TABLE OF CONTENTS

Introduction 1. Brief History of the Afghan Refugee Crisis 2. Theoretical Framework 2.1. Asylum and Refugees in Modern International Law 2.2. Asylum and Refugees in Islam 3. Case Study: Pakistan’s Response to Afghan Refugees 3.1. First Wave of Afghan Refugees to Pakistan (1979) 3.2. Afghan Refugees: The Role of Women, Family and Honor 3.3. Religion and Politics in Pakistan 3.4 Islam and the Acceptance of Afghan Refugees in Pakistan 3.5. Political Factors Contributing to the Acceptance of Refugees 3.6. Second Wave of Afghan Refugees to Pakistan (1989) 3.7 Third Wave of Afghan Refugees to Pakistan (2001) 4. Islamic Non-Governmental Organizations 4.1. UNHCR Operations in Pakistan 5. Summary: the Afghan Case 5.1. Remaining Challenges and Potential Solutions Conclusions References

Introduction Since September, 11th, 2001, an Islam has started spreading much faster and it is stereotypic considered as anti western, antidemocratic, and anti-modern religions. The scholars and western politicians, mass media have emphasized, violent character of Islamic extremists, and represent that Muslim women are subjected to marginalized and repression, are

Though the Islam remains hot subject matter in a world policy. Brief History of the Afghan Refugee Crisis . A quarter of refugees in the world (2. as it is certain in the Koran. which are exposed to prosecutions in the countries of origin and to look for refuges in other Muslim states. and the account of conservative forces of sexual ideology and Islamic patriarchy. Besides three Muslim countries (Pakistan.excluded from public religion and Islamic rituals. In the given work analyses of history of the Afghani refugees in Pakistan is analyzed and importance of consideration of studying Islamic principles and reaction to crises of Muslim refugees. These realizations have fundamental value for studying an Islam. Besides practicing of religious belief carries critical importance for refugees of well-being as soon as they have found refuge. Today. including refuges. the religion receives the greatest attention for its role in violent conflicts and politization of religious originality. but because of intensive reaction against an Islam saw the last decade and the subsequent consequences for Muslim refugees and asylum of a refuge. they do not consider religion as the fundamental factor in business of protection of the rights of refugees. Syrian Arabian Republic. In this thesis. Muslim refugees crises concerns to the compelled migration of Muslims. and the Muslim states. Islamic ideas of refugees and granting of a refuge. and in regulatory sense which establishes rules for the help and protection of refugees. In refugee’s researches. providing feeling of a security in strange and often threatening conditions. that if any concept of an Islam exists. Though such characterization borrows the certain true. the majorities of these refugees are Muslims who were or internally displaced persons or have found a refuge in other Muslim countries. 96 percent from which live in Pakistan and Iran. 1990) 1. (Anderson. interpretation of "Islam" is. as religion which provides normative base concerning social and economic validity. The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) in the year 2008 considered more than 42 million violently displaced persons all over the world. and Islamic Republic Iran) refugees are accepting the majority in the world. These blanks in scholastics researches reflect similar tendencies in a state policy in relation to refugees and refuges which ignore religious influences on the compelled immigrants. the radical reasons for the compelled migration. self-proclaimed Islamic states and Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC). Though scholars are described with religious beliefs and experts.8 million person) are Afghans. In it some details are concerned with attitudes between Muslim refugees. and in this case. that studying of the Islamic rights of refugees are not only because of wide range of Muslim refugees all over the world. Besides Islamic principles can influence answers of the Muslim states for Muslim refugees to what research of the Afghani refugees in Pakistan testifies. Some western scientists have started to understand. The organization has established. and that Muslims have various and even controversial religious concepts and experts. remains in the regions of their origin when to run from prosecutions. Consequently. It is important. that refugees as a rule. now debate concerning migration and moving substantially exclude discussions of religion. they do not precisely represent principles of an Islam and to an expert the greatest majority of the believers.

