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BIOGRAPHY OF THE PROPHET (SAW

)
Question no 3/4
MUHAMMAD SHUMAIL MOHY-UD-DIN

MUHAMMAD SHUMAIL MOHY-UD-DIN

Islamiyat Notes otes

TABLE OF CONTENTS:
Biography Of the Prophet (S.A.W) Topic
First revelation Reasons of opposition to the Prophet’s teachings Persecutions Taif incident Miraj Invitation to Prophet to come Medina and acceptation by Prophet Events that led up to migration immediately Events of Prophet’s departure during migration Importance of Hijra Events that followed Hijra immediately Arrangements for the people of Medina made by Prophet The Battle of Badr (IMPORTANCE) The Battle of Uhad The Battle of Khandak/Trench Treaty of Hudabiya and importance Letters to Kings and Emperors Battle of Khyber Battle of Ma’utah Conquest of Makkah Battle of Hunain The Siege of Taif Expedition of Tabuk Farewell Sermon of Prophet Death of the Prophet Prophet’s experience in caves Prophet as a Model of Excellence Prophet as blessing of Allah for the mankind & mercy for worlds The relationship of Muslims with Quraish Muslims’ relationship with Jews and Hypocrites Importance of Makkah and Medina in Prophet’s life

Sr. No 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) 19) 20) 21) 22) 23) 24) 25) 26) 27) 28) 29) 30)

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*** THE TOPICS SHOWED IN RED COLOUR ARE NOT PREPARED. CONSULT BOOK FOR THEM.

BIOGRAPHY BIOGRAPHY OF THE PROPHET

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MUHAMMAD SHUMAIL MOHY-UD-DIN

Islamiyat Notes otes

a) b)

Give an account of the Prophet’s experience of receiving revelation. [10] Explain the significance of the angel and Waraqa Ibn Nawfal in this event. [2×3] (Oct 2004)

a) The Prophet used to retreat in seclusion to the cave of Hira in the mount of Nur where he passed his time in meditation. He used to take some provisions with him. When these finished he would come back. Muhammad was nearly forty years old, when towards the end of Ramadan an Angel came in the cave of Hira. The Angel said to him, “Read,” he said “I cannot read,” Where upon he himself reported, “The Angel hugged and squeezed me so hard that I thought I would die of suffocation, then he released me and said, “Read” and again I said “I cannot read” then the third time he squeezed me as before and said: Read in the name of your Lord who created. Created man form a clot of blood Read you Lord is most Generous. Who taught man by the pen. Taught man that which he did not know.” The Prophet recited these verses after the Angel and he felt as if the words ere written on his heart. These were the first five verses of Surah-al-Alaq and the first revealed verses of the Holy Quran. Muhammad was greatly shaken by this strange experience. He thought that he might be possessed by evil spirits, or inspired by jinns. So he fled form the cave. When the Prophet was half way down the slope he heard the being above saying: “O Muhammad you are the Messenger of Allah, and I am Jibrail.” He raised his eyes and saw the angel filling the whole horizon, and again he repeated the above mentioned quote. Wherever he looked, he saw the angel flying in the distance. He stood there until the Angel disappeared. Muhammad rushed home greatly, disturbed by this event, to his wife Khatijah and said her: “Cover me, cover me”. Khatijah covered him until his trembling was over. Then he related the event to his wife. She comforted him, and reassured him saying: “You have never done any wrong to anyone, you are kind to other and you help the poor. Allah will not let you down.” Then she took him to her cousin Waraqa bin Naufal who was a Christian and had knowledge of the old scriptures of Torah and the Gospel. Waraqa heard all that had happened to the Prophet and said that it was the same Angel that came to Moses and told him that he was the messenger of Allah. He wished he was younger, and could live up to the time when his people would turn him out of the city. b) Gabriel, the archangel, who has the responsibility of bringing Allah’s Message to his prophets, also brought the first message of God to Muhammad. He brought the first revelation of the Quran i.e. the first five verses of the Surah-al-Alaq, when he was meditating in the cave of Hira. He was the first link between Allah and Muhammad. He was the first to alert the prophet of the start of his career. He delivered him the glad tidings of Prophethood and alerted the Prophet towards his new career. Since the angel was a super natural creature
BIOGRAPHY BIOGRAPHY OF THE PROPHET

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MUHAMMAD SHUMAIL MOHY-UD-DIN

Islamiyat Notes otes

who could fly and fill the whole horizon, he confirmed that he was not a normal being but the angel of Allah. His appearance is a sign that the revelation was truly from God. These revelations were the start of a new faith for the believers and followers of Muhammad. The revelation brought by the angel was the source of enlightenment to the dark times of the Arabs. Waraqa bin Naufal was the cousin of Khatijah. He was a Christian and the scholar of bible and early scriptures and could write from the Gospel in Hebrew. He was an old man who had lost his eyesight. He confirmed to the Prophet that the being he had seen was the Angel Jibrail who had also brought the revelations to other Prophets and brought the Torah to Musa. He confirmed that Muhammad was the Messenger of Allah. He helped him understand the responsibilities to which he had been called. He removed all the confusions of the Prophet about this experience and predicted and warned him that the people of Makkah will expel the Prophet from Makkah. ___________________________________________________________________________ Mark Scheme: For full marks answers should include all the points marked *. (a) • • • • • • • • • • • • (b) • • • • • • The angel was performing the duty he had previously performed with other messengers. He was the first to alert the Prophet to his new career. His appearance is a sign that the revelations were truly from God. Waraqa was the first to explain to the Prophet the significance of his experience. He helped him realize that he had been visited by the angel who had appeared to other messengers. This helped the Prophet understand the responsibilities to which he had been called. *Muhammad was meditating in a cave on Mount Hira. This was when he was 40. *A being unknown to him but later identified as Gabriel appeared. *This being seized him and crushed him, and gave him the order 'Recite!' *He could not, and the crushing and order were repeated twice (three times in all). *Then the being itself recited ‘Recite, in the name of your Lord who created’, etc. (give one mark for a reference to the Quranic verses, and 2 marks for a full quotation). Muhammad left the cave and returned home. On the way he again saw the being as a giant figure astride the horizon. He went to his wife Khadija in confusion. She took him to her relative Waraqa lbn Nawfal for an explanation of what had happened. He said the being was the Angel of the Law.

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MUHAMMAD SHUMAIL MOHY-UD-DIN

Islamiyat Notes otes

Examiner’s Report (a) This part was answered very well by many candidates, though some answers were fuller than others. The fullest detailed the triple crushing of the Prophet, quoted the verses revealed to him, referred to his second vision of the angel after leaving the cave, his comforting by Khadija and his visit to Waraqa. In descriptive questions, the Examiners look for accuracy and completeness, and candidates often lose marks by getting basic facts wrong or leaving them out altogether. The need for planning answers is paramount. There were some surprising interpretations in a few answers. One was that the angel did not crush the Prophet but held him in order to reassure him, and another was that the angel first visited the Prophet six months before coming to him in the cave with the first revelation. If any teachers know an authentic source for such interpretations, they are asked to share them in the Discussion Group (see above). The Hadith preserved by al-Bukhari is generally taken as the most reliable source; this is quoted in full in the Islamiyat textbook, pages 10-12 (see above). (b) There were some good answers to this part, though many candidates were unable to say why the two characters of the angel and Waraqa were important. The best answers explained that the angel who appeared was God’s messenger to all Prophets, and was the first to inform the Prophet Muhammad of this new career that had been chosen for him, and that Waraqa helped him to understand what this new career was, who the angel was, and the difficulties that lay ahead.

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MUHAMMAD SHUMAIL MOHY-UD-DIN Islamiyat Notes otes BIOGRAPHY BIOGRAPHY OF THE PROPHET PAPER1.Q NO.2 Page | 6 .

MUHAMMAD SHUMAIL MOHY-UD-DIN Islamiyat Notes otes Write an account of the major difficulties faced by i. but they turned away. But the followers of the Prophet remained steadfast and strong in their faith. The pagans sent Utba bin Rabi’a with offers of great wealth or marriage to a beautiful woman of his choice or kingship of Makkah but the prophet declined. Then Mutam bin Adi gave him shelter and helped him in entering BIOGRAPHY BIOGRAPHY OF THE PROPHET PAPER1.Q NO. His uncle Abu Lahab condemned him and said. but ridiculed him. On another occasion. The boycott lasted for 3 years and during this no one was allowed to talk. An old woman regularly pelted him with rubbish on his way to prayer. The Prophet was saved form further physical torture because of the political protection of his uncle Abu Talib. Abu Lahab forced his two sons to divorce their wives Ruqayah and Umm-e-Kulthum. the Prophet refused and said. the Prophet. filth. ‘May you perish forever. pelted him with stones until his feet were filled with blood and was chased out of the city by boys throwing stones at them. and trade or marry with them or to provide them with food or anything to drink. declare openly to them. stones and brambles in the path of the Prophet. [4] (May 2007) i) Prophet declared his Prophethood and began preaching Islam openly as commanded by Allah by the following words: “Therefore. After this command the prophet assembled the people of Makkah at the Safa hills and there invited them towards oneness of Allah and his Prophethood. the Prophet’s daughters after the Surah Lahab was revealed and both of them divorced. the Prophet prayed for them and when he returned to Makkah. his followers [6] b) Explain how their reaction to these difficulties set an example for the Muslims of today. Makkans did not allowed him to enter. He commanded Aqbah bin Abu Mueet to place the fetus of a she camel on the Prophet’s back while he was prostrating himself at the Ka’aba. The Quraish started calling him a magician. When the Prophet’s second son Abdullah died in infancy. call. Then the pagans pressurized Abu Talib to stop prophet from preaching. Abu Lahab started calling the Prophet ‘abtar’ a man cut off with no male off spring. in 619 AD to Islam but they not only rejected him. and [6] ii. what you are commanded and turn away from the pagans”. poet and fortune teller and ridiculed his commandments. Aqbah bin Abu Mueet rolled his sheet round the neck of the Prophet and tried to strangle him while he was praying at the Ka’aba. the Quraish boycotted the tribe of Banu Hashim and forced them to stay in a narrow gorge known as Shaab Abi Talib. Abu Talib when said prophet to stop preaching. I would not stop until God fulfills my mission or destroys me in the process”. But instead of cursing them. Did you call us for this?’. a town 60 miles away from Makkah. The Prophet however was deprived of this protection in the 10th Year of Prophethood when Abu Talib passed away and the persecutions of the Quraish intensified. In the 7th Year of Prophethood. The Prophet then invited the people of Ta’if. Poems were written to ridicule the Prophet. “O uncle! Even if they place the sun on my right hand and the moon on my left to force me to renounce my mission.2 Page | 7 . His wife used to put thorns.

The Quraish followed them but they fled. ii) The companions and followers of the Prophet were subjected to great physical torture by the Quraish.MUHAMMAD SHUMAIL MOHY-UD-DIN Islamiyat Notes otes Makkah. who was a great source of moral and economic support to the Prophet. Umar and Ali suffered and the ordinary were not employed anywhere by the Quraish. Khubab bin Arat. But the followers of the Prophet remained steadfast and strong in their faith. Lubeera. call. The Quraish then sent delegation under Amr bin Al-Aas to king of Abyssinia and tried to convince the King. the Prophet along with his followers migrated to Madinah. Hazrat Jaffar bin Abu Talib answered the questions of Negus questioned to Muslims. b) Patience Trust in Allah Steadfastness No compromise on principles of Islam Migration Forgiveness ___ Conquest of Makkah The Prophet and his followers bore the cruelest of deeds with steadfastness. In the 13th Year of Prophethood. The boycott lasted for 3 years and during this no one was allowed to talk. In the same year the Prophet was further discouraged after the death of his loving wife Khatijah. Then at last Allah commanded Prophet to migrate to Medina. Harris bin Abi Hala. After hearing it Negus said. 11 men and 4 women including Usman and his wife Ruqqaya migrated to Abyssinia. In the 7th Year of Prophethood. when the persecutions became unbearable. the Quraish boycotted the tribe of Banu Hashim except Abu Lahab and forced them to stay in a narrow gauge known as Shaab Abi Talib.Q NO. Abu Fakeeh was also persecuted by Safwan bin Ummiyah. EXTRA POINTS: • People those met Abu Talib are Abu Sufiyan. Amar and his parents Yasir and Summaiyah were persecuted by Abu Jahl and he killed Summaiyah mercilessly. Abu Jahal. Najashi to hand Muslims back and presented him with gifts but they were unsuccessful. Bilal was made to lie on scorching sand by his master Umaiyah bin Khalaf and he would place a heavy stone on his chest. Other companions including Saad bin Abi Waqas. Allah is One. as commanded by Allah. In the 5th year of Prophethood. Usman bin Affan. The business of the rich such as Abu Bakar. “Allah is One. The oppressed and poor BIOGRAPHY BIOGRAPHY OF THE PROPHET PAPER1. and trade or marry with them or to provide them with food or anything to drink. “I will not handover to you these men and women” and agreed to give the Muslims refuge. There means of livelihood were taken away. once came to rescue the Prophet when he was being attacked by a Quraish. The following year 18 women and 83 men took refuge in Abyssinia.” His master also used to lash him at night. Zunayra and Nahdia were also persecuted terribly by the Quraish. But Bilal would say. During this attempt he got injured and ultimately embraced martyrdom.2 Page | 8 . His firm belief in Allah sets a perfect example for the Muslims of toady. They could not pray at Ka’ba openly before the conversion of Hamza and Umar and those who did were persecuted by the Quraish. Utba bin Rabi’a etc • The point of boycott with Banu Hashim can be written in both part (a) and part (b). after realizing the similarity of Islam and Christianity.

