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This documentation would have been incomplete without the help and instuctions of our worthy teacher. Our friends also encourage us and even provided there help. Many thanks to them. I also thanks to my parents who prayer for us and help us in improving our search. Many thanks to my friends who helps a lot in the completion if this document. I express my sicere appreciation to my sister.

Naeem Amin 09-NTU-1077 Talha Shaukat 09-NTU-1094 Talha Suleman 09-NTU-1095 Usaid ahmed 09-NTU-1098

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John vincent atanasoff 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 Biography Education History Process 1.4.1 Controversy Atanasoff berry computer 1.5.1 design and construction 1.6 Function 1.7 Research, career and bussiness 1.8 Honours and distinctions

6 6 7 8 8 9 9 11 12 12



George boole
2.1 Biography 2.2 Education and research 2.3 Boolean logics 2.4 Sets logic vs. boolean logics 2.5 Applications 2.5.1 Digital electronic circuit design 2.5.2 Data base applications 2.5.3 Search engine queries

14 15 16 17 17 17 17 18

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3.1 Biography 3.2 Education 3.3 Career 3.4 An interest in networking 3.5 A true internet 3.5.1 New horizons 3.5.2 Intraplanetry internet

20 21 21 23 24 24 25

3.5.3 Vice president and chief internet evangelist google 26 3.6 Honours and distinctions 4. Donald khuth 4.1 Biography 4.2 Education and academic work 4.3 Computer progamming as an art 4.3.1 The arts of old 4.4 Donald knuth and software patents 4.5 Knuth’s humours 4.6 Work 4.7Awards REFERENCES 27 28 28 29 31 31 32 32 34 35

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Born: October 4, 1903 ( Hamilton, New York) Died: June 15, 1995 (aged 91) (Federick, Maryland Citizenship: American Fields: Physics Known for: Atanasoff-Berry Computer

Few would deny that the invention of the computer has revolutionized society or that the world of today would look quite different without computers. In the relatively short span of time that has elapsed since the world's first electronic digital computer was invented in 1939. John Atanasoff, the genius who invented the first computer and initiated the computer revolution, was of Bulgarian ancestry. John Atanasoff was a prominent American inventor who took pride in his Bulgarian heritage and maintained strong ties to his ancestral home of Bulgaria. After John's birth, the Atanasoff family moved a number of times as Ivan Atanasoff sought better employment in several different electrical engineering positions. They eventually settled in Brewster, Florida, where John completed grade school. The Atanasoff home in Brewster was the first house the family had lived in that was equipped with electricity. By age nine, John had taught himself how to repair faulty electric wiring and light fixtures on their back-porch. John Atanasoff completed his high school course in two years, with excellence in both science and mathematics. He had decided to become a theoretical physicist, and with that goal in mind,
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entered the University of Florida in Gainesville in 1921. Because the university curriculum did not offer degrees in physics, John began his undergraduate studies in the electrical engineering program. The knowledge of electronics and higher math that John acquired as an electrical engineering student would later prove fortuitous in helping to transform the theory of the computer into a working reality. John Atanasoff graduated from the University of Florida in Gainesville in 1925, with a Bachelor of Science degree in electrical engineering. He received his Master's degree in mathematics from the Iowa State College in Ames, Iowa in 1926 and accepted a position teaching physics and mathematics at Iowa State College. He was then accepted into the doctoral program at the University of Wisconsin, and received his doctoral degree (Ph. D.) in theoretical physics from Wisconsin in 1930. In his doctoral thesis, "The Dielectric Constant of Helium", Atanasoff was required to do many complicated and time consuming computations. Although he utilized the Monroe mechanical calculator, one of the best machines of the time, to assist in his tedious computations, the shortcomings of this machine were painfully obvious and motivated him to think about the possibility of developing a more sophisticated calculating machine.

In the late 1930s, John Atanasoff was still trying to develop ways to facilitate the process of calculating solutions. In December of 1939, working with his graduate student Clifford Berry, John Atanasoff developed and built the prototype of the first electronic digital computer, which would be fully completed in 1942. This prototype of the first computer included four significant and entirely novel operating principles in its operation: The binary system, regenerative data storage, logic circuits as elements of a program, and electronic elements as data carrying media. "After the prototype had started working, we were convinced we could build a computer capable of calculating whatever we would like to", wrote Atanasoff. In their history of the ENIAC computer, Alice R. Burks and Arthur W. Burks summarize the Atanasoff achievement as follows: "He invented a new type of a serial storage module, applicable to digital electronic computing. He formulated, developed and proved the major principles involved in electronic circuits for digital computing, principles that included arithmetical operations, control, transition from one to another number base systems, transfer and storage of data, and synchronized clocking of the operations. Having applied that data storage and those principles, he constructed a well-balanced electronic computer with centralized architecture, including storage, and arithmetically controlled input/output devices. He had invented the first-ever specialized electronic computer with such a degree of multi-aspect applicability."

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From 1942 to 1966, Atanasoff\'s scientific research centered on the dynamic principles of naval ships. During this time, he patented more than 30 devices, including the first mine-sweeping unit for blowing up hydrodynamic naval mines; instruments for detection and recording of high amplitude seismic and sonic waves; a unit computing and recording projectile trajectory errors in artillery shelling; postal sorting systems; automated systems for parcel post handling; quick search systems for classified information items; and an electronic quartz clock. Simultaneously, he worked on several developments related to national defense and naval armament systems, including work on guided missiles.

