PRINCIPLES OF GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SCIENCE
COURSE STRUCTURE GIS introduced: An overview of the development of the GIS field, spatial and non-spatial data, GIS defined, Components and functions, Data sources, GIS applications. Basic Cartographic Concepts: Cartography, map and its characteristics, types of maps, use of maps, Reference systems: spheroid and geoid, Earth based coordinate systems, Map projection, Grid coordinate system, Map design: cartographic generalization, symbolization, Marginal and border information, typography: principles of lettering, geographic names, map production Spatial data Modelling (Computer Representation of cartographic features): Spatial feature types – points, lines, areas and networks and surfaces, Spatial data models (vector and raster models), spatial data structure (vector and raster) Data Capture Methods: Map digitization: manual digitization, semi-automatic and automatic digitization, Scanning and geo-referencing, automatic vectorization, Conversion from other digital sources, Attribute data input and management Edge data exchange; metadata, GIS data processing: Measurements in GIS, Queries, Buffering, Integration, digital terrain modeling, data visualization.
CHAPTER I: INTRODUCTION
Background - The term GIS stands for Geographic Information System or Geographic Information Science or Geospatial Information Studies. - The advent of computers with sophisticated peripherals facilitated the use of this technology in map making domain in early sixties giving rise to digital cartography and there after the concept of GIS originated. The year 1960 saw the world’s first operational GIS in Canada which was used for evaluation of land capability for rural areas by mapping soils, agriculture, forestry, land use etc. In fact the major component of a GIS, the spatial data analysis techniques, such as overlays, measurements, queries, buffering etc were developed during the period 1960 - 90. - However the GIS started to grow in eighties due to development of cost effective high speed electronic computing devices with sophisticated peripherals, increased availability of digital geographic data, availability of upto-date geographical data from Remote Sensing and increased demand for natural resources management.
- By end of 20th century, the rapid growth in various systems have been consolidated and standardized on relatively few platforms and users were beginning to explore the concept of viewing GIS data over the Internet, requiring data format and transfer standards. More recently, a growing number of free, open-source GIS packages run on a range of operating systems and can be customized to perform specific tasks. Increasingly geospatial data and mapping applications are being made available via the world wide web. - Present generation market leaders in providing commercial GIS software include Intergraph corporation, Bentley and ESRI (ARCGIS) Terms associated in defining GIS: Information System The function of any information system is basically to provide improved input/guidance in order to make decisions. It consists of a chain of operation starting from data collection, data analysis and presenting the analysed data with derived information in a way that immensely helps in decision making. Present generation information systems are computer based. Examples of this are MIS, GIS etc. Spatial data refers to the data of surface of the earth. It includes topographic features, cadastral plots, land use etc. Maps serve as major conventional database/source of spatial data.
Geo-referenced (or geo-coded) spatial data means the spatial data that has been tagged / linked / recorded in terms of its location defined by geographic coordinates designed over the surface of the earth. Geo-referenced spatial data is popularly known as geographical data or geospatial data. The geographic data describes objects from the real world in terms of three basic characteristics: location or position, attribute and the spatial interrelations with each other. The attributes refer to the nature of the object, its color etc where as the spatial interrelation refers to how the objects are linked together on the surface of the earth. Non-spatial data: Non-spatial data can also be stored along with the spatial data represented by the coordinates of vector geometry or the position of a raster cell. In vector data, the additional data contains attributes of the feature. For example, a forest inventory polygon may also have an identifier value and information about tree species. Definition of GIS GIS is a computer based system designed to handle geo-referenced spatial data. OR GIS is a computer based system designed to capture, store, retrieve, manipulate, analyse, manage, display and finally present (tables, reports, maps etc.) the geo-referenced spatial data. It merges cartography, statistical analysis and database technology. It supports with information required in decision making. OR GIS is a database management system where data pertains to geographical data OR GIS is a decision support computer based system for collecting, storing, presenting and analyzing geographic / geo-spatial information. Spatial Data Infrastructure (SDI)
Geographic information science is the science underlying the geographic concepts, applications and systems. It includes a number of specialized areas such as Geodesy, Surveying, Cartography, Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing, Statistics, Computer Science.
The functions performed by it include: · Data inputting
In this the geographical data in fact is fed into the computer system housing the GIS software. The data may be available in analogue format (e. data storage and management. high resolution monitor (VDU). reports in tabular forms etc. conversion)
This includes all operations that produce graphic output and reports such as maps.g. query and modelling. · Software
A set of software specifically designed to perform GIS operation such as data inputting. It includes the main processor (CPU). retrieval and manipulation)
The operations include data storage. Storage unit (hard disks). retrieval and manipulation in a consistent and convenient form from a well organized database (cartographic database). GPS) some editing and re-formatting may be needed. colour displays drawn on the graphic monitor. · Data Management (storage. The retrieval may be done either on the basis of location or on the basis of attribute or on basis of any spatial specification. · Data Analysis
In this the geographical data is examined with the intent to extract or create new data that fulfils some required conditions. · Data presentation/ output (display.Functions of GIS: The basic intention of a GIS is to handle large amount of geographical data in digital form. data transformation and manipulation and finally presenting the required derived information. data merging/splitting etc. printed/plotted maps. COMPONENTS: · Hardware
The main component used to store. printers and plotters. It includes operations such as spatial overlays.
. Specialized peripherals (Digitizer boards /scanners. maps) or digital formats (digital images) and needs conversion into a form readable and usable by the software. editing and re-formatting the map data/geographical data.g. Manipulation may include data updating. process and output the digital geographic / map data. buffer creation.. In case of analogue data such as a map the data inputting is done by digitizing. In case of direct digital data (e.
. APPLICATION OF GIS TECHNOLOGY
· · · · · · · ·
Earth surface-based scientific investigations. Environmental impact-assessment. There are special equipments for this known as cartographic digitizers. statistics. The data from ground survey methods include GPS data collection. Resource management Reference and projections of a geospatial nature (artificial and natural) Asset management and location planning Archaeology. However. Through digital cartography even a non-expert in cartography may be able to produce his information in cartographic form. Urban planning and regional planning. the captured raw data has to be processed to obtain the required information.·
Geographic data/map data/spatial data in digital form
The major database of spatial data is the maps generally available in hard copy form. The data collection is usually done by experts in surveying. Remote Sensing and photogrammetric methods or indirectly from existing analogue maps. However there exists a vast amount of geographic data in analogue/graphical form (in paper format).. · · Data Management and analysis Procedures
DATA SOURCE FOR A GIS: The source of geographic data is either Directly from Ground survey methods. sociology etc. photogrammetric manuscripts etc. Remote Sensing methods use satellite images whereas photogrammetric methods use aerial photographs. Infrastructure assessment and development. photogrammetry. The method of converting the analogue maps into digital is known as map digitization or popularly digitization. This includes published maps. Sometimes non-spatial data consisting of descriptive information about characteristics of the feature concerned is also considered. Present generation techniques support collection of data using these instruments directly in digital mode. Spatial data can be extracted from these maps and converted to digital form. manuscript maps etc. photomaps. The final stage of processing prior to dissemination of information represents cartographic processing in order to provide for a good graphic display. For example Census data may be processed to obtain the information about population density and then displayed in form of a dot map. total station surveys etc. field survey manuscripts. geology.
For an efficient GIS the geo-spatial data must be current. Surveying. relevant and accurate. Engineering Analysis. Statistics and Computer Science. Geospatial intelligence. Population and demographic studies. Disease surveillance. GIS might be used to find wetlands that need protection strategies regarding pollution GIS can be used by a company to site a new business location to take advantage of GIS data identified trends to respond to a previously underserved market. Utility and analysis applications. Marketing Logistics.
. complete. Photogrammetry. GIS can be used by utility integrity management personnel to determine high consequence areas in the event of catastrophic infrastructure or integrity failures within populated sensitive areas. To understand the basics of GIS it is essential to understand some basic cartographic concepts discussed in next chapter. Remote Sensing. Outage and trouble call management. High consequence area (HCA) analysis. for a thematic and/or time-based purpose. GIS data development. Criminology. Mathematics.· · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · ·
Cartography. Most city and transportation systems planning offices have GIS sections GIS can be used to track the spread of emerging infectious disease threats.
