Congestive heart failure (CHF) is a syndrome, not a disease, that can be brought about by several causes.

CHF is a weakening of the heart brought on by an underlying heart or blood vessel problem, often a combination of several different problems, including the following:
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Weakened heart muscle Damaged heart valves Blocked blood vessels supplying the heart muscle (coronary arteries), leading to a heart attack Toxic exposures, like alcohol or cocaine Infections High blood pressure that results in thickening of the heart muscle (left ventricular hypertrophy) Pericardial disease, such as pericardial effusion (a large collection of fluid around the heart in the space between the heart muscle and the thick layer of pericardium surrounding the heart) and/or a thickened pericardium, which does not allow the heart to fill properly Congenital heart diseases Prolonged, serious arrhythmias

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CHF is often a result of the following lifestyle habits:
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Unhealthy habits, such as smoking and excessive use of alcohol, are often to blame. Obesity and lack of activity may contribute to CHF, either directly or indirectly through accompanying high blood pressure, diabetes, and coronary artery disease. Years of uncontrolled high blood pressure damages both heart and blood vessels.

Whether through disease or lifestyle choices, the pumping action of the heart can be impaired by several mechanisms:

Heart muscle damage (cardiomyopathy): The heart muscle can become weak because of damage or disease and thus does not contract or squeeze as forcefully as it should. This damage to the muscle can occur from coronary heart disease (coronary artery disease) leading to a heart attack, or long-standing high blood pressure, viral infection, alcohol abuse, diabetes, or many other less common causes. Sometimes, the cause is not known.

"against the current. cough. Heart valve problems: The valves of the heart normally keep the blood flowing in the right direction through the heart. The heart has to pump harder to overcome these rhythm disorders. or emphysema. this backed up blood accumulates in the lungs and the body. Eventually.  Congestive Heart Failure Symptoms People with congestive heart failure (CHF) sometimes do not suspect a problem with their heart. days.  The early symptoms are often shortness of breath. the heart can weaken. or weeks. such as asthma. this greater workload can damage and weaken the heart. If this excessively slow or fast heartbeat is sustained over hours. sweating. that part of the heart will not work properly. Other conditions may have injured the heart such as thyroid disorders (too much or too little thyroid hormone) or treatments for cancer (radiation or certain chemotherapy drugs).  . which can cause heart failure. If this damage is bad enough. which leads to heart failure. Over time. Heart attack may rapidly lead to either cardiac arrest (no heartbeat) or permanent damage of the left ventricle. chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). If you have a known breathing problem. A stenotic valve is a valve that does not open properly when it should. o   An incompetent valve is a valve that does not close properly when it should and allows blood to flow backward in the heart. Proper treatment of high blood pressure can prevent left ventricular hypertrophy and heart failure. Abnormal heart valves impede this forward flow in 1 of 2 ways. Heart attack (myocardial infarction): A heart attack commonly causes severe pain in the chest. or a feeling of not being able to get a deep breath. The rhythm may be too slow or too fast. shortness of breath. High blood pressure (hypertension): Abnormally high blood pressure increases the amount of work the left ventricle has to do to pump blood out into the circulatory system. and/or a feeling of impending doom. you may think you are having an "attack" or worsening of that condition. creating an increased workload on the heart. o  Abnormal rhythm or irregular heartbeat: Abnormal heart rhythms lower the heart's effectiveness as a pump. or irregular. nausea. This can lead to heart failure if this damage is allowed to go on unchecked." When blood flows the wrong way across a valve. the heart has to work harder to keep up its output. Blood flow through the narrowed opening is blocked.

such as sweeping. Several pillows may help with a more comfortable sleep. causing dyspnea at rest and at night (orthopnea). When CHF worsens. vacuuming. or even walking about the house.  Congestive heart failure has the following 3 major symptoms:  Exercise intolerance o A person may be unable to tolerate exercise or even mild physical exertion that he or she may have been able to do in the past. especially when he or she is active. o o The shortness of breath that accompanies these activities usually gets better with rest. A failing heart cannot pump enough blood to provide these nutrients to the body. o . Ordinary activities. you may think you have a cold. This is called paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea. the swelling is more noticeable in the ankles or on the lower leg in the front where the bone is close to the skin. he or she may awaken at night short of breath and have to sit or stand up to get relief. may be limited by feeling tired (fatigue) and having shortness of breath. any or several of these conditions may coexist along with congestive heart failure. As the buildup of fluid in the lungs becomes very severe. fluid backs up into the lungs and interferes with oxygen getting into the blood. the feet. a frothy.  Shortness of breath o If a person has CHF. The body needs oxygen and other nutrients during physical activity. he or she may have difficulty breathing (dyspnea). even to walk at a normal pace. or bronchitis. To make matters worse. pink liquid may be coughed up. may be difficult or impossible. pushing a lawnmower. o o o o  Fluid retention and swelling o Puffy swelling (edema) in the legs. Often. A person may also prefer sleeping in a recliner rather than in a bed. and the ankles may occur. The ability to exercise. If a person has CHF. If you usually do not have breathing problems. flu. particularly at the end of the day or after prolonged sitting or standing.