1.4.1CONTROVERSY A significant event had occurred in 1941, when Atanasoff received a colleague, John W. Mauchly, into his home as a guest. Mauchly had expressed great interest in the work Atanasoff was doing relating to computer technology and had enthusiastically accepted Atanasoff's invitation. It is important to ask exactly what transpired during this visit between Atanasoff and Mauchly, since the events that resulted from the time they spent together are now etched in history. The facts were examined in detail at a judicial hearing 26 years later, when the courts had to decide whether John W. Mauchly and John P. Eckert had unlawfully made use of Atanasoff's invention when they developed the ENIAC computer between 1942 and 1946. Before this time, the ENIAC had been recognized as the first electronic computer, but the facts of the case would prove otherwise On October 19, 1973, Judge Earl R. Larson made public his ruling on the ENIAC case. According to the US statutory judicial procedure, Justice Larson issued a court ruling on the merits of the evidence, a summation, and a court verdict, which resulted in a total of 420 pages of material. The court verdict said: "With this Verdict the Court has ruled that the Patent of ENIAC - US Patent, Serial No. 3 120 606, issued to the Illinois Scientific Developments Incorporated, is hereby declared null and void." Thus, the US Patent of what had been considered the first digital computer in history was declared null and void. The Federal Judge ruled that Mauchly derived the basic ideas for an electronic digital computer from the Atanasoff-Berry computer. He also ruled that John Atanasoff and Clifford Berry were the first to have constructed an electronic digital computer at the Iowa State College in the years between 1939 and 1942. In addition, the judge ruled that John Mauchly and John Eckert, who had for over 25 years been the recipients of recognition and admiration as co-inventors of the first electronic digital computer, had, in fact, lost all rights to the patent upon which all of the praise had been based. "Eckert and Mauchly had not invented the first automated electronic digital computer, but had derived the basic ideas for it by John Atanasoff." (Excerpt of the Summation of the Court in Minneapolis, 1973).

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1.5Atanasoff–Berry Computer
1.5.1Design and construction According to Atanasoff's account, several key principles of the Atanasoff–Berry Computer (ABC) were conceived in a sudden insight after a long nighttime drive during the winter of 1937–38. The ABC innovations included electronic computation, binary arithmetic, parallel processing,regenerative capacitor memory, and a separation of memory and computing functions. The mechanical and logic design was worked out by Dr. Atanasoff over the next year. A grant application to build a proof of concept prototype was submitted in March, 1939 to the Agronomydepartment which was also interested in speeding up computation for economic and research analysis. $5,000 of further funding to complete the machine came from the nonprofit Research Corporation of New York City.


The ABC was built by Dr. Atanasoff and graduate student Clifford Berry in the basement of the physics building at Iowa State College during 1939–42. The initial funds were released in September, and the 11-tube prototype was first demonstrated in October, 1939. A December demonstration prompted a grant for construction of the full-scale machine. The ABC was built and tested over the next two years. It was described in a January 15, 1941 notice in the Des Moines Register. The system weighed more than seven hundred pounds (320 kg).and was 800 square feet (74 m2) in all. It contained approximately 1 mile (1.6 km) of wire, 280 dualtriode vacuum tubes, 31 thyratrons, and was about the size of a desk. It was not a Turing complete computer, which distinguishes it from more general machines, like contemporary Konrad Zuse's Z3 (1941), or later machines like the 1946 ENIAC, 1949 EDVAC, the University of Manchester designs, or Alan Turing's post-War designs at NPL and elsewhere. Nor did it implement the stored program architecture that made practical fully general-purpose, reprogrammable computers.

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The machine was, however, the first to implement three critical ideas that are still part of every modern computer: 1. Using binary digits to represent all numbers and data 2. Performing all calculations using electronics rather than wheels, ratchets, or mechanical switches 3. Organizing a system in which computation and memory are separated. In addition, the system pioneered the use of regenerative capacitor memory, as in the DRAM still widely used today. The memory of the Atanasoff–Berry Computer was a pair of drums, each containing 1600 capacitors that rotated on a common shaft once per second. The capacitors on each drum were organized into 32 "bands" of 50 (30 active bands and 2 spares in case a capacitor failed), giving the machine a speed of 30 additions/subtractions per second. Data was represented as 50bit binary fixed point numbers. The electronics of the memory and arithmetic units could store and operate on 60 such numbers at a time (3000 bits). The AC power line frequency of 60 Hz was the primary clock rate for the lowest level operations. The arithmetic logic functions were fully electronic, implemented with vacuum tubes. The family of logic gates ranged from inverters to two and three input gates. The input and output levels and operating voltages were compatible between the different gates. Each gate consisted of one inverting vacuum tube amplifier, preceded by a resistor divider input network that defined the logical function. The control logic functions, which only needed to operate once per drum rotation and therefore did not require electronic speed, were electromechanical, implemented with relays. Although the Atanasoff–Berry Computer was an important step up from earlier calculating machines, it was not able to run entirely automatically through an entire problem. An operator was needed to operate the control switches to set up its functions, much like the electromechanical calculators and unit record equipment of the time. Selection of the operation to be performed, reading, writing, converting to or from binary to decimal, or reducing a set of equations was made by front panel switches and in some cases jumpers. There were two forms of input and output: primary user input and output and an intermediate results output and input. The intermediate results storage allowed operation on problems too large to be handled entirely within the electronic memory. (The largest problem that could be solved without the use of the intermediate output and input was two simultaneous equations, a trivial problem.)

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Intermediate results were binary, written onto paper sheets by electrostatically modifying the resistance at 1500 locations to represent 30 of the 50 bit numbers (one equation). Each sheet could be written or read in one second. The reliability of the system was limited to about 1 error in 100,000 calculations by these units, primarily attributed to lack of control of the sheets' material characteristics. In retrospect a solution could have been to add a parity bit to each number as written. This problem was not solved by the time Atanasoff left the university for war-related work. Primary user input was decimal, via standard IBM 80 column punched cards and output was decimal, via a front panel display.


