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G481: Mechanics

Learning outcomes and self-assessment

Physics Department

Long Road Sixth Form College

G481: Mechanics

Key words

Apply: use to solve a problem. Calculate: give a numerical answer, usually with an appropriate unit. Define: a precise statement is required, or the formula stated with all the symbols explained. Derive: mathematically determine from first principles, showing all your working. Describe: requires you to state in words (using diagrams where appropriate) what will happen in a given situation. An explanation is not normally required (often the full explanation is too difficult and beyond the requirements of the specification). Estimate: implies a reasoned order of magnitude statement or calculation of the quantity concerned. Explain: normally implies that some sort of definition or law should be given together with some relevant comment about what will happen. Always try to use the word 'because'. Interpret: draw meaning from and ultimately analyse. Outline: identify general principles, in the right order. Recall: you need to remember this it may not be given in an exam. Select: pick the right equation or piece of information from the formula booklet. Sketch: usually draw a graph no scale is required but the axes should be labelled, the shape clear and key areas identified. State: only a concise answer is needed with little or no supporting argument.

You should be able to: Explain that some physical quantities consist of a numerical magnitude and a unit Use the named units listed in this booklet correctly and as appropriate Use correctly the following prefixes and their symbols to indicate decimal sub-multiples or multiples of units: pico (p), nano (n), micro (), milli (m), centi (c), kilo (k), mega (M), giga (G), tera (T) Make suitable estimates of physical quantities included within this booklet Confidence

Date:___________ Date:___________ Date:___________ Date:___________

Date:___________

Date:___________

Date:___________

Date:___________

G481: Mechanics

Number

You should be able to: define scalar and vector quantities and give examples draw and use a vector triangle to determine the resultant of two coplanar vectors such as displacement, velocity and force calculate the resultant of two perpendicular vectors such as displacement, velocity and force resolve a vector such as displacement, velocity and force into two perpendicular components

Confidence

Date:___________ Date:___________ Date:___________ Date:___________ Date:___________ Date:___________ Date:___________ Date:___________

Kinematics

Number

You should be able to: define displacement, instantaneous speed, average speed, velocity and acceleration select and use the relationships

Confidence

Date:___________ Date:___________

5 to solve problems apply graphical methods to represent displacement, speed, velocity and acceleration determine velocity from the gradient of a displacement against time graph determine displacement from the area under a velocity against time graph determine acceleration from the gradient of a velocity against time graph

Date:___________

Date:___________

6 7 8 9

G481: Mechanics

Linear motion

Number

You should be able to: derive the equations of motion for constant acceleration in a straight line from a velocity against time graph Select and use the equations of motion for constant acceleration in a straight line:

Confidence

Date:___________ Date:___________

10

11 , and

Date:___________

Date:___________

12

13

14

15

apply the equations for constant acceleration in a straight line, including the motion of bodies falling in the Earths uniform gravitational field without air resistance explain how experiments carried out by Galileo overturned Aristotles ideas of motion describe an experiment to determine the acceleration of free fall g using a falling body apply the equations of constant acceleration to describe and explain the motion of an object due to a uniform velocity in one direction and a constant acceleration in a perpendicular direction.

Date:___________

Date:___________

Date:___________ Date:___________

Date:___________ Date:___________

Date:___________

Date:___________

Force

Number

Confidence

16

( ) appreciating that acceleration and the net force are always in the same direction define the newton apply the equations for constant acceleration and to analyse the motion of objects recall that according to the special theory of relativity, cannot be used for a particle travelling at very high speeds because its mass increases

Date:___________

Date:___________

17 18

19

G481: Mechanics

Non-linear motion

Number

You should be able to: explain that an object travelling in a fluid experiences a resistive or a frictional force known as drag state the factors that affect the magnitude of the drag force determine the acceleration of an object in the presence of drag state that the weight of an object is the gravitational force acting on the object; select and use the relationship:

Confidence

Date:___________ Date:___________ Date:___________ Date:___________ Date:___________ Date:___________ Date:___________ Date:___________ Date:___________ Date:___________ Date:___________

