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COURSE STRUCTURE GIS introduced: An overview of the development of the GIS field, spatial and non-spatial data, GIS defined, Components and functions, Data sources, GIS applications. Basic Cartographic Concepts: Cartography, map and its characteristics, types of maps, use of maps, Reference systems: spheroid and geoid, Earth based coordinate systems, Map projection, Grid coordinate system, Map design: cartographic generalization, symbolization, Marginal and border information, typography: principles of lettering, geographic names, map production Spatial data Modelling (Computer Representation of cartographic features): Spatial feature types points, lines, areas and networks and surfaces, Spatial data models (vector and raster models), spatial data structure (vector and raster) Data Capture Methods: Map digitization: manual digitization, semi-automatic and automatic digitization, Scanning and geo-referencing, automatic vectorization, Conversion from other digital sources, Attribute data input and management Edge data exchange; metadata, GIS data processing: Measurements in GIS, Queries, Buffering, Integration, digital terrain modeling, data visualization.

Background - The term GIS stands for Geographic Information System or Geographic Information Science or Geospatial Information Studies. - The advent of computers with sophisticated peripherals facilitated the use of this technology in map making domain in early sixties giving rise to digital cartography and there after the concept of GIS originated. The year 1960 saw the worlds first operational GIS in Canada which was used for evaluation of land capability for rural areas by mapping soils, agriculture, forestry, land use etc. In fact the major component of a GIS, the spatial data analysis techniques, such as overlays, measurements, queries, buffering etc were developed during the period 1960 - 90. - However the GIS started to grow in eighties due to development of cost effective high speed electronic computing devices with sophisticated peripherals, increased availability of digital geographic data, availability of upto-date geographical data from Remote Sensing and increased demand for natural resources management.

- By end of 20th century, the rapid growth in various systems have been consolidated and standardized on relatively few platforms and users were beginning to explore the concept of viewing GIS data over the Internet, requiring data format and transfer standards. More recently, a growing number of free, open-source GIS packages run on a range of operating systems and can be customized to perform specific tasks. Increasingly geospatial data and mapping applications are being made available via the world wide web. - Present generation market leaders in providing commercial GIS software include Intergraph corporation, Bentley and ESRI (ARCGIS) Terms associated in defining GIS: Information System The function of any information system is basically to provide improved input/guidance in order to make decisions. It consists of a chain of operation starting from data collection, data analysis and presenting the analysed data with derived information in a way that immensely helps in decision making. Present generation information systems are computer based. Examples of this are MIS, GIS etc. Spatial data refers to the data of surface of the earth. It includes topographic features, cadastral plots, land use etc. Maps serve as major conventional database/source of spatial data.

Geo-referenced (or geo-coded) spatial data means the spatial data that has been tagged / linked / recorded in terms of its location defined by geographic coordinates designed over the surface of the earth. Geo-referenced spatial data is popularly known as geographical data or geospatial data. The geographic data describes objects from the real world in terms of three basic characteristics: location or position, attribute and the spatial interrelations with each other. The attributes refer to the nature of the object, its color etc where as the spatial interrelation refers to how the objects are linked together on the surface of the earth. Non-spatial data: Non-spatial data can also be stored along with the spatial data represented by the coordinates of vector geometry or the position of a raster cell. In vector data, the additional data contains attributes of the feature. For example, a forest inventory polygon may also have an identifier value and information about tree species. Definition of GIS GIS is a computer based system designed to handle geo-referenced spatial data. OR GIS is a computer based system designed to capture, store, retrieve, manipulate, analyse, manage, display and finally present (tables, reports, maps etc.) the geo-referenced spatial data. It merges cartography, statistical analysis and database technology. It supports with information required in decision making. OR GIS is a database management system where data pertains to geographical data OR GIS is a decision support computer based system for collecting, storing, presenting and analyzing geographic / geo-spatial information. Spatial Data Infrastructure (SDI)

Geographic information science is the science underlying the geographic concepts, applications and systems. It includes a number of specialized areas such as Geodesy, Surveying, Cartography, Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing, Statistics, Computer Science.

Functions of GIS: The basic intention of a GIS is to handle large amount of geographical data in digital form. The functions performed by it include: Data inputting

In this the geographical data in fact is fed into the computer system housing the GIS software. The data may be available in analogue format (e.g. maps) or digital formats (digital images) and needs conversion into a form readable and usable by the software. In case of analogue data such as a map the data inputting is done by digitizing, editing and re-formatting the map data/geographical data. In case of direct digital data (e.g. GPS) some editing and re-formatting may be needed. Data Management (storage, retrieval and manipulation)

The operations include data storage, retrieval and manipulation in a consistent and convenient form from a well organized database (cartographic database). The retrieval may be done either on the basis of location or on the basis of attribute or on basis of any spatial specification. Manipulation may include data updating, data merging/splitting etc. Data Analysis

In this the geographical data is examined with the intent to extract or create new data that fulfils some required conditions. It includes operations such as spatial overlays, buffer creation, query and modelling. Data presentation/ output (display, conversion)

This includes all operations that produce graphic output and reports such as maps, colour displays drawn on the graphic monitor, printed/plotted maps, reports in tabular forms etc. COMPONENTS: Hardware

The main component used to store, process and output the digital geographic / map data. It includes the main processor (CPU), high resolution monitor (VDU), Storage unit (hard disks), Specialized peripherals (Digitizer boards /scanners, printers and plotters. Software

A set of software specifically designed to perform GIS operation such as data inputting, data storage and management, data transformation and manipulation and finally presenting the required derived information..

Geographic data/map data/spatial data in digital form

The major database of spatial data is the maps generally available in hard copy form. Sometimes non-spatial data consisting of descriptive information about characteristics of the feature concerned is also considered. Data Management and analysis Procedures


DATA SOURCE FOR A GIS: The source of geographic data is either Directly from Ground survey methods, Remote Sensing and photogrammetric methods or indirectly from existing analogue maps, manuscript maps etc.. The data collection is usually done by experts in surveying, photogrammetry, geology, statistics, sociology etc. The data from ground survey methods include GPS data collection, total station surveys etc. Present generation techniques support collection of data using these instruments directly in digital mode. Remote Sensing methods use satellite images whereas photogrammetric methods use aerial photographs. However there exists a vast amount of geographic data in analogue/graphical form (in paper format). This includes published maps, photomaps, field survey manuscripts, photogrammetric manuscripts etc. Spatial data can be extracted from these maps and converted to digital form. The method of converting the analogue maps into digital is known as map digitization or popularly digitization. There are special equipments for this known as cartographic digitizers. However, the captured raw data has to be processed to obtain the required information. For example Census data may be processed to obtain the information about population density and then displayed in form of a dot map. The final stage of processing prior to dissemination of information represents cartographic processing in order to provide for a good graphic display. Through digital cartography even a non-expert in cartography may be able to produce his information in cartographic form. APPLICATION OF GIS TECHNOLOGY

Earth surface-based scientific investigations; Resource management Reference and projections of a geospatial nature (artificial and natural) Asset management and location planning Archaeology; Environmental impact-assessment; Infrastructure assessment and development; Urban planning and regional planning;

Cartography, for a thematic and/or time-based purpose; Criminology; Geospatial intelligence; GIS data development; Marketing Logistics; Population and demographic studies; Public health planning. Prospectivity mapping; Statistical analysis; GIS in environmental contamination; Disease surveillance; Military planning. Utility and analysis applications; High consequence area (HCA) analysis; Outage and trouble call management; Damage Prevention; Engineering Analysis.

Examples of use are: GIS may allow emergency planners to easily calculate emergency response times and the movement of response resources (for logistics) in the case of a natural disaster. GIS might be used to find wetlands that need protection strategies regarding pollution GIS can be used by a company to site a new business location to take advantage of GIS data identified trends to respond to a previously underserved market. Most city and transportation systems planning offices have GIS sections GIS can be used to track the spread of emerging infectious disease threats. This allows for informed pandemic planning and enhanced preparedness. GIS can be used by utility integrity management personnel to determine high consequence areas in the event of catastrophic infrastructure or integrity failures within populated sensitive areas.