2 Page | 9 . The Prophet remained patient and bore the persecutions with courage and migrated to Madinah without retaliation. they should firmly remain on the path of duty.Q NO. They should instead look to migrate to a safer place. make unsuccessful attempts of migrating. he didn’t curse or abuse anybody but turned towards Allah for help and prayed to Allah to strengthen Islam by giving him Umar or Abu Lahab. This instructs the Muslims of today to pray to Allah to improve their situation and indeed He will help them. The Prophet and his followers preferred to stay in a narrow gauge for three year instead of giving up their faith. The Holy Prophet made no compromise on Islamic principles despite being offered bribes such as leadership of Makkah.MUHAMMAD SHUMAIL MOHY-UD-DIN Islamiyat Notes otes classes in the Muslim Community should hold fast onto Allah and submit to His will and Allah will surely help them. This tells the Muslims to not be discouraged or afraid to take a stand or bear punishment for the sake of Islam and on the long run they would be helped by Allah. Allah immediately fulfilled his wish and gave him Umar following which Muslims could pray openly at Ka’aba. Similarly the leaders of Muslims should follow such principles and instead of adopting easy ways of making money. BIOGRAPHY BIOGRAPHY OF THE PROPHET PAPER1. This sets a perfect example for the Muslims of Iraq. Kashmir and Palestine who despite of being less powerful. In the time of persecution. marriage with the fairest lady and never ending jewelry and riches.

Gabriel appeared along with the angels of mountains and offered Prophet to destroy the town but the Prophet said: “I was sent as a blessing to worlds. He took rest for some moments in the orchard of Utba bin Rabia and Utba’s slave offered a bunch of grapes to the Prophet. Masaud and Abd Ya Lil) for 10 days.Q NO.MUHAMMAD SHUMAIL MOHY-UD-DIN Islamiyat Notes otes The hostility of Quraish increased with the death of Abu Talib and Khatijah and they mounted persecutions on the Muslims. a town 60 miles away from Makkah. His shoes filled up with the blood. He was not only rejected by them but also he was ill-treated. I hope Allah will raise such people from the town who will accept my message”.2 Page | 10 . They set the wicked and villains upon the Prophet. BIOGRAPHY BIOGRAPHY OF THE PROPHET PAPER1. He invited the people of Taif in general and 3 chiefs (Habib. They injured the Prophet seriously. The Prophet returned to Makkah and Mutim bin Adi offered him protection to continue his mission. On his way to Makkah at Qarm-Al-Manazil. Then the Prophet decided to invite the people of Taif. The Prophet was accompanied by Zaid bin Haritha.

Q NO.MUHAMMAD SHUMAIL MOHY-UD-DIN Islamiyat Notes otes ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ BIOGRAPHY BIOGRAPHY OF THE PROPHET PAPER1.2 Page | 11 .

After this. This is known as ‘Second pledge of Akba’. Next year. the 2 major tribes. were always at war with each other. The Prophet invited them towards Islam. Besides the Prophet. The Prophet preached the people of Makkah 13 years but they were not ready to accept Islam. The Prophet invited them towards Islam and they accepted Islam and return back to Yathrab. they invited Prophet to settle their differences. the Prophet decided to preach the pilgrims coming from outside the Makkah. Therefore. ==> They had deep desire to have Prophet among them to teach the fundamentals of Islam to them. ==> Medinians were impressed by Prophet’s religion and personality and wanted to spread Islam in Yathrab.MUHAMMAD SHUMAIL MOHY-UD-DIN Islamiyat Notes otes a) Say briefly why the people of Medina invited Prophet to their town. Moreover the Quraish planed at Dar-ul-Nadwa to BIOGRAPHY BIOGRAPHY OF THE PROPHET PAPER1. They not only mocked but also ill-treated him. In the 13th year of Prophethood. During this boycott no one was allowed to talk. b) The Prophet was being persecuted by the Quraish at Makkah like an old woman regularly pelted him with rubbish on his way to prayer and the whole clan of Banu Hashim was boycotted and was forced to live in a narrow gorge known as Shaab Abi Talib for 3 years in 7th year of Prophethood. The Prophet found Yathrab more fertile for the new faith to grow. ==> They were also aware of the persecutions being faced by the Prophet and his followers in Makkah and thus invited him to Medina. people of Yathrab were considerate and kind-hearted. and trade or marry with them or to provide them with food or anything to drink. he decided to preach the pilgrims and some of them accepted Islam. The people of Yathrab accepted Islam readily and Islam spread in the region rapidly. They would neither indulge in stealing nor commit adultery or kill their children and would obey the Prophet in every respect. 73 men and 2 women also came from Yathrab. ==> Yathrab was a war-torn city as Aus and Khazraj.2 Page | 12 . They pledged with Prophet to help and protect him and his followers and invited him to live with them as the leader of community. b) Say briefly why the Prophet accepted their invitation. This oath is called ‘First pledge of Akba’. [4] [4] (October 2001) a) When the Quraish increased their persecutions at the Muslims at Makkah. They have been fighting over tiny issues for many years and the Jews exploited this situation. Medina was surrounded by mountains on 3 sides so it was a safe and secure from enemies attacks whereas Makkah was an opened land and was not surrounded by mountains.Q NO. Then the Prophet attempted to preach the people of Taif. 6 people came from Yathrab. The Quraish were obstinate but on the other hand. his followers were also being persecuted by the Quraish like Bilal was made to lie on scorching sand by his master Umaiyah bin Khalaf and he would place a heavy stone on his chest and his master also used to lash him at night and Amar and his parents Yasir and Summaiyah were persecuted by Abu Jahl and he killed Summaiyah mercilessly. They pledged at the hands of the Prophet that they would worship one Allah. call. a group of 12 people again came from Yathrab. He wanted to put his teachings into practice to achieve his objective and so migrated to Medina.

BIOGRAPHY BIOGRAPHY OF THE PROPHET PAPER1.2 Page | 13 .Q NO.MUHAMMAD SHUMAIL MOHY-UD-DIN Islamiyat Notes otes assassinate the Prophet and Allah commanded him to migrate to Yathrab and so he at once migrated to Medina.

or slay you or get you out (of your homes). Abu Talib.Q NO. They also swore that they would help and protect the Prophet and invited him to live in Yasrab as the leader of their community. But the people of Madinah listened to him and his teachings. b) The Holy Prophet belonged to the clan of Banu Hashim. he secretly escaped with Abu Bakar. his efforts of preaching Islam at Makkah had met with little success and only had a few number of supporters who were tortured by the Quraish and if the persecutions continued it could have proven fatal for Islam and therefore the Prophet was in a desperate need of finding shelter for himself and his followers form the Quraish. But the Prophet was warned about the evil intentions of Quraish through divine revelation.MUHAMMAD SHUMAIL MOHY-UD-DIN Islamiyat Notes otes a) b) Describe the events that immediately led up to the Prophet's migration. to keep you in bonds. the people of Madinah had sworn their alliance to the Prophet and promised to BIOGRAPHY BIOGRAPHY OF THE PROPHET PAPER1. They swore to the Prophet that they would believe in One God. He was utterly rejected by the people of Ta'if. as commanded by Allah and asked Ali to sleep in his bed as a decoy and return the items. In the 11th year of Prophethood. The leader of the clan was the Prophet's uncle Abu Talib. during the First and Second Pledge of Al-Aqabah. they spread the message of Islam in Yasrab. the Hijra. stealing and killing their children. On their return to Yasrab. The persecutions intensified after the death of Khatijah and Abu Talib in the 10th year of Prophethood. 73 men and 2 women came to the Prophet and took the same pledge. [10] Suggest three reasons why he decided to move form Mecca to Medina. Khatijah who was also a source of moral and financial support to the Prophet had also passed away that same year meaning the Prophet was defenseless at Makkah." The night the Quraish had planned to the kill the Prophet. Gradually the Prophet started sending Muslims. [6] (Oct 2005) a) Ever since the Prophet had announced his Prophethood. they would obey him in every way and refrain form all moral and social evils including adultery. the Quraish had persecuted him and his followers. The following year 12 people from Yasrab came and accepted Islam at Al-Aqabah. hit him with stones until his shoes were his blood and was chased out of the city by the boys pelting stones at him. This event is known as the First Pledge of AlAqabah. They plot and plan. This event is known as the Second Pledge of Al-Aqabah. The Prophet sent Masab bin Omair to preach Islam in Yasrab. 6 pilgrims from Yasrab accepted Islam. The plan was that men of all tribes would participate in the killing so that Banu Hashim would not be able to avenge the murder. The Prophet then tried to spread the message of Islam to places other than Makkah. In the 13th year of Prophethood. Furthermore. In the 10th year of Prophethood. the Prophet was saved from physical torture by his the political support of his uncle. and Allah too plans. "Remember how the unbelievers plotted against you. north to Madinah. When the Quraish came to know of this they decided to kill the Prophet. During persecution.2 Page | 14 . They ridiculed him. Moreover. the people had entrusted him with. The Quran says regarding this matter. Abu Talib died and the leadership of Banu Hashim was passed on to Abu Lahab who was hostile towards the Prophet and therefore the Prophet lost support of his own clan. but the best of planners is Allah.

He departed with Abu Bakr. The need for planning answers is paramount. Candidates have to decide when to start the story. There were a few candidates who wrote about the events in Madinah immediately after the hijra. leaving them out altogether or even starting their answer from too early a point.] Muhammad gradually sent Meccan Muslims north to Yathrib. but 2 marks for full details. The Prophet received a divine instruction to migrate. and in order to return items people had left with him.Q NO. This provided the Prophet with the perfect opportunity to migrate to Madinah and mark the start of the Islamic Civilization.MUHAMMAD SHUMAIL MOHY-UD-DIN Islamiyat Notes otes protect him and his followers in every way. Overall. though some answers started their account of the hijra from the beginning of revelation. [1 mark. He left `Ali in his bed as a decoy. They recognized his mission and accepted him as a religious leader. those candidates who answered this question well showed accurate details of the events. He sought acceptance by preaching at fairs in Mecca and elsewhere.] Muhammad had incurred the enmity of Quraysh by his preaching. because Abu Lahab the head of his clan after Abu Talib's death was his enemy. [This is background and for any general information of this kind allow 1 mark] His wife Khadija and uncle Abu Talib died in 619 leaving him defenseless.] His attempts at persuading the people of Mecca to accept his teachings had met with little success. A small group from Yathrib (later renamed Medina) listened and accepted his preaching. [1 mark. and some had experienced long persecution. This results in the answer being more general than specific to the question.2 Page | 15 . Examiner’s Report: (a) This part was answered very well by many candidates. They accepted Islam and acknowledged the Prophet as their leader and invited the Prophet and his followers to Madinah. but 2 marks for details of numbers etc. [The problem here concerns exactly what events led up to the hijra. They also offered him and his followers protection. Mark Scheme: (a) • • • • • • • • • • • (b) • • • • • • He was defenseless at Mecca. BIOGRAPHY BIOGRAPHY OF THE PROPHET PAPER1. The people of Medina appeared to welcome him. the Examiners look for accuracy and completeness. The following year 73 men from Yathrib swore to defend him (the second Pact of al`Aqaba). The next year they swore allegiance to him (the first pact of al-`Aqaba. except for a small group of followers. not involving fighting for him). which again emphasizes the need for the candidates to read the questions properly. particularly those relating to the Pledges of al-‘Aqaba. These followers were under threat. In descriptive questions. He himself went on the same night when the Quraysh planned to murder him. and candidates often lose marks by getting basic facts wrong. the oath of women.

some candidates simply repeated comments made in part (a) in this section. Examiners were looking for some elaboration on these points for candidates to be able to earn the full six marks.g. There were some good answers to this part where candidates expanded on the basic points.MUHAMMAD SHUMAIL MOHY-UD-DIN Islamiyat Notes otes (b) Most candidates were able to give some general comments stating the reasons the Prophet moved from Makkah to Madinah. BIOGRAPHY BIOGRAPHY OF THE PROPHET PAPER1.2 Page | 16 . explaining that the Prophet’s small group of followers had faced lots of persecution which was a threat to the development of a Muslim community in Makkah.Q NO. e. Also. However.