cruelty of Taliban continued forcing Afghanis refugees to Pakistan. what lessons can be taken from this scenario and to apply in other Muslim refugees crises? Thematic research of the Afghani refugees in Pakistan illustrates a potential role of an Islam as in a life of Muslim refugees. As a result of these factors the Pakistan government and the public starting looking Afghani refugees. that. much of the Afghani refugees had friends and relatives with Pashtun nationality. Many Pakistanis became addicted to cocaine also participates fully in weapon trading between Pakistan and Afghanistan. however. (Haqqani. mostly crossed Afghanistan border to North West Frontier Province (NWFP of Pakistan. 2150 thousand incorporated Afghani refugees’ remain today in the country. and in the Muslim state answers to Muslim refugees of crises. the civil conflict continued to drive refugees to Pakistan. in 1979 the majority of the Afghani migrants of vulnerable groups of women. Thus. and the third group escaped due to American war on terrorism. why Pakistan generosity turned in animosities? Thirdly. destructive and undesirable. drugs and Kalashnikov culture. the World Food Program (WFP) cut off its help to ÐR in Pakistan in 1995. and originally generous reception became publicly hostile in the end 1990. children and older people ran on fear for the life. Moreover the same time. 2005) In November. 2005) This demographic dominate the Afghani movement of refugees over next thirty years. Though the Soviet armies left Afghanistan in 1989. (Anderson. With falling off Soviet Union and a changing international system foreign powers. These three decades of bloody civil wars and foreign intervention caused violent moving almost of 8 million Afghans. According to UNHCR. However.From the end 1970. However. 2000 Pakistan had closed the borders for the Afghani refugees. 1990) Though many found their way to Iran. and held closed since then. UNHCR had declared the plans on stage-by-stage refusal of rendering assistance to refugees of 1998. The first group fled from civil war when Soviet invaded in Afghanistan in 1979. The international community is perceived Pakistan in positive light for the humanity to refugees. First. . Besides Pakistan close communications with the United States have created USA funding Afghani fighters and Pakistan’s military during the Soviet occupation. three various "waves" of the Afghani refugees have found a refuge in adjacent Pakistan. connected with Afghanistan as communist threat has lost interest in the country internal strife. Important to note. in connection with history of a seasonal migration to Pakistan tribal areas. earlier. it was due to inflow of Afghans. partly as a result of donors weariness. almost 75000 Afghans have crossed border with Pakistan on an annual basis. the second group because of entrance of the Soviet armies and the subsequent civil conflict in 1989. because of decrease in financing and an assessment that food aid was not necessary any more. Till 1970. It begins with the reviewing the definition of a refuge and refugees in modern international law and follows from comparison of these concepts with concepts of a refuge and refugees according to an Islam. migrations between these two areas were not anything new. (Haqqani. Consequently. the countries also suffered damage from creation of so-called. what Islam should play a role in acceptance of the Afghani refugees by the Government and people of Pakistan during each of three stages of refugees? Secondly. Long character of this moving has affected on Pakistan people and the government. During this time of the international help was reduced. The government of Pakistan (GOP) was originally benefitted from refugees by increasing its international reputation and receipt of economic and military help. Pakistan changing attitudes provokes important issues to the Afghani refugees.

