THE FIRST ISALMIC COMMUNITY

INCLUDING THE CALIPHS
MOHY-UDMUHAMMAD SHUMAIL MOHY-UD-DIN

MUHAMMAD SHUMAIL MOHY-UD-DIN

Islamiyat Notes otes

TABLE OF CONTENTS:
The First Muslim Community Topic
Hazrat Abu Talib Hazrat Bilal Hazrat Abu Sufiyan Hazrat Hamza Hazrat Zaid bin Sabit Hazrat Abu Huraira Hazrat Sulaiman Farsi The Ansar The Muhajireen Wives of the Holy Prophet Scribes of the Holy Prophet The Ten Blessed Companions Descendants of the Holy Prophet The Four Rightly Guided Caliphs Hazrat Abu Bakar Saddique Hazrat Umar Bin Khattab Hazrat Usman Ghani Hazrat Ali Al-Murtaza

Sr. No 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13)
14) 15) 16) 17)

Page No. (3) (3) (4) (7) (7) (18) (19) (4) (6) (14) (12) (9) (20)
(23) (26) (31) (33)

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MUHAMMAD SHUMAIL MOHY-UD-DIN

Islamiyat Notes otes

Explain the importance of the following personalities during the lifetime of the Prophet: i. Abu Talib [4] ii. Bilal [4] iii. Abu Sufiyan [4] iv. The Ansar [4] (May 2005) i) Abu Talib was the Prophet's paternal uncle. He brought up the Prophet after the death of his grandfather Abdul Muttalib. Abu Talib showed him immense love and affection like a real father, while bringing him up and at times even preferred Muhammad over his own sons. The Prophet never felt an orphan when he was in Abu Talib's home. Abu Talib not only looked after him but also canned him as a merchant. He took him with him to his trade journeys where the Prophet learnt the art of trading during these journeys. One such journey was to Syria, when the Prophet was twelve years old and they met a Christian monk Mahaira at Musra, who told Abu Talib to take care of Muhammad and to keep him away from Jews. Abu Talib also made arrangements for the Prophet's marriage with Khatijah. When the Prophet started preaching openly at Makkah, the people of Makkah turned against him and his followers, the Prophet was saved from physical torture due to the political support he had from Abu Talib. The people of Makkah asked Abu Talib to let go of his support of his nephew or refrain him from preaching Islam. But on seeing the devotion of Muhammad towards preaching Islam he said to Muhammad, 'Go and preach what you please, by Allah I will not forsake you." He continued to support the Prophet during the persecutions and did not let go of his support even during the boycott of Banu Hashim which lasted for three years during which they were forced to live in a narrow gorge by the name of Shib Abi Talib and no one was allowed to talk, send food or drink, intermarry or trade with any person of Banu Hashim. When Abu Talib died in the 10th year of Prophethood, the Prophet declared it a Year of Sorrow he no longer received the support of his loving uncle. Although Abu Talib never openly accepted Islam but Shias believe that he had converted to Islam secretly. Biological Account Real name: Abd Munaf Date of Birth: 536 AD Relationship with the Prophet: Paternal Uncle Sons: 4 sons; Talib, Jafir, Aqueel, Ali Daughters: 2 daughters; Umm Hani, Jamana Died in: 621 AD ii) Bilal was amongst the first seven converts to Islam. When his master Umaiyah bin Khalaf came to know of his conversion he persecuted him mercilessly by making him lay down on the hot desert under the scorching sun and placing huge rocks on his chest but Bilal never renounced his faith but instead he would shout, "Allah is One, Allah is One." And his master would lash him at night. He migrated with the Prophet to Madinah. He had a fine
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He was one of those who performed the funeral rites of the Prophet. mainly form the tribe of Khazraj. Thamana bin Uthal to provided them with wheat and other eatables when Arab was struck with a terrible famine. Abu Ayub bin Ansari accepted Musab bin Umair from the THE FIRST ISLAMIC COMMUNITY PAPER-2 Q NO. He was amongst the three with whom the Prophet entered Makkah after its conquest in 10 AH. Umar. Ta’if and Tabuk. Biological Account Real name: Sakhr bin Harb Date of Birth: 561 AD Died in: 33 AH iv) Ansar were the people of Madinah. He was given one hundred camels and forty ounces of gold from the booty of the Battle of Hunain by the Prophet. He was one of the bitterest enemies of the Prophet and very hostile towards Islam in its early stages. On his request the Prophet granted the Quraish 500 gold coins and asked the chief of Najad. who received and helped the Prophet after his migration to Madinah. after the conquest of Makkah in 8 AH. He led the Quraish armies at the battles of Uhad in 3 AH and Trench in 5 AH. he distanced himself from the affairs of the time except for when Bait-ul-Maqadas was conquered during the reign of Umar. After the Prophet’s death After the Prophet’s death. then Abu Bakar. he called the Azan there.MUHAMMAD SHUMAIL MOHY-UD-DIN Islamiyat Notes otes voice and was the first Muezzin to call Muslims for congregational prayer at Masjid-e-Nabvi. Although the caravan was safe. At the conquest of Makkah those assembled in the House of Abu Sufiyan were granted security. He took part in the battles of Yarmuk and Ajnadin during the Caliphate of Umar. . iii) Abu Sufiyan was a leader of Banu Umayyah. He went to Madinah and tried to convince first Umm Habiba. He asked the Quraish for protection against a possible interception by the Prophet to his trade caravan from Syria which belonged to the Quraish. They were given the title of Ansar to distinguish them from the emigrants (Muhajireen). He took part in all the battles fought during the lifetime of the Prophet including the battle of Badr during which he killed his master Umaiyah bin Khalaf and his son Ali. He took part in the expeditions to Hunain. The Prophet then ordered Bilal to climb up the Ka'aba and call the Muslims for congregational prayer. He was a witness of the Treaty of Hudabiya.4/5 Page | 4 . He finally accepted Islam after much opposition. His daughter Umm Habiba was married to the Prophet. During the reign of Abu Bakar. Usman and Ali and finally to the Prophet to renew the Treaty of Hudabiya in 8 AH. After the Prophet’s death He heard and reported 100 traditions. the Quraish insisted on fighting. who were mainly dependant upon their help and support after their migration to Madinah. He was appointed by the Prophet as the first in charge of Bait-ul-Maal and his household. he was made the governor of Najran and Hijaz. He was a rich and respected merchant who often led caravans for trade to other countries particularly Syria. He indirectly brought about the battle of Badr in 2 AH. They accepted Islam and the Prophet as their leader and invited him and his followers to live in Madinah. The Ansar accepted the Muhajireen as their brothers in the bond of brotherhood established by the Prophet which came to be known as Maukhat. He was a body guard of the Prophet and one of his fourteen escorts.

At Madinah they helped the Prophet in the battles fought against the unbelievers i. Battle of Hunain and the Siege of Ta’if in 8 AH and the Tabuk Expedition in 9 AH.e.4/5 Page | 5 .MUHAMMAD SHUMAIL MOHY-UD-DIN Islamiyat Notes otes Muhajireen as his brother. Trench in 5 AH. Each Ansar helped his Muhajireen brother and shared his wealth and property with him. THE FIRST ISLAMIC COMMUNITY PAPER-2 Q NO. the Battle of Badr in 2 AH. Expedition to Khyber in 7 AH. Utban bin Malik accepted Umar from the Muhajireen as his brother and Aus bin Thabit accepted Usman from the Muhajireen as his brother as his brother. The Muhajireen who were in a dire economic state were financially uplifted. Uhad in 3 AH. Conquest of Makkah. After the Prophet’s death They gave up their claims that the first Caliph should be an Ansar and pledged their loyalty to Abu Bakar who was from the Muhajireen.

Conquest of Makkah.g.MUHAMMAD SHUMAIL MOHY-UD-DIN Islamiyat Notes otes Muhajireen (The Emigrants) Muhajireen is the term applied to those followers of the Holy Prophet who migrated from Makkah to Madinah with him. They accepted Islam during its initial stages. Sohaib Rumi form the Roman Empire and Sulaiman Farsi from the Persian Empire. Battle of Hunain and the Siege of Ta’if in 8 AH and the Tabuk Expedition in 9 AH.e. Expedition to Khyber in 7 AH. They secretly migrated to Madinah in small batches leaving behind their properties. Khubab bin Arat was made to lie on burning coals. Uhad in 3 AH. Umar. At Madinah they helped the Prophet in the battles fought against the unbelievers i. they have the hope of mercy of Allah.” The Four Rightly Guided Caliphs i. But the Muhajireen remained steadfast and did not abandon their faith. 11 men and 4 women migrated followed by 18 women and 83 men in the next year. Bilal was made to lie under the scorching sun on the hot desert sands and lashed at night by this master Umaiyah bin Khalaf and he used to lash him at night. In the 5th Year of Prophethood. They migrated to Abyssinia twice when the persecutions of the Quraish became unbearable.4/5 Page | 6 . “Those who believed and those who suffered exile and fought in the path of Allah. THE FIRST ISLAMIC COMMUNITY PAPER-2 Q NO.e. The term Muhajireen does not apply to the Prophet himself. Trench in 5 AH. the Battle of Badr in 2 AH. riches and houses. The Quran says. Usman and Ali were also from the Muhajireen. Abu Bakar. They included the people of Makkah as well as people form other places e. They were tortured and persecuted by the unbelievers specially those who were socially or financially week.

