be air dried or dried in an oven.BHT-ALL-SPM penetrant removal. DO NOT OVER APPLY DEVELOPER. FPI materials used in open containers (tanks) and/or materials that are reused shall be tested as required. or appearance 6-00-00 Page 7 16 FEB 2007 Rev. Dry developer shall be applied by lightly dusting the areas to be inspected. Specific Process Controls. Parts that are not inspected before the maximum dwell time shall be cleaned and reprocessed.

and observing the panel under black light. Alternately.4 cm) into the bath. For fixed light sources. Appropriate tests shall be conducted if their quality is believed to have deteriorated. The concentration of hydrophilic emulsifiers (applied by immersion or spraying) shall be checked using a calibrated refractometer. All black lights shall be checked after bulb replacement. 4 inch (10. Additionally.2 cm) diameter circular area and observing under a black light. a.1°C) for 10 minutes. The brightness of the in-use penetrant shall be determined according to ASTM E1135 with a sample of the unused penetrant serving as the reference. comparison may be made between a panel processed through the in-use material and a photograph of the same panel previously processed through unused material. the black light intensity shall be measured at the surface of the work table. Variation of immersion solution concentrations shall not be greater than 3 percentage points from the initial. or extent to which the defects are shown. Visible Light Intensity.6 x 25. Developer Contamination. Black Light Intensity. 6. Dry developers shall not contain more than 10 fluorescent specks. Penetrant Fluorescence Tests. The system performance shall be checked by processing a test panel conforming to paragraph 6-8. unused concentration. The comparison shall reveal no appreciable difference in background fluorescence. Portable light sources shall be tested with the meter fifteen inches from the face of the filter. 2. step 7 through each inspection line in use. Store panel(s) immersed in solvent or dry at 120 – 160°F (48. Fixed Light Sources. Dry developers shall be checked for fluorescence by spreading a thin layer on a flat. drying. Spray concentrations shall be within the manufacturer's recommended limits and emulsifier concentration shall not exceed 5%. The comparison test may also be made by dividing a panel (if using NiCr or chrome panels) into two equal sections by means of a wax line or narrow vinyl tape. Hydrophilic Emulsifier Concentration. clean for 5 d. The water content of in-use emulsifier shall be determined in accordance with the test procedures in ASTM-D-95 or ASTM-D-1744. Rinse. Soak in alkaline cleaner for 1/2 to 1 hour. brilliance of indications. 8. 4. A comparison test is made by processing a similar test panel through exactly the same processing steps and times using unused materials of the same designation. c. step 6. Rev. 6-00-00 Page 8 Immediately after each use.8 – 71. the test panels shall be cleaned according to the following Instructions as the minimum requirement: a. b. 2 16 FEB 2007 . ultrasonic minutes. the emulsifier concentration shall be no higher than specified by the penetrant system supplier and shall not exceed 35% by volume.BHT-ALL-SPM of all penetrant materials being used. The test shall be conducted in the inspection booth/area in which the black light is normally used. Dry developers shall be fluffy and not caked. After developing. Black lights used for inspection shall be checked using a black light meter conforming to paragraph 6-8. inspection shall be stopped and all of the solutions and procedures shall be checked to determine which of the used solutions or the procedures are discrepant. Aqueous developers shall be checked for fluorescence by immersing a clean aluminum panel approximately 3 x 10 inches (7. Vapor degrease. failure of aqueous developers to uniformly wet part surfaces shall be cause for FPI to cease until the problem is corrected. or solvent soak for 1 hour. 5. For immersion applications. Caked dry developer shall be discarded. Damaged or dirty reflectors or filters shall be replaced or cleaned as appropriate. Black light reflectors and filters shall be checked for cleanliness and integrity. step 5. Water Content of Lipophilic Emulsifier. and the discrepancy shall be corrected before resuming inspection. System Performance Test. If a difference exists. The intensity of the spurious visible light in the inspection area shall be measured at the surface of the work table with a visible light meter conforming to paragraph 6-8. 7. a comparison is made between the panels. b. 3. Portable Light Sources.

step 11 Per paragraph 6-8.I. 10. step 2 Per paragraph 6-15. white coloration or any other evidence of contamination or breakdown.BHT-ALL-SPM 9. Black and visible light meters shall be certified every six months using standards traceable to the N. The penetrant shall be examined visually and shall be discarded if there is any evidence of precipitates.8°C) and 160°F (71. surface scum.S. Drying Oven Temperature. step 10 Per paragraph 6-15.T. step 1) may be used for this check. step 10 Per paragraph 6-8. step 8 5% Per paragraph 6-15.1°C). Light Meter Certification. step 1 and paragraph 6-15. The oven temperature indicator shall be calibrated against an ASTM calibrated thermometer or a thermocouple traceable to the N. The temperature of the drying oven shall be verified daily and shall be within the range of 120°F (48. 2 6-00-00 Page 9 . step 2 ≥ 2 foot-candles Per paragraph 6-15. Penetrant Contamination.T. step 6 Per paragraph 6-15. Table 6-1. step 8 Per paragraph 6-15. waxy deposits. Fluorescent Penetrant Process Control Tests — Frequency and Requirements TEST Rinse Water Pressure/ Temperature Black Light Intensity Black Light Reflectors and Filters Visible Light Intensity (Background) System Performance Developer Contamination Penetrant Contamination Drying Oven Temperature Verification Inspection Viewing Area Cleanliness Hydrophilic Emulsifier Concentration Aqueous Developer Concentration Water Content of Lipophilic Emulsifier Drying Oven Temperature Indicator Calibration Light Meter Certification Drying Oven Controller Calibration FREQUENCY Each Shift Daily Daily Daily Daily Daily Daily Daily Daily Weekly Weekly Monthly Six Months Six Months Six Months REQUIREMENTS Per paragraph 6-6. separation of constituents. step 9 Per paragraph 6-15. step 4 Per paragraph 6-15. 11.I. The oven temperature indicator (refer to paragraph 6-8. step 10 16 FEB 2007 Rev. step d 1000 μW/cm2@15 inches Per paragraph 6-15.S.