Examples of use are: GIS may allow emergency planners to easily calculate emergency response times and the movement of response resources (for logistics) in the case of a natural disaster. Cartography. Prospectivity mapping. GIS in environmental contamination. Public health planning. This allows for informed pandemic planning and enhanced preparedness. Damage Prevention. The development/ evolution of GIS inherit its root from a number of disciplines: Geodesy. Statistical analysis. Military planning.
control provision. It is designed for recording. Each soil unit can be associated with additional attributes such as soil type. roads. The location refers to simple the position in a pre-defined coordinate system e. It provides about the qualitative information that exists at the particular location. age. There are four ways of expressing the scale: Representative Fraction (R. line symbol and area/polygon symbol are used in order to depict a point features. x. details surveying and finally producing maps (scale. displaying. area under forests etc. It says about where an object is. a road. Area features include different soil units. Its additional attributes such as service capacity. color. fair drawing and printing). calculating. 1:50. insulator type etc may be taken into account. The example of a point feature is well or a control point. SCALE OF A MAP The scale of a map is defined as the ratio between the map distance and the corresponding ground distance. water quality etc. analyzing and in general understanding the inter-relation of things in their spatial relationship. The well further can be associated with additional attributes such as its depth. A line feature includes such as a power line. A map of a region depicts its landforms. In fact a map is the major conventional geospatial data base.000 Graphical Scale/Bar scale
. designing coordinate system. line features and area features on the ground. settlement pattern. So it says what the object is. permeability etc.g. BASIC CHARACTERISTICS OF A MAP Any object or feature on ground is a geographic / map feature describable using two generic characteristics: the location (position) and the attribute. The attributes are associated with location. A map generally is defined as a line picture of a portion of earth’s surface on a plain paper on a much reduced scale. geology or a host of other detailed distribution. It includes a large number of activities starting from defining reference datum (spheroid and geoid). texture.F) e. In fact more and more additional attributes are dealt in a GIS whereas only primary attributes are taken in cartography. symbolization.BASIC CARTOGRAPHIC CONCEPTS
SECTION A: INTRODUCTION CARTOGRAPHY Cartography is the art and science of making maps. The attribute is always associated with a location. FEATURE CATEGORIZATION FOR MAPPING In a conventional hard copy maps three types of symbols such as point symbol. y. marginal and border information. map content. vegetation.g. drainage. map projection.
iii) Special Purpose Maps: a) Charts for navigation (nautical and aeronautical) b) City Maps c) Transportation Maps d) Political and physical maps e) Cadastral maps iv) Globes and Models Maps and Plans Very large scale maps are generally called plans.000 iii) Small scale maps: 1:500. CLASSIFICATION OF MAPS On the basis of Relief Representation i) Hypsometric Maps ii) Planimetric Maps On the basis of scale i) Large scale Maps: Generally 1:10. statistical. A plan usually does not contain relief information. fence boundaries. A plan covers a small area and therefore generally the curvature of the spheroid is neglected. Land use etc.Area Scale Verbal statement / Engineer’s scale e. When it is not possible to get the ground distance.g.000 and larger ii) Medium scale maps: From 1:15. 1” = 1 mile Scale of a map is generally determined by making a comparison of a ground distance against the map distance.000 and smaller On the basis of information portrayed i) General Purpose Maps: a) b) c) d) Topographic maps Plano-graphic maps Geographical maps Atlas
ii) Thematic Maps: Soils. geology. the length of the parallel of latitude or the length of the meridian enclosing the map area can be used.
.000 to 1:250. roads with edges etc. It contains details of ground features such as buildings.
Therefore this cannot be of a geometrical /mathematical shape. valleys and ocean surfaces. Study of earth earth’s gravity field and its temporal variations.S. The major functions of geodesy are: · · · Determination of the shape and size of the earth Determination of precise geographical position of earth features and study of temporal variations of such position. It is a branch of applied mathematics and defined as ‘science which deals with the methods of precise measurement of the earth’s surface’. REFERENCE DATUM FOR SURVEYING AND MAPPING Physical surface of the earth · · · It is a rugged (irregular) one due to presence of mountains. such imaginary surface is defined as geoid. Hence it is not considered as a reference datum/surface directly. the physical surface of the earth approximates to a spheroid of radius about 6400 km with surface deviations of about 8 km.L): · If it has been possible to make broad passages (frictionless channels) from shores of oceans deep below all land masses so that the ocean water can spread and cover the whole earth. In the ocean areas it coincides with the ideal ocean
. At the first appearance. This provides the frame-work of plane surveying and mapping activities such as topographic mapping. Such ruggedness varies up to few km and is very small in comparison to the size of the earth. engineering surveys etc.
Geoid and Mean Sea Level (M.Utility of Maps i) ii) iii) iv) Engineers Military Air and sea navigation Education and research (v) Town and country planners (vi) Railways (vii) Mineral Exploration (viii) Base for GIS
SECTION B: BASIC GEODESY
GEODESY Geodesy (Greek) means dividing the earth. cadastral mapping.
GEODETIC SURVEY Geodetic survey is a part of geodesy which specifically deals with the precise location (co-ordinate) of features.
a more realistic physical surface has emerged from the concept of geoid. the WGS 84 and the GRS 80 are few spheroids. Therefore this has been given the name ‘Reference Spheroid’/ ‘Reference Ellipsoid’.
SECTION C: THE EARTH BASED COORDINATE SYSTEMS As mentioned earlier the reference spheroid is purely an imaginary surface designed to fit with the geoid in order to define the position of earth features on this. The ellipsoidal shape is due to earth’s bulging at a region central to the axis of rotation at the time of its creation (Laws of Thermodynamics). It is the average of constantly changing water level over a period of time at the sea coast. The geoid is an entity conceived out of a natural phenomenon.A and Russia. The concept of Mean Sea Level (MSL). Therefore. The co-ordinate system will help in locating a point on the surface of
The Spheroid and Ellipsoid · Since the Geoid is found unsuitable as the reference surface for horizontal positioning of earth feature. Once the reference spheroid is defined and oriented. Mathematically Spheroid and Ellipsoid are different but synonymous as far as the present subject is concerned. this has been accepted as datum or reference surface for defining surface relief. This can be depicted as a mathematical surface and suitable as a reference surface for gravity potential or height differences. Britain and most of the African continents whereas the word ellipsoid is used in U. So it has also no exact geometrical shape. This is a best fitting geometrical figure to the Geoid and can be used as a reference surface for defining precise Geodetic Control Points over the physical earth. It is an approximation or an estimate of the geoid and used as Geoid for practical purposes. ground and therefore imaginary. The word spheroid is in use in India. the bi-axial Ellipsoid mentioned above is considered as the reference surface.S. The wrinkles are very irregular and pronounced below the mountainous regions with variations even up to 100 m. there is a need to integrate this with earth in the sense of defining a unique co-ordinate system. The geoid is a wrinkled or perturbed complex surface with respect to the ellipsoidal shape due to gravitational impact of uneven distribution of mass on and within the surface of the earth.surface after neglecting the waves etc.. The Everest Spheroid. ·
elsewhere it is below the
The geometrical shape of the geoid is close to an oblate spheroid / a bi-axial ellipsoid (obtained by revolving an ellipse around its minor axis) with minor axis as 6356 km and major axis as 6378 km.
There are an infinite number of meridian circles since an infinite number of planes can be imagined to pass containing the axis of rotation. DEFINING SOME BASIC ELEMENTS ON THE REFERENCE SPHEROID: Once the spheroid is available we assume that the rotational axis is made coincident with the semi-major axis of the spheroid. There are infinite numbers of parallels of latitude since infinite number of planes can intersect the spheroid being perpendicular to rotational axis. This is a unique Great circle on the Spheroid since one and only one plane can pass through the center being perpendicular to axis of rotation. This is used as reference meridian for defining the longitude of points in subsequent sections and this divides the earth into eastern and western hemispheres. However the evolution of Satellite Geodesy has brought back the second one into prominence. These are also concentric circles over the reference spheroid with either of the poles as the center. The particular great circle generated by a plane perpendicular to the axis of rotation of the spheroid (obviously it passes through the center) is called the Equator and the plane itself the Equatorial Plane. Geodetic coordinates refer to a coordinate system defined over the reference spheroid for precise positioning of earth features. A plane imagined to be passing through the axis of rotation intersects the spheroid in a great circle named as Meridian Circle. There are two types: the Geographic coordinates system and the Three Dimensional Geocentric Cartesian coordinates. The North and South poles are the points on the spheroid where the minor axis meets it. This divides the spheroid in two parts known as the southern and northern hemispheres and used as reference for defining the latitude of a place.the spheroid thus providing a well defined addressing system. So every meridian circle contains the North and South poles. The intersection of a plane perpendicular to the axis of rotation (but not containing the center) generates a small circle named as Parallel of Latitude (latitude circle). These planes are known as meridian planes.