hit him on the head and accepted Islam during the 6th year of Prophethood. went to Abu Jahl. He participated in the digging of the Trench at the battle of Khandak. He was known for his bravery throughout Arabia and his conversion encouraged the Muslims. Syed-us-Shuhada (Prince of the Martyrs) Date of Birth: 569 AD Relationship with the Prophet: Paternal uncle. He was given the title of Syed-us-Shuhada by the Prophet when he gave the funeral prayer of the martyrs of Uhad.A. He was the chief scribe of the Prophet and learnt the Holy Quran by heart. Sh’aybah. He learnt foreign languages such as Persian. when Makkah was conquered.MUHAMMAD SHUMAIL MOHY-UD-DIN Islamiyat Notes otes Hazrat Hamza When Hamza on come to know that Abu Jahl insulted the Prophet. He was the first person to be entrusted with the Banner of Islam when the Prophet sent an expedition of 30 men to check a caravan of the non-believers in 2 A. He was the standard bearer of his tribe Banu Najam. and later by Usman to make a revised and accurate collection of the Holy Quran during his regime to remove the conflicts and misunderstandings which may have risen in the Muslim Community with regards to the difference in dialect of the Holy Quran in the newly conquered areas. He also took part in the battle of Tabuk. foster brother Father’s Name: Abu Muttalib Mother’s Name: Hala bint Wahab Died in: 3 AH Zaid bin Sabit He accepted Islam at the tender age of 11. He migrated with the Prophet to Madinah. he became enraged. a slave of Jabar bin Multin. "O people! Whosoever wants to ask about Quran.H.H he participated in the individual combat and killed Utbah. He was the first Ansar to take pledge of alliance to Abu Bakar as the Prophet's Caliph. Hamza used to pray openly at Ka'aba along with Umar. let him go to Zaid bin Sabit. Hebrew and Syriac corresponded with the Jew on the Prophet's behalf. He shared the persecution and hardships with the Prophet at Makkah. His knowledge of the Quran is confirmed by this statement of Umar. He took part in the Battle of Yamamah fought against false prophet Musailamah after which he was appointed head of commission by Abu Bakar to compile the Holy Quran in the form of a single book to preserve the Holy Quran for generations to come.4/5 Page | 7 . Aswad bun Abu-ul-Asad and Tuaiyna (uncle of Jabar bin Multin) during the course of the battle. He was appointed the leader of the army by the Prophet which laid siege to the Jewish tribe Banu Qaynuka for fifteen days. Hamza also fought courageously in the battle of Uhad in 3." He was made judge of Madinah during Umar's Caliphate. maternal cousin. His bond of brotherhood was with Zaid bin Haritha. He was a witness of the signing of the Treaty of Hudabiya in 6 AH.A.H during which he killed Arat bin Shurahbil. He was forbidden by the Prophet from taking part in the battles of Badr in 2 AH and Uhad in 3 AH due to his young age and therefore did not take part in them. During the time of the draught he was appointed by Umar to prepare a survey if the famine struck families and to distribute provisions to THE FIRST ISLAMIC COMMUNITY PAPER-2 Q NO. Siba bin Abul Huza before he was killed by Washi. During the battle of Badr in 2. Biological Account Titles: Asadullah (Lion of Allah).

When he died in 665 AD Abu Hurayrah said "Today a scholar of this Ummah has died.4/5 Page | 8 ." Biological Account Date of Birth: 619 AD Tribe: Khazraj Died in: 665 AD THE FIRST ISLAMIC COMMUNITY PAPER-2 Q NO. He was made the in charge of Bait-ul-Maal by Usman during his regime as Caliph.MUHAMMAD SHUMAIL MOHY-UD-DIN Islamiyat Notes otes them.

the First Caliph 2).4/5 Page | 9 . He endured the persecutions of the Quraish at Makkah in particular when he and Abu Bakar were left tied together on the ground.Umar.Abdur Rehman bin Auf 6). During the Caliphate of Abu Bakar he was commander of one of the 11 armies assembled to crush the apostasy movement. He also protected the Prophet at the battle of Hunain in 8 AH. He initially swore his alliance to Ali as the fourth Caliph but then turned against him for delaying the punishment for the assassins of Usman and together with Zubair bin Awwam raised an army. Tulha bin Ubaidullah: c) He was amongst the early converts who accepted Islam at the hands of Abu Bakar. THE FIRST ISLAMIC COMMUNITY PAPER-2 Q NO. [2] Write brief notes on the lives of any three of these companions who did not become Caliphs. [2×3] (Nov 2005) 1). He was a successful merchant and spent his wealth in the way of Allah which earned him the title of Fayyaz.Zaid bin Al-Awwam 9). When these persecutions became unbearable all of them migrated either to Abyssinia or Madinah. He migrated to Madinah shortly after the Prophet’s own migration and accompanied Prophet’s wife and his two unmarried daughter Umm Kulthum and Fatima. He was martyred by one of the rebels in 35 AH in the Battle of Camel in the clash between the two sides. [8] Explain why they were known by this name. He took part in battles fought during at lifetime of the Prophet except for the battle of Badr in 2 AH as he and Syed bin Zaid were sent to inquire the whereabouts of the caravan of Abu Sufiyan. They were therefore called the Ten Blessed Ones.Abu Ubaidah bin Jarrah 7). He was on the panel of six appointed by Umar to appoint the next Caliph on his death bed.MUHAMMAD SHUMAIL MOHY-UD-DIN Islamiyat Notes otes a) b) c) a) Identify the ten blessed companions. Ashara mubashshara. particularly during the Battles of Uhad and Hunain where they formed a protective guard around the Prophet. the generous. helped the Prophet get out of a tunnel he had fallen into and protected the Prophet from sword piercing his head during which he permanently wounded two fingers of his hand. the Fourth Caliph 5).Saeed bin Zaid b) They were all from the Quraish who were amongst the early converts to Islam and had therefore experienced persecution at the hands of the Makkans. At the battle of Uhad in 3 AH.Usman. Once while all of them were with the Prophet at the Mount of Uhad he promised them they would be spared the final judgment and gave them the glad tidings of Paradise after this life. He was therefore given the unique title of the “living martyr” by the Prophet. the Third Caliph 4).Abu Bakar. the Second Caliph 3).Saad bin Abi Waqas 10).Ali. They took part in most battles fought during the lifetime of the Prophet.Tulha bin Ubaidullah 8).

Abdur Rehman bin Auf His real name was Abu Amr. Umar and Usman. At the Khyber Expedition in 7 AH. THE FIRST ISLAMIC COMMUNITY PAPER-2 Q NO. He donated 8000 dinar at the expedition to Tabuk in 9 AH. He was given the title of Hawari-e-Rusool or helper of the Prophet on account of his services as a spy at the Battle of Trench. He is reported to have donated 40. Saeed bin Zaid: He was amongst the early converts to Islam. he was appointed as the commander of one of the 11 armies assembled to crush the apostasy movement. He led the expedition of 700 men against Damut al-Jandal in 6 AH. He later pulled out of the commission and instead became election commissioner and honestly and fairly appointed Usman as the next Caliph. He endured the persecutions of the Quraish at Makkah and was forced to migrate to Abyssinia twice and then to Madinah. Although he had supported Ali’s appointment as the first Caliph of Islam. he killed the well-known warrior Yasir. He received 21 wounds while protecting the Prophet in the battle of Uhad in 3 AH and also protected him at the Battle of Hunain in 8 AH. At Madinah he did not take anything from his brother Saad Ibn al-Rabi after the bond of brotherhood but choose to sell cheese and butter in the market and eventually became wealthy enough to send out trading caravans. He consoled the Prophet after the passing away of his son Ibrahim. At the Battle of Badr in 2 AH.4/5 Page | 10 . He took part in the conquest of Palestine and Syria during the reign of Umar as Caliph. he played a prominent part in electing Abu Bakar as the first Caliph of Islam. He participated in the Battles of Uhad in 3 AH and Hunain in 8 AH where he protected the Prophet. He died in 50 AH.000 dirhams to charity. He was amongst the early converts who accepted Islam at the hands of Abu Bakar. He was also appointed as the governor of Syria but he resigned from his post due to his love for Jihad. When the Prophet arrived late. he shared a joint camel with Abu Bakar and Umar and also killed Umair bin Usman. He has amongst the six members appointed by Umar to succeed him as Caliph. He was amongst the leaders of the Muslim army at the Conquest of Makkah in 8 AH. He endured the persecutions of the Quraish at Makkah and migrated north to Madinah. He suggested to Umar to nominate his successor as Caliph on his death bed. He led the Fajr prayer at the expedition of Tabuk in the Prophet’s absence. He took part in all the battles fought against the Quraish at Madinah. he was content to take his place behind Abdur Rehman. He died in 31 AH. He endured the persecutions of the Quraish at Makkah and was forced to migrate to Abyssinia and then to Madinah. He led prayer during Umar regime when Umar became seriously injured. He took part in the battles fought during the lifetime of the Prophet including the Battles of Uhad in 3 AH and Hunain in 8 AH where he protected the Prophet. He also took part in the individual combats at the Battle of Uhad. but he turned against him for delaying the punishment for the assassins of Usman and together with Tulha bin Ubaidullah raised an army. He was made Amir-ul-Hajj by Umar during his Caliphate. He was martyred by one of the rebels in 35 AH in the Battle of Camel in the clash between the two sides. After the Prophet’s death. He was appointed Amir-ul-Hajj during the Caliphates of Abu Bakar. During the regime of Abu Bakar.MUHAMMAD SHUMAIL MOHY-UD-DIN Islamiyat Notes otes Zubair bin Al-Awwam: He was amongst the early converts who accepted Islam at the hands of Abu Bakar. He took part in battles fought during at lifetime of the Prophet except for the battle of Badr in 2 AH as he and Tulha bin Ubaidullah were sent to inquire the whereabouts of the caravan of Abu Sufiyan.

They were interrupted by some people of town and when the two groups came to blows. but he remained steadfast. He led successful expeditions to Syria and Iran during Abu Bakar’s reign as Caliph. He was the commander of one of the four squadrons at the Conquest of Makkah. He took part in the expedition to Syria just before the Prophet’s death. He protected the Prophet at the Battle of Uhud in 3 AH and lost two of his teeth while extracting metal links form the body of the Prophet with his teeth. Let a man show his maternal uncle to me”. In the last year of the Prophet’s life. After the migration. In Battle of Badr. Saad bin Abi Waqas He was one of those who accepted Islam at the hands of Hazrat Abu Bakr at early stage. and took pledge of it. He endured the persecutions of the Quraish at Makkah and was forced to migrate to Abyssinia and then to Madinah. he was requested to become Caliph but he refused. had threatened that she would die of starvation if he had not abandon his new faith i. he was among those Muslims who went to pray outside the Makkah in order to avoid Quraish’s persecution. THE FIRST ISLAMIC COMMUNITY PAPER-2 Q NO. During Ali’s caliphate.(advising council) set by Abu Bakr. Saad threw a thousand arrows on enemies.MUHAMMAD SHUMAIL MOHY-UD-DIN Islamiyat Notes otes Abu Ubaidah bin Jarrah His real name was Amir. He was a wealthy and generous man. The Prophet said: “Saad is my uncle.e. my father and mother will be sacrificed on you”. He took part in battles fought against Apostasy Movement.al Qassa and al-Khabat. His mother. In early years of Islam. Abdullah bin Qama struck Prophet with stones and he fell in cave. he was commander in chief of the forces sent for Battle of Qadsia and Madain and conquered. He supported the Prophet and all the members of Banu Hasim during the days of social boycott. After the Prophet’s death he played a major role in ensuring the election of Abu Bakar as Caliph although Abu Bakar nominated his name along with Umar as the Caliph. He was a Scribe of Prophet. Saad wounded an opponent and drew the first blood in the Islamic history. Then the Prophet said: “O’ Saad shoot arrows. During the reign of Umar. he led expeditions to Dhu. During the Caliphate of Umar. Islam. The Prophet gave him the title of Aminul-Ummat and sent him to act as a judge in disputes for the Christian delegation of Najran after their visit to Madinah. He took part in the battles fought during the lifetime of the Prophet including the Battle of Badr in 2 AH during which he first took part in the individual combats and then killed his own father. He founded Kufa and was appointed its governor by Usman. He was amongst the early converts who accepted Islam at the hand of Abu Bakar. He was the maternal uncle of Prophet. After the death of Usman. During Farewell Hajj. He also protected the Prophet at the Battle of Hunain in 8 AH. he took part in all early battles and fought bravely in all those battles. He was one of the six members appointed by Umar to choose new caliph. He died in Syria in 18 AH because of plague. Hamna. he remained impartial during civil war. In Uhad he was one of those who protected the Prophet when the other fled from ground. he was the commander of the Muslim armies at the Conquest of Palestine and Syria. After the death of Prophet. He died in 54 AH at the age of about 80. he felt ill and when the Prophet visited him.4/5 Page | 11 . and Treaty of Hudaibiya and Conquest of Makkah and took part in it. he was a member of Majlis-Shura . He accepted Islam at the age of 17. He was present at the occasion of Bait-eRidwan. he killed Saeed bin Aas. The Prophet said Saad to throw arrows on enemies. He was one of the scribes of the Holy Prophet. he said to Prophet that he wanted to give two-third of his wealth in the way of Allah but the Prophet advised him to give one-third. And he was also one of those who migrated to Medina.