By controlling the direction of the magnetizing current. Records shall be maintained showing the dates and results of all tests required. Make sure safety requirements for using electrical equipment near aircraft fuel cells. dry area protected from direct sunlight. an inspection report with information similar to that specified for the inspection log must be prepared. seams. Types of defects that can be detected are cracks. Personnel Certification Records. 2. the number of parts accepted or rejected.8°C). The employer of NDI Level I Special personnel must have an established written practice Rev. SAFETY PRECAUTIONS 1. Records shall be maintained on each inspector showing experience. Avoid contact with magnetic particle inspection materials by wearing gloves. formal training. Temperatures in excess of 120°F (48. reference to any rejection documents and the identity of the inspector. performance evaluations and inspection stamp identification. Prolonged or repeated inhalation of vapors may result in irritation of mucous membrane areas of the body. Personnel that have successfully completed the level I Special NDI training course at Bell Helicopter are qualified to perform magnetic particle inspections in accordance with the applicable maintenance and overhaul manuals. 3. FLUORESCENT MAGNETIC PARTICLE INSPECTION METHOD (ASTM E1444) INTRODUCTION 6-18. do not look directly into the black light as unfiltered black lights or a damaged filter on a black light may damage eyes. 3. 90° apart. An inspection log shall be maintained for all parts inspected showing the part number. 6-00-00 Page 10 All personnel performing NDI shall be certified to meet or exceed Level II requirements as established in the latest revision of NAS 410 or alternate approved document. Records shall be maintained for a length of time prescribed by Bell Helicopter. Be sure to grasp the black light only by the handle. To prevent injury to the eyes. and stores have been met. 2 16 FEB 2007 . PERSONNEL QUALIFICATION/ CERTIFICATION 6-17. During magnetization of the part. or as specifically authorized in an ASB or other Bell Helicopter approved written directive. the lines of magnetic force can be induced at right angles to the discontinuity. examination results. components shall be subjected to magnetization in at least two directions. Avoid exposure of pressurized spray cans to open flame. Provide adequate ventilation when handling cleaner. Magnetizing equipment shall be maintained properly to prevent personnel hazards from electrical short circuits. date of inspection. All inspections shall be of the wet continuous method using fluorescent magnetic particles. 2. laps. 6-20. RECORDS 6-19. The ASB or other Bell Helicopter approved written directive must indicate in the document that an individual is qualified to perform such task and may be responsible for product acceptance. 6. 4. and magnetic particle materials. Magnetic particle inspection is effective in detecting surface and near surface discontinuities in ferromagnetic parts. Unless otherwise directed. to insure 100% inspection of the part. Inspection Records. may cause bursting of pressurized spray cans and injury to personnel. quantity in lot. 5. When inspection is performed by an independent facility. Store all pressurized spray cans in a cool. Continual exposure to magnetic particle inspection materials may cause skin irritation. oxygen systems. Inspection is accomplished by inducing a magnetic field into the part and applying a liquid suspension of fluorescent iron oxide particles to the surface to be inspected. 7. Process Control Test Records.BHT-ALL-SPM 6-16. 1. Direction of the magnetic field should be at right angles to the discontinuity to obtain the best inspection results. Wash exposed areas of body with soap and water. the fluorescent magnetic particles are aligned along the flaw or discontinuity due to a leakage field and are visible under ultraviolet or black light. folds. Black lights generate considerable heat during use. and nonmetallic inclusions that are either surface or slightly subsurface. vision tests results. lot identification or traveler number.

The magnetizing apparatus shall be of Wet Horizontal DC or AC Type. The black light meter for monitoring black light intensity shall be available. EQUIPMENT REQUIREMENTS 3. Field Indicator. A test sensitivity ring in accordance with ASTM-E1444 shall be available. 16 FEB 2007 Rev. 8. Fixed Black Light Sources. W. Suitable solvents shall be available for degreasing parts prior to and after magnetic particle inspection (MPI). The equipment shall be capable of inducing a magnetic flux into the part being inspected by means of a low voltage. A visible light meter for measuring visible light at the surface of the work being inspected shall be available. a. 6-00-00 Page 11 1. Test Sensitivity (Ketos) Ring. An evaluation is performed for information purposes only. All equipment shall contain quick break circuitry. Bell Model 4048) will satisfy this requirement.BHT-ALL-SPM which meets the requirements of ATA 105 for qualification and training of NDT personnel as described in the Bell Helicopter Customer Training Academy (CTA) NDI training course. A model DSE-100X (Spectronics Corporation) or equivalent is acceptable. Actual inspection of such parts needs to be supported by a certified Level II in the method employed. 6. scratch). Visible Light Meter. 2 . Black light intensity shall not be less than 1000 microwatts per square centimeter (μW/cm2) when tested at a distance of 15 inches (38. Individuals who have successfully completed and passed the Level I Special Bell Helicopter training course may only perform evaluations on components if the MM or CR&O do not provide the required detailed instructions. 6-21. Fixed black lights shall provide a black light intensity level of not less than 1000 μW/cm2 at the surface of the work (15" minimum light to surface distance). a person certified to meet or exceed a Level II requirement will be responsible for the acceptance or rejection of that indicated part. Portable black light sources shall be of the spot bulb type. 7. The inspection area shall be equipped with a means of shielding the area from spurious visible light so as to provide a darkened area. Black Light Source. Portable Black Light Sources. 5. A model DSE-100X (Spectronics Corp. 2. This meter shall be capable of measuring intensity in μW/ cm2. Inspection Area. Magnetic Field Strength Indicator. The ambient visible light level shall not exceed two foot-candles. A field indicator capable of detecting a magnetic field of at least three oersteds or gauss shall be available for checking demagnetization. The area shall be provided with a black light source for inspection as required. and is not intended as a final means of acceptance or rejection. The equipment shall also be capable of inducing a magnetic flux in the part being inspected by placing the part in a current carrying coil. vs. The black light source shall be filtered to pass a wave band of 3200 to 4000 Angstrom units. and to characterize indications found visually (crack. as will commercially available etched shims. 4. b. 9. Magnetizing Current. a field strength indicator in accordance with ASTM-E1444 shall be available. Individuals who have successfully completed and passed the Level I Special Bell Helicopter training course may perform routine inspections for acceptance on components as listed in the Chapter 4 Airworthiness Limitations Schedule for retirement life parts and as listed in Chapter 5 Component Overhaul Schedule for components requiring an overhaul interval providing the applicable MM and or the CR&O provides the detailed instructions to perform the inspection.) meter or equivalent is acceptable. A Hall effect gauss meter (F. Black Light Meter. Equipment other than Wet Horizontal DC or AC shall not be used without prior Bell Helicopter approval. high amperage current passed through the part or through a conductor which passes through a hole in the part. In order to insure the direction and magnitude of the magnetic field in the part being inspected. The black light source shall be filtered to pass a wave band of 3200 to 4000 Angstrom units. Cleaning Apparatus. Examples include assessment of damaged ferromagnetic components for evidence of cracking.1 cm). This meter shall be capable of measuring an ambient light level of at least one foot-candle. If during the course of the evaluation an indication is found.