brought food for them. b) Explain why he thought it important to make the journey. the Prophet along with Abu Bakr. son of Abu Bakr. 622 AD. 14th year of Prophethood or 16th September. Amir bin Fuhayra and a pagan guide Abdullah bin Uraqit set out for Medina on 1st Rabi-ul-Awal. The Quran says: “Remember how the pagans plotted against you to keep you in bounds or slay you or get you out (of the city). The experts returned back when they saw a spider web and at the opening of cave with pigeon nest and eggs on it and abandoned the idea of further pursue. They walked for 5 miles and reached a rough and rocky mountain. After covering some distance. would bring goat milk for them every evening. He was returning from Syria and BIOGRAPHY BIOGRAPHY OF THE PROPHET PAPER1. Umm-Mabad (real name Atika) and stayed there to refresh themselves. they met Burayda Aslami. Finally. Abu Bakr first entered the cave to explore it and assure that it was safe and closed all the holes with pieces torn off from his clothes. Ummiyah bin Khalaf etc. would go to meet them after sunset. He cleaned it and then asked Prophet to get inside. Finally. Abu Bakr’s slave.MUHAMMAD SHUMAIL MOHY-UD-DIN Islamiyat Notes otes EVENTS OF PROPHET’s MIGRATION FROM MAKKAH TO MEDINA a) Describe the main events of Prophet’s migration from Makkah to Medina. The Quraish (Abu Jahl.2 Page | 17 . At that critical point the plans of the Quraish utterly failed despite the tight siege. The Prophet went to see Abu Bakr and arranged with every thing for the intended migration. He horse stumbled twice. The Prophet and his party drank milk of goat there. they were chased by Suraqa bin Malik who had intended to capture Prophet to get the prize announced by Quraish. Then on their way to Medina. for Allah is with us”. but the best of planners is Allah”. after his followers had left Makkah. Asma. Abdullah. Amir bin Fuhayra. The Prophet consoled him and said: The Quran says: “They were two in cave and he (Prophet) said to his companion (Abu Bakr). along with 80 men of his tribe who accepted Islam. have no fear. stayed night there and informed them the latest situation in Makkah and then leave them in morning. (JUNE 2008) [10] [6] a) The Prophet decided to migrate to Medina when he was commanded by Allah through the angel Gabriel to migrate to Yathrab. Then the party met Zubair bin Awam. They plot and plain and Allah also plans. Abu Bakr was bitten by a scorpion or snake but did not cry. he requested Prophet to give him protection and Amir bin Fuhayra wrote down a note of protection that will be a token and Prophet predicted: “O Suraqa how will you feel when the bracelet of Khusru will be on your hand”. The Prophet ordered Hazrat Ali to sleep in his bed in order to return trusts to their owners and then covered Ali with his green mantle and departed with Abu Bakr on Saffar 27. 14th year of Prophethood or 13 September. The party after few days reached near the isolated tents of a woman.Q NO. Akba bin Abu Mueet. The Prophet and Abu Bakr walked along a road leading to Taif. Abu Bakr heard the voices of pagans and showed Prophet uneasiness. The Prophet immediately applied his saliva on Abu Bakr’s foot and the pain went off on the spot.) besieged the Prophet’s house to assassinate him. Saturday and Sunday). Thaur. The Quraish sent 2 experts to seek Prophet and they managed to reach the cave of Thaur. 622 AD. Abu Bakr’s daughter. The Prophet and Abu Bakr confined themselves to this cave for 3 days and nights (Friday.

In their delight. he offered the first Friday prayer in the town of Banu Salam with 100 Muslims. the girls of Ansar recited these coplets: The full moon shines down upon us from Thaniyat al-Wida’. You’ve ennobled Medina. Prophet arrived at Quba. 3 miles away from Medina. The Prophet built a mosque. The people of Medina were waiting for Prophet eagerly. he set out for Yathrab. Welcome now! Guide us to His way! b) Events that led up to migration. BIOGRAPHY BIOGRAPHY OF THE PROPHET PAPER1.Q NO.MUHAMMAD SHUMAIL MOHY-UD-DIN Islamiyat Notes otes offered Prophet white pieces of clothes.2 Page | 18 . This was the first mosque in history of Islam. The Prophet arrived at Medina on Friday. On his way. On Friday. They stayed there for 4 days (Monday – Thursday) and were joined by Ali at Quba. On Monday. We must all give our thanksgiving all the while praising Allah You whom Allah sends among us. 8th Rabi-ul-Awal. 622 AD. 1 AH or 23 September.

MUHAMMAD SHUMAIL MOHY-UD-DIN Islamiyat Notes otes PLEASE CONSULT THE BOOK ‘Islam BELIEFS AND PRACTICES’ FOR THE ANSWER OF THIS TOPIC BIOGRAPHY BIOGRAPHY OF THE PROPHET PAPER1.2 Page | 19 .Q NO.

but also a meeting place. palm leaves and stones and the pillars of date palm trunks. They were in a dire condition and due to these Maukhat. Mention especially the Muhajireen and Ansar. religious and cultural groups in Medina. The Prophet himself participated in the building of the mosque. 2nd part of document contained 24 main clauses and 3 sub clauses. This part discussed the rights and obligations of Jewish tribes of Medina. This document can be divided into 2 parts. parliament house. The Prophet also introduced Azan. A platform was made for poor Muslims. BIOGRAPHY BIOGRAPHY OF THE PROPHET PAPER1. It was a simple square building with the walls made of unbaked bricks. A few rooms were added for the residence of Prophet and his family. Muhajireen were the people who faced persecutions at Makkah and had migrated from Makkah to Medina with Prophet and had left their everything at Makkah.Q NO. The Holy Prophet devised a document in which the rights and obligations of all the communities of Medina were recognized. each Ansar shared his wealth. The price of the land was 10 dirhams which was paid by Abu Bakar. Suffaa. property and house. a place of learning for Muslims and a place of worship. [10] b) Explain the significance of these events as an example for Muslims today. The first major task made by the Prophet was the construction of mosque where Muslims could offer their five daily obligatory prayer and Juma prayer. He was warmly welcomed by the immigrants (arrived earlier) and Ansar. for the sake of Allah. They were about 100 in number. both of them saw in dream. 3) Jewish tribes __ about 10 tribes. [6] (OCTOBER 2002) ___________________________________________________________________________ a): The Prophet arrived Medina on 12th of Rabi-ul-Awal. Hazrat Bilal was appointed as a first Muazzan. The words were given by Umar and Abdullah bin Zaid. The important clauses of charter are as follow: • • • All the community signing the charter would be considered as a single nation. The Prophet gathered the Muhajireen and the Ansar at the house of Anus bin Malik and established a Bond of brotherhood between them which came to be known as Maukhat. The document was known as Charter of Medina. All the communities will maintain peace and order in city. The mosque was known as Masjid-Nabwi. Muhajireen were even allowed to inherit from the property of Ansar. they will protect jointly and help each other and fight the enemy together. It was not only a place of worship. 2) Non-believers of Aus and Khazraj (because all the non-muslims did not accept Islam).MUHAMMAD SHUMAIL MOHY-UD-DIN Islamiyat Notes otes EVENTS THAT FOLLOWED HIJRA IMMEDIATELY a) Describe the events in Medina that immediately followed Hijra. Sahal and Suhail. Ansar were the people of Medina who had accepted Islam and invited Prophet to their city. In case of attack. 1 AH. They were: 1) Believers __ Muhajireen and Ansar.2 Page | 20 . the roof of mud. All the parties would enjoy complete religious freedom and tolerance. The land for the mosque was bought from 2 orphans. After the arrival there were 3 political. 1st part consisting of 23 clauses laying down rules affecting Muhajireen and Ansar. military headquarters.

earthquakes etc. Mosque: The Prophet established a mosque after migration. a meeting place. Iraq and Afghanistan. meeting place. education. b) The Prophet set up a unique example by establishing Bond of Brotherhood between Muhajireen and Ansar.2 Page | 21 . BIOGRAPHY BIOGRAPHY OF THE PROPHET PAPER1. This example teaches the Muslim rulers that they should ensure to grant equal rights to all the citizens and protect the rights. a shelter for homeless people or to receive delegations. a shelter for homeless people and other purposes like for marriage ceremonies and receiving delegations. This incident teaches the Muslims that they should cooperate and help their brothers in hour of need and particularly during natural calamities. other Muslims should reconcile them. honour. properties. flood.Q NO. It also provides a solution to the problem of displaced refugees like of Kashmir. If 2 groups are at war with each other. etc of non-muslim minorities.MUHAMMAD SHUMAIL MOHY-UD-DIN Islamiyat Notes otes • All the communities would recognize the Prophet as a supreme leader. court. This teaches Muslims the importance of mosque for a community that they should use it for communal worship. education. court. They should be provided religious freedom. It also gives the lesson to Muslims that they should live like the united body. Charter of Medina: The Prophet concluded a charter in which the rights and obligations of all the communities were recognized. The mosque was used for offering daily prayers and Juma.

This cemented the Muhajireen and the Ansar. After this. palm leaves and stones and the pillars of date palm trunks. where his she-camel had stopped.Q NO. • Umar’s bond was made with Utban bin Malik • Usman’s bond was made with Aus bin Thabit • The Prophet himself established his bond of brotherhood with Ali. but also a meeting place. Sahal and Suhail. • Both Jews and Muslims will be allies and will make alliance together with the outsiders. THIS ANSWER HAS MANY MISTAKES BIOGRAPHY BIOGRAPHY OF THE PROPHET PAPER1. but they were rejected outright. Each Ansar helped his Muhajireen brother and shared his wealth and property with him. The Prophet himself participated in the building of the mosque. Abdullah bin Zaid and Umar under divine inspiration saw a same dream in which they were taught the words of Azan.2 Page | 22 . Suggestions came of adopting the Christian method of ringing bells or Jewish way of blowing horns. military headquarters and a place of worship. the Prophet improved the relationships between the Jews and the Muslims by making a pact with the Jews known as the Charter of Madinah. • In case of foreign attack. both parties will help each other and fight the enemy. • Madinah will be a city of peace for both the parties. the Prophet decided to stay at the house of Abu Ayub Ansari. The method was accepted by the Prophet and he appointed Bilal to deliver Azan. The price of the land was 10 dirhams which was paid by Abu Bakar. • The allies of both parties will enjoy freedom.MUHAMMAD SHUMAIL MOHY-UD-DIN Islamiyat Notes otes Q What were the arrangements made by the Holy Prophet in establishing the new Islamic state at Madinah? [8] A) On his arrival to Madinah. It was a simple square building with the walls made of unbaked bricks. the roof of mud. The land for the mosque was bought from 2 orphans. It was not only a place of worship. • The Prophet would settle any dispute amongst the two parties and his decision will be final. The Prophet gathered the Muhajireen and the Ansar at the house of Anus bin Malik and established a bond of brotherhood between them which came to be known as Maukhat. The Prophet wanted to device a way of calling the Muslims to prayer. It terms were as follows: • Both the Jews and the Muslims would enjoy complete religious freedom and tolerance • Both the parties would constitute civil society together and have equal rights. parliament house. The Muhajireen who were in a dire economic state were financially uplifted. The Prophet then built a mosque for the Muslims to offer prayers.

000 to 4.000 dirhams. 70 horses and a large number of weapons and supplies compared to the 313 men. The Battle of Uhad took place on 6th Shawal 3 AH. and their commander-in-chief was Utbah. The archers as per the order of the Prophet did not shoot their arrows from a distance. The literate Quraish were freed for teaching 10 Muslims for a fixed amount of time and the poor prisoners of war were freed without any ransom. Umm Hakeem. Fatima and Abu Jahl’s daughter-in-law were allowed to accompany the army. Ali and Ubaidah bin Harith bin Harith killed the three Makkan chiefs Utbah ibn Rabiah. The next day. Then general war followed in which the Muslims emerged victorious. 3 horses and 60 suits of armor of the Muslims.Q NO.MUHAMMAD SHUMAIL MOHY-UD-DIN Islamiyat Notes otes a) b) Give descriptions of the main events of the battles of Badr and Uhad. Ibn-e-Maqtoom was appointed as the leader of the Muslims in the Prophet’s absence. A large trading caravan under the leadership of Abu Sufiyan was coming back form Syria belonging to the Quraish. it rained which made the sandy ground on which the Muslims stood smooth and firm. Abu Sufiyan was fearful that the Prophet might intercept the caravan and asked the Quraish for help. After consulting with his companions. 2 AH. The Prophet. The wealthy prisoners of war were freed for a ransom of 1. The Muslims occupied the springs that rendered the wells occupied by the Quraish useless.2 Page | 23 . the Prophet decided to fight the enemies in the open. carpets and tents. Abul Aas and Suhail bin Amr. During the individual combats Hamza. Women including Hind. [12] Explain why the people of Makkah fought against the Muslims of Medina. The Muslim army comprised of 1. [4] (May 2006) a) The battle of Badr took place on 17th Ramadan. however. Tulha bin Ubaidullah and Saeed bin Zaid were appointed by the Prophet to inquire the whereabouts of the caravan of Abu Sufiyan.000 men.000 men under Abu Sufiyan. mainly Au Jahl insisted on fighting. The Quraish prepared an army of 1. Pagans (including 11 chiefs) were killed and 70 were taken as prisoners of war who included Abbas. Only 14 Muslims embraced martyrdom.000 angels descended to help the Muslims in the battlefield. Umm Sulaih and Umm Ammara) who supplied water to the wounded Muslims and washed their wounds. The Muslims army also included women (Ayesha. The Quraish army comprised of all the nobles except for Abu Jahl who appointed a man to replace him. The Quraish prepared an army of 3. Fatima.000 men in armor. A large amount of booty was captured which consisted of 115 camels. Before the start of the battle the Prophet threw a handful of dust at the enemies to encourage the Muslims to fight. The night before the battle. allowed the unbelievers to drink this water. his brother Sh’aybah and his on Waleed. the Prophet marched towards Uhad and encamped on a rising ground which was difficult to pass and thus reduced BIOGRAPHY BIOGRAPHY OF THE PROPHET PAPER1. which was further reduced by the withdrawal of Abdullah bin Ubaiy and his 300 men on the plea that they wanted to fight the Quraish form inside Madinah. 14 horses. Allah helped the Muslims during the battle when 1. Meanwhile Abu Sufiyan changed his route and returned home safely but the Quraish.