The ABC was designed for a specific purpose, the solution of systems of simultaneous linear equations. It could handle systems with up to twenty-nine equations, a difficult problem for the time. Problems of this scale were becoming common in physics, the department in which John Atanasoff worked. The machine could be fed two linear equations with up to twenty-nine variables and a constant term and eliminate one of the variables. This process would be repeated manually for each of the equations, which would result in a system of equations with one fewer variable. Then the whole process would be repeated to eliminate another variable.

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1.7Research,Career and Business
Dr. Atanasoff became director of the underwater acoustics program at the Naval Ordnance Laboratory at White Oak, now the Naval Surface Weapons Center, where he worked extensively with mines, mine countermeasures and depth charges. He participated in the atomic weapons tests at Bikini Atoll after World War II and became chief scientist for the Army Field Forces, at Fort Monroe, Va., in 1949. He returned to the laboratory as director of the Navy Fuze programs then in 1952 he began his own company, Ordnance Engineering Corp. OEC was bought by Aerojet Engineering Corp. in 1956, and Dr. Atanasoff was named a vice president until his retirement in 1961. After retirement Atanasoff worked in the area of computer education for young people and developed a phonetic alphabet for use with computers.

1.8Honors and distinctions
Monument to John Atanasoff in Sofia, in his ancestral Bulgaria Atanasoff's first national award for scientific achievements was the Order of Saints Cyril and Methodius, First Class, Bulgaria's highest scientific honor bestowed to him in 1970, before the 1973 court ruling. In 1990, President George H. W. Bush awarded Atanasoff the United States National Medal of Technology, the highest U.S. honor conferred for achievements related to technological progress. Other distinctions awarded to Atanasoff include:
       

U.S. Navy Distinguished Service Award (1945) Citation, Seismological Society of America (1947) Citation, Admiral, Bureau of Ordnance (1947) Cosmos Club membership (1947) Doctor of Science (Honoris Causa) University of Florida (1974) Honorary membership, Society for Computer Medicine (1974) Iowa Inventors Hall of Fame (1978) Computer Pioneer Medal Engineers (IEEE) (1981) from the Institute of Electrical and Electronics

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     

Iowa Governor's Science Medal (1985) Order of the People's Republic of Bulgaria, First Class (1985) Computing Appreciation Award, EDUCOM (1985) Foreign Member of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences (1985) Holley Medal, American Society of Mechanical Engineers (1985) Honorary citizen of the city of Yambol, Bulgaria (1985; Atanasoff’s father was born in Yambol region) Coors American Ingenuity Award (1986) Doctor of Science (Honoris Causa) University of Wisconsin–Madison (1987)

 


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Born: 2 November 1815 ( Lincoln Lincolnshire, England) Died: 8 December 1864 (aged 94) School: Mathematical foundations of computer science Main intrests: mathematics, logic, philosophy of mathematics Notable ideas: Boolean algebra George Boole (the Father of Symbolic Logic) was probably the most illustrious academic who ever worked at University College, Cork (then Queen's College, Cork). He was not only a mathematical genius but also a fine humanitarian. A strong minded individual, he was prepared to engage in protracted and bitter arguments with academic colleagues. His revolutionary advances in mathematics are today fundamental aspects of computer science and electronics and his Boolean Algebra is used to design and operate computers and other electronic devices. The definitive biography of Boole is 'George Boole: His Life and Work', by Desmond MacHale, (Boole Press, 1985). As the inventor of Boolean logic—the basis of modern digital computer logic—Boole is regarded in hindsight as a founder of the field of computer science. Boole said,

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... no general method for the solution of questions in the theory of probabilities can be established which does not explicitly recognise ... those universal laws of thought which are the basis of all reasoning ...



The original Working Class Boy Made Good, Boole was born in the wrong time, in the wrong place, and definitely in the wrong class - he didn't have a hope of growing up to be a mathematical genius, but he did it anyway. Born in the English industrial town of Lincoln, Boole was lucky enough to have a father who passed along his own love of math. Young George took to learning like a politician to a pay rise and, by the age of eight, had outgrown his father's self-taught limits. A family friend stepped in to teach the boy basic Latin, and was exhausted within a few years. Boole was translating Latin poetry by the age of twelve. By the time he hit puberty, the adolescent George was fluent in German, Italian and French. At 16 he became an assistant teacher, at 20 he opened his own school.  At the age of 24, George Boole published his first paper ('Researches on the Theory of Analytical Transformations') in the Cambridge Mathematical Journal. Over the next ten years, his star rose as a steady stream of original articles began to push the limits of mathematics. By 1844 he was concentrating on the uses of combined algebra and calculus to process infinitely small and large figures, and, in that same year, received a Royal Society medal for his contributions to analysis. Boole soon began to see the possibilities for applying his algebra to the solution of logical problems. Boole's 1847 work, 'The Mathematical Analysis of Logic', not only expanded on Gottfried Leibniz' earlier speculations on the correlation between logic and