Demagnetizing Apparatus. 6-23. Alternating and/or rectified alternating current (referred herein as DC) is used for the detection of surface and near surface defects.05 ml increments for checking suspension concentrations shall be available. step 6 (the current values given are peak current values and are applied directly to full-wave rectified current). tangential field strengths. scale. The equipment shall be of the open coil. 6-22. When formulas are used. A 100 ml. Fluorescent wet inspection material shall be used unless otherwise specified. When using a Hall effect probe gaussmeter. Centrifuge Tube.4 milliliters per 100 milliliters of suspension fluid. they must be removed where electrical contact is to be made. 6-25.BHT-ALL-SPM 10. Magnetic particle examination shall not be performed with coatings in place that could prevent the detection of surface defects in the ferromagnetic substrate. this may consist of circular magnetization in two or more directions. INSPECTION MATERIAL REQUIREMENTS (3) By using the formulas given in paragraph 6-28. at least one additional stated method.4 to 4. It is important to ensure that field strengths in this range are present in all areas to be inspected on the part. each part must be magnetized in at least two directions 90° apart. Demagnetizing equipment shall be available. values shall not be less than 65% of the calculated DC values. or other contaminants that might interfere with the efficiency of the inspection. or of longitudinal magnetization in two or more directions. The surface of the component to be inspected shall be clean and dry. When such coatings are nonconductive. Adequate magnetic field strength may be determined by one or a combination of four methods: (1) By testing parts having known or artificial defects. This includes the use of shims with artificial defects (per ASTM E1444) placed on the part. of both circular and longitudinal magnetization. Rev. PREINSPECTION CLEANING NOTE Ferrous parts may be inspected through a coating of epoxy primer or epoxy polyamide primer. such as the Hall effect probe gaussmeter specified in item (2). Demagnetization apparatus should be oriented with the axis of the coil in the East-West Direction. and by using values as specified for part number specific components in applicable sections of the manual. MAGNETIZING CURRENT APPLICATION NOTE When using AC. 2 16 FEB 2007 . 6-24. Depending on part geometry. Fluorescent particle concentration shall be maintained in the range of 0. pear shaped centrifuge tube graduated in 0. 11. measured on the part surface. (2) By using a Hall effect probe gaussmeter capable of measuring the peak values of the tangent field. must be used in conjunction. (4) The use of etched shims per Aerospace Standard 5371 (AS 5371) may be utilized to determine adequate field strength and direction. MAGNETIC FIELD STRENGTH The applied magnetic field shall have sufficient strength to produce satisfactory indications. All suspension fluid shall conform to AMS 3045 and/or AMS 3046. box or DC step decay type and shall be capable of demagnetizing all inspected parts to a level of three oersteds or gauss maximum. 6-26. and free of oil. in the range of 30 to 60 Gauss (2. MAGNETIC FIELD DIRECTION 1.8 kA/m) peak values are normally adequate magnetization levels for magnetic particle examination.1 to 0. but it must 6-00-00 Page 12 Unless otherwise specified. Normal magnetic particle inspection procedure should be followed. not be so strong that it causes the masking of relevant indications by nonrelevant accumulations of magnetic particles.

Longitudinal Magnetization With Low Fill Factor Coils. step 1 shall apply. For high fill factor coils. The entire circumference shall be inspected by rotating the part on the conductor. K L D = 45. the effective distance of magnetization is 9 inches (22. For parts positioned in the center of the coil: NI = [KR/((6L/D)-5)] (±10%) where: R K = radius of the coil. When magnetizing by passing current directly through the part. For parts longer than the effective distance. When the cross-sectional area of the coil is ten or more times the cross-sectional area of the part being inspected. When the axis of the central conductor is located near the central axis of the part. LONGITUDINAL MAGNETIZATION USING COILS D 1. 2 6-00-00 Page 13 . step 6. 16 FEB 2007 Rev.BHT-ALL-SPM 6-27. 1.000 A turns per inch if R is measured in inches (1690 A turns per mm). b. The distance around the part circumference (interior) that is effectively magnetized shall be taken as four times the diameter of the central conductor. inch (or mm). and the current in amperes through the coil.8 cm) on either side of the coil center. N. Circular magnetization may be provided by passing current through a conductor that passes through the inside of the part. step 1 shall apply. If the L/D is greater than 15. CIRCULAR MAGNETIZATION by repositioning the part within the coil. = length of the part. 3. = length of part. When the conductor passing through the inside of the part is placed against an inside wall of the part. the current levels as given in paragraph 6-27. the current shall be from 300 to 800 A/inch of part diameter (12 to 32 A/mm). These formulas hold only if L/D is greater than 2 and less than 15. The diameter of the part shall be taken as the greatest distance between any two points on the outside circumference of the part. allowing for approximately a 10% magnetic field overlap. the product of the number of coil turns. except that the diameter shall be considered the sum of the diameter of the central conductor and twice the wall thickness. L 6-28. the effective field extends a distance on either side of the coil center approximately equal to the radius of the coil. Longitudinal magnetization is often accomplished by passing current through a coil encircling the part or section of the part. the value of 15 shall be substituted for L/D. shall be as follows: a. and = diameter of the part (measured in the same units as the length). This produces a magnetic field parallel to the axis of the coil. For parts positioned to the side of the coil: NI = [K/(L/D)] (±10%) where: CAUTION CARE MUST BE TAKEN TO REDUCE ARCING. replace D with Deff as given in paragraph 6-28.000 A turns. the entire length shall be inspected 3. 2. and = diameter of the part (measured in the same units as the length). Prods shall not be used. I. 2. = 43. allowing for approximately 10% effective magnetic field overlap. For low or intermediate fill factor coils. pole pieces (pieces of ferromagnetic material with the same diameter as the part being tested) shall be placed on each end of the part to effectively increase the L/D to 2 or greater. the same current levels as given in paragraph 6-27. If L/D is less than 2. If the part has hollow portions.