But when they came that the Prophet was still alive they started fighting with renewed vigor. Despite the odds the Muslims won. 38 out of 50 archers. They even injured the Prophet and caused him wounds on the face. and thereby protect the Muslims from an attack from behind. which caused the Muslims to throw their arms in despair. The expedition sent by the Prophet under Abdullah bin Jahsh to watch the parties sent by the Quraish to patrol the out skits of Madinah. Seeing this. After the Battle of Badr the hatred and enmity of the Quraish increased further and they were crying to avenge their defeat at Badr. Hanzala bin Rabeeh and Abdullah bin Jahsh. The Quraish were jealous and fearful of the growing power of the Prophet. Musaf bin Amr. BIOGRAPHY BIOGRAPHY OF THE PROPHET PAPER1. Saad and Kilab were killed by Ali. Following the battle the bodies of the Muslims martyrs were mutilated by the Quraish. The two armies were badly mismatched. IMPORTANCE OF BATTLE OF UHAD IS DONE IN NEXT QUESTION Mark Scheme: (a) • • • • • • • Badr occurred in 624. The Muslims saw in the victory God’s support for their cause. when he sent angels to help them.MUHAMMAD SHUMAIL MOHY-UD-DIN Islamiyat Notes otes the numerical strength of the Quraish. The Muslims had heard of a Makkan caravan passing near Madina. and they waited for it near the wells of Badr. had learnt an important lesson from the battle of never disobeying the Prophet again. lose his two teeth and become unconscious despite being surrounded by some of his companions. The caravan summoned troops from Makka. Hamza. who had been posted by the Prophet to guard a pass. The Prophet surprised everyone by treating the captured Makkans honorably. Muslims gained the upper hand during individual combats when Tulha bin Abi Tulha. The Quraish began to flee leaving behind booty. The Muslims. Asim bin Sabit and Abu Dajama and during the general war the trend continued. Usman. 300 Muslims against over 1000 Makkans. b) The Quraish were greatly displeased with the people of Madinah for providing shelter to the Prophet and his followers and their displeasure was further increased when the people of Madinah refused to hand back the Prophet and the emigrants.Q NO.2 Page | 24 . the second year after the hijra. left their positions to collect the booty despite being instructed by the Prophet not to leave their positions in any condition. Zubair bin Awwam. however. killed Amr al Hadarmi in a skirmish which increased the level of hostility in the Quraish. Rumor spread that the Prophet had passed away. The Prophet had started to intercept the caravans of the Makkans that passed through Madinah which harmed them economically. under the leadership of Abdullah bin Jubair. which threatened their leadership of Arabia and Islam whose teachings of belief in one God threatened their religion. Khalid bin Waleed and his cavalry seized the opportunity and attacked the Muslims from behind killing leading Muslims including Hamza. the Quraish started retreating. The Prophet had also made an alliance with some Bedouin tribes to deny the Quraish safe route to their caravans.

The Prophet himself was injured. and a good number of high marks were gained for this part.Q NO. but some omitted to mention such details as the numbers of the two sides at Badr. They also threatened their religion with their belief in only one God. However. The Muslims were nearly defeated and some leading men killed. They threatened their livelihood since they might attack their caravans. explaining the threat the Muslims were thought to pose to Makkan trade. and the aftermath. the circumstances immediately before them. the main events of the battles. and the effects of the reversal at Uhud. The Prophet’s army was smaller. the threat they saw to their leading position in Arabia. the differences in religion between the two sides. The Muslims realized they should obey the Prophet. Many answers contained most major elements of the battles. But then some Muslims who had been ordered to guard a pass left their posts for spoils. Some Makkans saw an advantage and attacked from behind.MUHAMMAD SHUMAIL MOHY-UD-DIN Islamiyat Notes otes • • • • • • • • • (b) • • • • Uhud occurred in 625. the way in which the prisoners after Badr were treated. Some candidates clearly knew the events of the battles thoroughly. (b) Some answers to this were excellent. suggesting they had learnt the facts without understanding their significance. and some candidates appeared to have no idea why these battles took place. and was decreased further by the desertion of some Madinans.2 Page | 25 . Examiner’s Report: (a) Good answers would have given the dates of the two battles. An army of 3000 from Makka came to destroy the Muslims. BIOGRAPHY BIOGRAPHY OF THE PROPHET PAPER1. these answers were in a clear minority. They saw Islam as a threat to their leadership in Arabia. They could see that the Muslims were a threat. In the fighting the Muslims gained the upper hand.

Their trade with Syria had gone and thereby this battle put an effective end to the Makkan hostility towards the Muslims. The Arabs. followed by hail which uprooted their tents. The neighboring tribes acknowledged the growing power of the Muslims and voluntarily became their allies. On knowing this. On their arrival at Madinah. along with the Prophet. The Muslims. On learning about the intentions of Quraish and Jews. (June 1999) Uhad in previous question: a) The battle of Trench occurred in the month of Shawal 5 AH. killed their cattle and over turned their cooking pots. who was from the Ghaftan tribe and had good relations with both the Muslims as well as the Quraish and told them that the Jews had agreed with Muslims. Constant icy winds and death of their camel and horses further aggravated the matter. The Prophet. BIOGRAPHY BIOGRAPHY OF THE PROPHET PAPER1. Madinah was guarded from all sides except for the side facing Syria. the Prophet consulted his companions to devise the strategy of war. The Jews who had been banished to Khyber formed a coalition with Ghaftan and other desert tribes including Banu Asad and Banu Murra in return for one year’s harvest of Khyber and also exhorted the Quraish to fight against the Muslims. This was their final attack against the Muslims and their influence amongst the Arab tribes had suffered a serious hit. One day a storm blew with heavy rain and gusty winds. the Quraish were surprised and annoyed after learning that they could not attack Madinah from any side. dug the Trench for eight days and nights to ensure that it was impassable by a man or horse. At night they raised their siege and went back. the Prophet put a small detachment near their fort to watch their movements. Sulaiman Farsi suggested the digging of Trench. the Jews demanded hostages from both sides but they were refused. handing Muslims the victory. Both the Jews and the Quraish were convinced that they had been told the truth by the spies and their alliance broke. Meanwhile Banu Quraiza conspired with the Quraish to attack the Muslims from behind. The siege lasted for one month. [9] [4] b) Explain the significance of each of these battles in early Islam. Just as the Ghaftan leaders and Abu Sufiyan were ready for a decisive battle with the Muslims.000 and marched towards Madinah. to join them and leave the Quraish stranded and similarly a spy was sent to the Jews. The people of Madinah now recognized the Prophet as the absolute leader of the city. specially the Bedouins were not accustomed nor prepared for a long siege. The Battle of Trench also proved to be a big blow to the Quraish.MUHAMMAD SHUMAIL MOHY-UD-DIN Islamiyat Notes otes a) Briefly describe the main events of the battle of Uhad and the battle of Trench. which was accepted. which caused Islam to spread rapidly amongst them. Their supplies began to run out. b)-i) The victory of Muslims over a force superior to in number at the Battle of Trench improved the stature of the Prophet. by sending Nowain bin Masud.Q NO. meanwhile. Abu Sufiyan assembled a mighty Quraish army of 10. the Makkans made efforts to cross the ditch but were unsuccessful due to the hurling of stones and arrows at them by the ever present Muslims. successfully plotted seeds of distrust between the two parties.2 Page | 26 . who kept watching the trench and did not even assemble for prayers. After a few days.

They became more loyal to the Prophet and Islam and realized that Allah helped them in adverse situations as long as they were united.Q NO.2 Page | 27 .The Battle of Uhad had a great moral lesson for the Muslims of staying united. disciplined and loyal to the Prophet in times of disappointment and defeat. BIOGRAPHY BIOGRAPHY OF THE PROPHET PAPER1. humble and obedient to the Prophet and did not allow their love of plunder and greed to lead them astray from the path of duty and in the future were able to overcome this weakness and never disobeyed the Prophet.MUHAMMAD SHUMAIL MOHY-UD-DIN Islamiyat Notes otes ii) .

Allah granted clear victory to the Muslims by saying: “Verily. If anyone flees from Makkah to Medina shall be returned by Prophet to Quraish but any Muslim who flees to Makkah will not be returned. Any of the Arab tribe may enter into treaty with either Muslims or Quraish. Banu Khauraza joined Muslims and Banu Bakr joined Quraish. When the Prophet came to know about this. The Prophet advised his companions to slaughter sacrificial camels on the advice of his wife Umm-Salma. Usman was detained for a long time and rumor spread that Usman had been killed. The Muslims carried no weapons with them except sheathed swords because they had no intention of fighting. When the Quraish learnt of the approach of the Muslims.MUHAMMAD SHUMAIL MOHY-UD-DIN Islamiyat Notes otes The Holy Prophet saw a dream that he entered the sacred sanctuary. The Prophet informed his companions about his dream and asked them to prepare for journey. After a long debate. The Muslims will go back without performing Umra this year but may return next year to perform Umra. The Quraish sent Budail bin Warqa and then Urwa bin Masood to negotiate with Prophet in order to stop him from entering Makkah but they were unsuccessful. They sent 200 horsemen under Khalid bin Waleed and Ukrama bin Abu Jahl for said purpose. Write brief if asked of less than 8 marks. BIOGRAPHY BIOGRAPHY OF THE PROPHET PAPER1. The Prophet took a pledge from the Muslims to avenge the blood of Usman. The Quran says: “Allah indeed was pleased with the believers when they swore allegiance to you under the tree”. The Prophet appointed Ibn Umm-Maktoom to look after state affairs. Then the Prophet sent Usman to tell Quraish that their intentions were only to perform Umra. 9 miles away from Makkah.2 Page | 28 . Finally a treaty was concluded between Prophet and Suhail bin Amr. The Prophet departed along with 1400 Muslims for Makkah in Zil-Qada 6 AH or 628 AD. they decided to resist the Muslims entry by force. the treaty was signed and written by Hazrat Ali. Some Muslims including Hazrat Umar had some reservation about the terms of treaty especially the extradition clauses were quitely disappointing and humiliating. he changed his route and encamped at Hudabiya. We granted you (Muhammad) a manifest victory”.Q NO. This is of about 10 marks. The Prophet sent Kharash bin Ummaiyah to Makkah and he was ill-treated. Kaba. This pledge is known as Bait-Ridwan. Important terms of treaty are as follows: There will be truce for 10 years. You shall certainly enter the sacred mosque if Allah pleases in security”. The Quran says: “Allah indeed fulfilled the vision for His messenger with truth.

The Quran says: “Verily. The Prophet began to invite non-muslims kings and emperors to Islam. Islam spread far and wide rapidly.MUHAMMAD SHUMAIL MOHY-UD-DIN Islamiyat Notes otes IMPORTANCE OF TREATY OF HUDABIYA This treaty holds paramount significance in Islamic history. Two prominent Quraish leaders. He wrote letters of invitation of Islam to many kings i.2 Page | 29 . Maquaqis. The first victory came to the Muslims after 2 months of the treaty was the Conquest of Khyber. Khusru Pervez and Negus etc. As a result. The Prophet was now in opposition to break the old alliances of the Bedouin tribes. The Quraish acknowledge the Muslims as an equal power with Makkah and also the religious leadership of the Prophet. While on his way back to Medina. Khalid bin Waleed and Amr bin Al-Aas accepted Islam. BIOGRAPHY BIOGRAPHY OF THE PROPHET PAPER1. in North Arabia and the Bedouin tribes made alliances with Prophet.e.Q NO. We have granted you (Muhammad) a manifest victory”. The treaty brought revolution in Muslims lives because they began to receive half of the crop of Khyber. The Prophet told this revelation to Umar and Muslims filled with joy and happiness. The treaty gave Muslims an opportunity to spread Islam openly. the Prophet received a revelation in which Allah gave him glad tidings of clear victory. The treaty proved to be a forerunner to Conquest of Makkah.

Q NO.2 Page | 30 .MUHAMMAD SHUMAIL MOHY-UD-DIN Islamiyat Notes otes BIOGRAPHY BIOGRAPHY OF THE PROPHET PAPER1.

