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Teacher: Miguel Ángel Hernández

UNIT 2: STATISTICS

Definitions of statistics. Before this headline could be written, information, or data, was collected. Households spend ₤59 per week on transport

Food & non-alcoholic drinks

Recreation &culture

Transport

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

**₤ per week Average weekly expenditure by UK households 2002-03
**

Source: National Statistics website

Statistics is the science of making effective use of data relating to groups of individuals or experiments. It deals with the aspects of this, including not only the collection, organisation, presentation, analysis and interpretation of data, but also the planning of the collection of them, in terms of the design of surveys and experiments. Population and samples. Imagine you have to do a study of the leisure activities in a city. The population of this will be the group of inhabitants of that city. A part of this group is called a sample. Therefore, the population is the whole group of units that you are going to study and a sample is a subset of the population. Each unit of the population is called individual. Example: The owner of a screw factory wants to make a quality control. He picks up 1 out of every 100 produced screws and then he analyses them. • • • The population is the total number of the screws of the factory. The sample is 1% of the population. The individuals are each one of the screws.

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They can be numbers. the variable and the type of variable. d) Political party that the Spanish electors are going to vote for in the next local elections. car brands. Examples: eyes colour. leisure activities.. control or manipulate in research. words. • • Discrete variable can only take exact values. e) Weekly time that students from 12 to 16 spend on reading in Italy. c) Number of pets in French households. observations. indicate what are the population.O. temperature. b) Favourite subject for the students in school. … Quantitative variables can be discrete and continuous. . Coin Face Head Tail Tally Frequency 13 12 =5 The coin was spun 13+12=25 times 2 . Examples: the number of students in each class in a school. number of televisions in each house. age. a) Weight of babies that were born last year in Dublin. … Continuous variable can take any value within a given range. Example: This one is a tally chart. For each of the following cases. Statistical variables are things that we measure. Frequency Tables. Examples: the heights of the students in your class. You can collect data using a data-collection sheet.. Teacher: Miguel Ángel Hernández Statistical Variables. … Statistical variables can be qualitative or quantitative. • • Qualitative variable is descriptive information (describes something). Examples: height. measurements.S. shoe size. Mathematics 2nd E. … Quantitative variable is numerical information (numbers).Unit 2: Statistics.

where N is the total number of data. The relative frequency is the absolute frequency divided by the total number of observations or total number of data.S. 2. 2. Mathematics 2nd E. 1. a) 1+5+12+9+1=28 houses. 2. 1. The absolute frequency is the number of times a determined value of a variable occurs. 1. Teacher: Miguel Ángel Hernández Data can also be shown in a frequency table. We will write h i the relative frequency of And we have h 1h 2. 3 .hn =1 . 3. Absolute and Relative Frequency. 2. 2. The numbers in the table are: 0.. 2. 1. 3. 2. b) 0·1+1·5+2·12+3·9+4·1=0+5+24+27+4=60 televisions. We will write f i the absolute frequency of xi . 3. 3. We have to know that f 1 f 2.Unit 2: Statistics. 2.. 3. xi . 1. 2. ( n is the number of different data).. 3. f n=N . 2. 3. 3. 4. Example: The number of televisions in each house of my street is shown in the frequency table: Numbers of TVs 0 1 2 3 4 Number of houses 1 5 12 9 1 a) Calculate the number of houses in my street. b) Calculate the total of number of televisions in my street. 2. 3. 2.O..

O. Mathematics 2nd E.S. In the list below is shown the qualification in Maths of 20 students in a class: 3 5 6 8 3 5 7 9 3 5 7 9 4 5 7 9 5 6 7 9 a) Build a table writing the absolute and relative frequencies of this set of data. Teacher: Miguel Ángel Hernández 1. xi Absolute frequency fi Relative frequency hi 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 b) Calculate the sum of all the absolute frequencies and of all relative frequencies. 4 .Unit 2: Statistics.

N N N x i is the sum of the absolute frequencies of values 5 .hi = f1 f2 fi . f i Cumulative Relative Frequency of a datum x i is the sum of the relative frequencies of values less or equal than it.. F i= f 1 f 2. H i=h1h2.. Parker asked her students about their favourite subject in the school. Mathematics 2nd E.S. and the answers were: Maths History English English History English English Maths English Sciences Sciences Music English English Maths English English History English Maths Maths Maths English Maths Sciences Made a table and show the absolute and relative frequencies of these data. We write H i . (It is the quotient between the cumulative absolute frequency and the total number of data).Unit 2: Statistics. Teacher: Miguel Ángel Hernández 2..O... Mrs. Cumulative Absolute and Relative Frequency: Cumulative Absolute Frequency of a datum less or equal than it.. We write F i .