the value of 15 shall be substituted for L/D. N. Position probe legs on the part. 2.BHT-ALL-SPM 4. shall be as follows: 6-29. If the part has hollow portions. the magnetizing current shall be applied simultaneously with or immediately after applying the suspension. Allow a short amount of time for particle dwell and drainage. Deff. 1. Apply inspection material to the inspection surface and immediately press ON to magnetize the part. Reposition probe legs 90° from original position and repeat step 3 through step 6. 6. 6. If the L/D is greater than 15. 5.000 A turns. For cylindrical parts. 2 MINUTES OFF . pole pieces (pieces of ferromagnetic material with the same diameter as the part being tested) shall be placed on each end of the part to effectively increase the L/D to 2 or greater. I. LONGITUDINAL MAGNETIZATION USING AN ELECTROMAGNETIC PROBE CAUTION DUTY CYCLE FOR AN ELECTROMAGNETIC PROBE IS USUALLY 2 MINUTES ON. and = cross sectional area of the hollow portions of the part. Proper sequencing and timing of part magnetization and application of particle suspension are required to obtain the proper formation and Rev. When the cross sectional area of the coil is less than twice the cross sectional area (including hollow portions) of the part under testing. step 6. FALSE INDICATIONS MAY OCCUR IF PROBE LEGS ARE POSITIONED WITHIN 2 1/2 INCHES OF EACH OTHER. and = inside diameter of the cylinder. COIL C O VE R HE A T IN G I S A N INDICATION OF EXCESSIVE ON TIME. Calculating the L/D ratio for a hollow or cylindrical part. DO NOT SWITCH THE PROBE FROM DC TO AC OR FROM AC TO DC WHEN THE PROBE IS TURNED ON. this is equal to the following: Deff = [(OD)2 – (ID)2]1/2 where: OD ID 6-00-00 Page 14 = outside diameter of the cylinder. For magnetization using the electromagnetic probe. the product of the number of coil turns. 1. Perform inspection under black light in a darkened area. Adjust magnetization intensity control to maximum. and = diameter of the part (measured in the same units as the length) 5. Longitudinal magnetization with high fill factor coils. PARTICLE APPLICATION NI = [K/((L/D)+2)] (±10%) where: K L D = 35. These formulas hold only if L/D is greater than 2 and less than 15. Fluorescent particles suspended in a liquid vehicle shall be applied by flowing over the area to be inspected. Decreasing the spacing between the legs will increase the magnetic field strength. calculated using the following: Deff = 2[(At – Ah)/p]1/2 where: At Ah = total cross sectional area of the part. In the fluorescent wet continuous method. = length of the part. direct current (DC) is required for all magnetic particle inspections. 4. If L/D is less than 2. 2 16 FEB 2007 . 3. D shall be replaced with an effective diameter. and the current in amperes through the coil. 6-30. replace D with Deff as given in paragraph 6-28.

apply AC magnetization. Whenever possible. the part shall be subjected to a field with a peak value greater than and in nearly the same direction as. indications of cracks shall be cause for rejection. Unless allowed by a specific procedure. keep magnetization switch on and slowly move probe away a minimum of 3 feet (91. parts that have been magnetized circularly shall be magnetized in the longitudinal direction before being demagnetized. POST INSPECTION CLEANING Clean the inspected area with solvent and wipe dry with a clean cloth to remove any magnetic particle residue that could have an adverse effect in the use of the part.5 cm) in front of the coil and then move slowly through the coil and at least 3 feet (91. Adjusting the amperage (decreasing) or electromagnetic probe leg spacing (increasing) can minimize these effects by reducing the magnetic field strength. for example. Inspection booths of stationary equipment shall not exceed 2 foot-candles of white or ambient light during inspection when measured with a white light meter. drilled holes. keyways. 4. DEMAGNETIZATION CAUTION DO NOT WEAR PHOTOSENSITIVE OR PERMANENTLY SHADED LENSES WHEN PERFORMING INSPECTION. For large parts.4 cm) beyond the coil. a magnetic field indicator shall be used. and abrupt changes in section.4 cm). Demagnetization using an electromagnetic probe. the field used during examination. 2. with a minimum of two shots being used. 6-31. When using DC demagnetization. EVALUATION 6-32. then turn probe off. The black light shall be capable of a minimum intensity of 1000 microwatts per square centimeter measured 15 inches (38. After demagnetization. Readings obtained equal to or greater than 3 oersteds/gauss anywhere on the part is not acceptable. 2. The field shall then be reversed. 4. Any indication of a crack shall be cause for rejection. When an indication is not believed to be relevant. Apply AC magnetization. Rotate and tumble parts of complex configuration while passing through the field of the coil. 1. demagnetize parts in same position as they were magnetized. the field used during examination. may cause indications which are nonrelevant. Hold the part approximately 1 foot (30.1 cm) from the face of the filter or bulb. the parts shall be examined for indications under black light in a darkened area. 1. ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA Rejectable Defects. decreased in magnitude. it should be evaluated as "not acceptable" until the indication is either removed by surface conditioning or reinspected by the same or other nondestructive inspection method and shown to be nonrelevant. 6-34. The second shot shall follow the first in rapid succession.4 cm) from probe before turning probe off. This field is then decreased gradually to zero. and the process repeated until an acceptably low value of residual field is reached. 3. Following magnetization and particle application. 2 . Some metallurgical discontinuities and magnetic permeability variations may also cause indications which are nonrelevant. The magnetizing current shall be applied for a duration of at least 1/2 second. This generally requires that the flow of suspension be stopped simultaneously with or slightly before energizing the magnetic circuit. Polar effects as a result of design factors. 6-00-00 Page 15 16 FEB 2007 Rev. 3. Parts shall be corrosion protected to prevent the occurrence of corrosion after final inspection.BHT-ALL-SPM retention of indications. Repeat this process as necessary. an opaque cloth or plastic tarp shall be used to darken the inspection area to the lowest possible ambient light level. When using AC demagnetization. When performing portable inspections. the initial field shall be higher than and in nearly the same direction as. For small parts. 6-33. Pass parts through area between poles of probe and withdraw parts to a minimum distance of 3 feet (91. All indications will be identified as relevant or nonrelevant.