For an efficient GIS the geo-spatial data must be current, complete, relevant and accurate. The development/ evolution of GIS inherit its root from a number of disciplines: Geodesy, Surveying, Cartography, Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing, Mathematics, Statistics and Computer Science. To understand the basics of GIS it is essential to understand some basic cartographic concepts discussed in next chapter.


SECTION A: INTRODUCTION CARTOGRAPHY Cartography is the art and science of making maps. It includes a large number of activities starting from defining reference datum (spheroid and geoid), designing coordinate system, map projection, control provision, details surveying and finally producing maps (scale, symbolization, map content, marginal and border information, fair drawing and printing). A map generally is defined as a line picture of a portion of earths surface on a plain paper on a much reduced scale. It is designed for recording, calculating, displaying, analyzing and in general understanding the inter-relation of things in their spatial relationship. A map of a region depicts its landforms, drainage, vegetation, settlement pattern, roads, geology or a host of other detailed distribution. In fact a map is the major conventional geospatial data base. BASIC CHARACTERISTICS OF A MAP Any object or feature on ground is a geographic / map feature describable using two generic characteristics: the location (position) and the attribute. The location refers to simple the position in a pre-defined coordinate system e.g. x, y. It says about where an object is. The attribute is always associated with a location. It provides about the qualitative information that exists at the particular location. So it says what the object is. FEATURE CATEGORIZATION FOR MAPPING In a conventional hard copy maps three types of symbols such as point symbol, line symbol and area/polygon symbol are used in order to depict a point features, line features and area features on the ground. The example of a point feature is well or a control point. The well further can be associated with additional attributes such as its depth, water quality etc. A line feature includes such as a power line, a road. Its additional attributes such as service capacity, age, insulator type etc may be taken into account. Area features include different soil units, area under forests etc. Each soil unit can be associated with additional attributes such as soil type, texture, color, permeability etc. In fact more and more additional attributes are dealt in a GIS whereas only primary attributes are taken in cartography. The attributes are associated with location. SCALE OF A MAP The scale of a map is defined as the ratio between the map distance and the corresponding ground distance. There are four ways of expressing the scale: Representative Fraction (R.F) e.g. 1:50,000 Graphical Scale/Bar scale

Area Scale Verbal statement / Engineers scale e.g. 1 = 1 mile Scale of a map is generally determined by making a comparison of a ground distance against the map distance. When it is not possible to get the ground distance, the length of the parallel of latitude or the length of the meridian enclosing the map area can be used. CLASSIFICATION OF MAPS On the basis of Relief Representation i) Hypsometric Maps ii) Planimetric Maps On the basis of scale i) Large scale Maps: Generally 1:10,000 and larger ii) Medium scale maps: From 1:15,000 to 1:250,000 iii) Small scale maps: 1:500,000 and smaller On the basis of information portrayed i) General Purpose Maps: a) b) c) d) Topographic maps Plano-graphic maps Geographical maps Atlas

ii) Thematic Maps: Soils, geology, statistical, Land use etc. iii) Special Purpose Maps: a) Charts for navigation (nautical and aeronautical) b) City Maps c) Transportation Maps d) Political and physical maps e) Cadastral maps iv) Globes and Models Maps and Plans Very large scale maps are generally called plans. A plan usually does not contain relief information. It contains details of ground features such as buildings, fence boundaries, roads with edges etc. A plan covers a small area and therefore generally the curvature of the spheroid is neglected.

Utility of Maps i) ii) iii) iv) Engineers Military Air and sea navigation Education and research (v) Town and country planners (vi) Railways (vii) Mineral Exploration (viii) Base for GIS


GEODESY Geodesy (Greek) means dividing the earth. It is a branch of applied mathematics and defined as science which deals with the methods of precise measurement of the earths surface. The major functions of geodesy are: Determination of the shape and size of the earth Determination of precise geographical position of earth features and study of temporal variations of such position. Study of earth earths gravity field and its temporal variations.

GEODETIC SURVEY Geodetic survey is a part of geodesy which specifically deals with the precise location (co-ordinate) of features. This provides the frame-work of plane surveying and mapping activities such as topographic mapping, cadastral mapping, engineering surveys etc. REFERENCE DATUM FOR SURVEYING AND MAPPING Physical surface of the earth It is a rugged (irregular) one due to presence of mountains, valleys and ocean surfaces. Such ruggedness varies up to few km and is very small in comparison to the size of the earth. At the first appearance, the physical surface of the earth approximates to a spheroid of radius about 6400 km with surface deviations of about 8 km. Therefore this cannot be of a geometrical /mathematical shape. Hence it is not considered as a reference datum/surface directly.

Geoid and Mean Sea Level (M.S.L): If it has been possible to make broad passages (frictionless channels) from shores of oceans deep below all land masses so that the ocean water can spread and cover the whole earth, such imaginary surface is defined as geoid. In the ocean areas it coincides with the ideal ocean

surface after neglecting the waves etc., ground and therefore imaginary.

elsewhere it is below the

The geometrical shape of the geoid is close to an oblate spheroid / a bi-axial ellipsoid (obtained by revolving an ellipse around its minor axis) with minor axis as 6356 km and major axis as 6378 km. The ellipsoidal shape is due to earths bulging at a region central to the axis of rotation at the time of its creation (Laws of Thermodynamics). The geoid is a wrinkled or perturbed complex surface with respect to the ellipsoidal shape due to gravitational impact of uneven distribution of mass on and within the surface of the earth. The wrinkles are very irregular and pronounced below the mountainous regions with variations even up to 100 m. So it has also no exact geometrical shape. The geoid is an entity conceived out of a natural phenomenon. This can be depicted as a mathematical surface and suitable as a reference surface for gravity potential or height differences. Therefore, this has been accepted as datum or reference surface for defining surface relief. The concept of Mean Sea Level (MSL), a more realistic physical surface has emerged from the concept of geoid. It is an approximation or an estimate of the geoid and used as Geoid for practical purposes. It is the average of constantly changing water level over a period of time at the sea coast.

The Spheroid and Ellipsoid Since the Geoid is found unsuitable as the reference surface for horizontal positioning of earth feature, the bi-axial Ellipsoid mentioned above is considered as the reference surface. This is a best fitting geometrical figure to the Geoid and can be used as a reference surface for defining precise Geodetic Control Points over the physical earth. Therefore this has been given the name Reference Spheroid/ Reference Ellipsoid. Mathematically Spheroid and Ellipsoid are different but synonymous as far as the present subject is concerned. The word spheroid is in use in India, Britain and most of the African continents whereas the word ellipsoid is used in U.S.A and Russia. The Everest Spheroid, the WGS 84 and the GRS 80 are few spheroids.

SECTION C: THE EARTH BASED COORDINATE SYSTEMS As mentioned earlier the reference spheroid is purely an imaginary surface designed to fit with the geoid in order to define the position of earth features on this. Once the reference spheroid is defined and oriented, there is a need to integrate this with earth in the sense of defining a unique co-ordinate system. The co-ordinate system will help in locating a point on the surface of

the spheroid thus providing a well defined addressing system. Geodetic coordinates refer to a coordinate system defined over the reference spheroid for precise positioning of earth features. There are two types: the Geographic coordinates system and the Three Dimensional Geocentric Cartesian coordinates. Usually the first is referred to the geodetic coordinates. However the evolution of Satellite Geodesy has brought back the second one into prominence. DEFINING SOME BASIC ELEMENTS ON THE REFERENCE SPHEROID: Once the spheroid is available we assume that the rotational axis is made coincident with the semi-major axis of the spheroid. The North and South poles are the points on the spheroid where the minor axis meets it. A plane passing through the center of the spheroid cuts the spheroid along a circle known as a Great Circle. Similarly a plane cutting the spheroid without passing through the center generates a small circle on the spheroid. The particular great circle generated by a plane perpendicular to the axis of rotation of the spheroid (obviously it passes through the center) is called the Equator and the plane itself the Equatorial Plane. This is a unique Great circle on the Spheroid since one and only one plane can pass through the center being perpendicular to axis of rotation. This divides the spheroid in two parts known as the southern and northern hemispheres and used as reference for defining the latitude of a place. The intersection of a plane perpendicular to the axis of rotation (but not containing the center) generates a small circle named as Parallel of Latitude (latitude circle). There are infinite numbers of parallels of latitude since infinite number of planes can intersect the spheroid being perpendicular to rotational axis. These are also concentric circles over the reference spheroid with either of the poles as the center. A plane imagined to be passing through the axis of rotation intersects the spheroid in a great circle named as Meridian Circle. There are an infinite number of meridian circles since an infinite number of planes can be imagined to pass containing the axis of rotation. So every meridian circle contains the North and South poles. These planes are known as meridian planes. The meridian circle which passes through Greenwich of U.K is named as Prime Meridian or Greenwich Meridian. This is used as reference meridian for defining the longitude of points in subsequent sections and this divides the earth into eastern and western hemispheres.