. Usually the first is referred to the geodetic coordinates. Similarly a plane cutting the spheroid without passing through the center generates a small circle on the spheroid. The meridian circle which passes through Greenwich of U.K is named as Prime Meridian or Greenwich Meridian. A plane passing through the center of the spheroid cuts the spheroid along a circle known as a Great Circle.
as the datum and usually referred in terms of meters above it.Parallels of latitude and meridians GEOGRAPHICAL (SPHERICAL/CURVILINEAER) COORDINATE SYSTEM This system uses the latitude and longitude as horizontal co-ordinates of a point on the spheroid. A point on the equator is normally assigned to northern hemisphere. The elevation is depicted independently using the M. It is sometimes expressed as positive and negative respectively.
. The latitude and longitude are popularly represented by the Greek letters f (phi) and l (lambda) respectively. The longitude of a place is closely inter-linked with the time at that place. It is expressed in terms of either north or south hemi-sphere. The longitude of any place varies between 0º to 180º and it is reckoned as east or west of Greenwich meridian (also sometimes specified by + or -). A point on the prime meridian is normally assigned to the east eastern hemisphere whereas a point on the 180 meridian is assigned to the western hemisphere. The latitude of a point lying on the equator is 0º and the latitude of the poles is 90º.S. There are 90 parallels at 1o interval on each hemisphere.L. The latitude of a point is the acute angle subtended at the center of the spheroid by the arc of the meridian intercepted between the point and the equator. The longitude of a point is the angle made by the meridian plane of the point with the Greenwich meridian/prime meridian and is measured along the arc of the equator between these two meridians. reckoning from the mean time at Greenwich. the 90th being the north and south poles respectively.
The reference spheroid with a much reduced scale is known as a globe.
SECTION D: MAP PROJECTION
In any mapping project first the reference spheroid is defined. Therefore there is a need to transform the spherical surface of the spheroid into a plain surface such as a paper in order to implement large/medium scale
. the X and Y axis lying on the equatorial plane. The position of a point on the surface of the earth is defined by its geographical coordinates such as latitude and longitude designed with respect to the reference spheroid. A simple or most convenient way of mapping the earth without distortions is to map it on a globe. the Z-axis coincident with the semi-minor axis. But conventionally a map is on a paper format due to inconvenience in use of a globe particularly when large/medium scale mapping is involved. This system is of interest to Geodesists and Researchers where very precise measurements are required. The following figure explains the concept.The concept of latitude and longitude THREE DIMENSIONAL GEOCENTRIC CARTESIAN CO-ORDINATES This system is designed normally with the origin at the center of the spheroid. the Y axis is chosen to form the right handed system and lying on the equatorial plane 90 degree counter-clock wise from the X axis. The X axis is the line on the equatorial plane which starts at origin and passes through the Greenwich meridian plane. This becomes the replica of the earth for mapping.
In other words. The distortions are either in shape or size or distance or direction.mapping. Thus the concept of map projection comes into picture. It is worth to mention that either a part or whole of the curved surface of a spheroid cannot be transformed into a plane or a flat surface without introducing errors or distortions whatever the type of projection be adopted. A map projection is defined as a process in which the curved portion of the spheroid (or globe) is transformed into a plane surface. A small part. for most practical purposes will be free from noticeable distortions when represented on flat surface. we can say that a projection is designed in order to transfer a portion of the curved spheroid bounded by parallels of latitudes and meridians of longitudes on to a plain paper. cylindrical and conical projections came into picture.
. Therefore various techniques came in to existence for implementing a map projection so that it minimize one or more types of distortions according to need and accordingly a classification scheme came into existence which is beyond the scope of present topic. but large areas will have more difficulties in representing them. However most widely classification scheme is on the basis of developable surface and accordingly planar.
To overcome such difficulty a new two dimensional rectangular co-ordinate system (X. Hence from the map ordinates of any point in terms of latitude and longitude can be read.e.0) falls far away. engineering etc) sometimes a local grid is defined. The boundary of this region is defined by graticule intersections. Such system is called a grid coordinate system. The medium and large scale topographic maps are mostly used in military applications. Therefore this origin sometimes is known as False origin. After the grid is defined. The X axis of the system is made perpendicular to Y-axis at the origin.
. At this point usually the Y axis of the rectangular system is made coincident to the central meridian line. Normally the origin is assigned a large value for X and Y in meters so as no negative values are encountered in the region. This interval depends on the scale of mapping. the maps are available on a plane paper bounded by graticules i. This grid may be connected to the national grid or may be independent of it. the origin is defined at the intersection of the central meridian line and line of central parallel of latitude of the zone. For super imposing the grid.000 scale usually the grid size is 2 cm by 2 cm on the map (corresponding ground interval being 1000 m by 1000 m)..PLANE /GRID COORDINATE SYSTEM · For map projection usually a small portion of the globe bounded by a well defined set of parallels of latitudes and meridian of longitudes is considered at a time in order to minimize the distortions. After the projection is implemented. The origin with respect to this having co-ordinates (0.Y) was designed and superimposed on the projected map having graticule layouts. In such cases the position of a point. For defining the grid coordinates system the entire region/zone after map projection is considered. The maps with the graticule layout (network of parallels and meridians) were found to be difficult for extraction of above items. Therefore the map reference becomes simpler with the grid system independent of scale. Over this region a grid (a network of equal and perfect squares) is drawn with a pre-defined interval. the distance or length between two points (say length of a road). civil engineering surveys etc. area of a polygon (say a water body) and the direction/bearing of a point with regard to a fixed direction is required. by the parallels of latitudes and meridians of longitudes. For example for 1:50. For large scale surveys (cadastral. it is easy to compute distances and bearings with sufficient accuracy. The grid coordinates sometimes called as Cartographic coordinates. The portion is known as a zone and the size of this depends on a number of factors for minimizing the distortions in projection. The X and Y co-ordinates are popularly referred as Easting (E) and Northing (N) respectively.
This projection preserves orthomorphic property. The central latitude is the equator. Such narrow zones are considered in order to keep the distortions due to map projection within acceptable limits.000.0006. In this the central meridian is a straight line. a meridian of longitude.
. the Y axis coinciding with the central meridian and the X axis is tangent to the equator at origin. The zones are numbered through 1 – 60. Meridians are perpendicular to parallels. Each zone has a central meridian passing through the center of the zone. Each zone has as its east and west limits. After projection of a zone on a paper the central meridian and a small portion of the equator appear as a straight line intersecting each other at right angles. These large values are assigned to the origin in order to avoid negative vales in X and Y within a zone.000 meters and 0 meters for X and Y (E and N) respectively. For each zone of UTM projection. for the northern hemisphere. starting at the 180º meridian of longitude and progressing eastwards. The intersection of the central meridian with the equator is defined as the origin of the grid system. The globe is divided into 60 narrow zones of 6º of longitude in width. This is a conformal projection and reasonably maintains equidistance property and therefore recommended for topographic mapping. The origin is assigned a value of 500. The location of a point within a zone is given in relation to the central meridian and the equator. This system is designed for the whole world between 80º south latitude and 84º north Latitude. For southern hemisphere the values assigned are 500.000 meters respectively. an independent grid coordinate system is designed and named as UTM Grid. Each zone is called a UTM zone.9996 – 1. Other parallels and meridians are curves. This projection is suitable for large scale mapping for the narrow longitudinal belt. the scale as well as the directions are nearly true. Scale is preserved only along the central meridian and gets exaggerated away from this. The shape.SOME POPULAR PROJECTIONS AND ASSOCIATED GRID Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) Projection and the UTM grid This is a cylindrical projection in which the cylinder is placed tangent to a selected meridian.000 and 10. The scale factor of each zone is between 0.