9. The measured intensity shall not exceed two foot-candles in the darkened inspection area for inspection of fluorescent magnetic particles. The frequency of testing shall be as specified in Table 6-2. The current output shall be within ±10% of the indicated current. 5 and 6 holes respectively. Black Light Intensity. When the current is actuated. Visible Light Meter.40 ml. AMPERAGE Ketos Ring AS 5282 Ring 1400 2500 3400 1500 2500 3500 1 2 1 The Ketos ring at amperages of 1400.BHT-ALL-SPM 6-35.5 to 1. The suspension concentration shall be tested. 6-00-00 Page 16 Rev. Magnetic Field Quick Break. The black light meter shall be certified every six months using an illuminate standard traceable to NIST. cleaned and checked under black light to ensure residual indications do not exist. 7 and 9 holes respectively. the top layer (contamination) shall not exceed 30% of the bottom layer volume nor shall the contamination layer fluoresce objectionably. 12. 8. 6. The following specific process control tests shall be accomplished periodically. A Ketos ring or AS 5282 ring may be used for system test sensitivity. The AS 5282 ring at amperages of 1500. The intensity of illumination of each black light source shall be measured. MINIMUM HOLES DETECTED 3 5 6 6 7 9 • 5. Internal Shorting. 2.10 to 0. The current flow shall be between 0. the bath shall be replaced. The visible light meter shall be certified every six months using an illuminate standard traceable to NIST. The current decay as measured using a suitable oscilloscope or other applicable method as specified by the manufacturer shall be within the manufacturer's definition of quick break. 2 16 FEB 2007 . Specific Process Controls. the Ketos ring or AS 5282 ring shall be demagnetized. 2 After test. Suspension Contamination. When examined in black light. refer to manufacturers directions. Current Output. 4. Visible Light Intensity. If using a Magnaflux Magnetic Test Bar #189838 or Continuous Method Test Bar 75130. The measured intensity shall not be less than 1000 μW/ cm2 at 15 inches (38. If second sample reveals the same. Black Light Meter. 10. The settled volume of magnetic particles shall be from 0.40 ml) may be adjusted lower when using accelerated settling tests to give results equivalent to the one hour settling test. If examination of the precipitates reveals two distinct layers. If the settled particles appear as loose agglomerates a second sample shall be taken.0 second.1 cm). The effectiveness of the MPI materials and procedure shall be determined. 3. 1. The visible light intensity shall be determined. The high limit (0. 2500 and 3500 should reveal 6. 2500 and 3400 should reveal 3. Current Flow. 7. 11. the liquid shall not show objectionable fluorescence. PROCESS CONTROL REQUIREMENTS Examples: • When using a Ketos ring or AS 5282 ring all amperages shall be achieved with Full Wave Rectified Alternating Current (FWDC) or Half Wave Rectified Alternating Current (HWDC). Suspension Concentration. System Sensitivity. The suspension contamination shall be evaluated on the settled suspension. there shall be no deflection of the ammeter.

When the overhaul manual specifies penetrant. 2 . lot identification or traveler number. NONDESTRUCTIVE INSPECTION EDDY CURRENT METHOD SCOPE 6-38.0 second ±10% No Deflection DSE-100x or equivalent 30 – 60 gauss 6-37. Fluorescent Magnetic Particle Process Control Tests — Frequency and Requirements TEST Suspension Concentration Black Light Intensity System Sensitivity Suspension Contamination Visible Light Intensity Quick Break Black Light Meter Current Flow Current Output Internal Shorting Visible Light Meter Gauss Meter 6-36. An inspection log shall be maintained for all parts inspected showing the part number. the number of parts accepted or rejected. 6-00-00 Page 17 16 FEB 2007 Rev. step 6 2 foot-candles maximum Per Manufacturer DSE-100x or equivalent 0. by ASB or other Bell Helicopter approved written directive. examination results. 1. eddy current is recognized as a sensitive method for the detection of fatigue cracks.10 – 0. performance evaluations and inspection stamp identification. Personnel Certification Records. Process Control Test Records. date of inspection.BHT-ALL-SPM Table 6-2.5 – 1. step 4 paragraph 6-35. formal training. with information similar to that specified for the inspection log. Inspection Records. 2. Cases may arise when one or the other can be employed to provide additional NDI for evaluation of indications. must be prepared. When eddy current is specified in the overhaul manual. It is not the intent of this NDI method to provide a substitution for penetrant inspection. Records shall be maintained on each inspector showing experience.40 ml* 1000 µ W/cm2 @ 15 inches paragraph 6-35. Records shall be maintained showing the dates and results of all tests required. and/or for components off aircraft requiring inspection over 100% of the surface area. In some cases. quantity in lot. penetrant inspection (level 3 sensitivity or greater) shall be used (eddy current may not be used as a substitution). particularly for localized areas on the aircraft. reference to any rejection documents and the identity of the inspector. When inspection is performed by an independent facility. RECORDS FREQUENCY Each Shift Daily Each Shift Weekly Daily Six Months Six Months Six Months Six Months Six Months Six Months Six Months REQUIREMENT 0. Eddy current and penetrant are somewhat complimentary methods of inspection. an inspection report. written inspection procedures shall be developed by Level III personnel per paragraph 6-47. vision tests results. 3.