Hubab bin Munzir conquered it. These are: 1) The fortress of Naim 2) Saab 3) Zubair 4) Ubay 5) Annizar Second part consisted of 3 fortresses: 1) Qamus 2) Wateeh 3) Sulalin. Jews fled to Zubair. Uhad and Khandak (Banu Qaynuka. The army also included 20 women particularly Umm-Salma (Prophet’s wife). The Muslims besieged it for 20 days but could not conquer it. Jews then fled to Ubay and Annizar and both were conquered respectively. Zubair killed Yasir.MUHAMMAD SHUMAIL MOHY-UD-DIN Islamiyat Notes otes Khyber was a spacious and strongly fortified territory. Now the Jews took shelter in the fort of Qamus. The Jews sent Ibn Abi Huquaik to Prophet to negotiate the surrender. Then the Jews left their positions and rushed to Sab.2 Page | 31 . a reputed warrior. the Prophet came to knew about the plan of the Jews attack in alliance with tribe of Banu Ghatfan. departed for Khyber. After 3 days. chief of hypocrites. Umm-Ayman and Umm-Salaim etc. Marhab’s brother. An agreement was concluded between BIOGRAPHY BIOGRAPHY OF THE PROPHET PAPER1. Banu Ghatfan joined the Jews on the condition that in case of capture of Medina. The Muslims besieged it for 3 days. The 1st powerful resistance Muslims encountered was a stronghold Naim/Qamus. full of castles and farms lying at a distance of 80 miles from Medina in north.Q NO. The Prophet agreed to spare their life on the condition that they would evacuate Khyber and leave whatever gold and silver is in their possession. Khyber was divided into 2 sections. Banu Nadir. Accordingly the forts were handled over to Muslims. continued their conspiracies against the Muslims. The Muslims laid a heavy siege to it for 14 days. 20 days after the Prophet’s arrival from treaty of Hudabiya back to Medina. The first one contained 5 fortresses. 2) The Banu Nadir and other Jewish tribes. The Prophet gave the banner of Muslim army to Hazrat Ali. after being expelled from Medina. Events of Battle: The Holy Prophet along with 1400 Muslims. 3) They wanted to take revenge of the defeat of Ahzab/Khandak in order to regain their prestige. Causes of Battle: 1) There is no doubt that the Jews hated the Prophet and conspired against the Muslims during the Battle of Badr. 4) They provoked hostile Bedouin tribes against Islam and provoked them to attack Medina. Abdullah bin Ubay. Hazrat Ali killed Marhab. the Muslim army reached Khyber. in Muharram 7 AH. He was suffering from eyesore and the Prophet applied saliva. 5) Moreover. It was also conquered. and Banu Quraiza respectively) and thus were expelled from Medina. the Jews would pay half of crop of Khyber to Banu Ghatfan. sent a message to the Jews of Khyber warning them against the dangers approaching them and encouraging them to resist the Muslims.

Prophet agreed that the Jews would cultivate their lands and in return they would pay half of their crops to the Muslims.2 Page | 32 . Safia’s husband Kinana was killed. the Jews were bound to evacuate the Khyber.MUHAMMAD SHUMAIL MOHY-UD-DIN Islamiyat Notes otes the Prophet and the Jews. On the request of Jews. 93 Jews and 18 Muslims lost their lives. Dihya chose Safiya but the Muslims requested Prophet to marry her. BIOGRAPHY BIOGRAPHY OF THE PROPHET PAPER1. In accordance with the agreement. In this battle. The Prophet paid ransom on behalf of Safiya and Safiya was married to the Prophet. In the Battle of Khyber.Q NO.

Finally. Several disobedient tribes also embraced Islam and made alliances with Prophet. The Muslim army departed for Muta on Jamad-ul-Awal 8 AH/630 AD. 10000 men belonged to the tribes of Juzam. Then Sabit bin Arkam carried the Muslim banner and asked the Muslims to select their new commander-in-chief and Khalid bin Waleed was chosen the commander-in-chief of the Muslim army. Then Zaid bin Haritha decided to fight against the force of Romans.Q NO. Prophet demanded punishment of Shurahbeel but Heraclius did not take action against the said governor. news came to them that the Heraclius had sent 10000 troops together with another same figure. This battle also paved the way for the expedition of Tabuk in future. the Prophet decided to invite the non-Muslims kings and emperors to Islam. For this purpose. Later on he received the title of ‘Tayyar’ from the Prophet and Prophet said: “Allah will grant him 2 wings in the paradise by which he will fly”. and he killed the envoy. some companions suggested that the Prophet’s advice should be sought but Abdullah bin Rawaha said: “I swear by Allah that every object which you are trying to avoid is the one you have set out for seeking martyrdom “. Then Jaffar bin Abi Talib took the Muslim banner and fought bravely. he sent Haris bin Umair to the king of Busra (Jordan) but he was intercepted by Sharahbeel bin Amr Ghusani. Results and Effects of this Battle: In the Battle of Muta. 12 Muslims lost their life in this battle. BIOGRAPHY BIOGRAPHY OF THE PROPHET PAPER1. Abdullah bin Rawaha took the banner of Muslim army and he was also killed. Zaid bin Haritha fought with courage and he was killed. Seeing this new strategy of Muslims the Romans were being tapped and they stopped the pursuit and the Muslims returned back to Medina safely. Although the Muslims could not achieve their objective to take revenge of Harith bin Umair. he sent many ambassadors with letters of invitation to the kings. When the Muslim army reached there. but this battle gave Muslims a new repute in the battle field. he was also killed and received 50 wounds. Lakham etc. Maquaqis and Khusru Pervez etc.MUHAMMAD SHUMAIL MOHY-UD-DIN Islamiyat Notes otes Causes: Soon after his return from Treaty of Hudabiya. He reshuffled the right and left and backward and front wings of the Muslim army. appointed by Heraclius. Negus.2 Page | 33 . It was the violation of international law. Roman Empire was a super power and no body thought of fighting against them. After his martyrdom. 12 Muslims were killed and the casualties of Roman were unknown. Heraclius. He prepared an army of 3000 and appointed Zaid bin Hartha the commander-in-chief and said: “If he was killed he would be replaced by Jaffar bin Abi Talib and if Jaffar also fell the command would be given to Abdullah bin Rawaha”. Events: The Prophet was shocked by this and he decided to take revenge of Harith bin Umair. governor of Balqa.

ii) Conquest of Makkah: By 630 AD. the Prophet asked his each companions to light up.2 Page | 34 . Amr bin Salim fled to Medina to seek help from Prophet. They injured the Prophet seriously. was spying out for the Quraish. Then the Prophet decided to invite the people of Taif.MUHAMMAD SHUMAIL MOHY-UD-DIN Islamiyat Notes otes a) Write brief accounts of the following 2 incidents in Prophet’s life. BIOGRAPHY BIOGRAPHY OF THE PROPHET PAPER1. Abu Sufiyan met with Abu Bakr. He took rest for some moments in the orchard of Utba bin Rabia and Utba’s slave offered a bunch of grapes to the Prophet. They set the wicked and villains upon the Prophet. The Muslim army entered peacefully except the battalion of Khalid bin Waleed. to pay the blood money or break the alliance with Banu Bakr or to dissolve the treaty of Hudabiya.Q NO. On his way to Makkah at Qarm-Al-Manazil. He was not only rejected by them but also he was ill-treated.e. Gabriel appeared along with the angels of mountains and offered Prophet to destroy the town but the Prophet said: “I was sent as a blessing to worlds.e. Valley of Fatima. The Prophet offered 3 options to Quraish i. I hope Allah will raise such people from the town who will accept my message”. to renew the treaty to Prophet but they refused and the Prophet also rejected that offer. Ali. He decided to attack Makkah because the Quraish had broken the treaty of Hudabiya. The Quraish encouraged their allies Banu Bakr to attack Banu Khuzaa who were allies of the Prophet. When the Muslim army reached at Marazzahran. The Prophet was accompanied by Zaid bin Haritha. Masaud and Abd Ya Lil) for 10 days. He invited the people of Taif in general and 3 chiefs (Habib. His conquest of Makkah. 23 persons were killed of Banu Khuzaa and the chief of Banu Khuzaa. The Prophet returned to Makkah and Mutim bin Adi offered him protection to continue his mission. His shoes filled up with the blood. the Prophet had gain power in Arabia. The Quraish selected 3rd option but soon realized their mistake and sent Abu Sufiyan to renew the treaty. a town 60 miles away from Makkah. The Prophet departed along with 10000 men for Makkah in Ramadan 8 AH/ 630 AD. The Prophet advised his soldiers not to attack on those who entered the house of Abu Sufiyan or who took shelter in Kaba or who surrender and Children and women. Abu Sufiyan with his 2 companions. ii. His attempt to preach the people of Taif. Umar. His battalion was attacked by Iqrama bin Abi Jahl’s force. i. He met Abbas who took him to the Prophet and he accepted Islam. Fatima and Umm-Habiba to intercede for him i. 2 Muslims and 13 Quraish were killed. Hakeem bin Azam and Budail bin Warqa. [5] [5] b) What lessons can Muslims today learn from the Prophet’s conduct in each of these incidents? [2 x 3] (June 2005) a) i): Taif incident: The hostility of Quraish increased with the death of Abu Talib and Khatijah and they mounted persecutions on the Muslims.

They should invite the non-Muslims to Islam with wisdom and discretion. This indicates that the Muslim preachers are also required to preach the Islamic teachings with its true letter and spirit. He ensured that every heart should be won. He instead of bloodshed declared general amnesty and gave every chance to Makkans to abandon the resistance. Conquest of Makkah: Prophet was un-flinching in his intention to make Makkah a Muslim center and for this purpose the Prophet set free the prisoners of Battle of Badr and made a peaceful treaty with Quraish. This shows that the Muslims should avoid bomb blast or kidnapping of non-Muslims and terrorizing them. Prophet took every step to ensure that no enemies are left. he recited the following verse: “The truth has come and falsehood has banished.Q NO. Prophet did not resist the people of Taif when they rejected him.MUHAMMAD SHUMAIL MOHY-UD-DIN Islamiyat Notes otes The Prophet went to Kaba and cleansed it of its idols. This shows that the Muslim head of states should not compromise on Islamic principles. This teaches the Muslims that they should try to remove the misunderstandings about Islam particularly to the western world after 9/11 and 7/7. Indeed falsehood is bound to perish”. The Prophet attempted to understand people ignorance of who he was and what he was said. Those were: i) Abdul Uzza bin Khatal ii) Miqyas. While destroying the idols. This incident teaches the Muslims that they should devise a realistic approach to their problems. He declared general amnesty and had forgiven all the people except few stubborn. This teaches the Muslims that they should try to make a state based on Islamic teachings and implement the teachings of Quran and Sunnah and should be firm in their decisions. b): Taif incident: Prophet attempted to find realistic solution to his difficulties in Makkah. BIOGRAPHY BIOGRAPHY OF THE PROPHET PAPER1.2 Page | 35 . The Prophet established and upheld monotheistic faith against the idolaters and the enemies of Islam.

Saad etc. about the siege.Q NO. children and every possession in the battlefield. Allah said: “Indeed Allah helped you in many battles and on Day of Hunain when you were happy at your great number but it availed you not”. Taif belonged to the tribe of Thakeef. Abbas cried out to call the Muslims. They were Hawazin. The Prophet borrowed 100 armors from Safwan bin Ummayiah. Events: The Prophet learnt of their preparations. Naufal said. The Muslims had to bear loss initially because they were proud of their number and strength. no harm would inflict you’. The Prophet consulted his companions particularly. The Prophet sent an army of 1000 men under Khalid bin Waleed. Then the Muslims returned back and gathered around the Prophet. you will catch it and if you leave. Thakeeef.MUHAMMAD SHUMAIL MOHY-UD-DIN Islamiyat Notes otes Causes: Soon after the Conquest of Makkah. the people of Hawazin fled to Taif and took shelter in the fort of Taif. Malik bin Auf. Prophet’s foster sister.2 Page | 36 . Abbas. the people of Malik threw stones and shooted arrows at the Muslims. The Muslims attacked against Hawazin and Thakeef and the enemies fled to Taif leaving behind their property and women. livestock. They were reluctant to surrender and offered resistance. That property contained 24000 camels. And about 2 tribes of Muslims finished in this battle. ‘Come on. Many disbelievers. After their defeat. about 70. Malik also ordered his men to hide inside the terrain and ambush the Muslims on entrances. commander in chief of allied forces dispatched some spies to monitor the Muslims. The Prophet called the Muslims and said. 4000 ounces silver and 6000 women. I am Muhammad. Banu Hawazin and Banu Thakeef were preparing to attack Medina. The Muslims had to retreat in confusion and only few Muslims and some people of Banu Hashim remained steadfast. where the booty was placed. They used to bring their women. son of Abdullah’. 40000 sheep and goats. to summon the Muslims. The Muslims besieged the fort of Taif for 20 days but could not conquer it. It was built like fortress and its people were experts in art of siege warfare and archery. When the Muslims entered. ‘They are like a fox hiding inside its dens. were killed in this battle. The Prophet appointed Utab bin Usad the governor of Makkah and departed for Hunain in Shawal 8 AH/630 AD. His spies told him that the Muslims were coming to attack Hunain. BIOGRAPHY BIOGRAPHY OF THE PROPHET PAPER1. Then he ordered his uncle. He prepared an army of 12000 men that consisted of 10000 Muslims who accompanied for the Conquest of Makkah and 2000 new converts. If you wait. The Prophet decided to lift the siege and departed for Jirana. Naufal bin Umayiah. The prisoners also included Shyma. Nasr.

The Prophet took a fifth of share for himself and further distributed his share and rest was distributed among Sahaba. Prophet set free 6000 captives without ransom. After the spoil of war was distributed. BIOGRAPHY BIOGRAPHY OF THE PROPHET PAPER1.MUHAMMAD SHUMAIL MOHY-UD-DIN Islamiyat Notes otes Distribution of spoil of war: The Prophet waited for 10 days and hoped that people of Hawazin would come to claim their property. Then after 10 days. he distributed spoil of war.2 Page | 37 .Q NO. 14 men of Hawazin came at Jirana and requested him to return their property.