Teacher: Miguel Ángel Hernández 1. It is shown the number of brothers and sisters of the 25 students: 0 1 0 0 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 0 0 1 1 2 4 1 3 1 3 2 Complete the table with the different frequencies: xi 0 1 2 3 4 2. The answers were the following: 40 46 42 44 44 45 47 47 44 42 41 45 43 40 46 43 42 47 fi Fi hi Hi Complete the table with the different frequencies: xi 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 fi Fi hi Hi 6 .O about the age of their fathers. Mathematics 2nd E.Unit 2: Statistics.S. We asked 20 students of 2nd E.S.O.

S. Pictograms use symbols to represent the size of each category Types of books in a library Adventure B B B B B B B B B Horror Romantic B ( B represents 50 books) Bar charts use bars to represent frequencies or numerical data: Vowels in a sentence in English 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 A E I O U (Notice the gaps between the bars!) 7 .Unit 2: Statistics.O. Mathematics 2nd E. You can use a variety of diagrams and charts to display data. Teacher: Miguel Ángel Hernández Displaying Data: Diagrams and Charts.

5º Then.Unit 2: Statistics. we calculate the angles of each category: Apple: 50·1. we calculate the angle for one person: 360º:240=1. draw a pie chart to illustrate the information. we measure.5º=75º Banana: 80·1.5º=108º Other: 38·1.O. Teacher: Miguel Ángel Hernández Pie charts use sectors of a circle to represent the size of each category. Mathematics 2nd E. colour and label the sectors: Favourite Fruit Apple Banana Orange Other 8 . Valencia FC season Win Draw Lose (The size of the sector is proportional to the frequency) Example: We ask 240 people to name their favourite fruit.5º=120º Orange: 72·1.5º=57º And then. With these results. Fruit Number of people Apple 50 Banana 80 Orange 72 Other 38 First.S.

The weather record for 60 days is shown in the frequency table. The Manchester United football team plays 36 matches in a season. They win 15 matches. Teacher: Miguel Ángel Hernández 1. Number of days 15 18 14 3 10 9 . d) Draw a pie chart to show the information.O. b) Calculate the angle of each category in the pie chart. 2. a) Calculate the number of matches that they lose.Unit 2: Statistics.S. Weather Sunny Cloudy Rainy Snowy Windy a) Calculate the angle one day represents in a pie chart. c) Draw a pie chart to show the data. b) Calculate the angle one match represents in a pie chart. c) Calculate the angle of each category in the pie chart. and they draw just 8 matches. Mathematics 2nd E.

Example: Mario decided to collect data about the height of his classmates in the school.Unit 2: Statistics.S. a rectangle is constructed with an area proportional to the frequency. a) Complete the frequency table using these heights of some people: 153 153 173 139 134 144 179 155 163 160 142 140 152 140 160 170 163 172 148 150 157 151 135 136 165 170 160 138 156 134 143 171 154 147 161 176 144 141 154 156 10 . Teacher: Miguel Ángel Hernández The histogram is used for variables whose values are numerical and measured on an interval scale (usually for continuous variables). A histogram divides up the range of possible values in data set into classes or groups. (if the bars have equal width the height of each bar corresponds to the frequency). These are the data of 40 children (in cm): 163 165 163 164 167 163 164 164 165 167 170 168 159 165 160 161 164 164 157 164 168 164 167 163 161 168 165 164 164 161 172 155 163 164 165 158 25 164 165 167 162 It is useful to make a group frequency table for this case: Interval [155-160) [160-165) [165-170) [170-175) Tally Frequency 4 21 13 2 20 15 10 5 0 [155-160) [160-165) [165-170) [170-175) 1. For each group.O. Mathematics 2nd E.

2.O.3) [3.180) Number of people b) Draw the histogram. Mathematics 2nd E. Number of runners 0 15 23 18 8 11 .140) [140.5) [5.160) [160. This frequency table shows the times for 50 runners in the Badajoz Marathon. Teacher: Miguel Ángel Hernández Height (cm) [130.Unit 2: Statistics.2) [2.170) [170.4) [4.150) [150.6) Draw a histogram to show the times. Time (hours) [1.S.

Mathematics 2nd E.Unit 2: Statistics.O.. multiplying every value by its absolute frequency. then adding all these products and finally dividing by the number of values. It is shown in the formula: x = Examples: a) Find the mean of 10. Teacher: Miguel Ángel Hernández Measures of Central Tendency: Mean: The average or mean of a list of numbers is the total of all values divided by the number of values. To calculate the mean. we can use the absolute frequencies of values. x n · f n ∑ x i · f i = N N b) Find the mean of the following values: 4 6 4 7 4 8 4 8 5 8 5 9 6 9 6 9 6 9 6 10 We can use a frequency table: xi 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 x mean= = fi 4 2 5 1 3 4 1 4· 45 · 26· 57 · 18 ·39 · 410 · 1 1610307243610 133 = = =6..S. 11. 7 and 8: x mean= = 101178 36 = =9 4 4 x 1 · f 1 x 2 · f 2.65 20 20 20 12 .