Equipment shall contain a means to display detected impedance changes. Table 6-3 shall be used as a guideline for selection of probe frequency. Defect type. SAFETY PRECAUTIONS Schedule for components requiring an overhaul interval providing the applicable MM and or the CR&O provides the detailed instructions to perform the inspection. and is not intended as a final means of acceptance or rejection. Actual inspection of such parts needs to be supported by a certified Level II in the method employed. and to characterize indications found visually (crack. magnetic permeability. scratch).BHT-ALL-SPM 6-39. Therefore. Displays may include CRT's. or as specifically authorized in an ASB or other Bell Helicopter approved written directive. Personnel that have successfully completed the level I Special NDI training course at Bell Helicopter are qualified to perform eddy current inspections in accordance with the applicable maintenance and overhaul manuals. Individuals who have successfully completed and passed the Level I Special Bell Helicopter training course may perform routine inspections for acceptance on components as listed in the Chapter 4 Airworthiness Limitations Schedule for retirement life parts and as listed in Chapter 5 Component Overhaul 6-00-00 Page 18 1. 2 16 FEB 2007 . 2. INTRODUCTION Eddy currents are electrical currents induced in a conductive material by an alternating magnetic field. geometry. An evaluation is performed for information purposes only. 6-40. The operating frequency range of the instrument shall be suitable to collect the desired information from the material under test. The ASB or other Bell Helicopter approved written directive must indicate in the document that an individual is qualified to perform such task and may be responsible for product acceptance. 2. care must be exercised to isolate the specimen property of interest. PERSONNEL QUALIFICATION/ CERTIFICATION 1. 6-42. Meters and/or LCD's. changes in one or more of these variables can be determined. electronic systems. All probes shall be compatible with the detection instrumentation and be identified as to type and frequency. All personnel performing NDI shall be certified to meet or exceed Level II requirements as established in the latest revision of NAS 410 or alternate approved document. Optimization of defect detection is the primary objective in the selection of probes. 6-41. oxygen systems. Personnel responsible for the development written eddy current inspection procedures shall certified to meet or exceed Level III requirements established in the latest revision of NAS-410. and homogeneity. the use of shoes and/or Rev. Individuals who have successfully completed and passed the Level I Special Bell Helicopter training course may only perform evaluations on components if the MM or CR&O do not provide the required detailed instructions. During inspection with eddy currents. When using small diameter surface probes. The employer of NDI Level I Special personnel must have an established written practice which meets the requirements of ATA 105 for qualification and training of NDT personnel as described in the Bell Helicopter Customer Training Academy (CTA) NDI training course. All flaw detector instrumentation shall be capable of detecting surface and/or near surface discontinuities in electrically conductive materials. EQUIPMENT REQUIREMENTS of be as or Make sure safety precautions have been met for electrical grounding when using electrical equipment near aircraft fuel cells. Flaw Detectors. The eddy currents induced in a metallic part vary in magnitude and distribution in relation to the following specimen properties: electrical conductivity. alternate approved document. by measuring the magnitude and/or distribution of eddy currents generated in a conductor. If during the course of the evaluation an indication is found. and stores. either by eliminating the variation in the specimen properties for which inspection is not performed or by electronically suppressing or differentiating the other variables. vs. Probes. Examples include assessment of a damaged bare metallic skin for evidence of cracking. a person certified to meet or exceed a Level II requirement will be responsible for the acceptance or rejection of that indicated part. Instrumentation shall possess the capability of detecting impedance changes introduced by variations in material properties as well as metallurgically and mechanically induced discontinuities. size and orientation along with part geometrical and metallurgical characteristics shall be considered.

