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100 PER CENT RENEWABLES STUDY – ELECTRICITY TRANSMISSION COST ASSUMPTIONS

VERSION: DATE: 1.0 18 September 2012

..........2 Introduction ............................................................................................................................................. 3 Developing a view of required transmission ........ 3 High Voltage AC (HVAC)..................................................................................................................100 PER CENT RENEWABLES STUDY – ELECTRICITY TRANSMISSION COST ASSUMPTIONS Contents Introduction .......... 3 1 2 3 3........................... 3 Transmission cost estimates .............................................................................................. 4 High Voltage DC (HVDC) ............... 6 Disclaimer .................... 7 Page 2 of 7 ......................................................................................................................................................1 3............................................................

A high voltage DC (HVDC) line is most appropriate to transmit power over long distances with few or no intermediate connections.100 PER CENT RENEWABLES STUDY – ELECTRICITY TRANSMISSION COST ASSUMPTIONS Introduction 1 Introduction The document sets out the approach and assumptions that the Australian Energy Market Operator (AEMO) will use in developing a view of the transmission network and its cost that will support the 100 per cent renewables study.com/NR/rdonlyres/437A1BD2-4650-45D4-8A92-C1A358808FD0/39230/ODISAppendicesFinal_0110. distances and intermediate connection points. That generation will be spread geographically and needs to be connected to the demand centres meeting reliability requirements.and voltage level will be selected to match the expected maximum power flows. power flows on the transmission network might also be intermittent and will require transmission corridors to support significant flows from the intermittent generation sources even at low average utilisation factors. AEMO will use a high level approach to identifying the required transmission network. The total cost will be derived using a building-block approach. Transmission facilities will be included that meet 10 per cent chance of exceedence (POE) maximum demand levels at a reliability that allows the outage of a single network element without a significant amount of load at risk.nationalgrid.1 1 http://www. This consideration might result in iterating and revising the generation expansion with a view to also minimise the transmission costs. 3 Transmission cost estimates The cost of the transmission network will be developed using AEMO’s transmission unit cost estimates. The cost of a transmission line is determined by multiplying the length of the line in kilometres by the estimated cost-per-kilometre. Given the expected amount of intermittent generation. AEMO is developing high level building blocks for this study based on the cost estimates that are being used in the 2012 National Transmission Network Development Plan (NTNDP). A substation will be made up of various components depending on the size requirements and voltage levels of the substation. The consideration of the required transmission and its associated cost may have implications for whether the generation expansion (and its location) could be considered ‘least-cost’. The following tables provide details about those unit cost estimates. either AC or DC submarine cable would be required.pdf Page 3 of 7 . For the purposes of this scenario work. However. they are considered appropriate for a first level ‘order of magnitude’ estimate. The transmission technology . The transmission network will be required to support the maximum generation output from the various generation centres. AEMO will determine a least-cost generation mix of renewable sources to meet future electricity demand under two scenarios. 2 Developing a view of required transmission Through supply modelling. These are planning-type estimates that do not take into account geographical or local conditions that would apply to any given project.alternating current (AC) versus direct current (DC) . To connect offshore renewable energy to the onshore transmission grid.

3 1.4 Multiply by two for length < 20 km Cost estimate ($M) Comments 1000 MVA 500/330 kV transformer 370 MVA 500/275 kV transformer 1000 MVA 500/220 kV transformer 750 MVA 500/220 kV transformer 600 MVA 500/220 kV transformer 700 MVA 330/220 kV transformer 400 MVA 330/220 kV transformer 225 MVA 330/220 kV transformer 150 MVA 220/110 kV transformer Table 3 — Switch bays 18 11 18 16 15 12 9 8 5 3 x 1 phase units 3 phase units Cost estimate ($M) Switch bay 500 kV 330 kV 275 kV 220 kV 132 kV 3 Breaker Diameter .1 Costs for high voltage alternating current (HVAC) facilities Table 1 — HVAC transmission lines Plant Cost estimate ($M per km) Other factors 500 kV double circuit transmission line (Capacity per circuit 2500 MVA-3500 MVA) 500 kV single circuit transmission line (Capacity per circuit 2500 MVA .3 0. 1100.1CBs 7.5 5.9 3. 275 kV or 330 kV double circuit transmission line (Capacity per circuit 800.5 2.7 Page 4 of 7 .3 1.4 6.3500 MVA) 220 kV.3CBs 3 Breaker Diameter .7 3.1 3.7 0.7 2.6 2. 100.100 PER CENT RENEWABLES STUDY – ELECTRICITY TRANSMISSION COST ASSUMPTIONS 3.2 4. 1300 MVA) 220 kV double circuit transmission line (Capacity per circuit 500 MVA) 132 kV double circuit transmission line (Capacity per circuit 100. 150 175 MVA) Table 2 — Transformers Plant 1.0 2.3 1.8 2.9 1.9 6. 275 kV or 330 kV single circuit transmission line (Capacity per circuit 800.7 5.250 MVA) 132 kV single circuit transmission line (Capacity per circuit 75.6 3.2 3.7 1.2CBs 3 Breaker Diameter .3 2.1 0.7 1.2CBs 2 Breaker Diameter -1CBs 1 Breaker Diameter .7 1.1CBs 2 Breaker Diameter . 1300 MVA) 220 kV. 1100.15 2.1 1.7 0.8 1.0 1.75 0.6 2.9 4.4 1.