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math, but argued that logic was principally a discipline of mathematics, rather than philosophy. It was this paper that won him, not only the admiration of the distinguished logician Augustus de Morgan (a mentor of Ada Byron's), but a place on the faculty of Ireland's Queen's College. He came up with a type of linguistic algebra, the three most basic operations of which were (and still are) AND, OR and NOT. It was these three functions that formed the basis of his premise, and were the only operations necessary to perform comparisons or basic mathematical functions. Boole's system (detailed in his 'An Investigation of the Laws of Thought, on Which Are Founded the Mathematical Theories of Logic and Probabilities', 1854) was based on a binary approach, processing only two objects - the yes-no, true-false, on-off, zero-one approach. Twelve years after Boole's 'Investigation' was published, Pierce gave a brief speech describing Boole's idea to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences - and then spent more than 20 years modifying and expanding it, realising the potential for use in electronic circuitry and eventually designing a fundamental electrical logic circuit. Pierce never actually built his theoretical logic circuit, being himself more of a logician than an electrician, but he did introduce boolean algebra into his university logic philosophy courses. Eventually, one bright student - Claude Shannon - picked up the idea and ran with it.  Boole published a number of papers following his 'Investigation', the two most influential probably being a 'Treatise on Differential Equations' (1859) and 'Treatise on the Calculus of Finite Differences' (1860). Unfortunately, Boole's life was cut short when he died of a 'feverish cold' at the age of 49, after walking 2 miles through the rain to get to class and then lecturing in wet clothes (proving, once again, that genius and common sense sometimes have a less than nodding acquaintance).

With George Boole's 'Mathematical Analysis' and 'Investigation', boolean algebra, sometimes known as boolean logic, came into being. His two value system, separating arguments into different classes which can then be processed according to the presence or absence of a certain property, enabled any proposition - regardless of the number of individual items - to draw logical conclusions.

2.3Boolean logic
It is a complete system for logical operations, used in many systems. It was named after George Boole, who first defined analgebraic system of logic in the mid 19th century. Boolean logic has

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many applications in electronics, computer hardware and software, and is the basis of all modern digital electronics. In 1938, Claude Shannon showed how electric circuits with relays were a model for Boolean logic. This fact soon proved enormously consequential with the emergence of the electronic computer. Using the algebra of sets, this article contains a basic introduction to sets, Boolean operations, Venn diagrams, truth tables, and Boolean applications. The Boolean algebra article discusses a type of algebraic structure that satisfies the axioms of Boolean logic. The binary arithmetic article discusses the use of binary numbers in computer systems.

2.4Set logic vs. Boolean logic
Sets can contain any elements. We will first start out by discussing general set logic, then restrict ourselves to Boolean logic, where elements (or "bits") each contain only two possible values, called various names, such as "true" and "false", "yes" and "no", "on" and "off", or "1" and "0".

2.5.1Digital electronic circuit design Boolean logic is also used for circuit design in electrical engineering; here 0 and 1 may represent the two different states of one bit in a digital circuit, typically high and low voltage. Circuits are described by expressions containing variables, and two such expressions are equal for all values of the variables if, and only if, the corresponding circuits have the same input-output behavior. Furthermore, every possible input-output behavior can be modeled by a suitable Boolean expression. Basic logic gates such as AND, OR, and NOT gates may be used alone, or in conjunction with NAND, NOR, and XOR gates, to control digital electronics and circuitry. Whether these gates are wired in series or parallel controls the precedence of the operations. 2.5.2Database applications Relational databases use SQL, or other database-specific languages, to perform queries, which may contain Boolean logic. For this application, each record in a table may be considered to be an "element" of a "set". For example, in SQL, these SELECT statements are used to retrieve data from tables in the database: SELECT * FROM employees WHERE last_name = 'Dean' AND first_name = 'James' ; SELECT * FROM employees WHERE last_name = 'Dean' OR first_name = 'James' ; SELECT * FROM employees WHERE NOT last_name = 'Dean' ;

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Parentheses may be used to explicitly specify the order in which Boolean operations occur, when multiple operations are present: SELECT * FROM employees WHERE (NOT last_name = 'Smith') AND (first_name = 'John' OR first_name = 'Mary') ; Multiple sets of nested parentheses may also be used, where needed. Any Boolean operation (or operations) which combines two (or more) tables together is referred to as a join, in relational database terminology. In the field of Electronic Medical Records, some software applications use Boolean logic to query their patient databases, in what has been named Concept Processing technology. 2.5.3Search engine queries


Search engine queries also employ Boolean logic. For this application, each web page on the Internet may be considered to be an "element" of a "set". The following examples use a syntax supported by Google.
 

Doublequotes are used to combine whitespace-separated words into a single search term. Whitespace is used to specify logical AND, as it is the default operator for joining search terms:

"Search term 1" "Search term 2"

The OR keyword is used for logical OR:

"Search term 1" OR "Search term 2"

The minus sign is used for logical NOT (AND NOT):

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"Search term 1" -"Search term 2"

The part of the system that treats categorical propositions, and the positions which, under this limitation, are the following: (1) That the business of Logic is with the relations of classes, and with the modes in which the mind contemplates those relations. (2) That antecedently to our recognition of the existence of propositions, there are laws to which the conception of a class is subject, - laws which are dependent upon the constitution of the intellect, and which determine the character and form of the reasoning process. (3) That those laws are capable of mathematical expression, and that they thus constitute the basis of an interpretable calculus. (4) That those laws are, furthermore, such, that all equations which are formed in subjection to them, even though expressed under functional signs, admit of perfect solution, so that every problem in logic can be solved by reference to a general theorem. (5) That the forms under which propositions are actually exhibited, in accordance with the principles of this calculus, are analogous with those of a philosophical language. (6) That although the symbols of the calculus do not depend for their interpretation upon the idea of quantity, they nevertheless, in their particular application to syllogism, conduct us to the quantitative conditions of inference. It is specially of the two last of these positions that I here desire to offer illustration, they having been but partially exemplified in the work referred to. Other points will, however, be made the subjects of incidental discussion... Boole wrote his most famous work 'An Investigation of The Laws of Thought' in Cork. Apart from his famous work on mathematical logic and probability, he also made notable contribution to the development of calculus. He was awarded many honourary degrees and awards. In 1857 he was elected a fellow of the Royal Society of London. Boole died prematurely in 1864 from pneumonia developed as a result of a wetting. He is buried in the churchyard of St. Michael's Church of Ireland, Blackrock, Cork. A window, The Boole Window, was installed by public subscription in the Aula Maxima at UCC. Recently the new Boole Library and Boole Lecture Theatre complex at UCC were named in his honour. However, his most enduring legacy will be that whenever the subjects of