6-43. For all other components.408 mm) crack depth) with a minimum of 30% full scale from the null point. Surface Roughness. All inspections require the use of reference standards. These standards may be actual parts. INSPECTION inspected shall be such that at least a 3:1 defect signal to noise ratio is maintained. hole templates. For components listed in Chapters 4 and 5 (Airworthiness Limitations/ Inspections and Component Overhaul Schedule). or general purpose flawed material containing natural or artificially induced flaws. base material type. 3. alarms shall be employed. 3. Recommended crack depths are 0. Scan indexing shall not exceed one-half of the probe diameter.BHT-ALL-SPM collars to prevent undesirable lift-off effects is highly recommended. 2. Lift-off shall be compensated for (for phase analysis displays.010 inch (0. may be used to enhance scanning. 6-45. drilling. ASB or other Bell Helicopter approved written directive. scale. prevents the inspection to be performed to its required efficiency shall be removed prior to inspection. 1. A thin protective layer of teflon tape may be used on probe faces to reduce friction and reduce probe wear.408 mm) and 0. Scan speeds shall not exceed calibration scan speeds. 0.040 inch (1. Reference Standard Material. lift-off shall be oriented along the horizontal axis and deflections obtained from simulated cracks shall be oriented vertically). etc. Unless otherwise specified by overhaul manual.254 mm). Oxides. When using bolthole probes. Penetrant. after inspection and periodically within every fifteen minutes of continuous inspection. Reference standard defects may be naturally occurring or artificially induced. Fill factor ratios shall be within ± 10% of reference standard ratios. the inspection system shall be calibrated as follows prior to inspection. and in cases where part geometry effects lift-off. Surface Preparation/Cleanliness. Null/ balance on a defect-free area of the appropriate reference standard. Nonconductive shims shall be used to represent paint thickness when calibrating for inspection of painted surfaces. Electrical Discharge Machining (EMD) is the recommended method for crack simulation. Connect applicable surface probe (geometry and frequency range). All eddy current instrumentation shall be capable of detecting discontinuities in the materials listed in Table 6-4 and Table 6-5. All standards shall be identified and have documentation on file defining. Areas of inspection shall be scanned 100%. condition and flaw pedigree. fill factor ratios shall be as close to 1:1 as possible and allow for full coverage of the hole under test. geometry of the test material.. Gain shall be adjusted to provide a crack deflection (0. Reference standards shall be representative of the material. For naturally occurring flaws.020 inch (0. as a minimum.e. All indications shall be verified after recalibration per paragraph 6-43. the cause shall be determined and corrected. straightedges. 2 . Defects. Each standard shall be constructed of the same base material and have approximate conductivity values of the material under test (refer to Table 6-4 and Table 6-5). manufactured specimens to simulate parts. Surface roughness of reference standards and components/material to be 1. Reference standards shall have a surface finish representative of the component under inspection. 5. when automated scanning is incorporated. If the system is found to be out of calibration. Calibration Requirements. Calibration shall be checked prior to inspection. high magnification 6-00-00 Page 19 16 FEB 2007 Rev. REFERENCE STANDARDS 6-44. For eddy current inspection of magnetic materials. and all inspections performed after the last successful calibrated repeated. saturation probes are recommended. eddy current inspections shall not be performed on surfaces which exceed 125 RHR. 2. Scanning shall be accomplished in two axes.016 mm). eddy current inspections shall not be performed on surfaces which exceed 250 RHR. i. paint or other foreign surface material which when present. Scanning Requirements. Nonconductive guides. Artificially induced flaws may be introduced through machining. 4. etc. EVALUATION 1. Any surface finish which impedes reference standard defect responses greater than 10% deflection/ amplitude shall be removed (refer to Chapter 4). at least one other inspection method shall be implemented for the determination of flaw pedigree.020 inch (0. Scanning may be manual or automated.

This specification along with the applicable inspection procedures. PROCESS CONTROL REQUIREMENTS 1. 6-48. List initial equipment control settings necessary to establish a starting point from where final calibration can be obtained. i. All equipment. This section shall be written in sufficient detail to assure repeatability of the inspection. k. h. Post Inspection. 6-47. Describe steps necessary for the recording and maintenance of inspection results. A description of area. surface. d. List calibration/reference standards required to perform the inspection. When inspection per overhaul manual. b. e. Calibration. etc. describe operations necessary for clean-up/handling of part after inspection.BHT-ALL-SPM visual and/or additional NDI methods may be employed to aid in verification process. g. when applicable. as a unit. written inspection procedures shall be prepared. Evaluation. to be inspected. Additional NDI. 6-46. ASB or other Bell Helicopter approved directive is required. Inspection. All verified indications of cracks shall be cause for rejection. etc. Area to be Inspected. cross section. Describe techniques used to verify indications detected. These procedures shall be sufficiently detailed in the following areas: a. cleaning. as indicated from the applicable callout shall be given. etc. used to provide additional evaluation of detected indications. Identify the document and/or location of acceptance criteria applicable to this inspection. Preinspection. 1. c. When applicable. ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA f. Reference/Calibration Standards. j. INSPECTION PROCEDURES 1. Table 6-3. Records. i.. Equipment.e. probes. Describe the sequence of steps required to perform this inspection. 2. 2 16 FEB 2007 . recorders. Personnel a. All personnel performing inspections shall be certified in accordance with paragraph 6-41. required to perform the inspection shall be documented. Probe Frequency Selection TEST MATERIAL Aluminum Steel Titanium 6-00-00 Page 20 OPERATING FREQUENCY 100 – 500 kHz 300 – 1. Described steps to be performed before inspection can begin. All inspection instrumentation used to perform eddy current inspection shall have valid calibration certification traceable to procedures and/or standards required by the National Institute of Standards (NIST). govern the inspection requirements. Reference other NDI methods and/or procedures. fixturing. Equipment 3. Accept/Reject Criteria..0 MHz Rev.0 MHz 500 – 1.

Nitralloy N. Inconel 625 and 718 Hasteloy X Precipitation Hardening Stainless Steels 17-4 PH. Nonferromagnetic alloy with a conductivity that does not exceed +0. High permeability steel and stainless steel alloys. MP35. Nickel Alloys. Custom 455 17-7 PH Annealed 17-7 Heat Treated All AISI-SAE low alloy steels: i. X-53. Reference Standard Materials Non-Critical Components TEST MATERIAL All conductive nonferromagnetic alloys with conductivity's between 15% and 60% IACS. 52100. All conductive nonferromagnetic alloys with conductivity's between 0. 4330V. REFERENCE STANDARD MATERIAL Nonferromagnetic alloy with a conductivity that does not exceed 15% IACS of test material. 18 Ni Maraging grades. 1095. 9310. Reference Standard Materials for Components Listed in Chapter 4 and Chapter 5 (Airworthiness Limitations/Inspections and Component Overhaul Schedule) TEST MATERIAL All Aluminum Alloys All Titanium Alloys All 300 Stainless Steel. 4130. Aermet 100 Moderately Magnetic Slightly Magnetic Moderately Magnetic Highly Magnetic 17-4 PHH1025 condition| 17-7PH annealed 17-07 PHTH1050 condition 4340 Heat Treat to 125 KSI minimum < 125 RHR < 125 RHR < 125 RHR < 125 RHR MAGNETIC PROPERTIES Nonmagnetic Nonmagnetic Nonmagnetic (1) REFERENCE STANDARD MATERIAL Same as Table 6-4 Ti-6A1-4V 304 and 321 annealed SURFACE FINISH < 125 RHR < 125 RHR < 125 RHR 16 FEB 2007 Rev. M-50.8% IACS of test material. 2 6-00-00 Page 21 . 4340 or similar high permeability alloys in any heat treat condition.e. Low permeablity alloys. 15-5 PH.BHT-ALL-SPM Table 6-4. 300M. H-12. 4330. A286. PH13-8 Mo. Nitralloy 135. 4130. H-11. 8620. 4340.8% and 15% IACS. 17-7 PH annealed.5% or -0. Table 6-5. N155.