Parallels of latitude and meridians GEOGRAPHICAL (SPHERICAL/CURVILINEAER) COORDINATE SYSTEM This system uses the latitude and longitude as horizontal co-ordinates of a point on the spheroid. The elevation is depicted independently using the M.S.L. as the datum and usually referred in terms of meters above it. The latitude and longitude are popularly represented by the Greek letters f (phi) and l (lambda) respectively. The latitude of a point is the acute angle subtended at the center of the spheroid by the arc of the meridian intercepted between the point and the equator. It is expressed in terms of either north or south hemi-sphere. It is sometimes expressed as positive and negative respectively. The latitude of a point lying on the equator is 0 and the latitude of the poles is 90. There are 90 parallels at 1o interval on each hemisphere, the 90th being the north and south poles respectively. A point on the equator is normally assigned to northern hemisphere. The longitude of a point is the angle made by the meridian plane of the point with the Greenwich meridian/prime meridian and is measured along the arc of the equator between these two meridians. The longitude of any place varies between 0 to 180 and it is reckoned as east or west of Greenwich meridian (also sometimes specified by + or -). A point on the prime meridian is normally assigned to the east eastern hemisphere whereas a point on the 180 meridian is assigned to the western hemisphere. The longitude of a place is closely inter-linked with the time at that place, reckoning from the mean time at Greenwich.

The concept of latitude and longitude THREE DIMENSIONAL GEOCENTRIC CARTESIAN CO-ORDINATES This system is designed normally with the origin at the center of the spheroid, the Z-axis coincident with the semi-minor axis, the X and Y axis lying on the equatorial plane. The X axis is the line on the equatorial plane which starts at origin and passes through the Greenwich meridian plane, the Y axis is chosen to form the right handed system and lying on the equatorial plane 90 degree counter-clock wise from the X axis. The following figure explains the concept. This system is of interest to Geodesists and Researchers where very precise measurements are required.


In any mapping project first the reference spheroid is defined. This becomes the replica of the earth for mapping. The position of a point on the surface of the earth is defined by its geographical coordinates such as latitude and longitude designed with respect to the reference spheroid. The reference spheroid with a much reduced scale is known as a globe. A simple or most convenient way of mapping the earth without distortions is to map it on a globe. But conventionally a map is on a paper format due to inconvenience in use of a globe particularly when large/medium scale mapping is involved. Therefore there is a need to transform the spherical surface of the spheroid into a plain surface such as a paper in order to implement large/medium scale

mapping. Thus the concept of map projection comes into picture. A map projection is defined as a process in which the curved portion of the spheroid (or globe) is transformed into a plane surface. In other words, we can say that a projection is designed in order to transfer a portion of the curved spheroid bounded by parallels of latitudes and meridians of longitudes on to a plain paper. It is worth to mention that either a part or whole of the curved surface of a spheroid cannot be transformed into a plane or a flat surface without introducing errors or distortions whatever the type of projection be adopted. A small part, for most practical purposes will be free from noticeable distortions when represented on flat surface, but large areas will have more difficulties in representing them. The distortions are either in shape or size or distance or direction. Therefore various techniques came in to existence for implementing a map projection so that it minimize one or more types of distortions according to need and accordingly a classification scheme came into existence which is beyond the scope of present topic. However most widely classification scheme is on the basis of developable surface and accordingly planar, cylindrical and conical projections came into picture.

PLANE /GRID COORDINATE SYSTEM For map projection usually a small portion of the globe bounded by a well defined set of parallels of latitudes and meridian of longitudes is considered at a time in order to minimize the distortions. The portion is known as a zone and the size of this depends on a number of factors for minimizing the distortions in projection. After the projection is implemented, the maps are available on a plane paper bounded by graticules i.e. by the parallels of latitudes and meridians of longitudes. Hence from the map ordinates of any point in terms of latitude and longitude can be read. The medium and large scale topographic maps are mostly used in military applications, civil engineering surveys etc. In such cases the position of a point, the distance or length between two points (say length of a road), area of a polygon (say a water body) and the direction/bearing of a point with regard to a fixed direction is required. The maps with the graticule layout (network of parallels and meridians) were found to be difficult for extraction of above items. To overcome such difficulty a new two dimensional rectangular co-ordinate system (X,Y) was designed and superimposed on the projected map having graticule layouts. Such system is called a grid coordinate system. For defining the grid coordinates system the entire region/zone after map projection is considered. The boundary of this region is defined by graticule intersections. Over this region a grid (a network of equal and perfect squares) is drawn with a pre-defined interval. This interval depends on the scale of mapping. For example for 1:50,000 scale usually the grid size is 2 cm by 2 cm on the map (corresponding ground interval being 1000 m by 1000 m). For super imposing the grid, the origin is defined at the intersection of the central meridian line and line of central parallel of latitude of the zone. At this point usually the Y axis of the rectangular system is made coincident to the central meridian line. The X axis of the system is made perpendicular to Y-axis at the origin. Normally the origin is assigned a large value for X and Y in meters so as no negative values are encountered in the region. The origin with respect to this having co-ordinates (0,0) falls far away. Therefore this origin sometimes is known as False origin. The X and Y co-ordinates are popularly referred as Easting (E) and Northing (N) respectively.. The grid coordinates sometimes called as Cartographic coordinates. For large scale surveys (cadastral, engineering etc) sometimes a local grid is defined. This grid may be connected to the national grid or may be independent of it. After the grid is defined, it is easy to compute distances and bearings with sufficient accuracy. Therefore the map reference becomes simpler with the grid system independent of scale.

SOME POPULAR PROJECTIONS AND ASSOCIATED GRID Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) Projection and the UTM grid This is a cylindrical projection in which the cylinder is placed tangent to a selected meridian. This system is designed for the whole world between 80 south latitude and 84 north Latitude. The globe is divided into 60 narrow zones of 6 of longitude in width, starting at the 180 meridian of longitude and progressing eastwards. Such narrow zones are considered in order to keep the distortions due to map projection within acceptable limits. Each zone is called a UTM zone. The zones are numbered through 1 60. Each zone has as its east and west limits, a meridian of longitude. Each zone has a central meridian passing through the center of the zone. The location of a point within a zone is given in relation to the central meridian and the equator. The scale factor of each zone is between 0.9996 1.0006. In this the central meridian is a straight line. The central latitude is the equator. Other parallels and meridians are curves. Meridians are perpendicular to parallels. This projection preserves orthomorphic property. Scale is preserved only along the central meridian and gets exaggerated away from this. This projection is suitable for large scale mapping for the narrow longitudinal belt. The shape, the scale as well as the directions are nearly true. This is a conformal projection and reasonably maintains equidistance property and therefore recommended for topographic mapping. For each zone of UTM projection, an independent grid coordinate system is designed and named as UTM Grid. After projection of a zone on a paper the central meridian and a small portion of the equator appear as a straight line intersecting each other at right angles. The intersection of the central meridian with the equator is defined as the origin of the grid system, the Y axis coinciding with the central meridian and the X axis is tangent to the equator at origin. The origin is assigned a value of 500,000 meters and 0 meters for X and Y (E and N) respectively, for the northern hemisphere. For southern hemisphere the values assigned are 500,000 and 10,000,000 meters respectively. These large values are assigned to the origin in order to avoid negative vales in X and Y within a zone.

Lambert Conformal Conic Projection and Lambert Grid This is used in India. It is based on a cone. The country is divided into 9 grid zones in an arbitrary way and named as 0, IA, IB, IIA, IIB, IIIA, IIIB, IVA, IVB. The associated grid is known as Lambert Grid. The origin is around the centre of each zone and large values are assigned in order to eliminate negative coordinates within a zone.