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Mathematics, Electronics, Logic, Information Theory, Cybernetics and Computer Science are taught, his name will be remembered for his beautiful, simple and universally useful theories.

3.Vint cerf

Figure 8 VINT CERF


Born: June 23, 1943 (aged 67) Residence: USA Citizenship: United States of America Fields: Computer science Institutions:IBM,UCLA,Stanford University,DARPA,MCI, CNRI, Google Known for: TCP/IP Internet society Notable awards: National Medal Award, President Medal Award Turning Award

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As a graduate student at UCLA, Vint Cerf was involved in the early design of the ARPANET. He was present when the first IMP was delivered to UCLA. He is called the "father of the Internet." He earned this nickname as one of the co-authors of TCP/IP-the protocol that allowed ARPA to connect various independent networks together to form one large network of networksthe Internet.

Cerf holds a bachelor of science degree in Mathematics from Stanford University and master of science and Ph.D. degrees in Computer Science from UCLA. He also holds honorary doctorate degrees from the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH), Zurich; Lulea University of Technology, Sweden; University of the Balearic Islands, Palma; Capitol College, Maryland; Gettysburg College, Pennsylvania; George Mason University, Virginia; Rovira i Virgili University, Tarragona, Spain; Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York; the University of Twente, Enschede, The Netherlands; Brooklyn Polytechnic; and the Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications.



Cerf's first job after obtaining his B.S. degree in Mathematics from Stanford University was at IBM, where he worked for less than two years as a systems engineer supportingQUIKTRAN. He left IBM to attend graduate school at UCLA where he earned his M.S. degree in 1970 and his Ph.D. degree in 1972. During his graduate student years, he studied under Professor Gerald Estrin, worked in Professor Leonard Kleinrock's data packet networking group that connected the first two nodes of the ARPANet, the predecessorto theInternet, and "contributed to a host-to-host protocol" for the ARPANet. While at UCLA, he

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also met Robert E. Kahn, who was working on the ARPANet hardware architecture. After receiving his doctorate, Cerf became an assistant professor at Stanford University from 1972– 1976, where he conducted research on packet network interconnection protocols and co-designed the DoD TCP/IP protocol suite with Kahn. Cerf then moved to DARPA in 1976, where he stayed until 1982. As vice president of MCI Digital Information Services from 1982–1986, Cerf led the engineering of MCI Mail, the first commercial email service to be connected to the Internet. Cerf rejoined MCI during 1994 and served as Senior Vice President of Technology Strategy. In this role, he helped to guide corporate strategy development from a technical perspective. Previously, he served as MCI's senior vice president of Architecture and Technology, leading a team of architects and engineers to design advanced networking frameworks, including Internet-based solutions for delivering a combination of data, information, voice and video services for business and consumer use. During 1997, Cerf joined the Board of Trustees of Gallaudet University, a university for the education of the deaf and hard-of-hearing. Cerf is hard of hearing. Cerf joined the board of the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) in 1999, and served until the end of 2007. Cerf is a member of the Bulgarian President Georgi Parvanov's IT Advisory Council, a group created by Presidential Decree on March 8, 2002. He is also a member of the Advisory Board of Eurasia Group, the political risk consultancy. Cerf is also working on the Interplanetary Internet, together with NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. It will be a new standard to communicate from planet to planet, using radio/laser communications that are tolerant of signal degradation. During February 2006, Cerf testified before the U.S. Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation's Hearing on ―Network Neutrality‖. Speaking as Google's Chief Internet Evangelist, Cerf blamed the anticompetitive intentions and practices of telecommunicationsconglomerates like Comcast and Verizon for the fact that nearly half of all consumers lack meaningful choice in broadband providers. Google made a bid in 2006 to offer free wireless broadband access throughout the city of San Francisco in conjunction with Internet service provider Earthlink, Inc. Vertically-integrated telecommunications incumbents like Comcast and Verizon opposed such efforts on the part of Silicon Valley firms like Google and Intel (which promotes the WiMax standard) as undermining their revenue in a form of "unfair competition" whereby cities would violate their commitments to offer local monopolies to telecommunications conglomerates. Google currently offers free wi-fi access in its hometown of Mountain View, California.

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Cerf currently serves on the board of advisors of Scientists and Engineers for America, an organization focused on promoting sound science in American government. Cerf is on the board of directors of StopBadware, a non-profit anti-malware organization that Google has supported since its inception as a project at Harvard University's Berkman Center for Internet & Society. Cerf is on the board of advisors of The Hyperwords Company Ltd of the UK, which works to make the web more usefully interactive and which has produced the free Firefox Add-On called 'Hyperwords'. During 2008 Cerf chaired the IDNAbis working group of the IETF. Cerf was a major contender to be designated the nation's first Chief Technology Officer by President Barack Obama.

