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Wind Load History: ANSI A58.1-1972 to ASCE 7-05 Kishor C. Mehta, ASCE Dist. Member P. W. Horn Professor, Wind Science and Engineering Research Center, Texas Tech University, P.O. Box 41023, Lubbock, TX 79409-1023; PH: (806) 742-3470 ext. 323; FAX: (806) 742-3446; email: Kishor.firstname.lastname@example.org Abstract The first consensus wind load design criteria were published as ANSI A58.1-1972 by the American National Standard Institute (ANSI) in 1972. This document delineated wind load criteria based on probabilistically determined wind speed and tabulated forms of design load parameters. Since then, the wind load criteria have gone through major changes as revisions of the standard were made in ANSI A58.1-1982, ASCE 7-88, ASCE 7-93, ASCE 7-95, ASCE 7-98, ASCE 7-02 and ASCE 7-05. Major changes occurred in the wind load criteria in ANSI A 58.11982 and in ASCE 7-95. The most significant change is the reference wind speed, which changed from fastest-mile to a 3-second gust. Each revision made changes and adjustments in several different factors including the importance factor, terrain factor, directionality factor, gust effect factor and the pressure/force coefficients. This paper outlines only the significant changes in the wind load criteria as they have evolved over the last three decades. Introduction Over the past three decades, the minimum requirements of wind loads on buildings and structures have evolved with the advancement of knowledge of probability of wind speed occurrence and wind-structure interaction. The minimum requirements were specified in the load standards published by American National Standards Institute (ANSI) in the early years, and now by American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) since 1988. Beginning with the mid-1990s, the wind load criteria have been adopted by model building codes for use by practicing professionals. Publication of the national standards which contain wind load criteria and designated as Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Structures are as follows: • • • • • • • • ANSI A58.1-1972 ANSI A58.1-1982 ASCE 7-88 ASCE 7-93 ASCE 7-95 ASCE 7-98 ASCE 7-02 ASCE 7-05
This paper presents the highlights of the changes of the wind load criteria in each of these standards. Prior to the consideration of the changes in the wind load criteria in each of the
S. basic wind speed contours are given in three maps: 50 year MRI. 100 year MRI and 25 year MRI maps. In the future. pressure coefficients are differentiated for external pressures (Cp) or for internal pressures (Cpi). the probability of the direction of the approaching wind (directionality factor Kd). Also. and contours in maps were developed using archived data and statistics. and the annual probability of occurrence of a wind speed other than 50-year MRI (importance factor I). Wind-structure interaction involves parameters of gust effect factors and the pressure or force coefficient. the topography surrounding the structure (topographic factor Kzt). Wind load parameters indicated above are included in the specification of wind loads. and to terrain similar to the airport. earthquake loads and load combinations. The reason for specifying several different types of pressure and force coefficients is that all the coefficients are obtained from wind tunnel model testing. snow loads. there is no analytical method available to predict pressure and force coefficients. ANSI A58. Since 1930s the NWS recorded wind speed as the fastest-mile wind speed with fastestmile wind speed defined as “a mile of wind passing by the wind measuring instrument (anemometer)”. Wind speed is the fastest-mile wind speed referenced at 30 feet above ground and in flat. Data of the annual maximum recorded fastest-mile wind speed was used to determine the wind speed probability of occurrence at a given location. In this version of the standard. Wind speed for a location is determined on a probabilistic basis using historical records. computational fluid dynamics technology will be able to predict pressure and force coefficients analytically. Wind speed is modified for terrain and height (exposure velocity pressure coefficient Kz ). live loads. The reason for using the fastest-mile wind speed was due to the archived records of wind speed retained by the U. soil and hydrostatic pressure. important wind load parameters in determination of wind loads are delineated. 2 . open terrain (Exposure C).1-1972 was the first consensus standard for structural loads. Wind load parameters The approach to wind load determination includes assessment of wind speed and effects of windstructure interaction.2010 Structures Congress © 2010 ASCE 2135 standards in this paper. Gust effect factors are specified for flexible structures (dynamically sensitive structures Gf ) and for rigid structures (G). wind loads. and as yet.02 in a given year) wind speed. It is also referenced to an averaging time (e. Reference wind speed is generally a 50-year mean recurrence interval (probability of 0. Pressure coefficients are for main wind-force resisting systems (MWFRS) or for components and cladding (C&C). National Weather Service. 3second gusts). Force coefficients (Cf) are specified for open buildings and other structures. This and subsequent revisions of this standard contains load specification for dead loads.1-1972 The standard titled the building code requirements for minimum design loads in buildings and other structures ANSI A58.g.