The person had to swear and bring two eye witnesses to that fact that the verse was written down during the Prophet’s lifetime and at least two persons needed to have that verse. Zaid retrieved the revelations from pieces of papyrus and leather. Zaid bin Sabit was made head of the committee which included Umar. “(It is) books held (greatly) in honor. The Prophet himself couldn’t write down the revelations because he was illiterate so whenever a verse was revealed the Prophet learnt it by heart and then conveyed it to scribes who were always near the Prophet to write down the revelations as soon as they heard it. written by the hands of scribes. Khalid bin Saeed. They were approximately 41 in number. shoulder blades and ribs of animals and were memorized by men. During this period 114 Surahs were revealed on the Prophet and all of these were written by the scribes of the Holy Prophet. Zaid bin Sabit. Ma’az bin Jabl. kept pure and holy. They remained close to the Prophet and became one of his dearest companions. Ali and Umar as well as Zaid bin Sabit. [4] Outline the work they carried out in writing down the revelations. Amongst these Umar. Abu Bakar. pious and just. The work was completed in one year. palm leaves. The scribes were skilled in art of accurate reading. to Khusrau Pervez of Persia and Negus of Abyssinia. The scribes wrote down the revelations on different writing materials including pieces of papyrus and leather. The Prophet also told them to write the verses after such and such Surah. Ma’az bin c) Jabl. exalted (in dignity). Muawyia bin Abi Sufiyan. The scribes tried their level best to preserve these revelations as they were revealed as accurately as possible. [4] Describe the part played by Zaid bin Sabit in preserving the revelations after the Prophet’s death. flat stones.4/5 Page | 12 . Ma’az bin Jabl and Ubaiy bin Kaab learnt the Holy Quran by heart on the Prophet’s persuasion. They sacrificed their family. palm leaves. [8] (May 2006) a) The scribes of the Holy Prophet played a very important role in preserving the Islam for generations to come. flat stones. Ubaiy bin Kaab. honorable.” b) The Quran was revealed on the Prophet in a span of 23 years. Zaid bin Sabit was appointed by Abu Bakar as the head of the committee to make the first compilation of the Quran and then again by Usman to make a revised collection of the Quran. It was due to this close companionship that they became authorities on religious knowledge and were later able to check the truthfulness on the copies of the Quran. The Quran says. Abdullah bin Masud was regarded as an expert on reciting and interpreting the revelation. Female scribes of the Holy Prophet included Ayesha. Apart form the revelation.e. He also asked anyone who had any fragment of the Holy Quran to bring it to Masjid-e-Nabvi. shoulder blades and ribs of animals as well as from hearts of men and wrote them down on sheets known as Suhuf. Shuarheel bin Hasama and Abdullah bin Masud. Umm Salama and Umm Warqa. Umar took THE FIRST ISLAMIC COMMUNITY PAPER-2 Q NO.g. They included the Four Rightly Guided Caliphs i. This is called Tarteeb-eTauqeefi. they also wrote down the judgments made by the Prophet and the letters he sent out to the emperors and the kings e. Ubaiy bin Kaab and Abu Zaid by Abu Bakar during his Caliphate after the battle of Yamamah against the false prophet Musailmah where 360 Huffaiz were martyred. On Abu Bakar’s death. the treaties such as the treaty of Hudabiya and the treaty of Najraur and other administrative measures taken by the Prophet. science of phonetics and in shapes and forms of letters.MUHAMMAD SHUMAIL MOHY-UD-DIN Islamiyat Notes otes a) b) c) Briefly explain the importance of the scribes of the Holy Prophet. Hafsa. Usman. personal life and worldly pursuits to achieve this. Ai.

they were passed on to his daughter Hafsa and the sheets came to be known as Mushuf-e-Hafsa. After Umar’s death in 644 AD. They compiled their work in the form of a book and kept the original order of the verses which were instructed to the Prophet by the angel Gabriel. They carefully collected full text using methods that ensured the authenticity of their work like preferring passages in Makkan dialect in case of conflict. In 27 AH following the Battle of Armenia. They also consulted leading Muslims and finally compared their work to the Suhuf of Hafsa to further ensure the correctness of what they collected. the Muslim Empire expanded. THE FIRST ISLAMIC COMMUNITY PAPER-2 Q NO. Madinah. and the remaining six were distributed to all the provinces of the Muslim empire.MUHAMMAD SHUMAIL MOHY-UD-DIN Islamiyat Notes otes possession of them. One was kept at the capital. Abdur Rehman bin Harith and Syed bin al-Aas. Huzaifa bin Yaman observed the difference in the dialect of Quran in newly conquered areas and reported this to Usman. as the Quran ha been revealed in that dialect.4/5 Page | 13 . He was assisted by Abdullah bin Zubair. Usman entrusted Zaid bin Sabit to make an accurate collection of the Quran. The work was completed in five years. During the reign of Usman.

When people refused to believe me she affirmed my truthfulness. Ruqayah.MUHAMMAD SHUMAIL MOHY-UD-DIN Islamiyat Notes otes Identify the Wives of the Prophet b) Explain the importance of: i. Ayesha in the years following the Prophet’s death [6] [4] [4] (October 2004) 1) Hazrat Khatijah bin Khawalid 2) Hazrat Sawdah bint Zama’a 3) Hazrat Ayesha bint Abu Bakar 4) Hazrat Hafsa bint Umar 5) Hazrat Zainab bint Khuzayma 6) Hazrat Umm Salama 7) Hazrat Zaynab bint Jahsh 8) Hazrat Juwayriyya bint Harith 9) Hazrat Umm Habiba 10) Hazrat Safiyya bint Huyayy 11) Hazrat Maymuna bint al-Harith 12) Hazrat Rayhana bint Zaid 13) Hazrat Maria bint Qibtiya i) Hazrat Khadijah inherited the wealth left for her by her father Khawalid bin Asad. At the time of marriage Muhammad was 25 years old while she was 40 years old.4/5 Page | 14 . When people refused to believe me. When I stood forsaken. When the first revelation came she supported and comforted him and took him to her cousin Waraqa bin Naufal who assured the Prophet that he had been ordained by Allah to be His messenger. Her first interaction with Muhammad was when he took her merchandise to Syria and brought back huge prophets. She supported the Prophet’s mission and was the first person to accept Islam. Umm Kulthum and Fatimmah and therefore had the honor of being the mother of his only surviving children. she spent my wealth to lighten the burden of my sorrow. She was so impressed that she proposed to him through her friend Nafeesa which he accepted. Khadijah during the lifetime of the Prophet ii. THE FIRST ISLAMIC COMMUNITY PAPER-2 Q NO. She was a loving and devoted wife. “She was the only wife who believed in me when others rejected me. She died in 10th year of Prophet Hood and that year is marked in the Islamic calendar as the “Year of Sorrow”. She was the only wife of the Prophet who endured the persecutions of the Makkans particularly during the Boycott of Banu Hashim from the seventh to the tenth year of Prophet Hood. Following her marriage to the Prophet. the slave who accompanied him on his trip spoke highly of Muhammad. she affirmed my truthfulness. She stood by him in times of trouble. she provided him with the financial support by placing his wealth at his disposal which enabled the Prophet to spend more time meditating in the cave of Hira. The Prophet said about Hazrat Khatijah. two sons Qasim by whom the Prophet had his kuniyat (Abul Qasim) and Abdullah and four daughters Zaynab. Maisra. She had married twice before her marriage with the Prophet and had been widowed. The Prophet and Khatijah were blessed with 6 children.

The Prophet offered the funeral prayer of Suhail bin Baidha in his mosque. She had an excellent memory. “How week is peoples’ memory.” She was an important advisor to Abu Bakar and Umar.” Speaking of her knowledge Imam Zuhri said. Abu Mus Al Ashar said. Companions of the Prophet would ask her if they had any difficulty in religious matters. She heard and reported 2. The ii) Prophet spent a lot of time with her and even died in her lap and was buried in her apartment.MUHAMMAD SHUMAIL MOHY-UD-DIN Islamiyat Notes otes Biological Account Titles: Tahira (the pure) Date of Birth: 556 AD Father’s Name: Khawalid bin Asad Mother’s Name: Fatima bint Za’dah Kuniyat name: Umm Hind First Marriage: Abu Hala bin Zurarah Second Marriage: Ateeq bin Aidh Makzumi Died in: 621 AD Buried in: Makkah Hazrat Ayesha is one of the most prominent wives of the Holy Prophet. She disagreed with some polices of Usman that he appointed inefficient relatives as governors in four provinces and was too lenient towards them. She participated in the battle while riding on a camel. THE FIRST ISLAMIC COMMUNITY PAPER-2 Q NO. the rebel leader suggested that Usman should be killed. But when Akhter Nakhai.4/5 Page | 15 . The battle is therefore known as the Battle of Camel in which 10. When Saad in Abi Waqas died. “It never happened that the companions of the Prophet had asked Ayesha about difficult religious and she had not given us knowledge about it. the first two Caliphs of Islam. She supported Tulha and Zubair when they raised an army in the cry of vengeance for Usman’s killers and met Ali’s armies at Basra.210 Hadith. particularly the Shias believe that this caused the first major conflict amongst the Muslim Community. She disagreed with Ali over the punishment of the assassinators of Usman when he delayed taking action against them. This enabled Hazrat Ayesha to become an authority on religious matters. Many Muslims. People objected but Hazrat Ayesha said. “If the knowledge of all wives was put together. the knowledge of Khatijah would exceed them. Hazrat Ayesha suggested that his funeral prayers should be offered in the Prophet’s mosque. she strongly opposed it. She also alleged Usman that he had spent on his relatives from the Bait-ul-Maal.000 Muslims were killed from either side.