That governor killed Harith. 100 horses and 100 Dirhims. 4) After 2 months of return from Tabuk. 2) The message of Islam spread all over the Arabia. Allah commanded him to demolish the mosque of Dirar. They also made many excuses not to accompany Prophet and Muslims. Muslim women gave their armlets. Hilal bin Ummayiah. Then the Prophet decided to take revenge of Harith.Q NO. Tabuk expedition holds great importance in Islamic history.MUHAMMAD SHUMAIL MOHY-UD-DIN Islamiyat Notes otes The relations between the Muslims and the Christians of Roman Empire were strained since the Battle of Mutta. anklets. Then the Prophet ordered his companions to demolish it. He was intercepted by Shurahbeel bin Amr. 1) This established the authority of Prophet in Arabian Peninsula. The Muslims were also worried by the following factors. Hazrat Umar brought half of his possessions.2 Page | 38 . Hazrat Usman offered 900 camels. Abdullah bin Ubay died and with his death the hypocrites perished forever. 3) When the Prophet reached at Medina. this time the Prophet decided to lead the Muslim army against the Roman Empire. BIOGRAPHY BIOGRAPHY OF THE PROPHET PAPER1. the Romans and their allied forces were so terrified that none of them dared to fight against the Muslims. Murara bin Rabi. On learning this. Many Christian tribes entered into alliance with the Muslims and came under the protection and agreed to pay Jizya. Lakham and Juzam etc. Prophet delivered an impressive speech and encouraged the Muslims to fight against the super power. Hazrat Abu Bakr gave all the possessions he had. This expedition took place in September/October 630 AD or Rajab 9 AH. The Muslims stayed for 20 days at Tabuk. The Prophet collected an army of 30000 and appealed the Muslims to support financially. The Prophet sent Harith bin Umair with the letter of invitation of Islam to the ruler of Busra. The Muslim army departed for Tabuk. Some Muslims also did not accompany the Prophet particularly Kaab bin Malik. Although the Muslim forces could not take revenge but the Battle of Mutta had a great effect on the Arabs. necklaces and ear rings. governor of Balqa. 1) Scorching heat 2) Drought 3) Reaping of dates 4) Rough way/distance The hypocrites under the leadership of Abdullah bin Ubay were busy in spreading discontentment and fear among the Muslims. The Prophet learnt about that Heraclius had prepared an army of 100000 and also reinforced by the tribes of Amila.

2 Page | 39 . “O disbelievers. Allah revealed Surah Tobah and accepted their repentance. 7) This expedition enabled the Muslims to secure the frontier of Islamic. 6) Tabuk was the last battle of Prophet’s life. Then the Prophet sent Ali to announce in Kaba that. Hilal. none of you would enter Kaba and make Tawaf of Kaba in the future”. Murara.MUHAMMAD SHUMAIL MOHY-UD-DIN Islamiyat Notes otes 5) The Prophet ordered his companions to boycott 3 Muslims. BIOGRAPHY BIOGRAPHY OF THE PROPHET PAPER1.Q NO. Kaab.

Allah says. 11) Trusts must be retuned: ‘Every Muslim was to stay true to his trust. 3) Brotherhood: ‘O you people. Feed them whatever you feed and dress them whatever you dress yourselves’. you have a right upon your wives and they also have a right upon you. 7) Prohibition of vengeful killing: ‘Listen. 2) Piety and Equality: ‘O people. Then the Prophet said: ‘Neither has any Arab superiority over non-Arab nor is any black man superior to white man except on account of piety’. all blood of the days of ignorance is cancelled and first of all. BIOGRAPHY BIOGRAPHY OF THE PROPHET PAPER1. every Muslim is the brother of the other Muslim’. I waived usury due from my uncle Abbas which now stands totally abolished’. Allah has removed from you vanity and the boasting on account of your predecessors’. I will not be any avail to you against Allah’. 9) Rights and Obligations of Husbands and Wives: ‘O men.MUHAMMAD SHUMAIL MOHY-UD-DIN Islamiyat Notes otes The Holy Prophet delivered his farewell sermon on Friday 9th of Zilhajj. the most honoured among you in the sight of Allah is the one who is the most pious’. in the valley of Arafat. 8) Rights of slaves: ‘As to your slaves. let it not be so on the Day of Judgement. In such a case. 6) Prohibition of Usury: ‘Allah has forbidden you to take usury. He was murdered by Banu Huzail’. your blood. Do treat you women well and it’s your right that they do not make friends’. 5) Abolishment of ignorance and arrogance: ‘O tribe of Quraish.Q NO. I forgive the blood of the son of Rabiyya bin Harith. 4) Accountability: ‘O tribe of Quraish. therefore all interest obligations shall henceforth be waived. this city and this month’. you come laden with this world on your necks while other people come with hereafter (good deeds). property and honour: ‘O people. your property and your honour are as sacred as sacred this day. 12) Avoid Usurpation (Qabza): ‘It is not allowed for any person to take anything from his brother except what he gives willingly’. “O men We have created you of a man and a woman and have made you into clans and tribes so that you may recognize one another. The most important features of his sermon are as follows: 1) Protection of life. Verily. And first of all. they are your brothers. 10) Repayment of Debts and Loans: ‘All debts must be paid back and all things borrowed must be returned’.2 Page | 40 . no betrayal of trust was to be allowed’.

irrespective of colour. communal. 9) This sermon determines the rights. 6) It abolished all kinds of interests and declared interest unlawful. 4) It stresses on personal accountability and allows no concession to any one in any matter.MUHAMMAD SHUMAIL MOHY-UD-DIN Islamiyat Notes otes 13) Performance of the pillars of Islam and Obedience to the rulers: ‘Listen. property and honour of all citizens of an Islamic State. 12) It declared that usurping the property or wealth of others without their will is condemned. no prophet or messenger will come after me and no new faith will be born’. They should be given the same food and clothes that we use. moral. BIOGRAPHY BIOGRAPHY OF THE PROPHET PAPER1. It stresses on balanced way of life and condemned all kinds of extremism. 2) It declares that all human beings equal. individual etc. 13) It stresses the basic acts and practices of Islam. you will never go astray’. 5) It dismisses all claims based on race. creed. keep fast of month of Ramadan. If you follow them. This sermon is a forerunner for the Charter of UN. 1) It ensures full protection of the lives. the Quran and Sunnah. language. 8) It ensures the rights of slaves. worship one Allah. obligations and limitations of husbands and wives. offer 5 prayers a day. 10) The Prophet stressed on repayment of all loans and debts. 14) Finality of Prophethood: ‘O people. social. wealth and tribal arrogance. This sermon is a declaration of human rights and it touches all aspects of human life i. race. The Prophet did not offer the funeral prayer of a person dying without paying debt.e.2 Page | 41 . pay Zakat and perform Hajj to Kaba and obey your rulers’.Q NO. It means that all human beings are equal and the best of them in the sight of Allah is the one who is the most pious. political. 15) Sticking to Quran and Sunnah: ‘I leave behind me 2 things.

Q NO.MUHAMMAD SHUMAIL MOHY-UD-DIN Islamiyat Notes otes Concern book for this topic. BIOGRAPHY BIOGRAPHY OF THE PROPHET PAPER1.2 Page | 42 .

MUHAMMAD SHUMAIL MOHY-UD-DIN Islamiyat Notes otes PROPHET’S EXPERIENCE IN CAVES a) Give a brief description of Prophet’s experience in caves. disturbed by this event. after his followers had left Makkah. Cave of Thaur: The Prophet decided to migrate to Medina when he was commanded by Allah through the angel Gabriel to migrate to Yathrab.” he said “I cannot read.Q NO. or inspired by jinns. He used to take some provisions with him. [4] (November 2007) There were two major experiences. Muhammad was greatly shaken by this strange experience. he saw the angel flying in the distance. Ummiyah bin Khalaf etc. firstly in Cave of Hira in 610 AD and secondly in Cave of Thaur in 622 AD. Cave of Hira: The Prophet used to retreat in seclusion to the cave of Hira in the mount of Nur where he passed his time in meditation. He stood there until the Angel disappeared.” The Prophet recited these verses after the Angel and he felt as if the words ere written on his heart. but the best of planners is Allah”. “Read. The Prophet went to see Abu Bakr and arranged with every thing for the intended migration. “The Angel hugged and squeezed me so hard that I thought I would die of suffocation. So he fled form the cave. The Angel said to him. Muhammad was nearly forty years old. BIOGRAPHY BIOGRAPHY OF THE PROPHET PAPER1. Taught man that which he did not know. then he released me and said. The Quran says: “Remember how the pagans plotted against you to keep you in bounds or slay you or get you out (of the city). when towards the end of Ramadan an Angel came in the cave of Hira.” Where upon he himself reported.2 Page | 43 . Muhammad rushed home greatly. When the Prophet was half way down the slope he heard the being above saying: “O Muhammad you are the Messenger of Allah. He thought that he might be possessed by evil spirits. Created man form a clot of blood Read you Lord is most Generous. [12] b) Explain why one of these experiences was important in Islamic history. and I am Jibrail.” He raised his eyes and saw the angel filling the whole horizon. Akba bin Abu Mueet. They plot and plain and Allah also plans. to his wife Khatijah and told her all about the experience he had. The Quraish (Abu Jahl. These were the first five verses of Surah-al-Alaq and the first revealed verses of the Holy Quran. When these finished he would come back. Wherever he looked. and again he repeated the above mentioned quote. Who taught man by the pen.) besieged the Prophet’s house to assassinate him. “Read” and again I said “I cannot read” then the third time he squeezed me as before and said: Read in the name of your Lord who created.

Abdullah.2 Page | 44 . The Prophet and Abu Bakr confined themselves to this cave for 3 days and nights (Friday. The Muslims also learn about the spirit of true friendship as demonstrated by Abu Bakr from this incident. They walked for 5 miles and reached a rough and rocky mountain. The Prophet consoled him and said: The Quran says: “They were two in cave and he (Prophet) said to his companion (Abu Bakr). The Quraish sent 2 experts to seek Prophet and they managed to reach the cave of Thaur.Q NO. 14th year of Prophethood or13 September. indeed help the Prophet when the pagans drove him out. In the world of literature. Amir bin Fuhayra. The Prophet immediately applied his saliva on Abu Bakr’s foot and the pain went off on the spot.g. The importance of this event is such that Quran also refers to it in the words: “For Allah. The experts returned back when they saw a spider web and at the opening of cave with pigeon nest and eggs on it and abandoned the idea of further pursue. 622 AD. Amir bin Fuhayra and a pagan guide Abdullah bin Uraqit set out for Medina on 1st Rabi-ul-Awal. BIOGRAPHY BIOGRAPHY OF THE PROPHET PAPER1. cob web and pigeon’s nest and eggs in it. during Umar’s caliphate. for Allah is with us”. This incident also tells that one can flee and hide if the enemies want to kill him. Thaur. for Allah is with us”. Abu Bakr’s daughter. After migration Islamic calendar of events was started. Abu Bakr heard the voices of pagans and showed Prophet uneasiness. brought food for them. would bring goat milk for them every evening. If it had not been for Allah’s miracle i. Asma.e. The Prophet and Abu Bakr walked along a road leading to Taif. They were two in cave and he (Prophet) said to his companion (Abu Bakr). have no fear. son of Abu Bakr. 622 AD. Moreover the success of his mission depended on his leaving of his home.MUHAMMAD SHUMAIL MOHY-UD-DIN Islamiyat Notes otes At that critical point the plans of the Quraish utterly failed despite the tight siege. the persecution and hardships experienced by the Prophet and his followers and the start of another phase in the history of Islam. the Prophet along with Abu Bakr. “Companion of cave” and were added to Arabic literature. Abu Bakr first entered the cave to explore it and assure that it was safe and closed all the holes with pieces torn off from his clothes. The Prophet’s successful emergence from the cave marked the end of one era i. He cleaned it and then asked Prophet to get inside. Finally. he had no more than one companion. Abu Bakr was bitten by a scorpion or snake but did not cry. The Cave of Hira: This was the occasion on which the Quran was first sent down. b): The Cave of Thaur: The wisdom in taking refuge in Thaur was that the mountain Thaur stands on the southern side of Makkah on the route to Yaman whereas Medina is situated towards the north of Makkah on the route to Syria. Abu Bakr’s slave. have no fear. several new idioms and phrases came into being e.e. The Prophet got enough time to flee and hide in the cave of Thaur. the Prophet and Abu Bakr would have been captured and killed and Islamic state might not have developed. 14th year of Prophethood or 16th September. Saturday and Sunday). The Prophet ordered Hazrat Ali to sleep in his bed in order to return trusts to their owners and then covered Ali with his green mantle and departed with Abu Bakr on Saffar 27. stayed night there and informed them the latest situation in Makkah and then leave them in morning. would go to meet them after sunset.