subsurface. Battery operated units shall have low voltage warning. Actual inspection of such parts needs to be supported by a certified Level II in the method employed. Ultrasonic transducers may be of the broadband or narrow band frequency type. The employer of NDI Level I Special personnel must have an established written practice which meets the requirements of ATA 105 for qualification and training of NDT personnel as described in the Bell Helicopter Customer Training Academy (CTA) NDI training course. Examples include assessment of bare metallic skin to determine thickness. Correct selection of transducer. The transducer picks up the reflected sound from within the part. oxygen systems. The specific transducer frequency used for an inspection/evaluation shall be determined by the Level III individual. EQUIPMENT REQUIREMENTS Make sure safety requirements for electrical (static) grounding have been met when using ultrasonic equipment near aircraft fuel cells. SAFETY PRECAUTION parts and as listed in Chapter 5 Component Overhaul Schedule for components requiring an overhaul interval providing the applicable MM and or the CR&O provides the detailed instructions to perform the inspection. electrical systems. or as directed by the MM. and back surface of part.0MHz.BHT-ALL-SPM 6-49. and stores. or other approved Bell Helicopter directive. The instrument shall be capable of transmitting and receiving ultrasound of the frequency specified for the inspection. 6-53. or as defined by the maintenance organizations quality control guidelines. Typical inspection frequencies shall be 1. or to assess suspect damage of composite laminates or honeycomb composite structures. sensitivity. All personnel performing NDI shall be certified to meet or exceed Level II requirements as established in the latest revision of NAS 410 or alternate approved document. shear wave. Ultrasonic instruments required for contact inspection may be specific to pulse-echo. The instruments shall have audio and/or visual flaw indicators and be commercially available. The inspection is accomplished by inducing the ultrasound into the part by coupling the transducer which generates high frequency ultrasonic energy. Personnel that have successfully completed the level I Special NDI training course at Bell Helicopter are qualified to perform ultrasonic inspections in accordance with the applicable maintenance and overhaul manuals. 2. Individuals who have successfully completed and passed the Level I Special Bell Helicopter training course may only perform evaluations on components if the MM or CR&O do not provide the required detailed instructions. angle and so forth.0MHz. These sound waves provide information as to the state of various materials. The ASB or other Bell Helicopter approved written directive must indicate in the document that an individual is qualified to perform such task and may be responsible for product acceptance.0MHz. 2 16 FEB 2007 . Individuals who have successfully completed and passed the Level I Special Bell Helicopter training course may perform routine inspections for acceptance on components as listed in the Chapter 4 Airworthiness Limitations Schedule for retirement life 6-00-00 Page 22 An ultrasonic instrument having a capability for both the through transmission and the pulse-echo techniques is required. a person certified to meet or exceed a Level II requirement will be responsible for the acceptance or rejection of that indicated part. contact impedance. 6-50. The grade of the couplant should be appropriate for the conditions encountered when performing routine inspection. ASB. PERSONNEL QUALIFICATIONS/ CERTIFICATIONS 1. and is not intended as a final means of acceptance or rejection. or as specifically authorized in an ASB or other Bell Helicopter approved written directive. An evaluation is performed for information purposes only. CR&O. 6-52. ULTRASONIC INSPECTION METHOD INTRODUCTION Ultrasonic inspection is a method of inspection using sound waves with frequencies that are above the audible range. through transmission. 5.25MHz. or resonant frequency. 6-51. and 10. The ultrasonic couplant utilized should be water based. If during the course of the evaluation an indication is found. The detected ultrasonic reflections are electronically displayed and interpreted for indications of defects. Ultrasonic equipment shall be calibrated as recommended by the manufacturer. The use of petroleum Rev. will enable inspection of surface.

required to perform the inspection shall be documented. recorders. Pre-inspection.. etc. Acceptance criteria will be as stated in the MM. List initial equipment control settings necessary to establish a starting point from where final calibration can be obtained. 8. etc. 2. Described steps to be performed before inspection can begin. describe operations necessary. Identify the document and/ or location of acceptance criteria applicable to this inspection. Describe the sequence of steps required to perform this inspection.. ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA Any indication found using this method should be verified. Post Inspection. cleaning. cross section. or as stated on applicable safety bulletin or other approved Bell Helicopter directive. CR&O. Reference/Calibration Standards. 2 6-00-00 Page 23/24 . 6-56. This section shall be written in sufficient detail to assure repeatability of the inspection. 6-57. 7. All specific equipment requirements. Calibration. All indications shall be verified after recalibration per inspection procedure. Evaluation. 3. The reference standard(s) shall be of known quality and shall represent all relevant characteristics of the component it is intended for. Accept/Reject Criteria. 16 FEB 2007 Rev. to be inspected. when it is possible. using another NDE method such as by visual or mechanical means. but may be utilized on metallic components. REFERENCE STANDARDS 4. fixturing. List calibration / reference standards required to perform the inspection. EVALUATION Reference standards representative of the part being inspected are required. probes. surface. etc. 6-55. INSPECTION Unless otherwise specified by MM. CR&O. Describe techniques used to verify indications detected. Additional NDI methods may be employed for positive defect affirmation.e. Inspection. 5. The reference standard shall be used to establish acceptable or rejectable thresholds during equipment calibration and/or setup. Care should be taken to avoid the use of non-compatible materials.BHT-ALL-SPM based couplants should not be used on composite parts. the ultrasonic inspection unit shall be utilized and calibrated following the applicable written inspection procedure which outlines: 1. 6-54. 6. ASB or other BHTI approved written directive. A description of area. as indicated from the applicable callout shall be given. When applicable. Area to be inspected. i. Equipment. 9.