CARTOGRAPHIC GENERALIZATION In mapping of the surface of the earth reduction is an inevitable phenomenon. Therefore it is impossible to portray everything. Only important aspects are finally portrayed over a map. Due to this cartographic generalization has been warranted. The elements of cartographic generalization are: 1 2 3 4 5 Simplification Symbolization Classification Exaggeration Induction

The simplification is a process in which the features to be mapped are selected. In this unwarranted details are eliminated. A ground feature is represented on the map face using a symbol. Therefore every component on a map is a symbol. The symbol is classified under three groups: point symbols, line symbols and area symbols The classification seeks to sort phenomena into classes in order to bring relative order and simplicity out of the complexity of incomprehensible differences or the unmanageable magnitudes of information. For example we condense all the phenomena into simple classes such as roads, rivers, coastlines etc. The induction is a process meant towards inductive generalization e.g. creating the isotherm from a series of discrete temperature data of a number of stations. Here inferences are drawn from the averaged temperatures observed over a period of time. REPRESENTATION OF RELIEF The following methods are adopted to represent the terrain height over a map: Contour lines/form lines Spot heights Hachuring/Hill shading Rock drawing Layer tints

The contour is a line in which the surface of the ground is intersected by a level surface. So it is an iso-line depicting equal elevation. The constant vertical distance between any two consecutive contours is called contour interval. The choice of contour interval depends upon the nature of ground, the scale of map, the purpose and extent of the survey and finally the time and expenses of field and office work. A general principle of determining the C.I. is: C.I. = 25 __________________________ No. of cm representing 1 km on the scale of the map

MAP NUMBERING SYSTEM A map numbering system is a system where individual map sheets within a series are numbered. With exception of few international map series, there is little uniformity in the numbering system in current use. Broadly speaking it may be grid related or graticule related (i.e. degree square basis) or an arbitrary system. Map numbering for India and adjacent countries series For this an area bounded by 4 to 40 N latitude and 44 to 104 East longitude is considered. The entire area is divided into sizes of 4 x 4. So there will be 135 grids. The numbering starts from the upper left corner and proceeds downwards. The numbers are through 1,2,.. Any grid having no land area is not numbered. So the numbering is arbitrary at this stage and can be known with reference to a map catalogue for this series. Each grid here is represented as a 1:1M series. 44
1 2 3


For 1:250,000 series each 1:1M sheet is divides into 16 parts each having a dimension of 1 x 1. Each part is called a 1:250,000 sheet or a degree sheet. The numbering for this is done through A, B.. P. The following explains the concept.


64 E F G H



Example: The bold marked sheet number is 64P For 1:50,000 (or 1 sheets) series, each degree sheet is further divided into 16 parts each of size 15 x 15. Each part is called a 1:50,000 sheet. The numbering of each part is through 1, 2 ..16 and is as: 64P 5 9 6 10 7 11 8 12

1 2 3 4

13 14 15 16

The bold marked sheet number is 64P16 For 1:25,000 series, each 1:50,000 sheet is divided into 4 parts with dimension of 7.5 x 7.5. These are numbered as NW, NE, SW and SE. 64P/16 NW NE



TOPOGRAPHIC COVERAGE OF INDIA India has adopted a three tier topographic series such as 1:250,000, 1:50,000 and 1:25,000. The number of map sheets covering the whole country are 394, 5084 and 19376 respectively in each series. MARGINAL AND BORDER INFORMATION Every map has information added around mapped area and this is known as marginal and boarder information. Such information includes the title, the legend, the direction, the scale, the source etc. There are some standards for the type and position of information shown in the margins and borders of maps. This is in the interest of the map user so that he knows where to look in the margin or the border for any particular item of information.

LETTERING: Letters are verbal symbols and are integral part of a map. Its most straight forward service is as a literal symbol in that the individual letters of the alphabet, when arrayed encode sounds that there are the names of the symbolized elements of a map. Generally this is the most important role of lettering in the communication system that is the map. Therefore the lettering is always an important aspect of map design. The following has to be considered while planning for lettering on a map: i) ii) iii) iv) v) vi) vii) Style of lettering Form of lettering Size of lettering Colour and background Positioning Methods of lettering Relation to reproduction

GEOGRAPHICAL NAMES Geographical / Place names play an integral and indispensable role in map making. This refers to names of geographical features or places depicted on a map. The United Nations Group of Experts on Geographical names defines a Geographical Name as a name applied to the feature on earth. The feature refers to a particular place, feature or area having a recognized identity on the surface of the earth. It includes names of settlements (cities, towns, villages, states, countries), name of rivers or streams, mountains and peaks, Oceans, seas, capes, lakes, dams airport, grazing lands, forests etc. The inventory of all Geographical names in a country is really very difficult. The depiction of names of features on a map is scale dependent. It is not always easy to find out the standard names. The problems encountered in geographical names are: disparity between official names and the popular names, duplication of names and the spelling of a name. It is not always easy to find out the standard names of places or features depicted on a map. The International Geographical Union (IGU) has recommended some guide lines to be followed for this purpose so as to rationalise and standardize geographical names. The basic principle in these recommendations is to give the name to a place or feature considering its local name. However so far the member countries have not implemented this whole heartedly. Besides sometimes nations have changed the place names (e.g Calcutta to Kolkotta). There is also the problem of disparity between

official names and the popular names (e.g Varanasi and Benarus). Duplication of place names is another problem (e.g there are many Washingtons in USA). Another problem is the spelling of a name. Thus it is very difficult to standardize geographical names unless all the member countries adhere to the principles laid down by the IGU. A cartographer has to use his judgment in determining the authenticity of place names. It may involve considerable amount of library and at times even the field research. Countries have their own agencies responsible for naming a place or feature. In Botswana a Place Names Commission Act is being formulated to standardize the names of places and other features.

SPATIAL DATA MODELLING (DIGITAL REPRESENTATION OF GEOGRAPHIC/CARTOGRAPHIC DATA) In this chapter a detailed analysis is made how to model or represent the spatial data (features/entities) in a computer. Modeling the simple spatial entities: In computer assisted cartography the map entities/features are classified as point features, line features and area features in similar line as conventional cartography. Each feature type is defined for its location and attribute. The location is then normally defined in a two dimensional space. Complex features may be formed as a combination of these basic features, e.g. a city may be composed of streets (an area feature in large scale but line feature in small), buildings (point feature in small scale but area feature in large). The elevation information of the real world is a three dimensional information but it is represented on a two dimensional map using various techniques such as contours. In computer technique this information also can be represented in three dimensions for specific applications. This facilitates a new feature type named as surface features which includes relief (terrain) but may also include other continuous feature or phenomenon such as rainfall, population. Another feature type developed from the three basic entities is the networks (e.g. roads). Spatial Data models: The first step in implementing a GIS is designing and creating the digital map database which is popularly known as digital cartographic database. For developing the DCDB it is essential to clearly state the information to be dealt, way to store, structure and record and finally how to use it from the database. Therefore first one must know how a map data is represented in a GIS. The map data in fact is represented by two facts the position and the attribute. The positional data is usually represented in either of the two ways: Vector representation / vector models Raster representation / raster models

In any case the positional data have to be referenced to a coordinate system e.g. geographic coordinates such as latitude and longitude. It is important to mention that computer representation of cartographic features does not include graphic symbolization. This may be decided at the moment to either display or obtain hardcopy output so that a map designer has the freedom to design. However, not to burden any operator with all design decisions every

time when temporary display is intended graphic (positional) data is provided with some simple display characteristics (default graphic parameters) such as color, line type, line width etc.