39. The page numbers on books for this topic are: Text Book: Pg no. • • BIOGRAPHY BIOGRAPHY OF THE PROPHET PAPER1.Q NO. 19. how to pass their lives as Quran was sent down that guides Muslim lives. Muhammad was changed and was chosen for Prophethood. Islam believes and practices: Pg no. It marked the beginning of new religion and its spread. It marked the change from polytheism to monotheism. The verses also describe the importance of learning and writing.MUHAMMAD SHUMAIL MOHY-UD-DIN Islamiyat Notes otes It was the beginning of God’s final guidance for humans.2 Page | 45 . This Question has also come in November 2002 and in 1998.

The Quran says: “And forgive and overlook”. Khatijah then proposed Prophet for marriage. The Prophet was offered a poisoned roasted leg of a goat by a Jewish woman.Q NO. The Quran says: “Indeed Allah commands you that you restore deposits to their owner”. He had an ideal character and conduct. ‘I served the Prophet ten years and he did not scolded me even one time’. Maysera admired Prophet for his honesty. Hazrat Ans bin Malik served the Prophet for ten years. [12] b) Choosing two of these qualities. Once the Prophet was asked. The Prophet’s manners were ideal. Maysera along Prophet. he said: “Allah sent me to complete the excellent virtues and to perfect the good manners”. Due to this honesty. Prophet said. He did not discriminate between men and women and Muslims and non-muslims while showing kindness. give one example in each case to show how Muslims can put them into practice in their own lives. About truthfulness the Prophet said: BIOGRAPHY BIOGRAPHY OF THE PROPHET PAPER1.2 Page | 46 . Allah is kind to him”. He said: “Allah is not kind to him who does not show kindness to others”. ==> Incident of Taif. He further said: “Whoever is kind to His creatures. he ignored all hostilities and declared general amnesty for all people and forgave them. Zainab bint Harith in Battle of Khyber. “Seventy times a day”. a wealthy merchant because she sent Prophet to merchandise her goods to Syria and also sent a slave. She confessed her crime but Prophet had forgiven her.MUHAMMAD SHUMAIL MOHY-UD-DIN Islamiyat Notes otes a) Outline four of the Prophet’s personal qualities that make him a model for Muslims to follow. Then the Prophet married her. [4] (Oct 2006) The Prophet was a model of excellence for Muslims in all walks of life. Allah has testified the character of the Prophet saying: “And you (stand) on an exalted standard of character”. He was so honest that even people of Makkah used to keep their belongings with him for safe keeping. He said. 1) Kindness/ mercy/ forgiveness: The Prophet was a very kind man. Once Ayesha was asked about the habits of Prophet. 2) Honesty and Truthfulness: The Prophet was honest and truthful and that’s why he was known as Al-Sadiq and Al-Amin. When they came back. he was married to Khatijah. how many times are we to forgive our servants’ faults. The Quraish persecuted the Prophet harshly and then forced him and his followers to leave Makkah but when the Prophet conquered Makkah. she said: “His habits were in accordance with the teachings of Quran”.

The Prophet said: “Say I believe in God and then be firm”. the Prophet prayed for them. The Quran also enjoins Muslims to practice justice and judge with equality. Even he was pelted regularly with rubbish by a woman but Prophet always saw that woman with smiling face.MUHAMMAD SHUMAIL MOHY-UD-DIN Islamiyat Notes otes “Indeed truth leads to virtue and virtue leads to paradise” At the time of migration. poet or fortune teller but he kept on preaching and did not lose courage.2 Page | 47 . He gave decisions justly irrespective of colour. The Quran says: “O you believe. The companions took the punishment to be too BIOGRAPHY BIOGRAPHY OF THE PROPHET PAPER1. It was his courage and bravery that saved the situation on both the occasions. though his life was threatened even he left Hazrat Ali to return the belongings to their owners. During the boycott with Banu Hashim. And excellent example of his patience and perseverance is his journey to Taif in 619 AD. he remained steadfast and courageous and was determined to preach Islam. During the Battle of Uhad and Hunain. when many of his companions were running away from the battlefield he kept on fighting and calling (sent Abu Sufiyan bin Harith) others to come back. determination and steadfastness is persecutions faced by him at Makkah when he started spreading Islam. creed and race. Again it says: “When you judge among people. when all people were forced to stay in a narrow gorge Shaab Abi Talib. judge with justice”. The Quran further says: “He said to his companion have no fear for Allah is with us”. He invited the people of Taif to Islam but they not only rejected him. 5) Justice and Equality: Muhammad always treated people with absolute justice and fairness and never discriminated between them. The Prophet said: “Say I believe in God and then be firm”. Once a Muslims woman Fatima from Banu Makhzoob committed theft. 4) Patience and Perseverance: The Prophet passed through a period of great distress and hardships but he never grumbled and remained patient. 3) Courage. The best example of his courage. She was brought to Prophet and Prophet ordered to cut her hands. Determination and Steadfastness: The Prophet was a very brave and courageous man who faced many calamities and hardships but always remains steadfast and determined and did not lose courage. pelted him with stones until his feet were filled with blood and was chased out of the city by boys throwing stones at them. People of Makkah opposed him called him a magician. when you meet a fear then be firm”. But instead of cursing them. He fought many battles and remained resolute even under severe attacks. About patience the Quran says: “O you believe. but ridiculed him. It says: “Allah commands justice and doing of good”. endure and be more patient”.Q NO.

They should be patient and try to respond in a peaceful and satisfactory manner. Qur'an and remarks of his Companions.] b) [In each case: Give 1 mark for the basic outline of a Muslim putting the chosen quality into practice. I would have certainly cut her hands”. they should remain steadfast and wait for divine help. • Possible supporting quotations from the Hadith. e.] Page number on ‘Islam Believes and Practices’ for this topic is 55. Masjid-Nabwi and in digging trench in Battle of Khandak. Give a further 1 mark for an example fully worked through. Iraq and Palestine should follow the Prophet’s example of Patience and Tolerance. • Examples of how it was shown in the Prophet's life. When Usama recommended the Prophet to forgive her. About the wages of labourer.MUHAMMAD SHUMAIL MOHY-UD-DIN Islamiyat Notes otes severe and asked Usama bin Zaid to intercede for her. that he is a blessing for humankind. This also gives lesson to muslim merchants that they should not do cheating in exams and should do their home work honestly and if they had not done home work they should not tell a lie. he said: “Give the employee his wages before his sweat dry off”. MARKS SCHEME: a) [Look for four of the Prophet's qualities that can be a model for Muslims. hoarding and less measurement. They should tell the shortcomings of the things sold by him and abstain from cheating. Muslims in Kashmir.Q NO. He again said: “One who earns his livelihood by the sweat of his brow is the friend of Allah”. They may be asked unpleasant questions about Islamic teachings. the Prophet replied: “Even if my daughter Fatima had committed theft. In each case award 1 mark for: • Identification of the quality. Instead of retaliating directly towards attacks on them. BIOGRAPHY BIOGRAPHY OF THE PROPHET PAPER1. 6) Labourer and Worker: Despite being the ruler of world. He granted labourer a great importance and even himself worked as a labourer in the construction of Masjid-Quba. The Prophet said: “One who cheats is not among us”. They should be honest and trustworthy. b) Honesty: The Prophet’s example of honesty gives a lesson to Muslim merchants.g. Do not give marks for qualities unique to the Prophet. the Prophet was keen to do his work on his own.2 Page | 48 . Patience and Steadfastness: The Prophet’s incident of Taif lays down a unique example for Muslim preachers.

Moreover whenever Fatima came prophet would stand in her respect and once said: ‘Fatima is a part of my body. compassion. but I have never kissed them’. When he used to hear children crying. He saw a weeping child. The prophet called his widow Asma bint Umais and said: ‘Call the children of Jaffar’. A bedouin Aqra bin Habis who happened to be present at the time said: ‘I have 10 children. The prophet was so kind to his followers that he would often pay their debts. The prophet was very kind and compassionate for the believers e-g: The prophet requested Allah to lessen the number of the prayers so the muslims can easily perform them. Prophet said: ‘Those who don’t have affection for others are not treated kindly. He also said: ‘The best house is in which an orphan is well-treated and the worst in which an orphan is ill-treated’. Moreover after the conquest of Makkah.2 Page | 49 . The companions asked: ‘Why are you weeping. 4) Kindness to children: The prophet was a blessing for he children. 3) Kindness to orphans: The prophet was born as an orphan and he knew very well the plight of the orphans. Whenever he passed by a child. Prophet took him to his house and said to him: ‘From today Ayesha is your mother and I your father’. he would stop and speak a kind word to him and at him laughingly before proceeding. The prophet recited this verse: ‘There is no blame on you this day. Prophet asked him: ‘Why are you weeping’? The child replied that he was an orphan. He advised and taught the muslims to teach the orphans kindly and nicely. The prophet enjoined his soldiers not to kill the children in the wars. Go you are all free’. The prophet put hand on the children of Jaffar and Asma asked prophet: ‘Have you any news about Jaffar’? The prophet replied: ‘He has attained martyrdom’. In the above mentioned verse the phrase Rahmat-ul-lil-aalameen is used. BIOGRAPHY BIOGRAPHY OF THE PROPHET PAPER1.Q NO. Quran says: ‘Verily Allah favoured the believers when he sent a messenger from among them’.MUHAMMAD SHUMAIL MOHY-UD-DIN Islamiyat Notes otes PROPHET AS A MERCY FOR THE WORLDS S Quran declares Prophet as a blessing of Allah for the worlds in the following words: ‘And we sent you as a blessing for the worlds’. who so ever hurts her. on the night of ascension. Once he was pleased to say the he would have made the use of miswaq compulsory if he had not foreseen any trouble for his followers. Once he was in a jolly mood with his grandson Hassan. Prophet started weeping. Once the prophet was going to offer the eid prayer. 2) Kindness to enemies: The prophet would use to treat the enemies with kindness as well e-g: In the battle of Badr he treated the prisoners very nicely and even freed 6000 prisoners in the battle of Hunain. Rahmat means mercy. The prophet treated children very affectionately. he would cut short his prayers. the Prophet asked the people of Makkah: ‘Do you know what I am going to do with you’? The replied: ‘You are a noble brother and the son of a noble brother’. blessing and lil-aalameen means for the worlds. Once the prophet said: ‘Those who take care of the orphans will be with me in the paradise like this and then he interlocked his index finger and the thumb’. 1) Believers: It was a great favour of Allah for the believers as Allah sent a Prophet from among them. they are the children of infidels’? Prophet replied: ‘The children are innocent’. hurts me’.e-g: Hazrat Jaffar Tayyar was killed in the battle of Muta. Once a few children of pagans were killed in a battle. Moreover he also treated Abu Sufyan kindly when he came to Medina for help during the drought and provided him with aid.

BIOGRAPHY BIOGRAPHY OF THE PROPHET PAPER1. a freed slave. They had no status in the society. If they commit a fault. but also took practical measures himself to abolish the slavery which had been common in the world in those days. was appointed the first muazzin of Islam. but also it extends to animals. He was also married to a lady of Banu Hashim (Zainab bint Jash) who was also a paternal cousin of the Prophet.Q NO. The prophet especially spoke about the slaves in his farewell address and said: ‘And your slaves see that. They were given little food and were beaten even for a minor fault. ignore them. also a freed slave.2 Page | 50 . 6) Kindness to slaves: The slaves were very cruelly treated in the pre-Islamic days. The prophet exhorts the Muslims the manner of slaughtering should be that which is least painful. Hazrat Bilal. was made commander in chief in the battle of Muta. Respect for Allah’s living creatures reached an extent that when the prophet’s saw a donkey with a branded face.MUHAMMAD SHUMAIL MOHY-UD-DIN Islamiyat Notes otes 5) Kindness to animals: The universal mercy of Islam embraces not only to human beings. feed them with such food as you eat yourselves and clothe them with the stuff which you wear’. Moreover Zaid bin Hartha. The prophet forbade that animals be made to fight each other. The prophet not only advised his followers to treat the slaves kindly. he denounced such a cruel practise and said: ‘I would not brand an animal except on the part of its body farthest from its face.