however. Much of her time was spent in reading and writing.4/5 Page | 16 . mainly propagated by Abdullah bin Ubaiy. Hafsa was entrusted with this duty because she was illiterate (could read and write). She was a custodian of the Quran which was compiled during the caliphate of Abu Bakar. daughter of Umar who was the custodian of the Quran before her and a wife of the Prophet. the fist Caliph of Islam. a hafiz. Khawala bin Ateeq suggested the marriage.210 traditions. The collection came to be known as the Mushuf-e-Hafsa. THE FIRST ISLAMIC COMMUNITY PAPER-2 Q NO. She used to impart education to those who came to her for this purpose. The Prophet knew her due to his frequent visits to her father’s home and she was only 9 years old at the time of her marriage to Muhammad. Among the wives of the Prophet her knowledge was next to Ayesha only. though the couple did not become man and women until later. Many chapters of the Holy Quran were revealed in her apartment and the Prophet was also buried there. She was an authority on religious knowledge and narrated 2. Khunais. She was one of the scribes of the Prophet. She was eventually brought home by a young. She heard and narrated 60 traditions before her death in 45 AH. she had lost. But Allah in Surah-al-Nur proved her innocence. Sadiqa (daughter of Abu Bakar who was known as Sadique) Date of Birth: 604 AD Father’s Name: Abu Bakar Mother’s Name: Zainab Kuniyat name: Umm Abdullah Mehr: 500 dirhams Died in: 58 AH Buried in: Jannat-al-Baqi in Madinah Hazrat Hafsa (October 2007) Hazrat Hafsa was the daughter of Umar. She nursed him during his final days and he even died in her lap. She participated in the Battle of Uhad where she fed water to the wounded Muslims. “If the knowledge of all the wives was put together the knowledge of Ayesha would exceed them all. The marriage further strengthened the ties of the Prophet with his close friend Abu Bakar The marriage took place in the month of Shawal which swept away a superstition that prevailed in ht Arab society of not marrying their daughters in the month of Shawal because a plague had broken out during this month in previous time. She was one of the scribes of the Prophet and amongst the four women who had committed the Holy Quran to memory. One occasion. She was always a strong personality and her beauty and lively character attracted the Prophet towards her. She first migrated to Abyssinia and then to Madinah for the sake of Islam with her husband. Biological Account Titles: Humaira (complexion was bright red). the second Caliph of Islam. handsome man by the name of Safwan bin Muattal who came across her while she was waiting in the desert which caused scandal in the Muslim society. she caused him embarrassment when she got lost while accompanying the Prophet in the expedition of Banu Mustaliq while looking for her locket. Speaking of her knowledge Imam Zuhri said. The Prophet marred her in 3 AH in order to cement his ties with Umar.MUHAMMAD SHUMAIL MOHY-UD-DIN Islamiyat Notes otes Hazrat Ayesha (during the Prophet’s lifetime) (May 2004) Hazrat Ayesha was the daughter of Abu Baker.

MUHAMMAD SHUMAIL MOHY-UD-DIN Islamiyat Notes otes Biological Account Date of Birth: 606 AD Father’s Name: Umar bin Khattab Mother’s Name: Zainab bin Muzuan First Marriage: Khunais Died in: 45 AH Buried in: Jannat-al-Baqi in Madinah THE FIRST ISLAMIC COMMUNITY PAPER-2 Q NO.4/5 Page | 17 .

collected and compiled Ahadiths reported by Abu Huraira. The companionship of the two became known to the people and people called him Abu Huraira. He used to write the sayings of the Prophet and narrated 5374 Ahadiths that is the highest record. He was given the name of Abdur Rehman by the Prophet after his conversion to Islam. ‘The people are critical of my reports. He was appointed governor of Baharain during Umar’s caliphate and governor of Medina during Mawia’s regime. HAZARAT ABU HURAIRA Real name before accepting Islam: Abd Shams Real name after accepting Islam: Abdur Rehman Kuniat: Abu Huraira Tribe: Dous Death: 678 AD THE FIRST ISLAMIC COMMUNITY PAPER-2 Q NO. Muhajreen were busy in their business and Ansar in farming. He had a habit of questioning. He accepted Islam at the preaching of Tufal bin Amr Dousi in 7 AH at the time of Battle of Khyber. One day. One of his students. he found a cat in the forest and enjoyed its company. This is known as Sahjfa-Sahiha Humam bin Munabih (contains 138 Ahadiths). ‘Abu Huraira is a reservoir of knowledge of my Ummah’. Father of cat.MUHAMMAD SHUMAIL MOHY-UD-DIN Islamiyat Notes otes He belonged to a poor Yamanite family. They say I narrate reports which Muhajreen and Ansar have no knowledge but they ignore an important point. Busra. His real name was Abd Shams before his conversion to Islam. Humam bin Munnabih. He was one of the people of Suffaa and spent most of his time in learning. Abu Huraira also responded to the criticism made by people on him that how he learnt so much Ahadiths in just 4 years by saying. He used to tend the herds of a wealthy lady. generous and a contended person. Moreover his memory was excellent. He taught Hadith in Prophet’s mosque after Prophet’s death. He learnt Persian and Coptic languages.4/5 Page | 18 . The Prophet said. I being a poor person spent whole of my time in the company of Prophet as I have no family’. He died in 678 AD in the age of 75 years. He was pious.

Sulaiman was a very learned person and knowledgeable companion and narrated 60 Ahadiths. He travelled many cities and countries for this purpose. The Prophet accepted his advice and dug trench. Sulaiman suggested to dig a trench around Medina to protect it from the Quraish attack. He first of all adopted Christianity and read all the books of Christianity. After the conquest of Madain. The Prophet said about him. He was one of the Prophet’s bodyguards. Madain ). He went to Syria and met bishop of Damascus. Then he arrived Medina and met the Prophet and accepted Islam. His parents were fire worshipper. He was one of the people of Suffaa.4/5 Page | 19 . Hazrat Sulaiman Farsi Real name: Maabah Kuniat: Abu Abdullah Tittle: Sulaiman Al Khair (virtuous) Bond of Brotherhood: Abu Darda Death: 35 AH THE FIRST ISLAMIC COMMUNITY PAPER-2 Q NO.MUHAMMAD SHUMAIL MOHY-UD-DIN Islamiyat Notes otes Sulaiman was born in Jayy near Isphan in the house of Yuzakhsan. ‘Sulaiman is a member of my family’. He did not participate in the battle of Badr and Uhad on account of his slavery because his master did not allow him to participate in those battles. After the Prophet’s death. The Prophet denoted 40 ounces gold and asked his companions to plant 300 date palm trees and he was set free by his slave as he wanted 40 ounces gold and 300 date palm trees to free him. He was present at the Bait-eRidwan. He was true seeker of true religion. ‘Every Prophet had 7 guardians but I have been given 14 and Sulaiman was one of them’. Farewell Hajj and Conquest of Makkah. He died in 35 AH in Madain. he was appointed the governor of Madain. Treaty of Hudabiya. The Prophet said. He participated in the battles fought against Iranians during the caliphate of Umar ( Qadsiya. Sulaiman took part in all the remaining important battles. Therefore he was known as Farsi. then Musal and its bishop. He travelled with a great caravan and he was sold as a slave to a Jew of Banu Quraiza. he was a member of advisory council of Abu Bakr and Umar. then Nasiben and its bishop and then Amuria and the bishop of Amuria told Sulaiman that the last prophet will come in Arab and you should go there.

Ayesha said.MUHAMMAD SHUMAIL MOHY-UD-DIN Islamiyat Notes otes Fatimah Fatima was born in 605 AD and was the fourth and youngest daughter of the Prophet. 3 AH and was named by the Prophet himself. meaning the beautiful one. from where the line of Shia Imams began. “The Prophet loved Fatimah dearly: whenever he went on a journey he came to her first and whenever he returned. he returned to her first. and after Uqba bin Abu Muyeet placed the fetus of a she camel on the Prophet’s back while he was prostrating at the Ka’aba. He would also pick him up on his shoulder and say “O Allah I love him so love him. During his father’s Caliphate he was sent to Kufa to THE FIRST ISLAMIC COMMUNITY PAPER-2 Q NO. Al-hamad-ul-illah 33 times and Allah-hu-Akbar 34 times. just six months after her father. “Fatimah is part of my flesh. He took part in the expeditions to Central Asia and North Africa during Usman’s reign as Caliph. She was also the mother of Mushin. She tended to the Prophet’s wounds when he was wounded in the battle of Uhad in 3 AH. Hasan Hasan was born to Ali and Fatimah on 15th Ramadan. She has been attributed with the Tasbeeh-e-Fatimah i.” She migrated to Madinah with her stepmother Sawdah bint Zama’a and two sisters Ruqqiya and Umm Kulthum.” When Jami bin Omair asked her aunt Ayesha who amongst the people was dearest to the Prophet she replied Fatima and when he asked about men she replied Her husband.” After the Prophet’s death she argued at the election of Abu Bakar over her husband Ali. in his last illness that she would be the first one form his family to follow him and accordingly she died on 3rd Ramadan 11 AH. He and his brother Husain were sent by their father to provide Usman with food when he was besieged in his house in 35 AH. Shias have given her the title Sayyadun Nissa. He is also known as “Shabbar” which in Herbew language means handsome. “You are the highest of the women in the people in Paradise. causes my anger. he rose whenever Fatimah came and would make her sit by his side. a cousin of the Prophet in 2 AH. She was given the title of alZuhra. except for Maryam. She was married to Hazrat Ali. the Shinning One. Hasan in 3 AH and Husain in 4 AH. His early childhood was spent in the company of the Prophet and would listen to him reciting the Quran and would immediately learn it by heart. Subhan Allah 33 times. Like other Muhajireen they too faced extreme poverty.” He was just eight years old when the Prophet and his mother passed. who died in childhood and three daughters Ruqqiya who died in infancy. She gave birth to the Prophet’s only surviving descendants. Umm-e-Kulthum and Zainab.4/5 Page | 20 . He was therefore brought up by Ali. however. been foretold by the Prophet.e. The Prophet loved him dearly and would allow him to climb on his back while prostrating and would interrupt his sermon to some down from the minar to pick him up when he tripped over. The Prophet once said to her. daughter of Imran. the model of womanhood and believe that after the final judgment she will secure entry into Paradise for her supporters. She had. She was brought up by the Prophet and she stood beside him during stressful time at Makkah and Madinah. When the Prophet heard of Ali re-marrying she said. whosoever causes her anger. She would to wash the Prophet’s head when the unbelievers threw dirt on him.