3.4An Interest in Networking


The Snuper Computer project got Cerf interested in the field of computer networking. In the fall of 1968, ARPA set up another program at UCLA in anticipation of building the ARPANET. It was called the Network Measurement Center. It was responsible for performance testing and analysis, a sort of testing ground. A man named Len Kleinrock managed about forty students who ran the center. Cerf was one of the senior members of the team. By the end of 1968, a small group of graduate students from the four schools that were slated to be the first four nodes on the ARPANET (UCLA, Stanford, the University of Utah, and UC Santa Barbara) began meeting regularly to discuss the new network and problems related to its development. They called themselves the Network Working Group (NWG). The NWG proved to be instrumental in solving many of the problems that would arrive during the design and implementation of the ARPANET, but they did not realize their importance at the time. Cerf

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recalls, "We were just rank amateurs, and we were expecting that some authority would finally come along and say, 'Here's how we are going to do it.' And nobody ever came along."


3.5A True Internet


In August 1969, BBN delivered the first IMP to UCLA. A month later The second was delivered to SRI. The ARPANET continued to grow quickly from that point. Cerf was present when the first IMP was delivered to UCLA. He was involved with the IMP immediately performing various tests on the new hardware. It was during this testing that he met Bob Kahn. They enjoyed a good working relationship.

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3.5.1New Horizons

Today Cerf is the chief Internet strategist for MCI WorldCom. His latest pet project is called the Interplanetary Network (IPN). This project, part of NASA's Jet Propulsion Lab, will basically extend the Internet into outer space. It's fitting that the "father of the Internet" on Earth should be involved in launching it to new worlds.

Figure 13 IPN

3.5.2Interplanetary Internet:“InterPlaNet” (IPN)
•Planetary internets • Interplanetary Gateways

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• Interplanetary Long-Haul Architecture (RFC 4838) – Licklider Transport Protocol (LTP) – Bundle Protocol (RFC 5050) •Delayed Binding of Identifiers • Email-like behavior •TDRSS and NASA in-space routing •Delay and Disruption Tolerant Protocols –Tactical Mobile applications (DARPA) –Civilian Mobile applications (SameNet!) – Deep Impact Testing October 2008 – Space Station Testing July 2009 – EPOXI Testing October 2009

3.5.3Vice President and Chief Internet Evangelist Google
Vinton G. Cerf is vice president and chief Internet evangelist for Google. In this role, he is responsible for identifying new enabling technologies to support the development of advanced Internet-based products and services from Google. He is also an active public face for Google in the Internet world. Cerf is the former senior vice president of Technology Strategy for MCI. In this role, he helped to guide corporate strategy development from a technical perspective. Previously, he served as MCI's senior vice president of Architecture and Technology, leading a team of architects and engineers to design advanced networking frameworks, including Internet-based solutions for delivering a combination of data, information, voice and video services for business and consumer use. Widely known as one of the "Fathers of the Internet," Cerf is the co-designer of the TCP/IP protocols and the architecture of the Internet. In December 1997, President Clinton presented the U.S. National Medal of Technology to Cerf and his colleague, Robert E. Kahn, for founding and developing the Internet. Kahn and Cerf were named the recipients of the ACM Alan M. Turing award, sometimes called the "Nobel Prize of Computer Science," in 2004 for their work on the Internet protocols. In November 2005, President George Bush awarded Cerf and Kahn the

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Presidential Medal of Freedom for their work. The medal is the highest civilian award given by the United States to its citizens.

3.6Honours and distinctions
Cerf is a recipient of numerous awards and commendations in connection with his work on the Internet. These include the Marconi Fellowship, Charles Stark Draper award of the National Academy of Engineering, the Prince of Asturias award for science and technology, the National Medal of Science from Tunisia, the Alexander Graham Bell Award presented by the Alexander Graham Bell Association for the Deaf, the NEC Computer and Communications Prize, the Silver Medal of the International Telecommunications Union, the IEEE Alexander Graham Bell Medal, the IEEE Koji Kobayashi Award, the ACM Software and Systems Award, the ACM SIGCOMM Award, the Computer and Communications Industries Association Industry Legend Award, installation in the Inventors Hall of Fame, the Yuri Rubinsky Web Award, the Kilby Award , the Yankee Group/Interop/Network World Lifetime Achievement Award, the George R. Stibitz Award, the Werner Wolter Award, the Andrew Saks Engineering Award, the IEEE Third Millennium Medal, the Computerworld/Smithsonian Leadership Award, the J.D. Edwards Leadership Award for Collaboration, World Institute on Disability Annual award and the Library of Congress Bicentennial Living Legend medal. In December 1994, People magazine identified Cerf as one of that year's "25 Most Intriguing People."


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Born: January 10, 1938 (aged 72 ) Residence: U.S. Nationality: American Fields: Computer Science Institutions: Stanford University Alma meter: Case Institute Of Technology, California Institute of Technology Known for: The Art of Computer Programing, TEX,METAFONT,Knuth-Bendix-completion algorithm, Knuth-Morris-Pratt algorithm Notable awards: Turing Award (1974), Jhon von Neumann Medal (1995), Hervey Prize (1995)

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Author of the seminal multi-volume work The Art of Computer Programming ("TAOCP"), Knuth has been called the "father" of theanalysis of algorithms, contributing to the development of, and systematizing formal mathematical techniques for, the rigorous analysis of the computational complexity of algorithms, and in the process popularizing asymptotic notation. In addition to fundamental contributions in several branches of theoretical computer science, Knuth is the creator of the TeX computer typesetting system, the related METAFONT font definition language and rendering system, and the Computer Modern family of typefaces. A writer and scholar,Knuth created the WEB/CWEB computer programming systems designed to encourage and facilitate literate programming, and designed the MMIX instruction set architecture.

