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EXALCO

CURTAIN WALLS WITH SUSPENDED GLASSED PANELS “Patented”

SERIES : STET 2001

ARCHITECTURAL INFORMATION

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“Curtain Walls with Suspended Glassed Panels” are patented for Stefanos Tampakakis, Civil Engineer. The patent is protected in Greece and over the international market by the following letters patents: • • • • Greece: Europe: USA : Japan : Letters Patent Nº 1002646 / 18-03-1996 Letters Patent Nº 1002827 / 16-10-1996 Letters Patent Nº 0938616 / 06-02-2002 Letters Patent Nº 6269600B1 Letters Patent Nº 518199 / 1998

EXALCO S.A. has assumed exclusive rights for the production and exploitation of the patent in Greece.

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Characteristics of the Curtain Walls with Suspended Glassed Panels
1. Curtain walls with suspended glassed panels are characterized by the fact that the glass panels are fixed onto the structure of the curtain wall by suspension exclusively from and all along the horizontal beams of such structure, as well as by the fact that there are no continuous studs along the height of the curtain wall. At each storey there are two main horizontal beams parallel to each other and continuous throughout the height of the structural elevation of the storey, one at the level of the window sill (lower horizontal beam), from which fixed (dead) panels are suspended, and the other at the level of the lintel (upper horizontal beam), from which windows are suspended. Among the said beams, the lower horizontal beam rests on the ends of short studs fixed onto the floor slab of each storey and standing up, while the upper horizontal beam rests on the ends of equally short uprights fixed onto the roof slab of each storey and hanging down in the form of minor cantilevers. In cases of continuous curtain walls over consecutive storeys, the cantilevers are unified and horizontal beams are supported by unified studs having the form of beams overhanging at both ends. Curtain walls with suspended glassed panels are characterized by the fact that no studs exist between the horizontal beams of each storey and that the windows of the storey are suspended over the free space between the two beams by means of hooks hanging all along the section of the upper horizontal beam and that of the upper side of the window frames. Curtain walls with suspended glassed panels are also characterized by the fact that the aluminum sections of the glassed panel frames carry special slots for supporting anodized aluminum blades, in order to ensure that the structural silicone is applied directly on pure untempered aluminum and achieve the required firm, permanent and high-security bonding.

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Major Benefits of Curtain Walls with Suspended Glassed Panels

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Architectural liberty In accordance with the main characteristics of curtain walls with suspended glassed panels, the architectural grid of the façade is independent of the structural grid of the curtain wall. As a result, the architect is free to choose the façade grid he prefers without constraints imposed by the structure and the dimensions of the glass panels. By maintaining only two lines of the façade grid in each storey, those of the window sill and lintel, he is free to vary the dimensions of the grid, cut through the lines and apply other materials on the same grid, in addition to glass: marble, granite, aluminum sheets etc. He may also opt for multi-level fabrications for the façade, without worrying about introducing high-cost applications or about the form and strength of the loadbearing structure, which will be examined separately in the light of purely structural criteria. Windows all along the front elevation of each storey In view of the absence of uprights over the area of the windows and of the free suspension of windows throughout the length of the upper horizontal beam of each storey, it will be possible to introduce projected windows all along the front elevation of the storey, without constraints concerning the window width. This will result in a larger number of windows, ample natural ventilation, saving of energy and protection of the personnel against suffocation phenomena in case of fire or of failure of the air-conditioning. Seismic performance In view of the independence of the structure of each storey from that of the rest of the storeys and also in view of the free suspension of the glass panels, the seismic strain of the glass curtain wall is substantially reduced, since it is limited to the strain corresponding to the slab of each storey supporting the structure. Safety - Reliability The specific form of the structure of the glass curtain wall entails a full structural capacity adequate to assume high strain conditions. At the same time, the phenomenon of thermal expansion is reduced and its impact, such as noise, warping etc., is eliminated. In addition, by suspending glass panels throughout the length of the horizontal beams, the load distribution becomes even, the strain imposed on aluminum sections and adhering materials is reduced, while the reliability and safety coefficient of the overall construction is increased. Fire protection, thermal/sound insulation Thermal/sound insulation panels and fireproof slabs (cement boards, gypsum boards and other insulating materials) are provided to be fixed onto the structure between the slab and the horizontal beams of each storey, while glass panels are in no contact whatsoever with the insulating materials. This creates an external thermal/sound barrier and a fire barrier between storeys, which