It was recognized that the number of hurricanes making landfall in the coastal areas is not sufficient to perform pure statistical analysis of recorded wind speed data. This separation allowed the practicing professional to apply wind loads in a consistent manner. The requirements in the standard are made more flexible so that the user would have the option between the use of the prescribed analytical procedure or the wind tunnel procedure. although the load provision layout looks different. the values of effective velocity pressures are obtained easily. gust factor and exposure factor. So. In addition. The coefficients specified in the standard are external. numerical simulation was used to obtain hurricane controlled wind speeds in the Atlantic Coast and Gulf Coast areas. Gust factors were defined for ordinary buildings (rigid buildings and structures).1-1982 This version of the standard uses the same basic philosophy as the previous standard. The concept of Main Wind-Force Resisting System (MWFRS) and Components and Cladding (C&C) was introduced to recognize wind pressures acting simultaneously on more than one surface for MWFRS and on one surface for C&C. and Exposure C (flat and open terrain). it was recognized that the three wind speed maps for different MRI were not justified for the available data. the values of different parameters of wind loads are given transparently so the user would have choice to use better values if available and justified. Exposure B (suburban areas and towns). however. The basic wind speed was the fastest-mile wind speed. Tables for effective velocity pressures are given which include the basic wind pressure. Three exposure factors defined height and terrain factors: Exposure A (center of large cities). The variables in the tables are basic wind speed and height above ground and thus. wind speed contours were more detailed than the data could support them. this tabular format also made it difficult to interpret the standard when it was necessary to go beyond the tables for unusual buildings and structures. In addition. and numerical Monte-Carlo simulation of hurricane storms provides more dependable and consistent design wind speed values. In addition. Design pressures are calculated by multiplying the effective velocity pressure values obtained from the tables with the appropriate pressure coefficient values. net. There are exceptions in some cases 3 . internal. lift and drag coefficients as different coefficients reflect different types of structures and location of pressures. parts and portions (components and cladding). In addition. and additional archived data was used to refine the wind speed contours in the map. one wind speed map for a 50-year MRI is given with an importance factor to establish wind speed for MRI other than 50-year MRI. and for internal pressures. ANSI A58. terrain factor and gust factor.2010 Structures Congress © 2010 ASCE 2136 Effective velocity pressures were obtained by multiplying basic wind pressure with height. Nine pressure tables incorporating various exposures and gust factors are given in the standard. The format of this version of standard was easy to use by professionals because the effective velocity pressure values were given in tabular form.