Lambert Conformal Conic Projection and Lambert Grid This is used in India. The country is divided into 9 grid zones in an arbitrary way and named as 0. IIB.g. IVB. IIIA. coastlines etc. IB. The induction is a process meant towards inductive generalization e. It is based on a cone. creating the isotherm from a series of discrete temperature data of a number of stations. For example we condense all the phenomena into simple classes such as roads. Therefore it is impossible to portray everything. The origin is around the centre of each zone and large values are assigned in order to eliminate negative coordinates within a zone. Due to this cartographic generalization has been warranted. The symbol is classified under three groups: point symbols. rivers. The associated grid is known as Lambert Grid. The elements of cartographic generalization are: 1 2 3 4 5 Simplification Symbolization Classification Exaggeration Induction
The simplification is a process in which the features to be mapped are selected. Therefore every component on a map is a symbol. REPRESENTATION OF RELIEF The following methods are adopted to represent the terrain height over a map: Contour lines/form lines Spot heights Hachuring/Hill shading Rock drawing Layer tints
. In this unwarranted details are eliminated. IIA. IVA.
SEC E: MAP DESIGN
CARTOGRAPHIC GENERALIZATION In mapping of the surface of the earth reduction is an inevitable phenomenon. line symbols and area symbols The classification seeks to sort phenomena into classes in order to bring relative order and simplicity out of the complexity of incomprehensible differences or the unmanageable magnitudes of information. Here inferences are drawn from the averaged temperatures observed over a period of time. IA. IIIB. Only important aspects are finally portrayed over a map. A ground feature is represented on the map face using a symbol.
I. So it is an iso-line depicting equal elevation. there is little uniformity in the numbering system in current use.I. P. the scale of map. A general principle of determining the C. The numbering starts from the upper left corner and proceeds downwards. Broadly speaking it may be grid related or graticule related (i. The choice of contour interval depends upon the nature of ground. B. Each grid here is represented as a 1:1M series.The contour is a line in which the surface of the ground is intersected by a level surface. Any grid having no land area is not numbered. So the numbering is arbitrary at this stage and can be known with reference to a map catalogue for this series.000 sheet or a degree sheet.000 series each 1:1M sheet is divides into 16 parts each having a dimension of 1º x 1º. is: C. Map numbering for India and adjacent countries series For this an area bounded by 4º to 40º N latitude and 44º to 104º East longitude is considered.2. = 25 __________________________ No. The following explains the concept. The numbers are through 1.. With exception of few international map series. the purpose and extent of the survey and finally the time and expenses of field and office work.e.
. The entire area is divided into sizes of 4º x 4º. Each part is called a 1:250. of cm representing 1 km on the scale of the map
MAP NUMBERING SYSTEM A map numbering system is a system where individual map sheets within a series are numbered.…. The constant vertical distance between any two consecutive contours is called contour interval. So there will be 135 grids. degree square basis) or an arbitrary system. 44º
1 2 3
For 1:250. The numbering for this is done through A..
5’.5’ x 7. the source etc. NE. each 1:50.000 sheet.16 and is as: 64P 5 9 6 10 7 11 8 12
1 2 3 4
13 14 15 16
The bold marked sheet number is 64P16 For 1:25.000 sheet is divided into 4 parts with dimension of 7. Such information includes the title.A B C D
64 E F G H
I J K L
M N O P
Example: The bold marked sheet number is 64P For 1:50. 1:50. Each part is called a 1:50. 5084 and 19376 respectively in each series. The number of map sheets covering the whole country are 394.000 and 1:25. each degree sheet is further divided into 16 parts each of size 15’ x 15’.000.000.000 series. 64P/16 NW NE
TOPOGRAPHIC COVERAGE OF INDIA India has adopted a three tier topographic series such as 1:250. This is in the interest of the map user so that he knows where to look in the margin or the border for any particular item of information. 2 ….. the scale. the legend. the direction. SW and SE. These are numbered as NW.000 (or 1” sheets) series. There are some standards for the type and position of information shown in the margins and borders of maps.
. The numbering of each part is through 1. MARGINAL AND BORDER INFORMATION Every map has information added around mapped area and this is known as marginal and boarder information.
mountains and peaks. The United Nations Group of Experts on Geographical names defines a Geographical Name as a name applied to the feature on earth. states.LETTERING: Letters are verbal symbols and are integral part of a map. However so far the member countries have not implemented this whole heartedly. when arrayed encode sounds that there are the names of the symbolized elements of a map. It is not always easy to find out the standard names. name of rivers or streams. capes. Besides sometimes nations have changed the place names (e. The basic principle in these recommendations is to give the name to a place or feature considering its local name. It includes names of settlements (cities. The feature refers to a particular place. Oceans. towns. forests etc.g Calcutta to Kolkotta). dams airport. seas. This refers to names of geographical features or places depicted on a map. Therefore the lettering is always an important aspect of map design. Generally this is the most important role of lettering in the communication system that is the map. The depiction of names of features on a map is scale dependent. The following has to be considered while planning for lettering on a map: i) ii) iii) iv) v) vi) vii) Style of lettering Form of lettering Size of lettering Colour and background Positioning Methods of lettering Relation to reproduction
GEOGRAPHICAL NAMES Geographical / Place names play an integral and indispensable role in map making. It is not always easy to find out the standard names of places or features depicted on a map. The problems encountered in geographical names are: disparity between official names and the popular names. lakes. Its most straight forward service is as a literal symbol in that the individual letters of the alphabet. grazing lands. The International Geographical Union (IGU) has recommended some guide lines to be followed for this purpose so as to rationalise and standardize geographical names. There is also the problem of disparity between
. villages. feature or area having a recognized identity on the surface of the earth. The inventory of all Geographical names in a country is really very difficult. countries). duplication of names and the spelling of a name.
In Botswana a Place Names Commission Act is being formulated to standardize the names of places and other features. Another problem is the spelling of a name.official names and the popular names (e. A cartographer has to use his judgment in determining the authenticity of place names. Countries have their own agencies responsible for naming a place or feature.g Varanasi and Benarus). Duplication of place names is another problem (e. Thus it is very difficult to standardize geographical names unless all the member countries adhere to the principles laid down by the IGU.
. It may involve considerable amount of library and at times even the field research.g there are many Washingtons in USA).
way to store. geographic coordinates such as latitude and longitude. The location is then normally defined in a two dimensional space. a city may be composed of streets (an area feature in large scale but line feature in small).g.g. population. Another feature type developed from the three basic entities is the networks (e. structure and record and finally how to use it from the database. line features and area features in similar line as conventional cartography. Spatial Data models: The first step in implementing a GIS is designing and creating the digital map database which is popularly known as digital cartographic database. Each feature type is defined for its location and attribute. It is important to mention that computer representation of cartographic features does not include graphic symbolization. Therefore first one must know how a map data is represented in a GIS. For developing the DCDB it is essential to clearly state the information to be dealt. The map data in fact is represented by two facts the position and the attribute. The elevation information of the real world is a three dimensional information but it is represented on a two dimensional map using various techniques such as contours.g. e. The positional data is usually represented in either of the two ways: Vector representation / vector models Raster representation / raster models
In any case the positional data have to be referenced to a coordinate system e. Complex features may be formed as a combination of these basic features. This may be decided at the moment to either display or obtain hardcopy output so that a map designer has the freedom to design. roads). Modeling the simple spatial entities: In computer assisted cartography the map entities/features are classified as point features.CHAPTER III
SPATIAL DATA MODELLING (DIGITAL REPRESENTATION OF GEOGRAPHIC/CARTOGRAPHIC DATA) In this chapter a detailed analysis is made how to model or represent the spatial data (features/entities) in a computer. buildings (point feature in small scale but area feature in large). However. not to burden any operator with all design decisions every
. In computer technique this information also can be represented in three dimensions for specific applications. This facilitates a new feature type named as surface features which includes relief (terrain) but may also include other continuous feature or phenomenon such as rainfall.
The position of a point in a two dimensional place is completely defined by its X and Y coordinates in a predefined rectangular coordinate system (Fig 1) or by its latitude and longitude as in geographic coordinate system. The basic building block is a point.time when temporary display is intended graphic (positional) data is provided with some simple display characteristics (default graphic parameters) such as color. In considering the region to be mapped (which has been exhaustively partitioned in non-overlapping sub-areas). and assuming that the relevant features situated in such a sub-area (pixel) have
. line width etc.