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result in reducing the consumption of power, limiting noise pollution and preventing fire expansion from one storey to another. 6. Fully watertight The system structure results in the flow and discharge of water being directed towards the exterior in all cases, thus ensuring complete watertightness of the curtain wall. Combination of glassed panels with marble/granite slabs, aluminum sheets etc. The various façade cover materials are combined on the same structure with special aluminum sections in each case. Fixing auxiliary internal fabrications and external features of the building onto the horizontal beams and studs of the structure In view of the structure and strength of the horizontal beams, it is possible for the latter to support suspended ceilings, thermal/sound insulation panels, covers of air-conditioning, louvers, fixed items of furniture etc. Furthermore, it is possible to fix external louvers and other items onto the structure studs. Possibility to replace or change a part or all of the glassed panels from the interior of the building In view of the independence of the façade components from the structure of the curtain wall, it is possible to replace a part or the entire number of such components without any alteration to the structure. This possibility applies particularly to the case of renewal or of variation of the architectural façade of the building.

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STRUCTURE OF THE CURTAIN WALL
General In accordance with the principal characteristics of curtain walls with suspended glassed panels, series STET 2001, the structure of the curtain wall is distinguished from the glassed panels in the same sense as the loadbearing structure of a building is distinguished from its architectural façade and the responsibilities of a Civil Engineer are distinguished from those of an Architect.

LOADBEARING STRUCTURE Studs They constitute the main components of the structure. According to the main characteristics, studs are not continuous in height: they are not supported between consecutive slabs as simply supported or continuous beams, but they depend on the storey slab to which they correspond and onto which they are firmly fixed. As a result, their height is limited to the distance between the slab and the window sill and extends downwards up to the lintel of the windows of the underlying storey, if the curtain wall is continued. The discontinuity of the studs in height, their limited height and their dependence on the storey slab to which they belong ensure the great benefits mentioned hereabove: seismic performance, assumption of sizeable wind pressure loads, possibility of multilevel and polygonic façades etc. The spacing between studs is defined by Analysis Diagrams. Horizontal Beams Horizontal beams constitute the structure components from which glass panels and the rest of the façade items are suspended. They rest on studs ends and determine the positions of window sills and lintels. The span between the supports of a horizontal beam, namely the space between studs, is also defined by Analysis Diagrams. If the distance between the building columns is compatible to the strength of horizontal beams, the latter may rest directly on such columns, in which case studs are eliminated. Stud Supports At all times, studs are fixed onto the building structure by means of steel fixing bases capable of assuming and of transferring all perpendicular and horizontal static and dynamic loads with absolute safety. The fabrication and size of the steel fixing bases depend on the form and type of the loadbearing structure of the building, the space left between the curtain wall and the building structure and the loads resulting from analytical calculations.

ARCHITECTURAL FAÇADE As already mentioned, glassed panels are suspended all along the horizontal beams by way of matching hooks provided on the sections of the horizontal beams and on the frames of the glassed panels respectively. More specifically, with regard to windows, hooks are shaped in a way ensuring simple, safe and easy opening and turning. On the other hand, and due to the

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continuous suspension of glassed panels from horizontal beams and to the even distribution of pressures, options regarding the width of the windows are unlimited. As regards curtain walls of type Structural Glazing, plateglass is glued onto the panel frame by means of anodized aluminum blades, in order to ensure that the structural silicone is applied directly on pure untempered aluminum and achieve the required firm, permanent and high-security bonding. Furthermore, structural silicone is applied directly on the external plateglass, to ensure the greatest possible safety and the best possible thermal discontinuity.

MATERIAL SPECIFICATION
Aluminium The alloy used for the extrusion of the profiles is the EN AW-6060 alloy, according to the EN 573-3:2003 standard. The dimension tolerances are according to the EN 12020.01 and 12020.02 standards. Polyamide The thermal break profiles embed bars of poyamid 6.6 with 25% glassfibre. Gaskets All the gaskets are Ethylene Propylene Diene Monomer (EPDM) gaskets. Coating The powder-coated profiles comply with the QUALIOCAT specifications of the European Aluminium Association. Anodising The anodized profiles comply with the QUALANOD specifications of the European Aluminium Association.

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