a category of buildings less than 60 feet was created. In these cases. the importance factor and the terrain exposure factor. This allowed professional practitioners to calculate terrain exposure values for structures beyond table or to develop software that would do this. ASCE 7-88 and ASCE 7-93 In 1985.1-1982) to 88 members. A flow-chart table was provided to guide professional practitioners as to which equations and tabulated values were to be used. a procedure for calculating GEF was given in the commentary of the standard. (One of the examples is wind pressures on a purlin in the end bay of a building. a new “Exposure D” for “wind flowing over water” was introduced. ASCE’s rules for Standards Committees developed in the late 1970s are updated when appropriate. This equation was independent of the building or structure for which the wind load is to be determined. In addition. since the purlin can experience upward acting load from the roof and axial load from the wall. This step was in keeping with an ongoing effort by ASCE to regain leadership in the civil engineering standards area. GEF was given in the body of the standard while for dynamically sensitive structures.1 standard. For loads on C&C. for C&C.1-1982 document for reaffirmation and recommend minor revisions for clarification and publication as 4 . For terrain exposure. and are published annually in the ASCE Official Register. based on the type of building or structure under consideration. For design pressure.) Innovative wind tunnel testing was done for metal building framing type of structures in mid1970s. For ordinary (rigid) buildings and structures. The effective velocity pressure equation incorporated wind speed. The design pressure equation included GEF and pressure/force coefficient. The first charge given to its wind loads subcommittee (which retained its original membership) was to review the ANSI A58. 1. Upon assuming the responsibility for the standard. the GEF should not be separated from the value because wind tunnel testing provided combined values of GEF and pressure coefficient. For effective velocity pressure. Terrain and height exposure values were given in a table in the standard as well as in an equation form in the commentary. Two equations were given. The transfer of authority to the Standards Committee of ASCE occurred after a careful review of ASCE’s rules for Standards Committees to ensure that the very strict consensus process adhered by ANSI in the past was (and is) continued.2010 Structures Congress © 2010 ASCE 2137 where loads on C&C are coming from two surfaces. the American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) assumed responsibility for promulgating the A58. To incorporate these latest wind tunnel results. The gust factor for buildings and other structures was refined and specified as the ‘gust effect factor’ (GEF). ASCE invoked its open membership policy permitting the membership of the committee to increase from 46 members (during the development of ANSI A58. Wind load determination in this version of the standard was accomplished by equations. pressure coefficients are given separately for building roof height less than 60 feet and for building roof height greater than 60 feet. GEF was combined with the pressure coefficient and given as one value. and 2.
After investigation of the archived wind speed data.S. allowing use of 90 mph 3-second gust speed for most of the country. For non-hurricane prone regions.1-1982 wind load criteria when published as ASCE 7-88. when ASCE 7 committee was ready to ballot in 1991 for revision to ASCE 7-88. 5 . ASCE 7-95 Even though the basic philosophy and procedure including determination of wind loads remained the same. However. through statistical analysis. GEF and some pressure coefficients. The change in the averaging time of basic wind speed necessitated readjustment in exposure terrain factor. Gulf and Atlantic coasts. Full and partial loading on MFFRS are added to account for torsional effects. The wind speed map was prepared from peak gust data collected at 485 weather stations where at least five years of data were available. wind speed data were merged from several stations to form a regional ‘super’ station. Given the response characteristics of the instrumentation used to record wind speed. Thus. gust speed was found to be historically recorded and archived for a large number of stations including NWS stations. The wind load subcommittee as part of ASCE 7 committee started looking in to significant revisions of the wind load criteria of ASCE 7-88 in 1990. Some of the significant changes are as follows: • • • • • • • The basic wind speed averaging time is a 3-second gust instead of fastest-mile speed. It was found.which required a change in different averaging times for basic wind speed. The ASCE 7 main committee voted for publication in 1993 because there were significant changes in the earthquake-loading criteria.2010 Structures Congress © 2010 ASCE 2138 the ASCE standard. the peak gust is associated with an averaging time of approximately 3 seconds. and the bottom line was that the wind load criteria in ASCE 7-93 are essentially the same as in ASCE 7-88. that there was variation of wind speed less than 5 mph in the interior of the country. Along the U. An alternate procedure for determination of wind loads on MWFRS of building with roof height less than 60 feet has been added The internal pressure coefficients are adjusted in hurricane-prone regions to reflect debris impact The pressure coefficients for C&C of hipped. National Weather Service phased out the collection and archiving of fastest-mile wind speed starting in the mid-1980s. and the upgraded procedure was used. there are no revisions to the ANSI A58. wind speed was established using the Monte-Carlo simulation of hurricane storms. there were significant changes in this revision of the wind load criteria. the subcommittee for wind load was not ready with the revisions of significance envisioned and needed. stepped. The U.S. monoslope and other roofs were added The GEF for flexible and rigid structures are provided in unified equation form The new map for basic wind speed is based on 3-second gust instead of fastest-mile wind speed. The topographic factor is added to reflect the wind speed-up over the hills and escarpment.