A schematic diagram of a spatial data model for GIS
Vector representation/vector model/ vector format Vector data model presents the real world situation as composed of discrete identifiable geographic entities. line type. Raster representation/raster model/raster format In the raster model (also known as grid or cell system) the basic geographic feature is represented by dividing the object space into discrete squares called a pixel or grid or cell. The basic element indicating the position or location of a feature is either a point or a string of points. lines and polygons. Each and every cell has a location relative to an origin and a value or code describing the feature type. It represents geographic features with points. So every element is a pixel which is an area unit. Therefore it is pertinent to know the type of coordinate system used and the measuring units.
so only the attribute have to be stored at the appropriate locations. the position of a point may be stored in a computer as a pair of numbers – co-ordinates (e. Spatial data structure for vector model: Consequently. most often pixels are of equal size and shapes are selected and arranged in rectangular pattern. line and area feature
.been interpreted and the pixel has been provided with corresponding attributes. In order to illustrate this type of representation. Knowing the coordinates. we can say that the whole region may now be digitally represented by storing: position (coordinates of the centre point of each pixel). we will consider the example given in the following figure. 6.
Fig 1 Digital Representation of a point.7 in fig 1 for point A). When the pixels are stored in a predefined sequence.g. Even then the storage of the coordinates is redundant . the location of the point may be re-established in the original coordinate system. Although such representation with variable pixel sizes is sometimes applied. there by saving storage space. their position may be easily deduced from the storage location of a particular pixel. In such a way size and shape need to be explicitly given. pixel resolution or size and corresponding feature attributes for each pixel.
For more common line types a special compacted storage may be provided e. both are stored as series of points. In order to reduce the storage requirements. However. The distinction also can be implicitly made for
Theoretically a line consists of an infinite number of points. in this case the storage address of the following segment has to be provided along with each segment (so called pointer). All points belonging to a line feature are usually stored in consecutive storage location in order to maintain their correct sequence in the simplest way.). circular. The distinction can be explicitly given by indicating which feature type is represented whether a point or a line or an area. there is no difference between the storage of positional data of areas and lines.g. So a line feature may be represented as a series of points given in proper sequence. In order to enable this the manner by which the line has to be reconstructed should be indicated along with the registered points. parabolic interpolation etc. In this way a straight line segment may be represented by two points only whereas a curved line may require a substantial number of points. However only selected points should be considered in order to minimize the number of points without loosing the accuracy. The correct sequence of points should be maintained.Point file : ID X 1
Y. Formally. Positional data of an area feature may be given by its border line (perimeter). The indication of line type (interpolation type) has to be implicitly or explicitly indicated along with each line feature ( in usual terminology: linear. Finally the positional data of a line feature in a computer is recorded as a series of pairs of coordinates. each representing a point of the line. Each segment may be stored separately from the others. straight line segments between stored points may be replaced by segments of pre-specified curve type. the line may be subdivided into several line segments. Programs should then provide a linkage of the segments. Therefore during re-construction of a line registered points are not connected by straight lines but by circular or parabolic arcs. Line file : ID X Y 1
Polygon file: ID
23. a full circle may be represented by its centre point and radius. A reduction of storage space may be achieved by storing coordinate differences between consecutive points and not absolute coordinates of each point.
The areas are defined by line segments or edges forming the periphery and linked together correctly. A boarder line of an area must be closed. But a closed line does not necessarily represent an area e. other information must also be provided: the origin of the raster system the orientation the resolution the number of pixels in a row and number of rows
In raster model various data compaction techniques are available such as run length encoding. lines a sequence or series of pairs of points. Such a sequence of attributes is a digital representation in the raster system of the given map. Spatial data structure of a raster model:
The whole map area is sub-divided into 10 x 10 pixels.g. chain encoding and quadtrees. Forests (2) and Waterbodies (3) The digital representation may be realized by the storing the attributes row-wise in the same sequence as given in the figure.example a forest is always expected to be an area whereas a power line a line. a closed contour. block encoding.In order to make the representation comprehensible. Concluding we may say that. points must be defined as pairs of coordinates.
. On the map there are three area features: Agriculture (1).
(Example: a new road is added). Vector data allows for visually smooth and easy implementation of overlay operations. Presentation of raster not smooth resulting in incorrect estimation of areas/lengths. which can simplify combining vector layers from different sources. routes and custom fonts. There are transparency and aliasing problems when overlaying multiple stacked pieces of raster images. especially for "networks" such as roads. which can be tens. whereas raster data will appear as an image that may have a block appearance for object boundaries. Effects increase with coarse resolution. etc. Overlaying over raster images easier. Raster is suitable for display and printing in computers. Vector data is more compatible with relational database environments. and re-project. Vector data can be displayed as vector graphics used on traditional maps. scale. Vector data is very simple but requires more time in data collection in comparison to raster. Data storing sequential. whereas a raster image will have to be completely reproduced. Size of the database . easy to use with raster images. power. In raster this is a grid cell. where they can be part of a relational table as a normal column and processed using a multitude of operators. Overlay analysis is complex in comparison to raster.requires vast memory Geometrical accuracy of vector is high.
. largest port. hundreds or more times larger than vector data (depending on resolution).Comparison of Vector & Raster Models: · · · ·
· · ·
· · · · ·
In vector the observation units are either points or lines or polygon. Vector file sizes are usually smaller than raster data. Vector data is simpler to update and maintain. telecommunications. especially in terms of graphics and shape-driven information like maps. Raster data will not have all the characteristics of the features it displays. rail. which are more difficult with raster data. Vector data allows much more analysis capability. (depending on the resolution of the raster file) Vector data can be easier to register. (Examples: Best route. airfields connected to two-lane highways). Raster data is computationally less expensive to render than vector graphics. It consumes less memory.
It has a suitable keypad and the cursor is interfaced with the computer system. This facilitates the measurements of lengths and areas over the digital map in terms of ground measurements.CHAPTER IV: MAP DIGITIZATION
INTRODUCTION A cost-effective method of data capture is the conversion of analogue maps into digital form through the process of digitization. The digitizing tables for cartographic purposes have a resolution of 0.5 cm diameter. This step establishes the origin as the point of reference for the measurements of coordinate locations within the map area. held within a metal ring. Besides it helps
. The cross hair is first aligned over the designated point of origin and the system is activated and origin is defined. There are three basic methods of map digitization: 1) Manual digitization 2) Semi-automatic digitization 3) Automatic digitization MANUAL DIGITIZATION Preparation: The original map may be enlarged for complex details if required. Sometimes the original separates are used. In the centre of the disk is a target. Thereafter control points such as corners of the map sheet or the coordinates of limiting lines of latitude and longitude are digitized. which is used as a line tracer. lines and areas) after the digitization. in order to convert the digitizer coordinates into map/ground coordinates. The origin is normally selected within the active area of the digitizer table but near the lower left corner in such a manner that the coordinates of points on the mounted map area is always positive. The map details are presented in vector format (points. A digitizing table consists of a large flat surface that incorporates an electronic coordinate detection system (equivalent to an electronic graph paper). The cursor consists of a transparent disk approximately of 2. For this purpose specialized hardware and software are available. Digitizing: In manual digitization (also called on-tablet digitization) a specialized device such as a digitizing table and a movable cursor is used .025 mm and the accuracy of location is of the order of 0. The cursor which is connected to a recording device is then placed on the surface of the map. such as a fine cross hair.125 mm. The source map is mounted on the table (Fig 1) and an appropriate point is selected as the origin. Feature codes are designed. A list of information (point features. Control points for subsequent geo-referencing is identified. These are used for georeferencing at a latter stage. line features or area features) to be digitized is prepared. Initially the digitizer board was setup with. This system is used to locate the features that are to be digitized.
The recording is done either in point mode or in stream mode. Each line is given a label corresponding to the attribute.when the individual map has to be related to other maps that covers the same area or adjoining areas. are based on the location of the cursor at a given time interval. Coordinates are spaced a set distance apart or alternatively. Provision is made . therefore.
Manual Digitizer with a free cursor The cursor is then moved to a starting point on one of the map lines and tracing over the line is carried out. In the latter case. the spacing is close together when the cursor is moving slowly (presumably along a relatively complex line) and is farther apart when it is moving rapidly (along a smoother line). The cursor is then moved to successive points that are also individually recorded. Then as the cursor is moved over the surface. for using the cursor in point mode which permits the operator to record selected points rather than automatically recording the whole stream of points. a sequence of coordinates of locations that describe the course of the traced line is recorded. This location is in terms of map distance units (generally in millimeters) and are normally called as digitizer coordinates. The same technique is used to record the point information. its changing location is continuously and automatically recorded. The recording of a stream of coordinates spaced at a very close interval may provide much more information than needed for plotting purposes.y) is fed into the recording terminal in digital form. In point mode the operator aligns the cross hair of the point to be recorded. When the line has been traced from beginning to end. The initial location of the cursor on the line is detected by the electronics system and the coordinate information (x.