000 7.000 10.000 Table 6 — Reactive sources Plant Cost estimate ($M) Comments SVC -100 / +300 MVAr (220 kV.000 10.1CBs 15. 275 kV or 330 kV) Shunt cap bank 200MVAr (330 kV) Shunt cap bank 200MVAr (275 kV) Shunt cap bank 200MVAr (220 kV) Shunt cap bank 120MVAr (220 kV.000 15.000 7.1CBs 2 Breaker Diameter .000 15.100 PER CENT RENEWABLES STUDY – ELECTRICITY TRANSMISSION COST ASSUMPTIONS Table 4 — Substation establishment Site area (m2) Cost estimate ($M) 5. 275 kV or 330 kV) Shunt cap bank 100MVAr (110 kV or 132 kV) Shunt cap bank 25 .500 7.000 10.000 35.0 2.500 7.000 10.3CBs 3 Breaker Diameter .000 15.500 10.000 10.000 15.000 10.000 30.000 10.6 4.8 SVC with CB Capacitor bank with 1CB diameter 1 CB Capacitor bank with 1CB diameter 1 CB Capacitor bank with 1CB diameter 1 CB Capacitor bank with 1CB diameter 1 CB Capacitor bank with 1CB diameter 1 CB Capacitor bank with 1CB diameter 1 CB Cost estimate ($M per km) 3 core 132 kV 189 MVA cable 3 core 220 kV 314 MVA cable 1.000 20.000 10.500 10.500 10.000 10.500 7.2CBs 3 Breaker Diameter .4 1.500 7.18 Page 5 of 7 .500 7.000 10.000 10.000 7 8 10 13 16 19 22 25 Table 5 — Site area requirements for switch bays Switch bay 500 kV 330 kV Site area (m2) 275 kV 220 kV 132 kV 3 Breaker Diameter .50MVAr (110 kV or 132 kV) Table 7 — High Voltage AC submarine cable Plant 35 30 5.2 3.000 10.70 2.2 4.000 7.000 7.2CBs 2 Breaker Diameter .000 15. 275 kV or 330 kV) Series capacitors 1000MVA (220 kV.500 5.000 25.000 10.1CBs 1 Breaker Diameter .000 10.

64 3. 400 MW with voltage source converter ±170-300 Table 10 .Offshore platforms Offshore platform. 230/138kV AC.100 PER CENT RENEWABLES STUDY – ELECTRICITY TRANSMISSION COST ASSUMPTIONS 3. water depth of 30-40m Platform for 500 MW HVDC with voltage source converter Platform for 1000 MW HVDC with voltage source converter Platform for 132/33 kV AC Platform for 220/33 kV AC $150 Cost estimate ($M) 68 108 44 54 Page 6 of 7 .12 1.57 1.18 Table 9 — Converter stations Converter station Cost estimate ($M) ±200kV DC.2 Costs for high voltage direct current (HVDC) facilities Table 8 — HVDC transmission lines Plant Cost estimate ($M per km) ±150kV 352 MW bipole submarine cable ±300kV 704 MW bipole submarine cable ±300kV 1306 MW bipole submarine cable ±300kV 770 MW bipole on-shore cable ±300kV 1253 MW bipole on-shore cable 1.49 2.

aemo. businesses. 2 http://www. AEMO and its advisers.100 PER CENT RENEWABLES STUDY – ELECTRICITY TRANSMISSION COST ASSUMPTIONS Disclaimer Purpose . omissions. procedures or policies. or any other applicable laws. consultants and other contributors to this document (or their respective associated companies.com. defects or misrepresentations in this document. or for any loss or damage suffered by persons who use or rely on the information in it. reliable. officers or employees) are not liable (whether by reason of negligence or otherwise) for any errors. You should not rely on this document as a substitute for obtaining detailed advice about the National Electricity Law. No Reliance or warranty . complete or current or that it is suitable for particular purposes. © 2012 Australian Energy Market Operator Limited. Limitation of liability .To the maximum extent permitted by law. directors.au/en/About-AEMO/Copyright-Permissions Page 7 of 7 .This document is provided by AEMO as at 18 September 2012 for general information purposes only.This document or the information in it may be subsequently updated or amended. AEMO does not warrant or represent that it is accurate. While AEMO has made every effort to ensure the quality of the information in this document. partners. The material in this publication may be used in 2 accordance with the copyright permissions on AEMO’s website. the National Electricity Rules.