4.2Education and academic work
Knuth was born in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, where his father owned a small printing business and taught bookkeeping at Milwaukee Lutheran High School, which he attended. He was an excellent student, earning achievement awards. He applied his intelligence in unconventional ways, winning a contest when he was in eighth grade by finding over 4,500 words that could be formed from the letters in "Ziegler's Giant Bar." The judges had only about 2,500 words on their master list. This won him a television set for his school and a candy bar for everyone in his class. Knuth had a difficult time choosing physics over music as his major at Case Institute of Technology (now part of Case Western Reserve University). He also joined Theta Chi Fraternity. He then switched from physics to mathematics, and in 1960 he received his bachelor of science degree, simultaneously receiving his master of science degree by a special award of the faculty who considered his work outstanding. At Case, he managed the basketball team and applied his talents by constructing a formula for the value of each player. This novel approach was covered by Newsweek and by Walter Cronkite on the CBS television network. As an undergraduate at Case, Knuth was hired to write compilers for different computers. In 1963, he earned a Ph.D. in mathematics (advisor: Marshall Hall) from the California Institute of Technology, where he became a professor and began work on The Art of Computer Programming, originally planned to be a single book, and then planned as a six, and then sevenvolume series. In 1968, he published the first volume. That same year, he joined the faculty of Stanford University, having turned down a job offer from the National Security Agency (NSA). In 1971, Knuth was the recipient of the first ACM Grace Murray Hopper Award. He has received various other awards including theTuring Award, the National Medal of Science, the John von Neumann Medal, and the Kyoto Prize. After producing the third volume of his series in 1976, he expressed such frustration with the nascent state of the then newly developed electronic

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publishing tools (especially those that provided input to phototypesetters) that he took time out to work on typesetting and created the TeX and METAFONT tools. In recognition of Knuth's contributions to the field of computer science, in 1990 he was awarded the one-of-a-kind academic title of Professor of The Art of Computer Programming, which has since been revised to Professor Emeritus of The Art of Computer Programming. In 1992 he became an associate of the French Academy of Sciences. Also that year, he retired from regular research and teaching at Stanford University in order to finish The Art of Computer Programming. In 2003 he was elected as a foreign member of the Royal Society. As of 2004, the first three volumes of his series have been re-issued, and Knuth is currently working on volume four, excerpts of which are released periodically on his website. Meanwhile, Knuth gives informal lectures a few times a year at Stanford University, which he calls Computer Musings. He is also a visiting professor at the Oxford University Computing Laboratory in the United Kingdom. In addition to his writings on computer science, Knuth, a devout Lutheran, is also the author of 3:16 Bible Texts Illuminated (1991), ISBN 0-89579-252-4, in which he attempts to examine the Bible by a process of systematic sampling, namely an analysis of chapter 3, verse 16 of each book. Each verse is accompanied by a rendering in calligraphic art, contributed by a group of calligraphers under the leadership of Hermann Zapf. He is also the author of Surreal Numbers (1974) ISBN 0-201-03812-9, a mathematical novelette on John Conway's set theory construction of an alternate system of numbers. Instead of simply explaining the subject, the book seeks to show the development of the mathematics. Knuth wanted the book to prepare students for doing original, creative research. On January 1, 1990, Knuth announced to his colleagues that he would no longer have an e-mail address, so that he might concentrate on his work. In 2006, Knuth was diagnosed with prostate cancer. He underwent surgery in December that year and started "a little bit of radiation therapy [...] as a precaution but the prognosis looks pretty good," as he reported in his video autobiography.

Knuth was elected as a Fellow (first class of Fellows) of the Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics in 2009 for his outstanding contributions to mathematics.

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4.3Computer Programming as an Art
When Communications of the ACM began publi- cation in 1959, the members of ACM'S Editorial Board made the following remark as they described the purposes of ACM'S periodicals. "If computer pro- gramming is to become an important part of computer research and development, a transition of programming from an art to a disciplined science must be effected." Such a goal has been a continually recurring theme during the ensuing years; for example, we read in 1970 of the "first steps toward transforming the art of programming into a science" . Meanwhile we have actually succeeded in making our discipline a science, and in a remarkably simple way: merely by deciding to call it "computer science." Implicit in these remarks is the notion that there is something undesirable about an area of human activity

Figure 16 KNUTH IN LAB

4.3.1The Arts of Old If we go back to Latin roots, we find ars, artis meaning "skill." It is perhaps significant that the corresponding Greek word was "c~xvn, the root of both "technology" and "technique." Nowadays when someone speaks of "art" you probably think first of "fine arts" such as painting and sculpture, but before the twentieth century the word was generally used in quite a different sense. Since this older meaning of "art" still survives in many idioms, especially when we are contrasting art with science, I would like to spend the next few minutes talking about art in its classical sense. In medieval times, the first universities were es- tablished to teach the seven so-called "liberal arts," namely grammar, rhetoric, logic, arithmetic, geometry, music, and astronomy. Note that this is
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quite different from the curriculum of today's liberal arts colleges, and that at least three of the original seven liberal arts are important components of computer science. At that time, an "art" meant something devised by man's intellect, as opposed to activities derived from nature or instinct; "liberal" arts were liberated or free, in contrast to manual arts such as plowing. During the middle ages the word "art" by itself usually meant logic which usually meant the study of syllogisms.