The database may be with Clarke 1880 spheroid with LO system. This will facilitate adoption of the universal coordinates and hence mosaicing of adjacent sheets with reasonable accuracy. In this process the digitizer coordinates are transformed into map coordinate system. It includes year of survey. Editing The editing stage is necessary in order to eliminate errors in digitization as well as in attribute attachment. The errors include mismatching of layers (silvers). So this additional transformation is required here. For example the source map may be with WGS 84 as spheroid and with UTM Grid as rectangular coordinate. Database Merging This stage includes Geo-referencing.The manual digitization technique described here is faster and accurate one in comparison with the hand recording system such as using a transparent graph paper over the map. Thereafter additional attribute information is entered into the relational table thus facilitating the attachment of attribute to the corresponding positional data. So it provides the map user information so that he can decide the suitability of data for his use
. Collecting Metadata Metadata is data about the data. coordinate system used. methods of survey contact information. An additional coordinate transformation is required if the map co-ordinates system of the source document differs from the coordinates system of the database. the data is subjected to creation of point. Attribute Entry After the digitization is complete. line and polygon features. quality etc. positional errors etc.
editing and database merging is similar to the Manual digitization. A process known as geo-referencing is implemented over the scanned map in order to infuse geometric fidelity in terms of ground coordinates. the scanned map is a digital image (replica) of the analog one. the raster scanners are popularly used. Automatic digitization using raster scanning has basically thee operations: Scanning Geo-referencing Vectorising
. A cross or dot is displayed on the screen (a virtual cursor) and this is moved across the screen through the mouse or a joy stick. The advantages of this method over the manual digitization are: · · · · More comfortable for the operator. Much faster particularly with semi-automatic technique. Facilitates fast up-dating using geometrically corrected satellite imagery and aerial photographs in digital mode. In semi-automatic mode the cursor is partly guided by software for continuous features over the scanned data and hence faster in data capture.
AUTOMATIC DIGITIZATION There are two types of digitizers in this category namely line following and raster scanning. Taking into account of the advantages.SEMI-AUTOMATIC DIGITIZATION ( ON-SCREEN DIGITIZATION): In this there are basically two operations: Scanning. Now-a-days the raster scanners are popularly used and therefore this is described in this section. The coordinates on this is in terms of pixels and lines . the details of which are dealt in a subsequent section depicting Automatic Digitization. and On-screen digitization. After scanning. attribute entry. The source document is scanned using a either a raster scanner or a video camera system (video digitizers) or document scanners. The manual mode is similar to manual digitization methods. The other steps like preparation of source document. Facilitates digitizing and editing at the same time reducing the quantum of further editing. Thereafter the georeferenced scanned map is displayed on the screen of the computer system and this source document is used as background for interactively digitization either in manual mode or semi-automatic mode. The traced line is saved in terms of string of coordinates similar to manual digitizing techniques. less tedious Much more accurate due to availability of zooming facility and simultaneous viewing of digitized lines over the scanned document at the time of digitization.
However for automatic vectorization (described in latter sections) resolution of 300 – 600 DPI is recommended. The scanning is done using a scanner which depends on the detection of light transmitted either through the source document or reflected from it. This digital copy also contains a lot of noise and therefore needs editing (called digital retouch). The spot size represents the resolution of the scanned image. The tracking head consists of a light source. A balance to be made in choosing the resolution and radiometric resolution taking into consideration about the storage criteria. Thereafter using a first degree polynomial transformation model the scanned map is georeferenced. The sensor measures the amount of reflected or transmitted light.
Geo-referencing This step is similar to manual digitization. The spot size is normally selectable between 0. Green and Red. Further this data is not structured into
. Documents can be scanned either in colour or in grey scale or in binary mode. Usually the resolution is expressed in millimeters or microns or Dots Per Inch (DPI). which produces a light spot on the graphic document and a sensor usually a linear array of CCD detectors in most of the advanced scanners. The registration of the amount of reflected light is triggered at every successive spot locations. The optimum scanner resolution that should be chosen depends on the details in the document and the digitizing technique that is used afterwards.Scanning: A raster scanner allows for a complete automatic scanning. The radiometric resolution for the grey scale could be 6 – 10 bits and for colour normally a 24 bit system is chosen with 8 bit each for the three bands Blue. The output of this is a geometrically corrected digital image of the original map. For manual on screen digitization of aerial photographs higher resolution of at least 800 DPI is recommended.05 and 0. At least 4 control points are selected over the scanned map whose map/ground coordinates are known and the image coordinates are observable over the scanned map. This is in raster format. The head automatically moves to scan the whole document in a series of contiguous parallel lines.20 mm. An operator is needed only to insert the document and start the operation. Vectorisation: A raster scanner is a device that allows scanning of the source document and in turn provides digital image/record of the document. For manual onscreen digitization of a paper map a resolution of 200-300 DPI is recommended depending upon the thickness of the thinnest line.
they can be replaced by symbols in vector format or by attribute data.Y coordinate pairs. ACCURACY REQUIREMENTS: The positional accuracy standards for the measuring system of present cartographic digitizers are imposed by the requirement to reproduce a digitized line in such a way that the human eye can not detect any significant deviation between the original and the line reproduced by means of graphic output device in the same scale. For point features only one pixel is recorded. Skeletonising is achieved interactively (already discussed in on screen digitization) or in automatic mode. However the most popular basis for classification is on the basis of digitizing surface. The line segments are appropriately joined to form polygons and line features. There are two types of raster scan digitizers in this class known as flatbed and drum. The pixel values of the scanned document are converted to points. There are two stages in conversion of raster to vector : Skeletonising and Feature Forming. lines or polygon features are formed and attributes are attached. CLASSIFICATION OF SCANNERS: Scanners may be equipped with black and white sensors or colour sensors (multi colour scanners). The skeletonising process removes all pixels that make a line wider than one pixel. The resolving capability of the human eye and the graphical reproduction facilities combine to limit deviations to about 0.classified and coded objects. In this the lines are split to form line segments and nodes. The vectorised lines are subjected to feature forming. Although the cartographer is actually interested in the overall accuracy.10 mm. Also a semi-automatic or manual approach at this stage is followed to provide better results. we find several measures for accuracy used in practice. In other words the process often comprises thinning of adjacent pixels to a single pixel width. Therefore it needs vectorization and restructuring in order to portray the map features in digital form. Pattern recognisation technique can be used for automatic detection of graphic symbols or text in automatic skeletonising. They are related to
. lines and polygons with attributes obtained from pixel values. Once the symbols or texts are identified. Afterwards points. Thereafter feature coding is carried out using color detection. For example the numeric values placed on contours can be detected automatically to attach elevation values to vectorised contours. The centre line pixels are converted to a series of X. pattern recognisation etc. This is called vector editing. Also a scanner may be classified according to the number of grey levels or colours they can distinguish such as a 6 bit system or 8 bit system. Vectorization is a process in which the required information from the scanned document is extracted in vector format. The automatic vectorised data needs some editing.
The tests should be performed as a part of acceptance test and later at regular intervals.10 and 0. There are three quality indicators namely: Resolution Repeatability Accuracy
The resolution is the smallest distance which can be measured along an axis. Dynamic accuracy also includes the error sources which occur when the measuring system is in motion.01 mm and 0. The repeatability of cartographic digitizers is usually 0. because they are not included in the specifications published by the manufacturers. The repeatability is the tolerance within which cluster the coordinates of the repeated measurements of the same point.025 mm or worse. The accuracy may be also expressed in form of RMSE. The errors made by operator during digitization have to be added to those values. The working surface of a manual cartographic digitizer can be thought of as covered by grid squares. The point may be approached from any direction and the setting may be repeated as many times as desired.01 and 0. It is usually given in the form of tolerances between measured and given coordinates of a practically error free grid. Two further terms are connected with the instrumental accuracy of the digitizers: static accuracy (usually known as simple accuracy) and dynamic accuracy. One can specify the position on the surface only on intersections of grid lines and not between them.10 mm. No digitizing equipment should be purchased without such specifications. For cartographic digitizers a static accuracy should not exceed 0. the operator influences dynamic accuracy to a great extent.different error sources within the measuring system. The tests are performed with help of a fine line grid on a stable material.25 mm.10 mm. It is usually between 0. the sides of each square being the measure of resolution.10 mm. Scanned features are not influenced by operator so better accuracy is expected. The accuracy of equipments should be tested in order to check whether the actual accuracy is not worse than the specified one. With manually operated instruments. The resolution in cartographic digitizers is usually between 0. Considering the influence of the operator it is obvious that the positional accuracy of manually digitized cartographic features shall be between 0. In scanning systems resolution is defined as cell size. The first two indicators are not sufficient to describe the performance of the measuring system. The coordinates of the grid intersections have to be known with the accuracy
. Information on static accuracy should deal with the overall errors which may be expected in a stationary measuring system. The accuracy specifications are given by manufacturers for every type of digitizers.