A schematic diagram of a spatial data model for GIS

Vector representation/vector model/ vector format Vector data model presents the real world situation as composed of discrete identifiable geographic entities. It represents geographic features with points, lines and polygons. The basic building block is a point. The basic element indicating the position or location of a feature is either a point or a string of points. The position of a point in a two dimensional place is completely defined by its X and Y coordinates in a predefined rectangular coordinate system (Fig 1) or by its latitude and longitude as in geographic coordinate system. Therefore it is pertinent to know the type of coordinate system used and the measuring units. Raster representation/raster model/raster format In the raster model (also known as grid or cell system) the basic geographic feature is represented by dividing the object space into discrete squares called a pixel or grid or cell. So every element is a pixel which is an area unit. Each and every cell has a location relative to an origin and a value or code describing the feature type. In considering the region to be mapped (which has been exhaustively partitioned in non-overlapping sub-areas), and assuming that the relevant features situated in such a sub-area (pixel) have

been interpreted and the pixel has been provided with corresponding attributes, we can say that the whole region may now be digitally represented by storing: position (coordinates of the centre point of each pixel), pixel resolution or size and corresponding feature attributes for each pixel. Although such representation with variable pixel sizes is sometimes applied, most often pixels are of equal size and shapes are selected and arranged in rectangular pattern. In such a way size and shape need to be explicitly given, there by saving storage space. When the pixels are stored in a predefined sequence, their position may be easily deduced from the storage location of a particular pixel. Even then the storage of the coordinates is redundant - so only the attribute have to be stored at the appropriate locations. In order to illustrate this type of representation, we will consider the example given in the following figure. Spatial data structure for vector model: Consequently, the position of a point may be stored in a computer as a pair of numbers co-ordinates (e.g. 6,7 in fig 1 for point A). Knowing the coordinates, the location of the point may be re-established in the original coordinate system.

Fig 1 Digital Representation of a point, line and area feature

Point file : ID X 1

Y, Line file : ID X Y 1

Polygon file: ID

23, 55

Theoretically a line consists of an infinite number of points. So a line feature may be represented as a series of points given in proper sequence. However only selected points should be considered in order to minimize the number of points without loosing the accuracy. Finally the positional data of a line feature in a computer is recorded as a series of pairs of coordinates, each representing a point of the line. The correct sequence of points should be maintained. In this way a straight line segment may be represented by two points only whereas a curved line may require a substantial number of points. In order to reduce the storage requirements, straight line segments between stored points may be replaced by segments of pre-specified curve type. Therefore during re-construction of a line registered points are not connected by straight lines but by circular or parabolic arcs. In order to enable this the manner by which the line has to be reconstructed should be indicated along with the registered points. The indication of line type (interpolation type) has to be implicitly or explicitly indicated along with each line feature ( in usual terminology: linear, circular, parabolic interpolation etc.). For more common line types a special compacted storage may be provided e.g. a full circle may be represented by its centre point and radius. A reduction of storage space may be achieved by storing coordinate differences between consecutive points and not absolute coordinates of each point. All points belonging to a line feature are usually stored in consecutive storage location in order to maintain their correct sequence in the simplest way. However, the line may be subdivided into several line segments. Each segment may be stored separately from the others; in this case the storage address of the following segment has to be provided along with each segment (so called pointer). Programs should then provide a linkage of the segments. Positional data of an area feature may be given by its border line (perimeter). Formally, there is no difference between the storage of positional data of areas and lines; both are stored as series of points. The distinction can be explicitly given by indicating which feature type is represented whether a point or a line or an area. The distinction also can be implicitly made for

example a forest is always expected to be an area whereas a power line a line. A boarder line of an area must be closed. But a closed line does not necessarily represent an area e.g. a closed contour. Concluding we may say that, points must be defined as pairs of coordinates, lines a sequence or series of pairs of points. The areas are defined by line segments or edges forming the periphery and linked together correctly. Spatial data structure of a raster model:

The whole map area is sub-divided into 10 x 10 pixels. On the map there are three area features: Agriculture (1), Forests (2) and Waterbodies (3) The digital representation may be realized by the storing the attributes row-wise in the same sequence as given in the figure. Such a sequence of attributes is a digital representation in the raster system of the given map.In order to make the representation comprehensible, other information must also be provided: the origin of the raster system the orientation the resolution the number of pixels in a row and number of rows

In raster model various data compaction techniques are available such as run length encoding, block encoding, chain encoding and quadtrees.

Comparison of Vector & Raster Models:

In vector the observation units are either points or lines or polygon. In raster this is a grid cell. Vector data is very simple but requires more time in data collection in comparison to raster. Raster is suitable for display and printing in computers, Data storing sequential, easy to use with raster images. Presentation of raster not smooth resulting in incorrect estimation of areas/lengths. Effects increase with coarse resolution. Size of the database - requires vast memory Geometrical accuracy of vector is high. Overlaying over raster images easier. It consumes less memory. Overlay analysis is complex in comparison to raster. Raster data is computationally less expensive to render than vector graphics. There are transparency and aliasing problems when overlaying multiple stacked pieces of raster images. Vector data allows for visually smooth and easy implementation of overlay operations, especially in terms of graphics and shape-driven information like maps, routes and custom fonts, which are more difficult with raster data. Vector data can be displayed as vector graphics used on traditional maps, whereas raster data will appear as an image that may have a block appearance for object boundaries. (depending on the resolution of the raster file) Vector data can be easier to register, scale, and re-project, which can simplify combining vector layers from different sources. Vector data is more compatible with relational database environments, where they can be part of a relational table as a normal column and processed using a multitude of operators. Vector file sizes are usually smaller than raster data, which can be tens, hundreds or more times larger than vector data (depending on resolution). Vector data is simpler to update and maintain, whereas a raster image will have to be completely reproduced. (Example: a new road is added). Vector data allows much more analysis capability, especially for "networks" such as roads, power, rail, telecommunications, etc. (Examples: Best route, largest port, airfields connected to two-lane highways). Raster data will not have all the characteristics of the features it displays.


INTRODUCTION A cost-effective method of data capture is the conversion of analogue maps into digital form through the process of digitization. The map details are presented in vector format (points, lines and areas) after the digitization. For this purpose specialized hardware and software are available. There are three basic methods of map digitization: 1) Manual digitization 2) Semi-automatic digitization 3) Automatic digitization MANUAL DIGITIZATION Preparation: The original map may be enlarged for complex details if required. Sometimes the original separates are used. A list of information (point features, line features or area features) to be digitized is prepared. Feature codes are designed. Control points for subsequent geo-referencing is identified. Digitizing: In manual digitization (also called on-tablet digitization) a specialized device such as a digitizing table and a movable cursor is used . A digitizing table consists of a large flat surface that incorporates an electronic coordinate detection system (equivalent to an electronic graph paper). This system is used to locate the features that are to be digitized. The digitizing tables for cartographic purposes have a resolution of 0.025 mm and the accuracy of location is of the order of 0.125 mm. The cursor consists of a transparent disk approximately of 2.5 cm diameter, held within a metal ring. In the centre of the disk is a target, such as a fine cross hair, which is used as a line tracer. It has a suitable keypad and the cursor is interfaced with the computer system. Initially the digitizer board was setup with. The source map is mounted on the table (Fig 1) and an appropriate point is selected as the origin. The origin is normally selected within the active area of the digitizer table but near the lower left corner in such a manner that the coordinates of points on the mounted map area is always positive. The cursor which is connected to a recording device is then placed on the surface of the map. The cross hair is first aligned over the designated point of origin and the system is activated and origin is defined. This step establishes the origin as the point of reference for the measurements of coordinate locations within the map area. Thereafter control points such as corners of the map sheet or the coordinates of limiting lines of latitude and longitude are digitized. These are used for georeferencing at a latter stage, in order to convert the digitizer coordinates into map/ground coordinates. This facilitates the measurements of lengths and areas over the digital map in terms of ground measurements. Besides it helps

when the individual map has to be related to other maps that covers the same area or adjoining areas.

Manual Digitizer with a free cursor The cursor is then moved to a starting point on one of the map lines and tracing over the line is carried out. The initial location of the cursor on the line is detected by the electronics system and the coordinate information (x,y) is fed into the recording terminal in digital form. This location is in terms of map distance units (generally in millimeters) and are normally called as digitizer coordinates. Then as the cursor is moved over the surface, its changing location is continuously and automatically recorded. Coordinates are spaced a set distance apart or alternatively, are based on the location of the cursor at a given time interval. In the latter case, the spacing is close together when the cursor is moving slowly (presumably along a relatively complex line) and is farther apart when it is moving rapidly (along a smoother line). When the line has been traced from beginning to end, a sequence of coordinates of locations that describe the course of the traced line is recorded. Each line is given a label corresponding to the attribute. The recording is done either in point mode or in stream mode. The recording of a stream of coordinates spaced at a very close interval may provide much more information than needed for plotting purposes. Provision is made , therefore, for using the cursor in point mode which permits the operator to record selected points rather than automatically recording the whole stream of points. In point mode the operator aligns the cross hair of the point to be recorded. The cursor is then moved to successive points that are also individually recorded. The same technique is used to record the point information.