he was forced to abdicate the office of Caliphate after negotiations with Muawiya. They also credit him with miracles. “Husain belongs to me and I to Husain. The Prophet loved him dearly and would allow him to climb on his back while prostrating and would interrupt his sermon to some down from the minar to pick him up when he tripped over. Yazid’s forces cut off all supplies of water to them and did not allow even a single drop of water to reach them. In 60 AH Yazid. “Hasan and Husain are my flowers in the world. He reached Makkaho0n 3rd Shaban 60 A. THE FIRST ISLAMIC COMMUNITY PAPER-2 Q NO. when he knew of this. 4 AH and was named by the Prophet himself.000 men reached the borders of Syria who were bribed by spies of Muawiya. The Prophet said. Siffin and Naharwan.” He further said.” He was just seven years old when the Prophet and his mother passed. May Allah love him who loves Husain. It is said that he was poisoned by one his wives Judah who was been bribed with promises to money and marriage to his son. who invited him into their city. He was therefore brought up by Ali. Although leading Muslims advised against this. “Verily this progeny of mine is Sayyad and perchance Allah will bring out compromise between two big parties of the Muslims through him. He and his brother Hasan were sent by their father to provide Usman with food when he was besieged in his house in 35 AH. Husain Husain was born to Ali and Fatimah on 4th Shawal. but immediately after sending the reply he was killed by the Umayyad Governor loyal to Yazid. He supported his father in the Battles of Camel.4/5 Page | 21 . His earl childhood was spent in the company of the Prophet. went to Kufa with his 72 supporters and on 2nd Muharram 61 AH. Here se sent his cousin Muslims bin Aqil to Kufa to check on the support from Kufa. succeeded his father Muawiya on his death as Caliph.” He settled in Madinah and died in 50 AH. Due to his reluctance to fight against fellow Muslims.MUHAMMAD SHUMAIL MOHY-UD-DIN Islamiyat Notes otes seek reinforcements during his struggle against Tulha. camped at a desert called Kabala. On 7th. He replied positively and said that the people of Kufa wanted him to come and offered him all their support. Husain. He went to his sick son Zain-ulAbideen to hand over the charge of Imamat to him and went back into the battlefield and was brutally martyred. Yazid by Muawiya. After the assassination of Ali in 40 AH he was proclaimed Caliph and nearly 40. meaning the little beautiful one. Zubair and Ayesha. He was against the Hassan’s abdication of the office of Caliphate to Muawiya. spending less then a year in office thereby fulfilling the following prophecy of the Prophet who said.000 people took oath of loyalty to him but Muawiya.H. After three days all of Hussains’s supporters were martyred and he was left alone in the battlefield. Shias regard him as the second Imam and accept that he is sinless and perfect in all his actions. He also supported his father in the Battle of Siffin and Naharwan and was also in charge of the Bait-ul-Maal during Ali’s regime. Yazid bribed the leaders of the town and they withdrew their support form Husain. the governor of Syria and Egypt rejected and went in battle against him on the border of Syria. But Husain refused to take oath of allegiance to him and left Madinah for Makkah since he did not want his grandfather’s city to become a battlefield. He was heavily outnumbered by Yazid’s 4. and desertions of his army which continued even after his 20.000 men. He took part in the expeditions to Central Asia and North Africa during Usman’s reign as Caliph.

MUHAMMAD SHUMAIL MOHY-UD-DIN Islamiyat Notes otes THE FIRST ISLAMIC COMMUNITY PAPER-2 Q NO.4/5 Page | 22 .

Banu Ghaftan and Banu Abbas to pay Zakat. “He being the two of them when they were in a cave. and the Savior of Islam. during the lifetime of the Prophet [6] ii. The Quran confirms this statement by saying. He also accompanied the Prophet during his migration from Makkah to Madinah and carried all his wealth 5 to 6 thousand dirhams along.” He gave his daughter Ayesha to be the Prophet’s wife. Tulaiha in northern Arabia who belonged to the tribe Banu Asad and Sijjaha. After his conversion he convinced his friends including Usman. He protected the Prophet at the Battle of Uhad in 3 AH and Hunain in 8 AH. Amir bin Fuhaira. His first major decision as Caliph was to continue the Prophet’s intention of sending an expedition north to Syria under Usama despite opposition from the Muslims that Usama was inexperienced. The wars fought proved to be very successful for the Muslims and the Apostasy Movement was crushed within a year. But Abu Bakar chose not to defy the Prophet’s commands and sent the expedition which proved to be very successful. Abdur Rehman. Nahdra and Lubaina who were persecuted by their masters for accepting Islam. Aswad Anasi in Yemen. Abu Bakar had to face the appearance of false prophets. Zubair. [4] (May 2005) i) He had been the prophet’s friend since childhood and accompanied the Prophet during his trade journeys. He forced the tribes who refused to pay Zakat e. He remained loyal to the Prophet in all situations both in Makkah and in Madinah. He was the first person to confirm the Prophet’s statement about Miraj. Banu Asad. He was appointed Amir-ul-Hajj in when it first became obligatory and was appointed by the Prophet as the leader of the Congregational prayer when the Prophet became ill. who belonged to the tribe Banu Tamim.MUHAMMAD SHUMAIL MOHY-UD-DIN Islamiyat Notes otes Write an account of the major contributions made to Islam by Abu Bakar i. He paid the price for the land of the Prophet’s mosque in Madinah. Abu Bakar collected his troops divided them into 11 battalions each under the command of an experienced commander and sent them to fight off the movement. He was one of the scribes of the Prophet and amongst the ten blessed companions. Some tribes of the Muslim community had apostatized. Tulha. At the Battle of Khandak in 5 AH where he was one of those appointed at different spots by the Prophet to ensure that the pagans could not cross.g. Saad bin Abi Waqas and Abu Ubaidullah bin Jarrah to embrace Islam. he placed all his wealth at the disposal of the Prophet. He supported the Prophet after the signing of the Treaty of Hudabiya even others including Hazrat Umar were critical of some of the terms of the treaty. THE FIRST ISLAMIC COMMUNITY PAPER-2 Q NO. He took Umar’s advice of compiling the Quran in the form of a book and entrusted Zaid bin Sabit. He took part in all the battles fought during the lifetime of the Prophet including the Battle of Badr in 2 AH where he shared a joint camel with Umar and Abdur Rehman bin Auf. Abu Bakar’s greatest contribution to Islam was the compilation of Quran after the death of many Huffaiz in the various battles that took place to suppress the rebellions in the Muslim Empire particularly during the Battle of Yamamah during which 360 Huffaiz were martyred. during his caliphate [6] b) Explain why he was known as the Honest One (al-Siddiq). He became the first free adult male to accept Islam. He used his wealth to free slaves including Bilal. all declared their Prophethood but Abu Bakar fought them off and crushed their rebellions.4/5 Page | 23 . At the battle of Tabuk in 9 AH. Four persons namely Musailamah in central Arabia. ii) He exercised remarkable self-control while announcing the Prophet’s death and consoled the Muslim community after his passing away.

but 2 marks for details of how this happened] He was the Prophet’s friend from childhood. the Testifier to the Truth. with this task. threatened the existence of the newly established Islamic State. and to destroy the false prophets. On the accounts of these services.MUHAMMAD SHUMAIL MOHY-UD-DIN Islamiyat Notes otes one of the chief scribes of the Prophet. eliminated the false prophets. Aswad al-Ansi and Sajjah. but 2 marks for all of these points] PAPER-2 Q NO. He made a financial contribution to the expedition to Tabuk. Jerusalem and the heavens all in one night and then back to his house at Makkah. [1 mark. These were Musaylima. [1 mark. Abu Bakar was known as the Savior of Islam. and 1 extra mark for details] He fought against the tribes who withheld Zakat. He fought against the false prophets. showing trust in the Prophet at the Treaty of Hudabiya when many were critical of the terms established and donating all his wealth at the time of Tabuk expedition. Mark Scheme: (a) (i) • • • • • • • • • (ii) • • • • • • (b) • • • He was given the title of al-Siddiq after he declared without hesitation that he believed the Prophet had been taken to Jerusalem on the Night Journey. He brought others to accept Islam. He expressed belief in the Prophet’s Night Journey. He accompanied the Prophet on the hijra. But Abu Bakar fought of all these problems.e. good and bad. He gave his daughter `A’isha to be the Prophet’s wife. THE FIRST ISLAMIC COMMUNITY . crushed the apostasy movement. Abu Bakar took the office of Khilafat at a critical time of Islamic history. He continued the Prophet’s intention to send expeditions to the north. He remained loyal to the Prophet at all times. So on the account of confirming the Prophet’s Night Journey and showing loyalty to him in all circumstances like accepting Islam without any kinds of reluctance. to resist the threat from tribes withdrawing from Islam. He encouraged the Muslims after the death of the Holy Prophet. [1 mark. put an end to the rebellions and forced the tribes who had refused to pay Zakat. He was acknowledged as the Savior of Islam because of his efforts to keep the community united. the Prophet gave him the title of al-Siddiq i. rise of false prophets and rebellions in the Peninsula. He united the Muslims. He bought slaves who were Muslim and freed them. but 2 marks if all four names are given] He arranged to have the first collection of the Qur’an made. Tulayha. When Abu Bakar came to know of this he believed the Prophet without any hesitation. [1 mark for the basic point. The compilation of the Quran was completed in one year. to pay Zakat.4/5 Page | 24 He steadied the mourning community after the Prophet’s death. It also suits his conduct of showing complete loyalty towards Muhammad. b) The Prophet claimed that he had been taken to the Ka’aba. He was one of the first to accept Islam. Disunity amongst the Muslims.

though there were also some common errors. and so wrote about his financial arrangements for the empire. very few linked the title al-Siddiq with his unhesitating expression of belief in the Prophet’s Night Journey. and about conquests that were made not under him but under his successor. THE FIRST ISLAMIC COMMUNITY PAPER-2 Q NO. and some candidates gained them by naming the four best-known false prophets and saying a little about them). (a) Most candidates were able to describe the two parts of Abu Bakr’s career very fully. he accompanied the Prophet on the hijra (this is referred to in the Qur’an). during his caliphate he fought against the apostate tribes and against the false prophets (three marks were allowed for details of this point. Some candidates seemed to mix him up with ‘Umar. and it brought some very good answers. While many explained how he earned the title Savior of Islam by his quick actions to put down dissent and opposition to the young state. The best answers included the following points: he brought others to Islam. he remained loyal to the Prophet at all times.MUHAMMAD SHUMAIL MOHY-UD-DIN Islamiyat Notes otes Examiner’s Report: This was a popular question. (b) Few candidates answered this part well. though some linked it with his general character of trustworthiness. and he arranged a collection of the Qur’an.4/5 Page | 25 .