Use of magnifying glass is recommended. scanned and the coordinates of the scanned grid intersection derived using either a computer program or screen digitizing. The discrepancies may be used either to estimate the tolerance (the maximum absolute discrepancy) or the RMSE. of course.
. This is called Grid test. In case of scanners the grid should be. In case manual digitizers the grid intersections are measured and the resulting coordinates compared with the given coordinates of intersections.higher than specified for the digitizer to be tested. Measurements should be made with utmost care to keep the operator’s errors to absolute minimum.
BUFFERING AND NEIGHBOURHOOD FUNCTIONS
5. INTEGRATING DATA. ANALYSIS OF SURFACES Calculating slope and aspect
8. NETWORK ANALYSIS Shortest path problem The travelling salesman problem Location-allocation modelling Route tracing Quantitative spatial analysis
. SPATIAL INTERPOLATION
7. MEASUREMENTS IN GIS Lengths Perimeters Areas
2.MAP OVERLAY 6.CHAPTER V: DATA ANALYSIS IN GIS PLATFORM
S. inter-visibility between points is not essential. clock bias. Initially the system was developed as a navigation system for defence needs but later on its potentiality in precise positioning of features on the surface of the earth has been realized and now this system is widely used as an efficient tool in Geodetic surveying. It was designed by U. Therefore this is gaining popularity in various fields of surveying. The clear advantages in use of this system are its all weather capability.
The GPS has three main components: · The space segment 24 (plus three spare) satellites in a near circular orbit Orbit height 20200 km. remote sensing etc. no restriction on length of base lines. One of the satellite applications is the Satellite Geodesy. Besides. It was a system with near polar orbit at a height of 1000 km emitting signals at 150 and 400 MHz.CHAPTER VI: GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM (GPS)
The satellite generation started with launch of Sputnik (Russia) in 1957. day and night operations. It has the configuration of 18 satellites. It was capable of providing the position of points with an accuracy of 1 – 5 m.5 years No of orbits = 6 with separation of 30 degree 4 satellites in each orbit.
GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM
The Navigational Satellite Timing and Ranging Global Positioning System (NAVSTAR GPS) is a constellation of radio navigation satellites developed since 1973 by the USA Defence Dept. It involves the determination of shape and size of the earth and determination of precise position of earth features with satellite based technology. atmospheric propagation correction data etc. popular and widely employed satellite positioning system: the Global Positioning System (GPS) and the Global Navigational Satellite System (GLONASS). geophysical investigations etc. The basic principle used in this system is Doppler’s principle. fast and economical survey etc. Life span 7. Inclination of the orbits is 63 degree Period 12 hrs (sidereal) Continuous transmission of message about position and time (atomic clock).
. However it is now replaced by much more advanced. This system with the state of the art developments is capable of providing the location of features with sub-meter accuracy. Satellite technology for Geodesy came into significance due to a satellite system named as Transit Doppler which came into existence in 1964. Navy. Since then a large number of satellites have been launched for a variety of purposes starting from weather monitoring.
Two frequencies coded in precise code (P code) and Coarse acquisition code (C/A code) Wave length of P code 29.
The GPS orbital configuration can be visualized from the following figure:
.3 m and C code 293 m Also signal in two frequency carriers L1 and L2 Power from two solar energy converting panels.
The User Segment
GPS receiver and antenna at observing station Observation to satellites over the visible horizon Signals from satellites received and processed to provide the position. position and other data to the satellites in its orbit – updates satellites ephemerides. charging the three batteries for use during when earth eclipses the Sun Each satellite has on board propulsion system for maintaining orbit position. The constellation is designed in way such that at least four satellites should be visible at any point at any time.
The Control Segment About 30-40 ground tracking stations Observation made to satellites from these stations The time and position of the satellite is computed from these data Uploads time.
1 m Frequency (f) 1575. coarse acquisition and precise acquisition codes and the message containing the ephemeredes ( the position and the time at which the signal transmitted) and the health. P code and the message whereas the L2 carrier is combined with P code and the message. These two clocks are never perfectly synchronized thus causing a systematic error called time bias.23 MHz 1. PRINCIPLES OF GPS POSITIONING GPS positioning techniques may be categorized as being predominantly based on finding the pseudo-range using either code or carrier beat phase measurements.023 Mhz
The code and satellite messages are piggy backed on the carrier signal through modulation. Let the range (distance) between S1 and A be r1.31 m 293. Then the relation: distance = velocity x time is applied to find the pseudo-range. two signals named as L1 carrier and L2 carrier frequencies). signals are only transmitted by the satellite. dt = signal travel time = observable/known From equation (1) the range can be computed.42 MHz 1227. This range is called pseudo range due to presence of error such as clock bias. The fundamental observable is the signal frequency and the signal travel time between the satellite antenna and receiver antenna. Then.e. The structure of the carrier frequency and the codes are: Signal L1 carrier L2 carrier P – code C/A – code Wavelength ()ג 19.05 cm 24.e.GPS SIGNALS STRUCTURE GPS satellites continuously transmit different signals with a wealth of information such as the two carrier frequencies (i. L1 carrier is combined with C/A code. Pseudo range by code measurement: The GPS is a one way ranging system i.60 Mhz 10. The time is obtained by comparing the clock reading at transmitter antenna and the receiver antenna.
. Therefore determining the distance from the satellite antenna to the receiver antenna is in error and called pseudo ranges. r1 = S1A = v x dt -----------------------------------------------------------(1)
Where v = velocity of the signal = 3 x 10 m/sec. Code techniques are simple and produce low accuracies while carrier technique are complex and produce higher accuracies.45 cm 29.
The clock error and other errors also can be eliminated by observation to one satellite from two stations. This is called single differencing. However double differencing technique is used to eliminate the effects of most of the errors in which two satellites are observed simultaneously from two stations. the phase of the received signal is compared with the phase when it was transmitted. The difference between these gives only the fine part of the reading i. The range distance Φ is given by: Φ = (ρ + N)x + גerrors The resolution of ambiguity problem is done by geometric methods or combination of code and phase measurements and is complex and beyond the scope of present study. the fraction of one wavelength of L1 or L2) only. However four or more satellites are normally observed so as to provide redundancy in equations and finally least square approach is followed in computations. The number of cycles between the satellite and receiver N (called ambiguity) is not observed but estimated. The clock error is eliminated by differencing measurements made simultaneously to two different satellites. Therefore in this technique the main objective remains to solve for ambiguity. the fractional part of the wavelength received at the receiver. Another technique called triple differencing is used which eliminates system errors and also resolve the ambiguity problem. The GPS receiver records the carrier phase ρ (i.
. The integral number is called initial phase ambiguity.e.Range by Carrier phase measurement: For precise geodetic positions. This consists of taking difference between two double differences and therefore involves making measurements at two different times to two satellites from two stations.e. Here the observable is the carrier phase difference. In this technique. Here also the measurement is influenced by the clock bias and other factors. the pseudo ranges have to be derived from phase measurements on the carrier signals because of better resolution. The integral number of the wavelengths has to be determined by other techniques.