The manual digitization technique described here is faster and accurate one in comparison with the hand recording system such as using a transparent graph paper over the map. Attribute Entry After the digitization is complete, the data is subjected to creation of point, line and polygon features. Thereafter additional attribute information is entered into the relational table thus facilitating the attachment of attribute to the corresponding positional data. Editing The editing stage is necessary in order to eliminate errors in digitization as well as in attribute attachment. The errors include mismatching of layers (silvers), positional errors etc. Database Merging This stage includes Geo-referencing. In this process the digitizer coordinates are transformed into map coordinate system. This will facilitate adoption of the universal coordinates and hence mosaicing of adjacent sheets with reasonable accuracy. An additional coordinate transformation is required if the map co-ordinates system of the source document differs from the coordinates system of the database. For example the source map may be with WGS 84 as spheroid and with UTM Grid as rectangular coordinate. The database may be with Clarke 1880 spheroid with LO system. So this additional transformation is required here. Collecting Metadata Metadata is data about the data. It includes year of survey, methods of survey contact information, coordinate system used, quality etc. So it provides the map user information so that he can decide the suitability of data for his use

SEMI-AUTOMATIC DIGITIZATION ( ON-SCREEN DIGITIZATION): In this there are basically two operations: Scanning, and On-screen digitization. The source document is scanned using a either a raster scanner or a video camera system (video digitizers) or document scanners. Taking into account of the advantages, the raster scanners are popularly used, the details of which are dealt in a subsequent section depicting Automatic Digitization. After scanning, the scanned map is a digital image (replica) of the analog one. The coordinates on this is in terms of pixels and lines . A process known as geo-referencing is implemented over the scanned map in order to infuse geometric fidelity in terms of ground coordinates. Thereafter the georeferenced scanned map is displayed on the screen of the computer system and this source document is used as background for interactively digitization either in manual mode or semi-automatic mode. The manual mode is similar to manual digitization methods. A cross or dot is displayed on the screen (a virtual cursor) and this is moved across the screen through the mouse or a joy stick. The traced line is saved in terms of string of coordinates similar to manual digitizing techniques. In semi-automatic mode the cursor is partly guided by software for continuous features over the scanned data and hence faster in data capture. The other steps like preparation of source document, attribute entry, editing and database merging is similar to the Manual digitization. The advantages of this method over the manual digitization are: More comfortable for the operator, less tedious Much more accurate due to availability of zooming facility and simultaneous viewing of digitized lines over the scanned document at the time of digitization. Much faster particularly with semi-automatic technique. Facilitates digitizing and editing at the same time reducing the quantum of further editing. Facilitates fast up-dating using geometrically corrected satellite imagery and aerial photographs in digital mode.

AUTOMATIC DIGITIZATION There are two types of digitizers in this category namely line following and raster scanning. Now-a-days the raster scanners are popularly used and therefore this is described in this section. Automatic digitization using raster scanning has basically thee operations: Scanning Geo-referencing Vectorising

Scanning: A raster scanner allows for a complete automatic scanning. An operator is needed only to insert the document and start the operation. The scanning is done using a scanner which depends on the detection of light transmitted either through the source document or reflected from it. The tracking head consists of a light source, which produces a light spot on the graphic document and a sensor usually a linear array of CCD detectors in most of the advanced scanners. The sensor measures the amount of reflected or transmitted light. The head automatically moves to scan the whole document in a series of contiguous parallel lines. The registration of the amount of reflected light is triggered at every successive spot locations. The spot size is normally selectable between 0.05 and 0.20 mm. The spot size represents the resolution of the scanned image. Usually the resolution is expressed in millimeters or microns or Dots Per Inch (DPI). The optimum scanner resolution that should be chosen depends on the details in the document and the digitizing technique that is used afterwards. For manual onscreen digitization of a paper map a resolution of 200-300 DPI is recommended depending upon the thickness of the thinnest line. For manual on screen digitization of aerial photographs higher resolution of at least 800 DPI is recommended. However for automatic vectorization (described in latter sections) resolution of 300 600 DPI is recommended. Documents can be scanned either in colour or in grey scale or in binary mode. The radiometric resolution for the grey scale could be 6 10 bits and for colour normally a 24 bit system is chosen with 8 bit each for the three bands Blue, Green and Red. A balance to be made in choosing the resolution and radiometric resolution taking into consideration about the storage criteria.

Geo-referencing This step is similar to manual digitization. At least 4 control points are selected over the scanned map whose map/ground coordinates are known and the image coordinates are observable over the scanned map. Thereafter using a first degree polynomial transformation model the scanned map is georeferenced. The output of this is a geometrically corrected digital image of the original map. Vectorisation: A raster scanner is a device that allows scanning of the source document and in turn provides digital image/record of the document. This is in raster format. This digital copy also contains a lot of noise and therefore needs editing (called digital retouch). Further this data is not structured into

classified and coded objects. Therefore it needs vectorization and restructuring in order to portray the map features in digital form. Vectorization is a process in which the required information from the scanned document is extracted in vector format. The pixel values of the scanned document are converted to points, lines and polygons with attributes obtained from pixel values. There are two stages in conversion of raster to vector : Skeletonising and Feature Forming. The skeletonising process removes all pixels that make a line wider than one pixel. In other words the process often comprises thinning of adjacent pixels to a single pixel width. For point features only one pixel is recorded. The centre line pixels are converted to a series of X,Y coordinate pairs. Afterwards points, lines or polygon features are formed and attributes are attached. Skeletonising is achieved interactively (already discussed in on screen digitization) or in automatic mode. Pattern recognisation technique can be used for automatic detection of graphic symbols or text in automatic skeletonising. Once the symbols or texts are identified, they can be replaced by symbols in vector format or by attribute data. For example the numeric values placed on contours can be detected automatically to attach elevation values to vectorised contours. The automatic vectorised data needs some editing. This is called vector editing. The vectorised lines are subjected to feature forming. In this the lines are split to form line segments and nodes. The line segments are appropriately joined to form polygons and line features. Thereafter feature coding is carried out using color detection, pattern recognisation etc. Also a semi-automatic or manual approach at this stage is followed to provide better results. CLASSIFICATION OF SCANNERS: Scanners may be equipped with black and white sensors or colour sensors (multi colour scanners). Also a scanner may be classified according to the number of grey levels or colours they can distinguish such as a 6 bit system or 8 bit system. However the most popular basis for classification is on the basis of digitizing surface. There are two types of raster scan digitizers in this class known as flatbed and drum. ACCURACY REQUIREMENTS: The positional accuracy standards for the measuring system of present cartographic digitizers are imposed by the requirement to reproduce a digitized line in such a way that the human eye can not detect any significant deviation between the original and the line reproduced by means of graphic output device in the same scale. The resolving capability of the human eye and the graphical reproduction facilities combine to limit deviations to about 0.10 mm. Although the cartographer is actually interested in the overall accuracy, we find several measures for accuracy used in practice. They are related to

different error sources within the measuring system. The errors made by operator during digitization have to be added to those values, because they are not included in the specifications published by the manufacturers. There are three quality indicators namely: Resolution Repeatability Accuracy