4.4Donald Knuth and Software Patents Workgroup\\ 2003-12-15 Donald Knuth, pioneer and cult figure of informatics (computer science), author of some definitive monumental classics such as ―The Art of Programming‖, finds that software patents are built on some basic misunderstandings, similar to the misunderstandings of certain provincial american legislators in the 19th century or the medieval catholic church. Computer programs are as abstract as any algorithm can be, Knuth says.

4.5Knuth’s humor
Knuth is known for his "professional humor".  He used to pay a finder’s fee of $2.56 for any typographical errors or mistakes discovered in his books, because "256 pennies is onehexadecimal dollar", and $0.32 for "valuable suggestions". (His bounty for errata in 3:16 Bible Texts Illuminated, is, however, $3.16). According to an article in the Massachusetts Institute of Technology's Technology Review, these Knuth reward checks are "among computerdom's most prized trophies". Knuth had to stop sending real checks in 2008 due to bank fraud, and instead now gives each error finder a "certificate of deposit" from a publicly listed balance in his fictitious "Bank of San Serriffe".  Version numbers of his TeX software approach the number π, in that versions increment in the style 3, 3.1, 3.14. 3.141, and so on. Similarly, version numbers of Metafont approach the base of the natural logarithm, e.  He once warned a correspondent, "Beware of bugs in the above code; I have only proved it correct, not tried it."

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 All appendices in the Computers and Typesetting series have titles that begin with the letter identifying the appendix.  TAOCP volume 3 (First Edition) has the index entry "Royalties, use of, 405". Page 405 has no explicit mention of royalties, but however does contain a diagram of an "organpipe arrangement" in Figure 2. Apparently the purchase of the pipe organ in his home was financed by royalties from TAOCP.(In the second edition of the work, the relevant page is 407.)  The preface of Concrete Mathematics includes the following anecdote: "When Knuth taught Concrete Mathematics at Stanford for the first time, he explained the somewhat strange title by saying that it was his attempt to teach a math course that was hard instead of soft. He announced that, contrary to the expectations of some of his colleagues, he was not going to teach the Theory of Aggregates [Aggregate functions or Aggregate (composite), not Stone's Embedding Theorem, nor even the Stone–Čech compactification theorem. (Several students from the civil engineering department got up and quietly left the room.)" (Concrete and aggregates are important topics in civil engineering.)

 Knuth's "Potrzebie System of Weights and Measures"  Knuth published his first "scientific" article in a school magazine in 1957 under the title "Potrzebie System of Weights and Measures." In it, he defined the fundamental unit of length as the thickness of MAD magazine #26, and named the fundamental unit of force "whatmeworry." MADmagazine bought the article and published it in the #33, June 1957 issue.  Knuth's first "mathematical" article was a short paper submitted to a "science talent search" contest for high-school seniors in 1955, and published in 1960, in which he discussed number systems where the radix was negative. He further generalized this to number systems where the radix was a complex number. In particular, he defined the quater-imaginary base system, which uses the imaginary number 2i as the base, having the unusual feature that every complex number can be represented with the digits 0, 1, 2, and 3, without a sign.  Knuth's article about the computational complexity of songs, "The Complexity of Songs", was reprinted twice in computer science journals.  To demonstrate the concept, Knuth intentionally referred "Circular definition" and "Definition, circular" to each other in the index of The Art of Computer Programming Vol. 1.  At the TUG 2010 Conference, Knuth announced an XML-based successor to TeX, titled "iTeX" (pronounced [i᷉ːtɛks], with a cow bell ringing), which would support features such as arbitrarily scaled irrational units, 3D printing, animation, and stereographic sound.

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A short list of his works:  Donald E. Knuth, The Art of Computer Programming, Volumes 1–4, Addison-Wesley Professional  Volume 1: Fundamental Algorithms (3rd edition), 1997. Addison-Wesley Professional,  Volume 2: Seminumerical Algorithms (3rd Edition), 1997. AddisonWesley Professional  Volume 3: Sorting and Searching (2nd Edition), 1998. Addison-Wesley Professional,  Volume 4: Combinatorial Algorithms, in preparation  Donald E. Knuth, The Art of Computer Programming, fascicles:  Volume 1, Fascicle 1: MMIX—A RISC Computer for the New Millennium, 2005.  Volume 4, Fascicle 0: Introduction to Combinatorial Algorithms and Boolean Functions. 2008.  Volume 4, Fascicle 1: Bitwise Tricks & Techniques; Binary Decision Diagrams. 2009.  Volume 4, Fascicle 2: Generating All Tuples and Permutations, 2005.  Volume 4, Fascicle 3: Generating All Combinations and Partitions, 2005.  Volume 4, Fascicle 4: Generating All Trees—History of Combinatorial Generation, 2006.  Donald E. Knuth, Computers & Typesetting :  Volume A, The TeXbook (Reading, Massachusetts: Addison-Wesley, 1984),  Volume B, TeX: The Program (Reading, Massachusetts: Addison-Wesley, 1986),  Volume C, The METAFONTbook (Reading, Massachusetts: AddisonWesley, 1986)  Volume D, METAFONT: The Program (Reading, Massachusetts: Addison-Wesley, 1986  Volume E, Computer Modern Typefaces (Reading, Massachusetts: Addison-Wesley, 1986)


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        First ACM Grace Murray Hopper Award, 1971 Turing Award, 1974 National Medal of Science, 1979 The Franklin Medal, 1988 John von Neumann Medal, 1995 Harvey Prize from the Technion, 1995 Kyoto Prize, 1996 Katayanagi Prize, 2010

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   Roger Parsons' article on Boole  THE GREATNESS OF GEORGE BOOLE By William Reville, University College, Cork.  Knuth, Donald E. Minimizing drum latency time. J. ACM 8 (Apr. 1961)

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