XA)2 Sqrt. The equations from four such observations will be: r1 + dr = r2 + dr = r3 + dr = r4 + dr = Sqrt. Let the coordinates of the satellite S1 be XS1. However more satellites are preferred to provide a least square fit.XA)2 + + + + (YS-YA)2 + (ZS1 – ZA)2) (YS-YA)2 + (ZS1 – ZA)2) (YS-YA)2 + (ZS1 – ZA)2) (YS-YA)2 + (ZS1 – ZA)2)
Here dr is the error in range due to clock bias. A fourth satellite may be observed to eliminate clock bias. With minimum observation to 3 satellites three such equations can be formed and solved for the 3 unknowns. ((XS1. XS.(2)
Here r1 is known from either code measurement or phase measurement. YS1 and ZS1. Let the pseudo range be r1.YA and ZA. YA and ZA. Then.e. ((XS1.XA)2 Sqrt.YS1 and ZS1 are known from the ephemeris. ((XS1.XA)2 Sqrt. ((XS1.
. the coordinates of observation station can be computed. Therefore the equation (2) has three unknowns XA.Computation of coordinates when (pseudo) range is known
Let A be a point on the surface with its geocentric coordinates XA. i. ((XS1.XA)2 + (YS-YA)2 + (ZS1 – ZA)2) ---------------. r1 = Sqrt.
Leica etc) are high precision dual frequency multi-channel instruments capable of giving centimeter level accuracy in positioning whereas the hand-held receivers are codeless single frequency receivers with accuracies of about few meters in real time. ranging from the high precision Rogue receivers of NASA to the hand-held receivers of low precision used by navigators. A similar approach to carrier phase
. Low power consumption
The location of a satellite with respect to the point of observation is given by its elevation angle and azimuth.1 cm Full wave length on L2 Low phase and code noise High sampling rate for L1 and L2 High memory. The observation at known site is used to compute the systematic errors such as atmospheric etc and this is transferred to the unknown site where the correction to the observation to that site is applied thus improving the result.1 cm.2 m. The coordinates of the satellite with respect to the reference spheroid is used to compute the coordinates of the observation station.INSTRUMENTATION & PRECAUTIONS A wide variety of GPS receivers are commercially available to suit the user requirements. This provides a far more accurate position due to application of differential corrections. In this real time positions of better than 5 m is achievable. The geodetic receivers (Trimble. Code measurement technique is only used. GPS OPERATING MODES AND METHODS Absolute Positioning (point positioning) In this only one receiver is used to fix the position of a point. There should be no transmitters or metallic objects. At the time of observation the view to the satellites must be clear and normally have a mask angle of 15 degree above the horizon. In this one receiver is set up at a known site and the other at unknown sites. Relative Positioning (Differential positioning) The use of two or more GPS receivers in simultaneous observation is called Differential GPS positioning (DGPS). Ashtech. The errors due to clock and atmosphere remain. L1 pseudo range measurements from encoded P code with 0. Features of a geodetic receiver are: Nine or more channels to enable tracking of more satellites simultaneously Dual frequency receivers with L1 pseudo range measurement accuracy better than 0. L2 carrier phase measurements with better than 0.
Long duration observations are carried out to minimize systematic errors thus yielding very high accuracies in positions. There are two ways in this approach: Pseudo kinematic surveying: In this one receiver remains static at the known site while another receiver moves all remote sites in sequence. · Rapid (static) Surveying
This is similar to static surveying but with reduced time of occupancy at the remote sites. In such case this technique is adopted in place of static one.
LIMITATIONS OF GPS Selective availability and anti-spoofing The Dept of Defence of USA intentionally degrades the accuracy of the ephemeries of the satellites in order to limit the real time absolute positioning accuracy to about 100m. Besides. However this limitation was overcome by Differential GPS (DGPS) but area jamming technique was adopted to neutralize the DGPS. There are three differential positioning techniques: · Static Positioning
In this at least two receivers collect carrier phase data in stationary mode for an extended period of time. Typical distances between receivers vary from several tens of km to thousands of km. · Kinematic Differential positioning
If the area of survey is within several kms. the remote sites are re-occupied and the observation is repeated. This is known as selective availability. care must be taken for signal shading (such as beneath a bridge) during the movement of the reciver. The limitation is that when moving the receiver between remote sites. Thereafter one receiver moves through the remote sites in sequence..measurements can yield sub-meter accuracy. At each site the moving receiver collects data for few minutes. A very reduced length of station occupancy is achieved thus reducing the time and cost of survey. In this the code measurement is combined with carrier phase or by making use of redundant carrier phase measurements. Post processing software analyses all data simultaneously to obtain differential position between the two receivers.
. Stop and go surveying: In this the carrier phase ambiguities are resolved before the actual survey starts. In this the differential positions of remote sites are determined accurately with few seconds of observation. it must maintain phase lock to at least four satellites. then the some of the systematic errors in carrier phase measurement will be negligible. After a gap of at least one hour.
There are three types of GDOP: HDOP – Horizontal dilution of precision VDOP – Vertical dilution of precision TDOP . The geometry of satellites distribution contributes to accuracy and hence quantified by a term Geometrical dilution of precision (GDOP).Anti-spoofing refers to denial of P code to international users. Datum used in GPS survey The WGS 84 is used as the datum for GPS coordinates. satellite clock) Atmospheric (ionospheric and tropospheric refraction) Observation station based (receiver clock. residual bias. Sometimes it
. It must be noted that the heights provided by GPS are ellipsoidal heights. A better geometri cal configuration/ distribution of observed satellites yield better results. An error unique to carrier phase observations is cycle slip. It is this error which when multiplied by the DOP yields an estimate of achievable accuracy for a single point positioning. This is a Geocentric datum. With a suitable geoidal model the orthometric heights are computed. cycle slip)
Some of these errors are difficult to separate as they manifest themselves as range measurement errors. The combined effect of these errors on the basis of laws of error propagation is called User Equivalent Range Error (UERE). MEASURE OF PRCISION IN GPS DATA: The satellite geometry has a direct effect on positioning accuracy. station coordinates. antenna set up.Time dilution of precision ERRORS IN GPS MEASUREMENTS Satellite dependent (broadcast ephemeris. receiver noise) Measurement related (antenna phase centre. His is now overcome due to RINEX (Receiver Independent Exchange Format). Normally a local datum is used in a mapping project for a country thus necessitating transformation in order to make compatibility in positional data. multipath. Therefoe the accuracy of this height is dependent on the accuracy of the geiod model. The satellite is locked with respect to a receiver once the observation starts. Receiver Independent Exchange Format This refers to the data output format of different GPS receiver manufacturers.
Information Technology Geodynamics Study of crust movements Local monitoring of deformation and subsidence Plate motion studies. GPS DATA PROCESSING: Most of the orbital errors can be reduced by using a precise ephemeris instead of broadcast ephemeris. APPLICATIONS: Geodetic Control Surveys Establishing new control or densification/improvement of existing networks. However more accurate models for some places are also available. the geoidal undulation of the place is required. Land information system Geographic information system
Precise Navigation/ Marine geodesy and Hydrography
.g EGM 96) providing accuracies of the order of 1 m are available. global geoidal models (e. roads. The GPS provides the ellipsoidal heights. Geoid and height determination
Photogrammetry Flight management Position of scanners and profiling instruments Support for block adjustments
Engineering Surveys Large scale surveys/cadastral surveys Setting out local networks for control of engineering projects (Tunnel. For this purpose. pipe lines. To convert this to orthometric height. bridge.fails to maintain the continuous lock thus causing this cycle slip in which an integer number of the wave length is lost from the number of cycles.
4. Describe the salient features of GLONASS system. Transmits signals in L band frequencies of 1597 – 1617 KHz and 1240 – 1260 MHz. Started in 1982. How is the structure of GPS signal? 3. What is Selective availability and anti-spoofing? What do you mean by Datum Limitation of GPS system? What do you mean by Geometric dilution of Precision? List and explain the sources of error in GPS measurements. Discuss the mathematical principles of determining the position of a point in absolute mode once the pseudo range is known? 5. List and explain applications of GPS. Explain the GPS system. 6. but pure civilian system 24 satellites in 3 orbits.
. Differentiate between Relative positioning and Absolute positioning 8. orbit = 19133 km. inclination = 64. Uses Moscow time or UCT Datum is the Soviet Geocentric coordinate System 1985. Discuss three relative positioning techniques.8. but fully operational in 1996 Receivers available to observe GPS signal as well as GLONASS signals
1. Discuss its components
2. What is ambiguity in carrier phase measurement? Explain. Explain how the pseudo range is determined by code measurement. What are the precautions to be taken when GPS measurements are carried out? 7. period = 11 hrs 17 m.GLONASS · · · · · · · A USSR system similar to GPS.