The resolution is the smallest distance which can be measured along an axis. The working surface of a manual cartographic digitizer can be thought of as covered by grid squares, the sides of each square being the measure of resolution. One can specify the position on the surface only on intersections of grid lines and not between them. The resolution in cartographic digitizers is usually between 0.01 mm and 0.10 mm. In scanning systems resolution is defined as cell size. It is usually between 0.01 and 0.10 mm. The repeatability is the tolerance within which cluster the coordinates of the repeated measurements of the same point. The point may be approached from any direction and the setting may be repeated as many times as desired. The repeatability of cartographic digitizers is usually 0.025 mm or worse. The first two indicators are not sufficient to describe the performance of the measuring system. Two further terms are connected with the instrumental accuracy of the digitizers: static accuracy (usually known as simple accuracy) and dynamic accuracy. Information on static accuracy should deal with the overall errors which may be expected in a stationary measuring system. It is usually given in the form of tolerances between measured and given coordinates of a practically error free grid. The accuracy may be also expressed in form of RMSE. For cartographic digitizers a static accuracy should not exceed 0.10 mm. Considering the influence of the operator it is obvious that the positional accuracy of manually digitized cartographic features shall be between 0.10 and 0.25 mm. Scanned features are not influenced by operator so better accuracy is expected. Dynamic accuracy also includes the error sources which occur when the measuring system is in motion. With manually operated instruments, the operator influences dynamic accuracy to a great extent. The accuracy specifications are given by manufacturers for every type of digitizers. No digitizing equipment should be purchased without such specifications. The accuracy of equipments should be tested in order to check whether the actual accuracy is not worse than the specified one. The tests should be performed as a part of acceptance test and later at regular intervals. The tests are performed with help of a fine line grid on a stable material. The coordinates of the grid intersections have to be known with the accuracy

higher than specified for the digitizer to be tested. In case manual digitizers the grid intersections are measured and the resulting coordinates compared with the given coordinates of intersections. The discrepancies may be used either to estimate the tolerance (the maximum absolute discrepancy) or the RMSE. Measurements should be made with utmost care to keep the operators errors to absolute minimum. Use of magnifying glass is recommended. In case of scanners the grid should be, of course, scanned and the coordinates of the scanned grid intersection derived using either a computer program or screen digitizing. This is called Grid test.


1. MEASUREMENTS IN GIS Lengths Perimeters Areas





7. ANALYSIS OF SURFACES Calculating slope and aspect

8. NETWORK ANALYSIS Shortest path problem The travelling salesman problem Location-allocation modelling Route tracing Quantitative spatial analysis


The satellite generation started with launch of Sputnik (Russia) in 1957. Since then a large number of satellites have been launched for a variety of purposes starting from weather monitoring, remote sensing etc. One of the satellite applications is the Satellite Geodesy. It involves the determination of shape and size of the earth and determination of precise position of earth features with satellite based technology. Satellite technology for Geodesy came into significance due to a satellite system named as Transit Doppler which came into existence in 1964. It was designed by U.S. Navy. It has the configuration of 18 satellites. It was a system with near polar orbit at a height of 1000 km emitting signals at 150 and 400 MHz. The basic principle used in this system is Dopplers principle. It was capable of providing the position of points with an accuracy of 1 5 m. However it is now replaced by much more advanced, popular and widely employed satellite positioning system: the Global Positioning System (GPS) and the Global Navigational Satellite System (GLONASS).


The Navigational Satellite Timing and Ranging Global Positioning System (NAVSTAR GPS) is a constellation of radio navigation satellites developed since 1973 by the USA Defence Dept. Initially the system was developed as a navigation system for defence needs but later on its potentiality in precise positioning of features on the surface of the earth has been realized and now this system is widely used as an efficient tool in Geodetic surveying, geophysical investigations etc. This system with the state of the art developments is capable of providing the location of features with sub-meter accuracy. The clear advantages in use of this system are its all weather capability, day and night operations, no restriction on length of base lines, fast and economical survey etc. Besides, inter-visibility between points is not essential. Therefore this is gaining popularity in various fields of surveying.

System Description:
The GPS has three main components: The space segment 24 (plus three spare) satellites in a near circular orbit Orbit height 20200 km. Life span 7.5 years No of orbits = 6 with separation of 30 degree 4 satellites in each orbit. Inclination of the orbits is 63 degree Period 12 hrs (sidereal) Continuous transmission of message about position and time (atomic clock), clock bias, atmospheric propagation correction data etc.

Two frequencies coded in precise code (P code) and Coarse acquisition code (C/A code) Wave length of P code 29.3 m and C code 293 m Also signal in two frequency carriers L1 and L2 Power from two solar energy converting panels, charging the three batteries for use during when earth eclipses the Sun Each satellite has on board propulsion system for maintaining orbit position. The constellation is designed in way such that at least four satellites should be visible at any point at any time.

The Control Segment About 30-40 ground tracking stations Observation made to satellites from these stations The time and position of the satellite is computed from these data Uploads time, position and other data to the satellites in its orbit updates satellites ephemerides.

The User Segment

GPS receiver and antenna at observing station Observation to satellites over the visible horizon Signals from satellites received and processed to provide the position.

The GPS orbital configuration can be visualized from the following figure:

GPS SIGNALS STRUCTURE GPS satellites continuously transmit different signals with a wealth of information such as the two carrier frequencies (i.e. two signals named as L1 carrier and L2 carrier frequencies), coarse acquisition and precise acquisition codes and the message containing the ephemeredes ( the position and the time at which the signal transmitted) and the health. The structure of the carrier frequency and the codes are: Signal L1 carrier L2 carrier P code C/A code Wavelength () 19.05 cm 24.45 cm 29.31 m 293.1 m Frequency (f) 1575.42 MHz 1227.60 Mhz 10.23 MHz 1.023 Mhz

The code and satellite messages are piggy backed on the carrier signal through modulation. L1 carrier is combined with C/A code, P code and the message whereas the L2 carrier is combined with P code and the message. PRINCIPLES OF GPS POSITIONING GPS positioning techniques may be categorized as being predominantly based on finding the pseudo-range using either code or carrier beat phase measurements. Code techniques are simple and produce low accuracies while carrier technique are complex and produce higher accuracies. Pseudo range by code measurement: The GPS is a one way ranging system i.e. signals are only transmitted by the satellite. The fundamental observable is the signal frequency and the signal travel time between the satellite antenna and receiver antenna. Then the relation: distance = velocity x time is applied to find the pseudo-range. The time is obtained by comparing the clock reading at transmitter antenna and the receiver antenna. These two clocks are never perfectly synchronized thus causing a systematic error called time bias. Therefore determining the distance from the satellite antenna to the receiver antenna is in error and called pseudo ranges. Let the range (distance) between S1 and A be r1. Then, r1 = S1A = v x dt -----------------------------------------------------------(1)

Where v = velocity of the signal = 3 x 10 m/sec. dt = signal travel time = observable/known From equation (1) the range can be computed. This range is called pseudo range due to presence of error such as clock bias.

Range by Carrier phase measurement: For precise geodetic positions, the pseudo ranges have to be derived from phase measurements on the carrier signals because of better resolution. Here the observable is the carrier phase difference. In this technique, the phase of the received signal is compared with the phase when it was transmitted. The difference between these gives only the fine part of the reading i.e. the fractional part of the wavelength received at the receiver. The integral number of the wavelengths has to be determined by other techniques. The integral number is called initial phase ambiguity. The GPS receiver records the carrier phase (i.e. the fraction of one wavelength of L1 or L2) only. The number of cycles between the satellite and receiver N (called ambiguity) is not observed but estimated. Therefore in this technique the main objective remains to solve for ambiguity. The range distance is given by: = ( + N)x + errors The resolution of ambiguity problem is done by geometric methods or combination of code and phase measurements and is complex and beyond the scope of present study. Here also the measurement is influenced by the clock bias and other factors. The clock error is eliminated by differencing measurements made simultaneously to two different satellites. The clock error and other errors also can be eliminated by observation to one satellite from two stations. This is called single differencing. However double differencing technique is used to eliminate the effects of most of the errors in which two satellites are observed simultaneously from two stations. Another technique called triple differencing is used which eliminates system errors and also resolve the ambiguity problem. This consists of taking difference between two double differences and therefore involves making measurements at two different times to two satellites from two stations. However four or more satellites are normally observed so as to provide redundancy in equations and finally least square approach is followed in computations.