A peace treaty was signed between them and Muslims under which they were given full religious and complete security of their life and property as long as they paid Jiziya. he donated half of his entire wealth as war funds.4/5 Page | 26 . his conversion encouraged the Muslims to pray openly in Makkah. He became furious and went to her sister's home and attacked her and her husband while they were reciting the Holy Quran. Even after migration he stood beside the Prophet as a close companion. Their ties were further strengthened when he gave his daughter Fatima in marriage to the Prophet. Syria was also added to the Muslim empire during the reign of Umar when an army led by Abu Ubaidah bin Jarrah. His bond of brotherhood was formed with Utban bin Malik. The Prophet therefore gave him the title of al-Farooq. Abu Ubaidah bin Jarrah and Amr bin al-Aas also captured Jerusalem during the reign of Umar. Umar migrated to Madinah shortly before the Prophet's own migration and openly declared that he was going to migrate.e. The Persian threat was finally eliminated by Saad bin Abi Waqas at the Battle of Nahawand in 642 AD. who replaced Khalid bin Waleed during the battle. The Persians were again defeated in the same year by Nauman bin Maqqarin. At the Battles of Uhad in 3 AH and Hunain in 8 AH he defended the Prophet. Umar became the Prophet's bitterest enemies. Umar personally accepted the treaty and the agreements made formed the basis of the later legislation about Dhimmies (non-Muslims living in Islamic state). the capital of Persia. i. On the way he heard the news of her sister Fatima and her husband's conversion to Islam. Bahrahsher and Madain. He initially objected to terms and conditions of the Treaty of Hudabiya because they disadvantaged the Prophet but eventually submitted to the Prophet's will. In 634 AD. Umar also brought many other effective administrative changes to the Muslim empire such as the establishment THE FIRST ISLAMIC COMMUNITY PAPER-2 Q NO. they were again defeated by Saad bin Abi Waqas at the Battle of Qadisiya in 637 AD following which Muslims captured Babal. Muslims under the command of Muthanna bin Harith and Khalid bin Waleed defeated the Persians at the battle of Nammaraq. the distinguisher between right and wrong.MUHAMMAD SHUMAIL MOHY-UD-DIN Islamiyat Notes otes Explain the importance of Umar i. Kutha. Immediately after listening to them. On his insistence her sister recited a few verses form Surah Taha. during his caliphate [6] b) What does the manner of Umar's death tell us about his character? [4] (Nov 2006) i) Following the declaration of Prophethood. during the lifetime of the Prophet [6] ii. Allah answered the Prophet's prayer during that same year when Umar set out to kill the Prophet. Khalid bin Waleed. Muslims under Abu Ubaid-ath-Thaqafi lost to the Persians that same year at the Battle of Bridge. He went to the Prophet and accepted Islam. Due to his reputation as a strong and fearless fighter. During the 6th Year of Prophethood. At the Tabuk Expedition in 9 AH. crushed the Romans in 636 AD at the Battle of Yarmuk. tears began to flow from his eyes. He took part in all the battles fought during the lifetime of the Prophet including the Battle of Badr in 2 AH where shared a joint camel with Abu Bakar and Abdur Rehman bin Auf and killed his maternal uncle Aasbin-Asham. He was one of those scribes of the Prophet who learnt the Holy Quran by heart and amongst the ten blessed companions. the Prophet prayed to Allah to strengthen Islam by giving him Umar or Abu Jahl. ii) Umar was able to extend the Muslim empire to Persia following a series of battles. In 638 AD Amar bin al-Aas further extended the Muslim empire after the conquest of Egypt. He also protected the Prophet from attacks in Makkah and in doing so became his close companion. He dreamt the word and method of Azan.

that he was on his way to kill the Prophet. Ma'az bin Zubair and Tulha. • He took part in the expeditions to the north that were organized towards the end of the Prophet’s life. They included. but relented when he read it]. that he surprised his sister and her husband hearing the Qur’an recited. • In Makka he had a reputation as a fierce and strong fighter. such as his defending the Prophet at Uhud. (ii) THE FIRST ISLAMIC COMMUNITY PAPER-2 Q NO. • His ties with the Prophet were strengthened when the Prophet married his daughter Hafsa. Abdur Rehman bin Auf. introduction of a vast and effective Educational System. Zaid bin Sabit. • There he was always close to the Prophet in battles [allow a further 1 mark for details. This incident completely describes Umar's character. The reason for killing Umar was that did not accept his appeal to excuse him from paying a tax. • His conversion gave courage to the Muslims in Makka.MUHAMMAD SHUMAIL MOHY-UD-DIN Islamiyat Notes otes of a regular Majlis-e-Shura'a. • He made the Hijra to Madina with the other Muslims. and his digging the trench before Khandaq].4/5 Page | 27 . land reforms to promote agriculture. Usman. Umar once imposed a punishment of 80 lashes on his own son. The punishment resulted in his son's death. On another occasion when Umar met the Muslim commanders at Palestine who were dressed in silk. Mark Scheme: (a) (i) • He converted to Islam when he heard a passage of the Qur’an being recited [here allow 1 mark for the basic point. The fact that Hazrat Ayesha sacrificed her own place of burial alongside the Prophet for Umar further signifies that Umar was acknowledged by the whole Muslim community as a great leader. that he was going to destroy this passage. separation of the judiciary from the executives. jail post office. Ali. he started throwing stones at them. He was stern about the observance of all religious duties. Other administrative changes brought up by Umar included the division of the Muslim empire into provinces. Abu Salma for drinking wine. pension and allowance and the Islamic Calendar. While he was extremely kind and generous towards the poor and needy he was also very strict and refused to give anyone any concession if he felt that they were unnecessary and not within the folds of Islam. • He objected to the terms of the Treaty of al-Hudaybiya because they disadvantaged the Prophet.g. He was the slave of Mugheera bin Shuba. organization of the army and Bait-ul-Maal. Umar rejected this because he thought that the tax could be paid by him since it was not that much. It was these fearless tactics of Umar which caused his death but because of these fearless tactics he also became one of the greatest rulers of the history of mankind. and allow a further 1 mark for details. Whatever he did was based on the teachings of Islam and did not hesitate for even a single second to punish anyone who did not follow the teachings of Islam without thinking about the consequences of his actions. • In Makka he proved a great help because he was able to protect the Prophet from attacks. Prominent companions attended the meetings of the council where important issues were discussed. the departments of police. e. b) Umar was killed by a Persian slave named Abu Lu'lu'a who was known as Feroz.

The reason was that he refused to excuse him from paying a tax. and an additional 1 mark for names of battles and dates]. Persia. THE FIRST ISLAMIC COMMUNITY PAPER-2 Q NO.MUHAMMAD SHUMAIL MOHY-UD-DIN Islamiyat Notes otes • • • • He oversaw the expansion of the empire into Syria. Through such mistakes they missed easy marks. Iraq and Egypt [allow 1 mark for the basic point. and (ii) during his caliphate. He was buried near the Prophet. He was stern about the correct observance of all regulations [allow 1 mark for any examples that illustrate this characteristic]. He personally accepted the surrender of Jerusalem [1 mark for the basic point. Examiner’s Report: This was about the Caliph ‘Umar. While there were some very thorough answers. the institution of the position of judge. Others thought he had fought the false prophets (that was Abu Bakr). He oversaw many important administrative measures [1 mark for the basic point. which shows his unflinching fairness in treating everyone in exactly the same way (a trait that is exemplified in a great number of his actions in his earlier life).4/5 Page | 28 . and also to suggest what this indicates about his character. requiring candidates to know how ‘Umar died. Part (b) was more demanding. or had married two of the Prophet’s daughters (that was ‘Uthman). This is characteristic of `Umar’s total impartiality and refusal to allow concessions even to those close to him. and a further 1 mark for full details of more than one of his measures]. (b) • • • • • `Umar was killed by his slave (Abu Lu’lu’a). The agreements he made with conquered non-Muslims formed the basis of later legislation about Dhimmis. a further 1 mark for details such as the diwan which listed those entitled to pensions from the state. a surprising number of candidates did not appear to have a clear idea of what distinguished ‘Umar. which shows he was held in high honor. But most either did not know how he had died or failed to show how his assassination bore any significance as an indication to his character. a further 1 mark for details. In part (a) candidates were asked to describe his life (i) during the Prophet’s lifetime. Some thought he was one of the earliest converts. or compiled the Qur’an. and a further 1 mark for details]. A few did explain that his assassination by his slave was the result of his refusal to give his slave special concessions.

They were paid excellent salaries. He also divided the army into regular and irregular personnel. Cantonments and Barracks were built in Madinah. Organization of the Army Umar encouraged the Muslims to enlist in the regular army of the state. He appointed experienced personnel as administrators of the provinces and magistrate to run the affairs if the districts and towns. Kharaj (land tax). Hadith and Islamic law were taught. distinguisher between right and wrong. Ushar. Usman. Damascus. Adu Darda as teachers. Prominent companions attended the meetings of the council where important issues were discussed. Umar showed kindness and charity to the non-Muslims. Palestine and Mosul. He ordered a thorough survey of the lands and divided hem into plots and fixed taxes according to the fertility of the soil and location of the land. Basra.MUHAMMAD SHUMAIL MOHY-UD-DIN Islamiyat Notes otes Administration of Umar Establishment of Majlis-e-Shura'a Umar established a regular Majlis-e-Shura'a. full security and freedom of religion as long as they paid Jiziya. Shuraih. Rights of Dhimmies Non-Muslims who were living in Islamic state were called Dhimmies and were given equal rights. Ashoor (custom duty). Provinces and Governors For the smooth functioning of the administrative system. THE FIRST ISLAMIC COMMUNITY PAPER-2 Q NO. provinces into districts. Jordan. Administration of Land Umar introduced various land reforms for the promotion of agriculture. post office Umar introduced department of police. Salman bin Rabiah. Makkah. Umar divided the Islamic state into several provinces. Separation of Judiciary form Executives Umar was the first ruler who separated judiciary from executives. Spoils of War. Names of provinces were Makkah. Judges were paid extra salaries. Major resources of Revenue were Zakat. Jiziya. They included. Palestine and Egypt. Umar appointed Ubada bin Sabit. Police. Umar exempted him from paying Jiziya and granted him an allowance form Bait-ulMaal. Kufa. Umar imposed certain restrictions on them and they were called during Hajj season.4/5 Page | 29 . Once Umar saw as aged Christian begging to pay Jiziya. Amir-ul-Momineen and Abu Musa Canal.e. Ma'az bin Jabl. Ma'az bin Zubair and Tulha. Zaid bin Sabit. jail and post office for the smooth running of the government. He was known as AlFarooq i. jail. Organization of Bait-ul-Maal Umar reorganized the entire system of Bait-ul-Maal on sound principals. districts into towns. Abdullah bin Masud. Kufa. Many canals were constructed for irrigational purposes e. Ali. Names of judges included Zaid bin Sabit. They were given holiday every four months to visit their homes.g. Education System Umar founded many schools in all provinces and towns for the promotion of knowledge in Muslims. These schools were located in mosques where Quran. the Canal of Saad. They ere paid good salaries and their families were given funds Umar did not allow military personnel to possess land in conquered areas. Abdur Rehman bin Auf.

