You are on page 1of 34

Land Pollution

Unit-4

Syllabus
• Introduction, Lithosphere, Land Uses, Causes of Land Degradation.

Important Questions
• What are causes of land Degradation? Narrate Common Pollutants responsible for causing land pollution • Describe uses and overuses of land. • What is land degradation and what are the causes of land degradation? • Describe uses and Overuses of land What are causes effects of land pollution ? • What are the major sources of land pollution? How does land pollution affect soil productivity ? • Define land pollution and explain the causes of land pollution.

• This large mass is the earth. • The earth is of size 12757 km in diameter.Earth and Its Structure • A large mass detached from sun.Innermost • 2) Mantle • 3) Crust . when a powerful object collide with sun. • The earth is divided into 3 main layers • 1) Core.

This is hottest. It is about 2880 km thick. this layer surrounds the centre of the earth its thickness is about 3500 km. the thickness of crust varies from 64 to 96 km about 70 % of the crust is immersed in oceans.• Crust: The outermost layer of the earth is the crust which comprises of varying rocks. The most of the internal heat of the earth is located in this region. . • Mantle: The next layer is the mantle which forms the most of the earth’s mass. heaviest and densest layer of the earth. • Core: The inner most part of the lithosphere is the core.

aluminium. magnesium. • Core: Comprises of iron. silica. sulphur. silicon. and cobalt.• Crust comprises of minerals like Silica. magnesium • Mantle comprises of minerals like chromium. nickle. and nickle and other components like. iron. .

chemical and weathering effects. . deserts is called lithosphere. the rocks were formed very first by cooling of the earth mass and successively the soil was formed due to degradation and fragmentation of the rock due to physical. minerals. The minerals are essential for the growth of vegetation and ultimately to the entire living organisms as they are the basic elements in food cycle. • After the formation of earth.Lithosphere • The topmost part of the earth surface (crust)which covers most of the land containing hills. • The lithosphere includes all the metals. inorganic and organic matter present in the soil. grasslands.

12. waste disposal.5.8.2 % • Forests:. include agriculture.43. which is provided by land.6 % • Permanent Pastures and meadows:. • The land use pattern of India is as Under • Agricultural Land:.7 % • Barren and unculturableland:.6 % • Cultural wastelands:.4 % • Urban Land:. forests. human dwelling. etc.3 % • No information available:.2 % .4. The various purpose for which land can be used.5.10. industrial purpose.Land Uses • Most human or natural activities need space for their location and development.

Land Uses .

Soil Profile .

Soil and its Components .

.

.

Sources of Land Pollution • The sources of land pollution can be categorized as under: • Agriculture • Quarrying and mining • Sewage sludge • Dredged spoils • Household-domestic solid waste • Demolitions and constructions • Industrial activities. .

Sources Of Land Pollution .

Agricultural Waste .

Quarrying and Mining Waste .

Sewage Sludge .

Dredge Spoils .

Solid Wastes .

Demolition Wastes .

Industrial Waste .

• Soil erosion:. • The top layer of the soil is very fertile.Soil erosion means wearing away of soil. and soil mismanagement like. lack of vegetation cover. It refers to loss of the superficial layer of the soil by the action of wind. removal of forest cover. .Causes of Land Degradation • Land Degradation is the temporary or permanent lowering of the productive capacity of the land. its removal degrades the quality of land making it less productive. faulty method of surface drainage. water or human activities. uncontrolled grazing by cattle. • Soil erosion is caused due to heavy rainfall. Therefore.

The higher concentration of salts severely affects the water absorption process of the plants. resulting into poor production.• Salination:. flood water results in accumulation of dissolved salts on the soil surface. In dry areas water evaporate quickly leaving behind a white crust of salts in soil on the surface. .Salination refers to increase in the concentration of soluble salts in the soil poor irrigation practices.

logging may be due to surface flooding or due to high water table.• Water Logging:.Water. Crops were cultivated for a few years till the fertility of soil is reduced.Among many tribal communities a very peculiar practice of cutting down a selected portion of the forest and burning. • Shifting Cultivation:. The productivity of water logged soil is severely affected due to lesser availability of plants. . • Excessive irrigation practices may cause water logging due to rise in water table of the area. When the fields become sterile the were abandoned and a fresh patch of forest were burnt and fresh fields were formed for crop cultivation.

Man is to blamed for most of the land degradation. . airports etc. • Dumping:.• Urbanization:. railways. industries. Productive areas is fast reducing because of developmental activities such as human settlement. roads .Dumping of solid wastes is one of the most important factors which are responsible for the land pollution. In developing countries like India. the garbage and refuse products are simply dumped leading to land pollution.

reservoirs. • It can cause Respiratory problems • Lead to birth defects • Cause skin problems • Causes cancers • The toxic substances causing soil/ land pollution can get into human body directly by Skin contacts • Toxic Substances Being washed into water sources like rivers. Pollutes under ground water courses • Consumption of vegetables and fruits grown on polluted soils • Inhalation of Polluted dust or particles.Health Consequences of Land Pollution • Land Pollution affects humans and wild life in number of ways such as. .

The U. of course.S. children are most vulnerable to the health effects of lead in the soil. According to the EPA. Their developing neurological systems put them at risk for serious health issues. causing possible brain and nervous system damage.Effects of Land Pollution Cancer Many of the widely used pesticides on agricultural lands are potentially carcinogenic. Neurological Problems The health effects of soil pollution. Some toxins. vary with the contaminant. . Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) identified 15 such chemicals from the 27 most commonly used. are both naturally occurring and come from manmade sources. such as lead.

These toxins in turn can slow plant growth as well as impact the soil bacteria and other organisms necessary for plant growth. for example. Mercury can cause irritation of your internal and external tissues. Reduction of Soil Health Soil pollution also degrades soil health. . impacting both the environment as well as people in the long term. such as your skin and the lining of your gastrointestinal tract. The same chemicals that can harm people may also affect plants and micro-organisms.Effects of Land Pollution Tissue Damage and Irritation Mercury levels in the soil can increase through deposition from precipitation. The severity depends upon the toxin and length of exposure. can create toxic conditions by mobilizing what might otherwise be harmless chemicals in the soil. Acid rain.

. transportation and disposal of municipal wastes.How to Reduce Land Pollution • Following steps can be taken to stop or reduce or avoid land pollution • Adoption of organic farming instead of using synthetic chemicals • Adoption of recycle and reuse of a waste materials • Proper disposal of industrial wastes into secured landfill sites • Educating people not to litter • Proper collection.

Reduce Land Pollution Reuse Proper Disposal Recycle .

Activity • Make a visit to a sanitary landfill site located in your vicinity and write a report on its operation and working. .

Assignment • What does TSDF stands for ? Explain its working along with its component parts in brief. .

Thanks .