Nonpitting edema is not caused by heart failure. such as angina and myocardial infarction. . including liver and kidney failure. can coexist with heart failure. Remember. Daily weight checks are mandatory in persons with heart failure because the amount of fluid retention is usually reflected by the amount of increasing shortness of breath and weight gain. Swelling may be so severe as to reach up to the hips. abdominal wall. Persons with heart failure should know what their dry weight is or what they weigh when they feel good with no pitting edema. it can have other causes. This is called pitting edema. the indentation where the finger pressed may be visible for a few minutes.o Press down on the skin in the puffy areas. and eventually the abdominal cavity (ascites). scrotum. o o Congestive heart failure usually does not cause chest pain. though. that other serious conditions that do cause chest pain. Pitting edema is not synonymous with heart failure.

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Mekanisme edema dan fatigue .

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 Mempercepat terjadinya aterosklerosis. seperti batuk dan sesak nafas  Menempel pada lidah. . dan jalan napas Cadmium  Ketika diisap. EFFECT OF SMOKING CIGARETTES 10pcs/day Kandungan Rokok CO Pengaruh Bagi Tubuh  Menimbulkan desaturasi Hb  Mengganggu pelepasan O2 ke jaringan sehingga mengurangi persediaan O2 jaringan (termasuk pada miokardium)  kurangnya kemampuan hemoglobin untuk mengikat oksigen. bibir. cenderung tertahan di ginjal sehingga memperparah level hipertensi. Nikotin  Menyebabkan ketagihan merokok  Merangsang pelepasan adrenalin  Mengganggu sistem saraf simpatis akibat meningkatnya kebutuhan O2  Meningkatkan frekuensi denyut jantung  Mneingkatkan tekanan darah  Meningkatkan kebutuhan O2 jantung  Meningkatkan irama jantung TAR  Menyebabkan gangguan jalan nafas.a.

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• Digoxin —Digoxin is used to control the symptoms of some forms of CHF and to control heart rate irregularities. peripheral vascular disease. Beta blockers —These drugs slow the heart rate by making it less sensitive to adrenaline (epinephrine). Side effects include abdominal pain. or who have had certain heart rhythm abnormalities should not take beta blockers. nausea or vomiting. and. dangerous heart rhythm abnormalities . This medication may be given after a patient's condition has been made stable on ACE inhibitors. coughing. elevated systolic blood pressure. diuretics remove excess fluid from the body. tiredness. Side effects may include weight gain. Diuretics are often the first line of treatment. Patients who have a slow heart rate. diarrhea. or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.• Diuretics —sometimes called water pills. • Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors —These drugs have been shown to improve survival among patients with CHF by lowering blood pressure. and birth defects. Side effects include dangerously low blood pressure. dizziness. dizziness. and sensitivity to cold. A significant side effect is the loss of potassium in the urine. which may result in electrolyte abnormalities. rarely. asthma.

• – Magnesium and potassium • magnesium supplementation may normalize potassium and magnesium levels within the heart. Blood tests can help determine if magnesium or potassium levels are low in response to diuretic therapy • DISEASE Shortness of breath Fatique Nausea Chest pain Fever Cough Palpitation Aortic stenosis yes Yes No Yes No No Yes Endocarditis Pericarditis Mitral valve prolapse Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No No No Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes No No No No Myocarditis Congestive heart failure Yes Yes Yes Yes No No Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes No No Rhuematic heart diseases Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes . and controlling heart rate in a way that is similar to digoxin.• Working with a knowledgeable physician. helps improve exercise tolerance and has shown promise in the treatment of left ventricular dysfunction. patients with CHF may consider adding any of these supplements to their program: – Hawthorn • relaxing blood vessels to lower blood pressure. increasing blood flow to the heart.

– Antioxidant vitamins • antioxidants such as vitamins C and E have been shown to have a lower incidence of heart disease .