Zakat. This Department was called the "Department of Diwan. THE FIRST ISLAMIC COMMUNITY PAPER-2 Q NO. the allotment of pension to the retired officials and disabled soldiers.4/5 Page | 30 . He fixed allowances for the needy and physically handicapped. fasting. Hajj and other religious practices." Introduction of Islamic Calendar Umar introduced Islamic calendar concerning prayer.MUHAMMAD SHUMAIL MOHY-UD-DIN Islamiyat Notes otes Pension and Allowance Umar introduced for the first time in the history of mankind.

he was appointed to negotiate with the Quraish on the behalf of the Prophet. the Prophet decided to marry his daughter Umm Kulthum in 2 AH to Usman and he is therefore known as Zun Naorrain. whatever he does. when his caravan carrying large supplies of food arrived in Madinah at the time of famine. When the persecutions became unbearable. He purchased a well named Bir-i-Rumah from a Jew for 20. Following the death of Ruqayya. THE FIRST ISLAMIC COMMUNITY PAPER-2 Q NO. The Prophet gave his daughter Ruqayya in marriage to Usman. The Prophet said. At the conquest of Makkah in 8 AH he rode beside the Prophet on his entry in Makkah.000 dirhams and devoted it as free for use for the Muslims. He was a member of the Majlis-e-Shura’a during the time of both Abu Bakar and Umar’s Caliphates.MUHAMMAD SHUMAIL MOHY-UD-DIN Islamiyat Notes otes Importance during the lifetime of the Prophet Usman was amongst the early converts. 1000 Dinars and 50 horses. first amongst the Umayyads to Islam at the hands of Abu Bakar and experienced persecutions from the Quraish.” He protected the Prophet at the battle of Uhad in 3 AH and Hunain in 8 AH. particularly from his uncle Hakam who use to tie him up with a rope and beat him. and at both places he worked as a merchant and became quite rich. He served in the army sent by Abu Bakar under Usamah’s command to Syria. During the Caliphate of Umar. He also told him that he would get the reward of participating in the battle.4/5 Page | 31 . on the Prophet’s request. “For every apostle of Allah there was a constant companion and my companion in Paradise will be Usman. he bore the expenses for one third of the Muslim army and also gave away 1000 camels. At the Tabuk Expedition in 9 AH. He was given the title of al-Ghani. “Nothing will do any harm to Usman from this day. during the time of the battle at Badr. the carrier of two lights. He took part in all the major battles fought during the lifetime of the Prophet except for the Battle of Badr in 2 AH when he stayed behind to take care of his sick wife. He could both read and write and was amongst the scribes of the Holt Quran and the first one who learnt it by heart. he decided to migrate to Abyssinia and then to Madinah along with his wife. he remained by Abu Bakar’s side as his advisor. Biological Account Date of Birth: 573 AD Real Name: Abu Amr Father’s Name: Affan bin Abul-As Mother’s Name: Fatima Kuniyat name: Abu Abdullah Bond of Brotherhood: Aus bin Sabit Died in: 35 AH Importance during the first two Caliphs He was the second person after Umar to take an oath of allegiance at Abu Bakar’s hand at his election as first Caliph of Islam. He is also amongst the ten blessed companions. The unbelievers wrongly informed Muslims of Usman’s murder following which the Prophet took the Bait-e-Ridwan form his companions to avenge the murder of Usman. he distributed them for free amongst the Muslims. During the apostasy movement. When Prophet’s mosque became too crowded for the growing Muslim population. the Generous one. he was given the task of escorting the Prophet’s wives. by the Prophet for spending his wealth in the way of Islam. following which the Prophet said. following which the Prophet gave him the glad tidings of Paradise. When Muslims went to perform Umra at the Ka’aba in 6 AH. Usman answered the Prophet’s call and bought land for its extension.” During the farewell pilgrimage in 10 AH.

Morocco and a part of Algeria under the rule of Abdullah bin Sarah.MUHAMMAD SHUMAIL MOHY-UD-DIN Islamiyat Notes otes Importance during his Caliphate Usman took over the office of Caliphate and not only consolidated the areas conquered during Umar’s regime by crushing the Roman rebellions in Alexandria (Egypt) and Syria within a year but also extended the Muslim Empire by capturing and consolidating Azerbaijan and Armenia by crushing the revolts in these areas. even though he had spent on the welfare of Muslims form his own pocket in the early stages of Islam. The Empire also extended into North Africa in 27 AH when the Muslims conquered Tripoli. which resulted in much criticism form the Muslim Community. Tunisia. He was therefore known as Jame-al-Quran. Kabul. returned to Madinah. He was also alleged of ill-treating major companions such as Abuzar Ghaffari. The same rebels. besieged Usman’s home for fifty days and even though he denied sending the letter and claimed that it had been forged. they martyred him in 35 AH while he was reciting the Holy Quran. The Island of Cyprus and a part of Spain was also conquered during his reign. There were rivalries between Arabs and non-Arabs in newly conquered areas because newly conquered areas had not been hired in respectable positions in the army or the government and between Ban Hashim and Ban Ummayiah which further weakened the power of the Caliph. The task was completed in five years and the Quran was distributed to all the seven provinces of the Muslim empire. Tashkent. Herat. Although he destroyed older versions of the Quran to ensure the authenticity of the book but many regarded this as a huge sign of disrespect to Allah and his book. a Yeminte Jew who claimed that he had accepted Islam but on the orders of the Persians and Romans created discretion amongst the Muslims by propagating against Usman and his officials. Saeed bin al’Aas and Abdur Rehamn bin Harith to compile the Holy Quran in the form of a single. Samarkand. He also appointed his relatives as governors of the provinces such as Waleed bin Uqbah at Kufa. he appointed Zaid bin Sabit as head of a committee which also included Abdullah bin Zudair. He pacified a force of rebels from Egypt by making concessions like agreeing replace Abdullah bin Saad with Muhammad bin Abi Bakar as governor of Egypt but he secretly sent word to have them killed on their return back to Egypt. He built a dam to protect Madinah from floods and extended the mosque of the Prophet. on intercepting the messenger carrying the message to the governor of Egypt. on the suggestion of Huzaifa bin Yaman. caused the provincial governors particularly those at Kufa. Amar bin Yair and Abdullah bin Masud.4/5 Page | 32 . Arghiyan. Usman failed to take a timely action against him. Why were there allegations against Usman during the later years of his Caliphate He had appointed relatives as governors such as Waleed bin Uqbah at Kufa. Gazni. New areas like Hisraf. Tabrastan and Jarjan were conquered by 31 AH. Abdullah bin Saba. Khurasan. Basra and Egypt to become too bold and unrest in the provincial capitals grew which spread to the whole Muslim State and led to rebellions up and down the Empire. So therefore. Sajestan. accurate and authoritative book. Balkh. But the expansion of the Muslim Empire resulted in the Quran being recited in many different dialects. Usman’s lenient hand however. THE FIRST ISLAMIC COMMUNITY PAPER-2 Q NO. Abdullah bin Amir at Busra and Abdullah bin Saad at Egypt which was seen as favoritism by the Muslims Community and there were allegations of them being inefficient and Usman being too lenient towards them and even spent on them from Bait-ul-Maal. He has been accused of making changes in the rites of Hajj by offering complete prayer instead of the Qada prayer offered by the Prophet and the first two Caliphs. He destroyed all the previous versions of the Quran by fire. Tukemanistan. Abdullah bin Amir at Busra and Abdullah bin Saad at Egypt and trusted them and gave them a free hand in running their provinces and they proved to be quite competent but opposition came form the public on the basis that Usman was too lenient on them and they were inefficient. He built the first Muslim Naval fleet consisting of 500 ships to fight the Greeks and appointed Abi Sara as its first Admiral.

the Lion of Allah. was chosen as one of the scouts to discover enemies’ movements. Upon this rumors of the Prophet’s displeasure with Ali spread.” at Ghadir Khumm. In the process he became a highly knowledgeable scholar. however. but on knowing this the Prophet replied. He was the second person who accepted Islam after Hazrat Khatijah and did that at the tender age of eleven. The Prophet said. he once again took part in the individual combats. the father of dust. At Uhad in 3 AH. He also carried the Muslim standard at the Conquest of Makkah in 8 AH. He tended the Prophet day and night during his last illness and some claim that the Prophet even died in his house. affection and respect for Ali. “When I am THE FIRST ISLAMIC COMMUNITY PAPER-2 Q NO. “You are to me as Haroon was to Moses. Ali used to accompany the Prophet on his trade journeys to Syria. He was also sent by the Prophet to conquer Khyber in 7 AH. carried the Muslim standard when Musab bin Umair was martyred and protected the Prophet when he was attacked. He is held highly in honor amongst the entire Muslim Community and particularly the shies who consider him to be sinless and their first Imam. He was also sent as commander of the Muslims forces in the expeditions to Fadak and to Yemen. O Allah be supporter of whoever supports Ali and the enemy of whoever opposes him. At Khandak he again successfully took part in the individual combats by killinh his foe and was amongst the leaders of the siege of the Jewish tribe Banu Qaynuka.” The Prophet gave him the title of Asadullah. “You are my brother in this world and the Hereafter. by killing Abu Saad. When Abu Bakar led the Hajj in 9 AH when the Prophet fell sick. The Prophet said. “Of whomsoever I am lord. carried the Muslim standard and also took a successful part in the indivual combats by killing Waleed bin Shaibah. His name was selected by the Prophet who took him under his own care and protection from early life. Ali was amongst those who could read and write and performed the duty of a scribe of the Prophet by memorizing and recording the revelations as they were revealed as well as the Prophet’s Hadith and was the scribe of the Treaty of Hudabiya.4/5 Page | 33 . when the Muslims were unable to conquer the Fort of Kamoos. he should have been declared the first Caliph of the Muslims. He was amongst those who performed the funeral rites of the Prophet and lowered him into the grave. He took part in almost all the battles fought during the lifetime of the Prophet including the battle of Bard 2 AH where he shared a joint camel with Marthad Ibn Abi Marthad. They also agree and that when the Prophet said. “If I am the city of knowledge Ali is its gate. Ali is also his lord. because of his bravery in the battles fought against the non-believers and Abu Turab. When the Prophet migrated to Madinah in 622 AD. except that there will be no Prophet after me.” The Prophet also married his youngest daughter Fatimah to him who gave birth to Hasan and Husain from where the Prophet’s line of descendants continued and the line of Shia Imams continued. The Prophet declared Ali to be his brother at the time of Maukhat and when he the inquired the reason for this the Prophet replied. He also protected the Prophet in Hunain in 8 AH.MUHAMMAD SHUMAIL MOHY-UD-DIN Islamiyat Notes otes Importance during the lifetime of the Prophet Ali was the son of Abu Talib who was the Prophet’s grandfather. did not take part in the battle of Tabuk in 9 AH. he was sent by the Prophet to read out the new teachings revealed which can be found in Surah al-Tawba. He was also a great jurist and the Prophet sent him to Yemen in 10 Ahh as the Qadi (Judge). He. he left Hazrat Ali as decoy in his bed to allow the Prophet a safe and unnoticed escape from the Quraish who had surrounded his house with the intentions to kill him and to return the valuables entrusted to him by the people. which he successfully completed during which he courageously used a door as a shield and killed the famous warrior Marhab.” He was also amongst the ten blessed companions. Numerous other traditions can be quoted which show the Prophet’s love. where he was left to be the incharge of Madinah.