70 Muslims including Hamza. BIOGRAPHY BIOGRAPHY OF THE PROPHET PAPER1. When the Prophet learnt this. Musab bin Umair and Abdullah bin Jubair were killed. The Prophet asked his companions to treat the prisoners kindly and most of them were set free without ransom. he consulted his companions. Abdullah bin Ubay and experienced companions suggested him to fight within the city but the youngsters wanted to fight out of city. [12] b) Explain why the Prophet thought it necessary to fight against the Quraish. Abu Sufiyan trade caravan was returning from Syria. When the Prophet came to know. 70 horses and a large number of weapons. The Muslims also won the general fighting. his brother Shaybeh and son Waleed challenged the Muslims for individual combat. Battle of Uhad: The Quraish raised an army of 3000 men to take revenge of their dead and wanted to regain their lost dignity. Later on it was proved false.632 AD. he also prepared an army of 313 men and they were ill-equipped. suddenly a strong blew followed by heavy rain came and the tents of Quraish were over-thrown. Muslims learnt that they should obey the Prophet. The battle crushed the Quraish and improved the status of Prophet and helped him to consolidate the Islamic state. Hamza. Abdullah bin Ubay with 300 men deserted muslim army. Before the battle as per to the custom of Arabia Utbah bin Rabiyah. [4] (June 2001) a) The relationship between Muslims of Medina and the Quraish of Makkah between 622 and 632 AD is full of hostility. The Prophet was able to show the seeds of mistrust between the Quraish and Jews through Naim bin Masood. After a siege of 30 days. Battle of Khandak: The army of Quraish and their allies consisting of 10000 men attacked Medina in Shawal 5AH/622 AD.Q NO. Hazrat Ali killed Amr bin Abd Wud when he tried to cross the ditch. He feared that his caravan might be intercepted. enmity and mistrust. 70 pagans were killed and 70 were made prisoners and 14 Muslims lost their lives. Abu Jahl departed with an army of 1000 men in armour. The victory at Badr strengthened Islam and leading soldiers of Quraish were killed. This battle took place on 17 Ramadan 2 AH/624 AD. The Prophet posted 50 archers under the command of Abdullah bin Jubair to protect the pass. Both armies met at Uhad on 6 Shawal 3 AH/625 AD. He summoned help from Makkah. Muslims dug the trench around Medina to defend it from inside on the suggestion of Sulamian Farsi. The Muslims fought bravely and forced Quraish to retreat but the archers left their posts and Khalid bin Waleed attacked the muslim army from behind and rumor spread that the Prophet had been killed. Ali and Udaba accepted their challenge and killed the challengers. This agreement became an eyesore for Quraish. the Prophet made an agreement with the people of Medina that came to known as Treaty of Medina.MUHAMMAD SHUMAIL MOHY-UD-DIN Islamiyat Notes otes a) Trace the main outlines of the relationships between the Muslims of Medina and Quraish of Makkah in the years between 622 .2 Page | 51 . Battle of Badr: After migration to Medina. The Quraish mutilated the muslim dead bodies.

Jihad. When the Quraish heard of the coming of the Muslims. Iqrama. Allah permitted to fight the war. Therefore Prophet fought against them to save Medina. The Muslims will go back without performing Umra this year but may return next year to perform Umra. He fought to save Islam and Muslims. That pledge is BaitRidwan. Indeed falsehood is bound to perish”. The chief of Banu Khuzaa went to Medina to seek help from Prophet. the Quraish recognized the Muslims as an equal power with them and Islam spread rapidly. He was detained and rumor spread that Usman was killed. About 1400 Muslims dressed in Ihram left Medina for Makkah in Zil-Qada 6AH/628 AD. They were agresser and offender and the Muslims were defenders. respectively. It was important to recover the Kaba and Makkah. BIOGRAPHY BIOGRAPHY OF THE PROPHET PAPER1. Prophet changed his route and stayed at Hudabiya. There will be no fight for 10 years. Hinda. They encouraged and helped Banu Bakr to attack Banu Khuzaa. They Quraish were persistent opponent of Prophet and they conspired along with Jews against the Prophet. Prophet took pledge from Sahaba to take revenge of Usman. The Quran says. The Prophet knew that conquest of Makkah could open the gateway for rapid spread of Islam in Arabian Peninsula. Khandaq. The Quraish were a constant threat to the survival of Islam. The Prophet advised his followers not to kill those who enter in Abu Sufiyan’s house or Kaba or who surrender. The Muslim army entered peacefully except Khalid bin Waleed battalion was intercepted by Iqrama bin Abi Jahl. After this treaty. Therefore Prophet attacked Makkah. Finally a treaty was signed between Suhail bin Amr and Prophet and was written by Hazrat Ali.MUHAMMAD SHUMAIL MOHY-UD-DIN Islamiyat Notes otes Treaty of Hudabiya: The Prophet had dreamed to perform Umra. Quraish sent Budail bin Warqa and Urwa bin Masood for negotiation but they returned unsuccessful. Uhad. allies of Muslims. They often raided the outskirts of Medina and drove away Muslim animals. The broke the Treaty of Hudabiya.2 Page | 52 . against the Quraish. Badr. Prophet then sent Usman to Makkah to tell his intention of performing Umra. “Fight in the cause of Allah against those who fight against you”. The Prophet along with 10000 men set for Makkah. Moreover. b) Allah allowed the Prophet to fight. Muhammad was compelled many times to fight against Quraish. they sent Khalid bin Waleed and Iqrama bin Abi Jahl to stop Muslims. Two Muslims and 13 Quraish were killed in his battle.Q NO. They attacked Medina 3 times. Prophet fought against them for the defense of Medina. Habar bin Aswad. Prophet declared general amnesty and had forgiven the worst enemies. Conquest of Makkah: Quraish violated treaty of Hudabiya after two years of its conclusion. Prophet purified Kaba of its idols and recited the following verse: “The truth has come and falsehood has banished.

Two Muslims survived. the Hypocrites asked the Prophet to return to their homes on the excuse that their BIOGRAPHY BIOGRAPHY OF THE PROPHET PAPER1. The Muslims under the command of Ali successfully laid siege to them in 627 AD. The Jews expelled from Madinah and settled in the fortress of Khyber. until they surrendered unconditionally and were later expelled form Madinah in 625 AD. But gradually the Jews distanced themselves from him. The Jews took refuge in the castles where they were besieged for 15 days. The tribe of Ban Qaynuka was the first tribe to violate the terms of the treaty. was the incident of Bur Muana. non-Muslims. [4] (May 2004) a) At first the Prophet treated all parts of the Median society equally. however. During the battle of Uhad in 3 AH. their women and children were taken as slaves and their belongings were taken as booty. At the Battle of Khandak. same security and freedom. The immediate cause. equal rights.Q NO. Even before the Battle of Uhad. Their leader was Abdullah bin Ubaiy. They killed two people of Banu Amir who were innocent. The Prophet laid siege to the fortress for 15 days. He devised the Charter of Madinah under with Muslims. To punish them the Prophet laid siege to their fortress which lasted for 25 days. About four months after the expulsion of Banu Nadir. Their men were killed. the companions of the Prophet killed the Jewish poet Ka’ab bin Ashraf who used to compose insulting poetry against Islam and Muslims women. Here the Jews made an assassination attempt on the Prophet and the Muslims therefore decided to take action.MUHAMMAD SHUMAIL MOHY-UD-DIN Islamiyat Notes otes a) b) Outline the changes in Prophet’s relations with the Jewish tribes and the ‘hypocrites’ in Medina in the years between 622 and 632. who along with his 300 followers deserted the Muslims at the Battle of Uhad on the plea that they wanted to fight the Quraish fro outside the city. they sowed seeds of mistrust between the Ansar and the Muhajireen. one of them was Amir bin Umaiyah. Finally they agreed to accept the judgment of their former ally Saad bin Ma’az who sentenced them for their treachery according to the bible. who had tribal relations with Amir. The second tribe to break the Charter was Banu Nadir. When the Prophet came to know of this he went to the tribe of Banu Nadir. They were declared allies of each other and had to help each other in case of foreign attack on Madinah. A Muslim women was disgraced in the market place of Banu Qaynuka. they sided openly with the Quraish. The Hypocrites were Medians who did not become sincere Muslims. a city of peace for all parties and the Prophet was declared the ‘ultimate judge’ of all disputes.2 Page | 53 . The nomadic tribe of Banu Amir killed 40 Muslims who had been invited to preach Islam. Arabs and Jews under which all parties were given equal religious freedom and tolerance. The third Jewish tribe to Banu Quraiza helped the enemy at the Battle of Khandak in 5 AH. They intentionally mispronounced the Quran and rejected his claims of being a Prophet and the ‘ultimate judge’. The Jews were allowed to escape to Syria and Khyber. as a result fighting took place in which a Jew and a Muslim were killed. [12] Suggest why his relations with the Jewish tribes changed.

non-Muslim Arabs and Jews. On his return form the Tabuk Expedition the Prophet ordered his companions to dismantle the mosque. Uhad and Khandak. After two months. Ka’ab bin Ashraf went to Madinah after the battle of Badr and persuaded them to attack Madinah. Mark scheme: (a) [Ensure that marks are divided between comments on the Jewish tribes and the munafiqun. even though the Quran cleared the allegation in Surah Nur. hypocrites. The Hypocrites also constructed a mosque named Masjid-e-Darar in Quba where they held secret meeting to conspire against the Muslims. (2 marks for a detailed comment here) Gradually the Jews distanced themselves from him: they persistently mocked the revelations. These tribes were Qaynuqa'.Q NO.] • • At first the Prophet treated all parts of Medinan society equally. They showed their disloyalty most strongly in withdrawing when the Quraysh attack led to the battle of Uhud. Abdullah bin Ubaiy died and with him the hypocrites ceased to exist. He devised the Charter of Madinah. after the Battle of Banu Mustaliq. Muhammad expelled the three major tribes in three stages after they showed treachery in fighting and sided with the Quraysh (up to 3 marks for dates and full details). particularly when the Kibla was changed from the Masjid-alAksa in Jerusalem to the Ka’aba in Makkah and intentionally mispronounced the verse of the Quran. They made fun of him.2 Page | 54 . He devised the Covenant of Medina as an agreement in which all in Medina. in which the Jews were granted equal status and religious liberty. The Muslims later attacked the banished Jews in their fortress at Khaybar. and doubted his claims to prophethood. b) There were a number of reasons and developments which led to describe change between the relationships of Jews and Muslims. Banu Nadir and Banu Quraiza made a treaty with the Prophet that they would defend Madinah in case of foreign attack but broke the treaty by openly siding with the Quraish by not helping the Muslims in the Battles of Badr. • • • • • • • • BIOGRAPHY BIOGRAPHY OF THE PROPHET PAPER1. The three Jewish tribes i. They remained persistent opponents of Muhammad. Ka’ab bin Ashraf and Abu Afk composed insulting poetry against the Muslim women and Islam.MUHAMMAD SHUMAIL MOHY-UD-DIN Islamiyat Notes otes properties were not safe. He punished them for their treachery. Banu Qaynuka. Abdullah bin Ubaiy scandalized Hazrat Ayesha after she returned home with Safwan bin Muattal. were given privileges and responsibilities. since they were expecting the final prophet of being from Banu Ishaq instead of Banu Israel.e. Muslims. but the Jews did not acknowledge him as a Prophet of Allah. they would have continued to conspire against the Muslims which not only threatened the security of Madinah but the survival of Islam. (2 marks for details) There remained Medinans who did not become sincere Muslims or acknowledge Muhammad. The Prophet had made every sincere effort to be-friend with the Jews. If the Prophet had not expelled them from Madinah. Qurayza and Nadir (1 mark for all three names).

there were. They refused to acknowledge that he was a Prophet like the one in their scriptures. many critical and insulting remarks about the Jewish tribes of Medina. In this paper it asked about the period of his life in Medina. Their treachery in conspiring with the Quraysh threatened the security of Medina. including the names of the tribes and their changes in conduct that led to their exclusion. They broke the Covenant by not defending Medina. This was also a threat to the survival of Islam. and also the main actions of the non-Muslim Arabs against the interests of the Muslims. teachers should make clear the true nature of this Covenant. and Examiners were looking for accurate accounts of his relations with the three major Jewish tribes and with the non-Muslim Arabs of the oasis. especially when the qibla was changed. they credited factual details about the developments that took place. In answers to part (b). which was intended to include all the tribes and clans in the oasis in an equal agreement with shared privileges and responsibilities. They openly made fun of him. This is strange. An important turning point was when they subjected a Muslim woman to public humiliation. BIOGRAPHY BIOGRAPHY OF THE PROPHET PAPER1. given that in past years when a question on Uhud has appeared candidates have usually written a great deal about the force that withdrew from the Prophet’s army before the battle. many candidates were able to give four good reasons for the change in the Prophet’s relations with the Jewish tribes. they credited precise reasons for the deterioration in relations between the Muslims and Jews from the time of the Covenant of Medina to the attack on the fortress of Khaybar. Many candidates said almost nothing about the ‘hypocrites’. their siding with the Meccans and their breaking of the Covenant. This is a religious rather than political reason.MUHAMMAD SHUMAIL MOHY-UD-DIN Islamiyat Notes otes (b) • • • • • • • He gradually became aware that the Jews did not respect his position. including their mocking of the Prophet and his followers.2 Page | 55 . though many thought that the Covenant of Medina was no more a treaty made specifically between the Prophet and the Jews in which he allowed them freedom. unfortunately. In answers to part (a). most importantly their siding with the Meccans and desertion of their Covenant obligations. In part (a). with the Jews named among them. giving its number and the names of its leaders. In part (b). most candidates showed impressively detailed knowledge of the exploits of the Jews in Medina. those Medinan Arabs who appeared reluctant to side with the Muslims and withdrew their support at Uhud. However. Few candidates appeared to be aware that one reason for the change in relations was that the Prophet gradually saw that his proclamation was not accepted by the Jews as agreeing with theirs. When teaching this aspect of the Prophet’s life.Q NO. Examiner’s Report This question is nearly always concerned with the life and significance of the Prophet.

Q NO.2 Page | 56 .MUHAMMAD SHUMAIL MOHY-UD-DIN Islamiyat Notes otes BIOGRAPHY BIOGRAPHY OF THE PROPHET PAPER1.

Q NO.2 Page | 57 .MUHAMMAD SHUMAIL MOHY-UD-DIN Islamiyat Notes otes BIOGRAPHY BIOGRAPHY OF THE PROPHET PAPER1.