5.5. 7. because it is the number that appears most often in the list. 4. because they appear three times. Note that there are always as many numbers greater than or equal to the median in the list as there are less than or equal to the median in the list. It is the value with the greatest absolute frequency. 4. 5. 6. 5. We have two modes in this case. First.S. 7. 6 . 3. 9. 7. Examples: a) Find the median of the following values: 8. 7. 13 . 4. 2. 5. 3.7. 8. Me=7 b) Find the median of the following values: 9.5 . 6. 6. Mo=3 b) Find the mode of the following values: 2. mean of both numbers: 2 Mode: The mode in a list of numbers is the number (or numbers) that occurs most often. 3.4. We order the numbers: 5. 6. The median is 7. 2. 4. 3. 9. If there is an even number of values. Mathematics 2nd E. 6. 6. 2 and 4. the middle number in this ordering is the median. we have to order the number: 5. If the list has an odd number of values. Me=6. 6. The median is 6. 6. 6.5.O. Example: a) Find the mode of the following values: 2. the median is the average of the two middle numbers.Unit 2: Statistics. Teacher: Miguel Ángel Hernández Median: The median of a list of values is found by ordering them from least to greatest. 9. The two middle numbers are 6 and 7. 2. 3. so we calculate the 67 =6. Both numbers have the greatest absolute frequency. Mo=2. 7. The mode is 3.

median and mode for the following data: 10. fi Fi hi Hi 14 . 1. 52. These are the answers: 3 3 4 1 2 3 2 5 1 0 2 2 3 2 4 2 5 3 4 3 a) Complete the table with the frequencies: xi 0 1 2 3 4 5 b) Find the mean. Mathematics 2nd E. Twenty families are asked about how many children they have. 12. 13. 14 and 13. 12. 10. 50 and 55. 3. median and mode. 13.S. Find the mean.O.Unit 2: Statistics. The tallest 4 trees in a park have heights in meters of 40. Find the mean and the median of their heights. Teacher: Miguel Ángel Hernández Activities. 2.

See the 10% figure and answer the questions: a) How many people answer “dogs”? 30% 15% Dogs Cats b) And “cats”? Birds Fish Others 25% 20% 4.S. They were asked about their favourite pet.O. In my high school there are 200 students. How many of them answer “Romance”? 15 . The answers were: Comedy: 27% Horror: 11% Action: 18% Foreign: 8% Romance: 14% Science fiction: 8% Drama: 14% a) Draw a bar chart and a pie chart with the data. The teachers of a high school are asked about their favourite film genres. b) Imagine there are 120 teachers in this high school. Teacher: Miguel Ángel Hernández 3.Unit 2: Statistics. Mathematics 2nd E.

Teacher: Miguel Ángel Hernández 3.O.S.Unit 2: Statistics. Mathematics 2nd E. These are the number of photographic cameras sold the last year in a store: Photographic cameras January February March April May June July August September October November December = 10 photographic cameras How many cameras has been sold every month? Which one was the best month for the salesman? Why do you think was this month? What is the average of sold cameras per week? 16 .

These are the numbers of cars the different families of a street have: 1 3 2 1 1 0 1 2 0 1 2 2 3 1 1 1 1 2 2 1 a) Complete the frequency table: xi 0 1 2 3 b) Represent the data using a pie chart and a bar graph. Mathematics 2nd E. 17 .Unit 2: Statistics. fi Fi hi Hi c) Calculate the mean. median and mode of the data.S. Teacher: Miguel Ángel Hernández 4.O.

Teacher: Miguel Ángel Hernández Keywords: Statistics=Estadística Population=Población sample=muestra individual=individuo (de una muestra) Statistical Variable=Variable Estadística Qualitative Variable=Variable Cualitativa Quantitative Variable=Variable Cauntitativa Discrete Variable=Variable discreta Continuous Variable=Variable continua datum/data=dato/datos Frequency Table=Tabla de frecuencias Absolute Frequency=Frecuencia absoluta Relative Frequency=Frecuencia relativa Cumulative Absolute Frequency=Frecuencia Absoluta Acumulada Cumulative Relative Frequency=Frecuencia Relativa Acumulada diagram=diagrama chart=cuadro.Unit 2: Statistics. gráfica Pictogram=Pictograma Bar Chart/Graph=Diagrama de Barras Pie Chart=Diagrama de sectores Histogram=Histograma Measures of Central Tendency=Medidas de Centralización Mean/average= media aritmética/promedio Median=mediana Mode=moda 18 .O. Mathematics 2nd E.S.

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