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Chapter 20 Notes

I. Introduction A. 1400s = Portuguese in Africa B. 1500s = English Slave Trade starts C. 1600s-1700s = Slave trade height D. Late 1700s = Abolitionist movements and uprisings E. Early 1800s = Abolishing slave trade F. Late 1800s = Abolish slavery G. Most forts were established with the approval of African authorities desiring trade benefits. H. El Mina- Important Portuguese factory on the gold coast of modern Ghana. I. Missionary Efforts followed and particularly effective in the area of the Kongo. II. Patterns of Contact A. Fortified trading stations B. Force + diplomacy C. Alliance with locals D. Predominance of commercial relations i) $ was uniting factor E. The development of sugar plantations on the Portuguese and Spanish Atlantic islands and their subsequent extension to the Americas was a main reason for slavery. F. The campaign against slavery that grew from Enlightenment ideas was an important turning point in world history. G. Slavery assisted the development of Capitalism. H. Portuguese (~1630s) -> Dutch -> English (1660s) -> French (18th century) [principal suppliers of slaves] I. Factories- Trading stations with the residents merchants established by the Portuguese and other Europeans. III. What are the numbers? A. 18th c. = Largest period of slave trade (7 million or 80%) B. Brazil remained more than 40%, US got about 5% C. Only in the Southern US, did slaves have a positive growth rate (due to diff. labor, and reproduction encouraged.) IV. The Slave Trade A. Existed in Africa before the coming of the Europeans i) Pre-existing conditions readily tapped by Europeans B. 3 million slaves also as part of Red Sea, Muslim trade, trans-Saharan C. Atlantic Slave Trade- men- heavy labor D. Trans-Saharan trade- Women- Concubines/Servants E. Royal African Company- Chartered in 1660s to establish a monopoly over the slave trade among British merchants; supplied African slaves to colonies in Barbados, Jamaica, and Virginia. F. Indies Piece- Term utilized within the complex exchange system established by the Spanish for African trade; referred to the value of an adult male slave. V. Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade

Importance of Triangular Trade A. and Europeans products were sent to the coast of Africa to begin the triangle again.(1820s-1830s) wars of crushing and wandering by the Zulus. VIII.Chapter 20 Notes A. cotton. and other good were carried to Europe. Triangular trade. Boers (Afrikaners). Age of Revolution.Slavery abolished in Brazil D. population migration F. E.1st load of African slaves brought to America B. Zulu Wars. D. Created vibrant new cultural forms 2 . Controlled by Ottomans and Portuguese B.Complex commercial pattern linking Africa.British Slave trade abolished C. 1518. VI.War fought in 1870s between the British and the African states. End of Slave Trade and abolition of Slavery A. Mfecane. Interior kingdoms gained much power – cycle of Guns and Slaves C. Slaving and African Politics A. Slaves were carried to the Americas. Violent Islamization during 18th c. palm oil) B. Industrial Revolution B. Movement of millions of people C. and Europe. Shaka. 1888. Global Connections A. B.Ruler among the Nguni peoples of southeast Africa during the early 19th c. William Wilberforce.Movement inland during the 1830s of Dutch-ancestry settlers in South Africa seeking to escape their British colonial government C. Diaspora. Europe blocked coastal states from gaining too much by establishing strong forts. Asante and Dahomey were among the important states developing along the Gold Coast during the slave trade area. Huge part of increasingly integrated expanded world economy VII. developing military tactics that created the Zulu state. sugar and tobacco. the Americas. Great Trek. Christian revivalism. Africa placed at a disadvantage in world markets B. Based on factors beyond African control i) Enlightenment. capitalism. Industrial Revolution ii) Began trading other items (peanuts. East Africa and the Sudan A.Dutch farmers who immigrated to South Africa B.The dispersing of a group of people after the conquest of their homeland X.British reformer who led the abolitionist movement that ended the British slave trade in 1807 XI. IX. White Settlers & Africans in Southern Africans A. in Northern Savanna. C. Led to increased production. 1807.