Computation of coordinates when (pseudo) range is known

Let A be a point on the surface with its geocentric coordinates XA, YA and ZA. Let the coordinates of the satellite S1 be XS1, YS1 and ZS1. Let the pseudo range be r1. Then, r1 = Sqrt. ((XS1- XA)2 + (YS-YA)2 + (ZS1 ZA)2) ---------------- (2)

Here r1 is known from either code measurement or phase measurement. XS,YS1 and ZS1 are known from the ephemeris. Therefore the equation (2) has three unknowns XA,YA and ZA. With minimum observation to 3 satellites three such equations can be formed and solved for the 3 unknowns, i.e. the coordinates of observation station can be computed. A fourth satellite may be observed to eliminate clock bias. However more satellites are preferred to provide a least square fit. The equations from four such observations will be: r1 + dr = r2 + dr = r3 + dr = r4 + dr = Sqrt. ((XS1- XA)2 Sqrt. ((XS1- XA)2 Sqrt. ((XS1- XA)2 Sqrt. ((XS1- XA)2 + + + + (YS-YA)2 + (ZS1 ZA)2) (YS-YA)2 + (ZS1 ZA)2) (YS-YA)2 + (ZS1 ZA)2) (YS-YA)2 + (ZS1 ZA)2)

Here dr is the error in range due to clock bias.

INSTRUMENTATION & PRECAUTIONS A wide variety of GPS receivers are commercially available to suit the user requirements, ranging from the high precision Rogue receivers of NASA to the hand-held receivers of low precision used by navigators. The geodetic receivers (Trimble, Ashtech, Leica etc) are high precision dual frequency multi-channel instruments capable of giving centimeter level accuracy in positioning whereas the hand-held receivers are codeless single frequency receivers with accuracies of about few meters in real time. Features of a geodetic receiver are: Nine or more channels to enable tracking of more satellites simultaneously Dual frequency receivers with L1 pseudo range measurement accuracy better than 0.2 m, L2 carrier phase measurements with better than 0.1 cm, L1 pseudo range measurements from encoded P code with 0.1 cm Full wave length on L2 Low phase and code noise High sampling rate for L1 and L2 High memory, Low power consumption

The location of a satellite with respect to the point of observation is given by its elevation angle and azimuth. At the time of observation the view to the satellites must be clear and normally have a mask angle of 15 degree above the horizon. There should be no transmitters or metallic objects. GPS OPERATING MODES AND METHODS Absolute Positioning (point positioning) In this only one receiver is used to fix the position of a point. Code measurement technique is only used. The errors due to clock and atmosphere remain. The coordinates of the satellite with respect to the reference spheroid is used to compute the coordinates of the observation station. Relative Positioning (Differential positioning) The use of two or more GPS receivers in simultaneous observation is called Differential GPS positioning (DGPS). This provides a far more accurate position due to application of differential corrections. In this one receiver is set up at a known site and the other at unknown sites. The observation at known site is used to compute the systematic errors such as atmospheric etc and this is transferred to the unknown site where the correction to the observation to that site is applied thus improving the result. In this real time positions of better than 5 m is achievable. A similar approach to carrier phase

measurements can yield sub-meter accuracy. There are three differential positioning techniques: Static Positioning

In this at least two receivers collect carrier phase data in stationary mode for an extended period of time. Post processing software analyses all data simultaneously to obtain differential position between the two receivers. Typical distances between receivers vary from several tens of km to thousands of km. Long duration observations are carried out to minimize systematic errors thus yielding very high accuracies in positions. Kinematic Differential positioning

If the area of survey is within several kms, then the some of the systematic errors in carrier phase measurement will be negligible. In such case this technique is adopted in place of static one. A very reduced length of station occupancy is achieved thus reducing the time and cost of survey. There are two ways in this approach: Pseudo kinematic surveying: In this one receiver remains static at the known site while another receiver moves all remote sites in sequence. At each site the moving receiver collects data for few minutes. After a gap of at least one hour, the remote sites are re-occupied and the observation is repeated. Stop and go surveying: In this the carrier phase ambiguities are resolved before the actual survey starts. Thereafter one receiver moves through the remote sites in sequence. In this the differential positions of remote sites are determined accurately with few seconds of observation.. The limitation is that when moving the receiver between remote sites, it must maintain phase lock to at least four satellites. Besides, care must be taken for signal shading (such as beneath a bridge) during the movement of the reciver. Rapid (static) Surveying

This is similar to static surveying but with reduced time of occupancy at the remote sites. In this the code measurement is combined with carrier phase or by making use of redundant carrier phase measurements.

LIMITATIONS OF GPS Selective availability and anti-spoofing The Dept of Defence of USA intentionally degrades the accuracy of the ephemeries of the satellites in order to limit the real time absolute positioning accuracy to about 100m. This is known as selective availability. However this limitation was overcome by Differential GPS (DGPS) but area jamming technique was adopted to neutralize the DGPS.

Anti-spoofing refers to denial of P code to international users. Datum used in GPS survey The WGS 84 is used as the datum for GPS coordinates. This is a Geocentric datum. Normally a local datum is used in a mapping project for a country thus necessitating transformation in order to make compatibility in positional data. It must be noted that the heights provided by GPS are ellipsoidal heights. With a suitable geoidal model the orthometric heights are computed. Therefoe the accuracy of this height is dependent on the accuracy of the geiod model. Receiver Independent Exchange Format This refers to the data output format of different GPS receiver manufacturers. His is now overcome due to RINEX (Receiver Independent Exchange Format). MEASURE OF PRCISION IN GPS DATA: The satellite geometry has a direct effect on positioning accuracy. A better geometri cal configuration/ distribution of observed satellites yield better results. The geometry of satellites distribution contributes to accuracy and hence quantified by a term Geometrical dilution of precision (GDOP). There are three types of GDOP: HDOP Horizontal dilution of precision VDOP Vertical dilution of precision TDOP - Time dilution of precision ERRORS IN GPS MEASUREMENTS Satellite dependent (broadcast ephemeris, satellite clock) Atmospheric (ionospheric and tropospheric refraction) Observation station based (receiver clock, station coordinates, multipath, antenna set up, receiver noise) Measurement related (antenna phase centre, residual bias, cycle slip)

Some of these errors are difficult to separate as they manifest themselves as range measurement errors. The combined effect of these errors on the basis of laws of error propagation is called User Equivalent Range Error (UERE). It is this error which when multiplied by the DOP yields an estimate of achievable accuracy for a single point positioning. An error unique to carrier phase observations is cycle slip. The satellite is locked with respect to a receiver once the observation starts. Sometimes it

fails to maintain the continuous lock thus causing this cycle slip in which an integer number of the wave length is lost from the number of cycles. GPS DATA PROCESSING: Most of the orbital errors can be reduced by using a precise ephemeris instead of broadcast ephemeris. The GPS provides the ellipsoidal heights. To convert this to orthometric height, the geoidal undulation of the place is required. For this purpose, global geoidal models (e.g EGM 96) providing accuracies of the order of 1 m are available. However more accurate models for some places are also available. APPLICATIONS: Geodetic Control Surveys Establishing new control or densification/improvement of existing networks. Geoid and height determination

Photogrammetry Flight management Position of scanners and profiling instruments Support for block adjustments

Engineering Surveys Large scale surveys/cadastral surveys Setting out local networks for control of engineering projects (Tunnel, bridge, roads, pipe lines, waterways etc)

Information Technology Geodynamics Study of crust movements Local monitoring of deformation and subsidence Plate motion studies. Land information system Geographic information system

Precise Navigation/ Marine geodesy and Hydrography

GLONASS A USSR system similar to GPS, but pure civilian system 24 satellites in 3 orbits, inclination = 64.8, orbit = 19133 km, period = 11 hrs 17 m, Transmits signals in L band frequencies of 1597 1617 KHz and 1240 1260 MHz. Uses Moscow time or UCT Datum is the Soviet Geocentric coordinate System 1985. Started in 1982, but fully operational in 1996 Receivers available to observe GPS signal as well as GLONASS signals


1. Explain the GPS system. Discuss its components

2. How is the structure of GPS signal? 3. Explain how the pseudo range is determined by code measurement. 4. Discuss the mathematical principles of determining the position of a point in absolute mode once the pseudo range is known? 5. What is ambiguity in carrier phase measurement? Explain. 6. What are the precautions to be taken when GPS measurements are carried out? 7. Differentiate between Relative positioning and Absolute positioning 8. Discuss three relative positioning techniques. What is Selective availability and anti-spoofing? What do you mean by Datum Limitation of GPS system? What do you mean by Geometric dilution of Precision? List and explain the sources of error in GPS measurements. List and explain applications of GPS. Describe the salient features of GLONASS system.