Before being able to take action against him Tulha. refused and demanded that the assassins of Usman be punished first. Ali was forced to declare war against him and marched his 80 thousand followers against Muawiya’s 90 thousand to Siffin in 37 AH. The battle started on 8th Safar and lasted for 7 days and as many as 90 thousand Muslims were killed. Although agreement between the two parties was reached before the battle. Both the arbitrators agreed to depose Ali from duty but Amr Bin Al As did not agree with Abu Musa in his decision to depose THE FIRST ISLAMIC COMMUNITY PAPER-2 Q NO. He appointed Suhail bin Hanif as governor of Syria. The battle is accordingly called the battle of Camel.000 Muslims were killed. Muawiya continued to investigate the Muslims against Ali by blaming him to be responsible for Usman’s death and showing the blood stained shirt of Usman and chopped fingers of his wife at a mosque in Damascus. On his way back Ali’s army insisted on fighting the Syrians Ali refused saying that he had signed a peace treaty with the Syrians and would not break it. “I am from Ali and Ali is from me. After the battle Ali shifted his capital from madina to Kufa where his support was strongest. “You pertain to me and I pertain to you. Ali won the battle and Ayesha was treated with the due respect and sent back to madina and was escorted by her brother Muhammad bin Abi Bakar.000 fared off against Ayesha’s 30. Ali however was to clever to fall for this and ordered his army to continue fighting. Ali’s 20.10 thousand from Ali’s army however refused to fight and Ali was therefore forced to accept the truce offered by Muawiya.” The Prophet further said. however. Ayesha personally took part in the battle and the camel she rode became the centre of attention. He also narrated 540 tradtions.” Importance during the First Three Caliphs He took pledge of loyalty to the first three Caliphs. He was also amongst the panel of 6 appointed by Umar on his deathbed to succeed him as caliph. This was the first civil war amongst the Muslims in which 10. on the advice of Amr bin al-Aas. Abu Musa Al Ashari who represented Ali and Amr Bin Al As who represented Muawiya. but since Ali’s forces contained people responsible for the murder of Usman.000.MUHAMMAD SHUMAIL MOHY-UD-DIN Islamiyat Notes otes patron of anyone. He also distributed the wealth that Umar and Usman had kept aside.” He also said. Ummara bin Shahab as the Governor of Kufa. Ali gained the upper hand in battle and as a last resort. So the two parties took to battle in Rabi al Awwal 36 AH. Muawiya ordered his men to raise the Quran on their lances to show that the decision should be referred to Quran. however he late in taking pledge at the hand of Abu Bakar. Zubair and Ayesha also raised cry for vengeance of Usman murder and went against him in war at Busra. Usman bin Hanif as Gvernor of Kufa and Abdullah bin abbas as Governor of Yemen. He was an important member of the Majlis-e-Shura’a during the reign of the first three caliphs and remained the judge (mufti) of madina during this time. Ali is his patron too. the governor of Syria. They came to be known as the kharijits or Seceders (derived form the verb Kharaja meaning to depart or separate) and their leader was Abdullah bin Wahab. they felt that the solution would be against their interests and killed Tulha and Zubair as they left the battlefield. Sa’ad bin Ubaidullah as the Governor of Egypt. Importance during his Caliphate Ali took the office of Khilafat on 21st Dhul-Hajj and his first action as Caliph was to remove the reltives of Usman from duty. According to the terms of the truce with Muawiya their dispute was referred to two arbitrators. The arbitration took place at Damut al Jandal.3. Muawiya.000 to 4000 of Ali’s men turned against him who were enraged at Ali for accepting Muawiya’s truce.4/5 Page | 34 .

He won over Iraq and by portraying Tulha and Zubair as martyrs for the cause of revenge of Usman’s murder and blaming Ali of mistreating Ayesha. The arbitration therefore failed. After this Ali prepared to wage war against Muawiya but the Kharijits who had encamped at Naharwan plotted against Ali but Ali inflicted a crushing defeat on them in 37 AH following which Ali ordered his troops to march to Syria but they refused and deserted him. They prevailed upon Ayesha who was herself deeply aggrieved of Usman’s death and raised cry for vengeance of Usman’s murder and marched against him to Basra. Battle of Siffin When Ali dismissed the Governors who came under scrutiny during Usman’s reign. Detailed Description of: Battle of Camel Tulha. Muawiya stated outright that any further negotiations would only take place if Ali punished the assassins of Usman first. Zubair who were amongst the first who took pledge of loyalty to Ali became enraged with Ali not taking positive steps to punish the assassins of Usman after almost a year in office. escorted by her brother Muhammad bin Abi Bakar. won the battle and Ayesha was treated with the due respect and sent back to madina. This came as a big shock to Ali following. Abdullah Ibn Abbas who was from Ali’s side successfully convinced Ayesha’s representative Abdullah bin Sabaa that due action against Usman’s murderers would be taken as soon as possible and was only being delayed due to lack of evidence. Ali sent his son Hasan to Kufa and successfully prepared an army 20. they felt that the solution would be against their interests and killed Tulha and Zubair as they left the battlefield according to the terms of the treaty. except Syria but he shifted his capital from madina to Kufa where his support was strongest.4/5 Page | 35 . therefore. the large number of people involved and the political unrest in the Muslims empire.000 to fight against Ayesha’s 30. Ameer Muawiya the Governor of Syria refused to step down from his post and under his pressure no one from Syria took oath of loyalty to Ali. no battle took place as Ali tried to send messengers to Muawiya to accept his Caliphate but he remained firm in his earlier claim. but since Ali’s forces contained people responsible for the murder of Usman. Ali sent messengers asking Muawiya to accept him as Caliph or be prepared to face him in battle. The battle started on 8th Safar and lasted for 7 days and as many as 90 thousand THE FIRST ISLAMIC COMMUNITY PAPER-2 Q NO. Ayesha personally took part in the battle and the camel she rode became the centre of attention. Usman began instigating the Muslims against Ali by blaming him to be responsible for Usman’s death and showing the blood stained shirt of Usman and chopped fingers of his wife at a mosque in Damascus.000 Muslims were killed.MUHAMMAD SHUMAIL MOHY-UD-DIN Islamiyat Notes otes Muawiya as well. Ali. The battle is accordingly called the battle of Camel. which many rebellions broke out in his empire. Ali was forced to declare war against him and marched his 80 thousand followers against Muawiya’s 90 thousand to Siffin in 37 AH which were the largest armies so far assembled in the history of Islam. and during this time no fighting took place except for the occasional skirmishes. Finally negotiations took place between the two parties and it was agreed that Muawiya would rule Egypt and Syria whereas Ali will remain the caliph of the rest of the Muslim empire. Ayesha fought off the rebels valiantly until her camel was wounded and brought down. This was the first civil war amongst the Muslims in which 10. After the battle Ali’s Khilafat was recognized by the whole Muslim community. So the two parties took to battle in Rabi al Awwal 36 AH.000. Although agreement between the two parties was reached before the battle. Muawiya quickly seized on the opportunity and sent Amr bin al-Aas to successfully invade Egypt. For several months rival soldiers stood facing each other. Before the battle negotiations took place between the two parties.

THE FIRST ISLAMIC COMMUNITY PAPER-2 Q NO. So he also led the opposition against Ali in his quest for power. They came to be known as the kharijits or Seceders (derived form the verb Kharaja meaning to depart or separate) and their leader was Abdullah bin Wahab. Some people on Ali’s side violently disagreed with his decisions to accept the arbitration. the large number of people involved and the political unrest in the Muslims empire. Muawiya was a loyal supporter of Usman and his nephew. Their cry was “No decision except Allah’s” and only Quran could be taken as the arbitrator. Amongst these the unanimous decision was that Ali should punish these assassins. Why did Muawiya refuse to accept Ali as Caliph Usman was killed by rebels from Egypt who thought that he had tried to trick them to death. Why did some supporters of Ali turn against him after the Battle of Siffin? During the battle of Siffin in 37 AH fought between Ali and Muawiya. Ali was therefore forced to accept the truce offered by Muawiya according to which the dispute was to be referred to two arbitrators and their decision would have to be acknowledged by both parties. on the advice of Amr bin al-Aas. They claimed that since he was the leader of the community he does not have to submit to the decision of others. Muawiya ordered his men to raise the Quran on their lances to show that the decision should be referred to Quran. Ali however was to clever to fall for this and ordered his army to continue fighting. Muawiya ordered his men to raise the Quran on their lances to show that the decision should be referred to Quran. Ali gained the upper hand in battle and as a last resort. So therefore Muawiya led the opposition against Ali to seek justice for Usman. After desertion of 10 thousand from his army.4/5 Page | 36 . But Ali delayed taking action against them due to lack of evidence. He did not want to leave his governorship of Syria and even wanted the Caliphate of the whole of the Muslim empire.10 thousand from Ali’s army however refused to fight and Ali was therefore forced to accept the truce offered by Muawiya according to which the dispute was to be referred to two arbitrators and their decision would have to be acknowledged by both parties. But there was also a hidden motive of Muawiya.000 to 4. Angry at Ali’s move 3. on the advice of Amr bin al-Aas. After his assassination unrest spread throughout the Muslims Empire and Ali was appointed as the next Caliph.MUHAMMAD SHUMAIL MOHY-UD-DIN Islamiyat Notes otes Muslims were killed. which became evident again when he was also ready to march to the battlefield to force Ali’s son Hasan to abdicate the office of Caliphate after Ali’s death. They claimed that the Quran in Surah al-Hujarat clearly gave instructions on how to treat rebels and so it was wrong even to acknowledge that Muawiya had any right against the ruler of the community. They insisted that Ali would fight against the Syrians on his way back but when Ali refused saying that he had signed a peace treaty with the Syrians and felt that he had to acknowledge. Many Muslims took oaths of loyalty to him. Ali gained the upper hand in battle and as a last resort. He had also sent troops to rescue him when his was surrounded by the rebels but aid could not arrive in time.000 of these men marched to Naharwan claiming that only the first two Caliphs were rightly guided.

THANKS ALSO TO FOR THE COMPLETION OF THESE NOTES • SIR NAZIR • NAUMAN • AND ALSO TO MY CLASSFELLOWS THE FIRST ISLAMIC COMMUNITY PAPER-2 Q NO.4/5 Page | 37 .MUHAMMAD SHUMAIL MOHY MOHY-UD-DIN Islamiyat Notes otes IT IS RECOMMENDED TO ALL THAT MARKS SCHEMES AND EXAMINER REPORTS SHOULD BE CONSULTED FOR EVERY QUESTION FOR ACCURACY.