20 21 22 23

24 ( ) describe the motion of bodies falling in a uniform gravitational field with drag use and explain the term terminal velocity

25 26

G481: Mechanics

Equilibrium

Number

You should be able to: draw and use a triangle of forces to represent the equilibrium of three forces acting at a point in an object state that the centre of gravity of an object is a point where the entire weight of an object appears to act describe a simple experiment to determine the centre of gravity of an object explain that a couple is a pair of forces that tends to produce rotation only define and apply the torque of a couple define and apply the moment of force explain that both the net force and net moment on an extended object in equilibrium is zero apply the principle of moments to solve problems, including the human forearm select and use the equation for density:

Confidence

Date:___________ Date:___________ Date:___________ Date:___________ Date:___________ Date:___________ Date:___________ Date:___________ Date:___________ Date:___________ Date:___________ Date:___________ Date:___________ Date:___________ Date:___________

27

28 29 30 31 32 33 34

35 select and use the equation for pressure: 36 where F is the force normal to the area A.

Date:___________

G481: Mechanics

Car safety

Number

You should be able to: define thinking distance, braking distance and stopping distance analyse and solve problems using the terms thinking distance, braking distance and stopping distance describe the factors that affect thinking distance and braking distance describe and explain how air bags, seat belts and crumple zones in cars reduce impact forces in accidents describe how air bags work, including the triggering mechanism describe how the trilateration technique is used in GPS (global positioning system) for cars

Confidence

Date:___________ Date:___________ Date:___________ Date:___________ Date:___________ Date:___________ Date:___________ Date:___________ Date:___________ Date:___________ Date:___________ Date:___________

37 38 39 40 41 42

Number

You should be able to: define work done by a force define the joule calculate the work done by a force using and state the principle of conservation of energy describe examples of energy in different forms, its conversion and conservation, and apply the principle of energy conservation to simple examples apply the idea that work done is equal to the transfer of energy to solve problems

Confidence

Date:___________ Date:___________ Date:___________ Date:___________ Date:___________ Date:___________ Date:___________

43 44 45 46

47

48

G481: Mechanics

Number

You should be able to: select and apply the equation for kinetic energy apply the definition of work done to derive the equation for the change in gravitational potential energy select and apply the equation for the change in gravitational potential energy near the Earths surface analyse problems where there is an exchange between gravitational potential energy and kinetic energy apply the principle of conservation of energy to determine the speed of an object falling in the Earths gravitational field

Confidence

Date:___________ Date:___________ Date:___________ Date:___________ Date:___________ Date:___________ Date:___________ Date:___________ Date:___________ Date:___________

49

50

51

52

53

Power

Number

You should be able to: define power as the rate of work done define the watt calculate power when solving problems state that the efficiency of a device is always less than 100% because of heat losses select and apply the relationship for efficiency:

Confidence

Date:___________ Date:___________ Date:___________ Date:___________ Date:___________ Date:___________ Date:___________

54 55 56 57

58

59

Date:___________

G481: Mechanics

Number

You should be able to: describe how deformation is caused by a force in one dimension and can be tensile or compressive describe the behaviour of springs and wires in terms of force, extension, elastic limit, Hookes law and the force constant (ie force per unit extension or compression) select and apply the equation , where k is the force constant of the spring or the wire determine the area under a force against extension (or compression) graph to find the work done by the force select and use the equations for elastic potential energy and define and use the terms stress, strain, Young modulus and ultimate tensile strength (breaking stress) describe an experiment to determine the Young modulus of a metal in the form of a wire define the terms elastic deformation and plastic deformation of a material describe the shapes of the stress against strain graphs for typical ductile, brittle and polymeric materials

Confidence

Date:___________ Date:___________ Date:___________ Date:___________ Date:___________ Date:___________ Date:___________ Date:___________ Date:___________ Date:___________ Date:___________ Date:___________ Date:___________ Date:___________ Date:___________ Date:___________ Date:___________ Date:___________

60

61

62

63 64 65

66 67 68

G481: Mechanics

10

G481: Mechanics

Conservation laws

11

G481: Mechanics

Vectors

12

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