ASCE 7-98 The wind load provisions in this version are rearranged and updated with delineation of three methods: (a) an updated hurricane zone wind speeds. thus not affecting calculated wind loads. Wind tunnel tests conducted on specific high-rise buildings for clients around the world indicated that there was significant torsional loading on frames when wind is blowing obliquely. open terrain of Exposure C. This factor is calibrated with combination of loads specified in Section 2 of the standard. and method 3: wind tunnel procedure. The requirement of partial loading on the MWFRS of buildings greater than 60 feet reflects this new knowledge. total horizontal shear. the topographic factor would have a value of 1. but to account for potential wind speed-up on hills and escarpments. The three methods are specified as method 1: simplified procedure. The design pressures in tabular form are provided for buildings with roof height less than 30 feet. method 2: analytical procedure. In most cases. These coefficients have been in use by metal building manufacturers. (b) the addition of a directionality factor. Wind tunnel tests conducted in late 1970s provided results for loading on the MWFRS of buildings with a roof height less than 60 feet. as it is based on the investigation that waves during hurricanes are rough enough to provide friction equivalent to the flat. the topographic factor is introduced. These results included structural actions of total uplift. and bending moment at ridges.0. while the analytical procedures and specifications for wind tunnel procedures are essentially the same as in previous version. The directionality factor is also introduced in this version. glazing in the wind-borne debris regions in the lower 60 feet of buildings needs to be impact resistant or protected with an impact-resistant covering.2010 Structures Congress © 2010 ASCE 2139 Wind speeds given in the map are related to flat and open terrain. The structural actions were converted into ‘pseudo’ pressure coefficients by the wind tunnel investigators including the gust effect factor. ASCE 7-02 6 . The wind-borne debris provision is introduced. or such glazing shall be considered as openings. The ASCE 7-95 wind load subcommittee included these coefficients as an alternate procedure. The directionality factor should only be used in conjunction with the load factors given in this version of the standard. This updated hurricane wind speed also eliminates the use of the special Importance Factor for the coastal areas. The wind speed contours in hurricane-prone areas are updated using the new procedure which includes the attenuation of wind speed inland from the coast. Exposure D is excepted for the hurricane coastal zone. and in some model building codes since 1980s. (excepting Exposure D for hurricane winds) and (c) a wind-borne debris provision. bending moment at frame knees. In parts of hurricane-prone regions.
The most significant change for designers is the mandatory requirement of debris-resisting glazing in the lower 60 feet of buildings in a wind-borne debris region.1-1982 has remained the same for twenty-five years. Exposure Category A is taken out of the main part of the standard and is placed in the commentary to discourage the use of Exposure A without taking serious consideration or encouraging the use of wind tunnel. In addition. This revision makes the application of wind loads on low-rise buildings more consistent. Force coefficients are also added for roof top equipment and walls and for free-standing signs. ASCE 7-05 The basic approach to wind loading has remained the same as previous versions of the standard. the application of partial loading. and extensive design wind pressure tables are provided for easy determination of wind load design pressures. The application of load provisions on the MWFRS of low-rise buildings is further clarified. The partial loading provisions are made applicable to buildings of all heights. but the format of the provisions has changed over the time. Simplified procedures and wind tunnel procedures have been added as the provisions have evolved.1-1982 and in ASCE 7-95. and the revision in terrain exposures and provisions of low-rise buildings. and so one-storey buildings with a roof height of less than 30 feet are excepted. new pressure coefficients are provided for monoslope. pitched and troughed roofs. The simplified procedure is expanded to make it applicable to buildings with roof heights of less than 60 feet. Wind tunnel tests on low-rise buildings have shown that there is significant torsional loading on the frame. Conclusion As indicated in this paper. however. The basic analytical procedure instituted in ANSI A58. the exposure categories and the wind-borne debris requirements. However. pressure and force coefficients for various shapes of buildings and structures have been added as they become available. The exposure categories are revised for the distance and surface roughness. the basic approach has remained the same. Also. 7 . New figures are added to indicate the loading criteria for the specific direction of frames. incremental changes are made in simplified procedure. major changes in wind load provisions occurred in ANSI A58. A new procedure to interpolate between exposure categories is given in the commentary.2010 Structures Congress © 2010 ASCE 2140 The significant changes in this version of the standard are the expansion of the simplified procedure.
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