Besides hospitable treatments of Muhammad. or the international agreements and cooperation in the field of the status of refugees. generous reception for refuges. (Elmadad. does not wish to use protection of that country". number of conditions participation and area of its activity has increased. religion. the General Assembly has accepted UNHCR charter in1950. residents of Medina embodies Islamic model of protection of the refugees occurring the Koran. This "expansion" of UNHCR has created new problems for the organization. According to the Convention of the United Nations and the Report on refugees. refuge is the person who "by virtue of quite proved fears fall a victim to prosecutions for the reasons for race. In 662 year AD. in 1997 UNHCR had confirmed the role in assistance of stable decisions and elimination of the radical reasons for a refugee problem. and communications between communities and the nations. in particular importance of creation of a fair society. became a symbol of movement of Muslims from the ground in incorrectness or oppression that an Islam. for which hosts will be honored. an accessory to the certain social group or political convictions is outside of the country of the civil accessory is and cannot or. and did not gather business from mass violent moving of refugees. however. This responsibility is formalized in fourthsurah from the Koran which includes the following: “He who follows the path and believe in God. accepted the Geneva Convention on the status of refugees. For example. 1990) . citizenship. 2008) The present Convention had not made. It also speaks in particular to questions of validity concerning granting a refuge and protection of refugees. However this application has appeared in a pressure with the nongovernmental organizations.1. to poor and requiring. is filled with links on justice. However. it is almost impossible for the humanitarian organization. the Koran. (Elmadad. the Koran gives a basis for justice in interpersonal attitudes. Prophet Muhammad ran from prosecutions in Mecca and to look for a refuge in Medina. For example. (Anderson. How the organization can define the reasons for crisis of refugees without bias or political implied sense? Because of it.” Migration is necessary if one’s life is threatened and the holy book says that the faithfulness follows agreements and treaties and rights of refugees. Islamic ideas of granting of a refuge and refugees reflect comprehensive character of this religion. these concepts were an integral part of creation of an Islam. owing to such fears. an Islam covers people of different races. This migrations or hijrah. From that time refugees remained a key topic of concern on the international agenda.2 Asylum and Refugees in Islam As the universal religion. and in 1951. political and humanitarian character of UNHCR. Really. being not political. UNHCR faces some serious problems and has made some disputable decisions in the responding to refugees crises. Islam obliges by accepting societies to give. nationalities and ethnic groups.000 Europeans refugees after the First World War. Its most important scripture. For example. Asylum and Refugees in Modern International Law The first supreme Commissioner for Refugees was appointed in 1921 for 800. 2008) Mandate UBHCR of the United Nations from 1950 remains at its place today.2 Theoretical Frameworks 2. 2. the first international agreements on refugees only have appeared after millions Europeans were violently moved as a result of the Second World War. With a view of the decision of this of crisis of refugees. the agency is engaged is more with internally-displaced persons (IDP). will find always refuge in abundance.

However principles of the Islamic right concerning refugees help and protection remain substantially ignored in the academic and political debate. 1979. in 1973. Pakistan has received three basic visible waves of the Afghani refugees for last thirty years in the answer: first. that Soviet armies and the subsequent the civil conflict. Thus the Afghani crisis of refugees had arisen during cold war. Now men make only 24 % of the population of camps of refugees which has consisted of 48 % of children and 28 % of women. and requires. they also have created a number of proxy wars in which developing countries and their citizens became pawns in geopolitics games. Civil war has flashed between the Pashtun populations in both south and the east of Afghanistan. that Soviet occupation. when the Soviet army has intruded in Afghanistan on December. and has left their administrations of the provincial government of the North West Frontier Province (NWFP) and Baluchistan. this geo politic influence not in a condition to explain initial acceptance to the Afghani refugees in Pakistan which has been based basically on Islamic principles and belief of Pakistanis. In 1977. As scholar M. that the population of host countries assistance to voluntary return of refugees in places of their origin when they are considered a safe refuge is an integral part of an Islam. over bipolar international systems is dominated by the United States and Soviet Union. However this conflict soon had turned to war for deliverance concerning the former Soviet Union. and the third. Tajik. thousand Afghans had left the houses and has crossed border to Pakistan. In the end of 1970th years. 2008) As a result of the subsequent conflict of war and civil. Almost all refugeesmen spent time struggle against one of sides of resistance in Afghanistan. In the answer. for forty years. In 1979 the majority of these refugees were rural farmers who have been compelled to leave the houses and the fields which had been occupied or destroyed from bombing and bulldozers. As in 1987. It looks like that Islamic concepts of refugees and persons spend two cores distinctive. (Kirmani. though and not necessarily controversial. One of such conflicts has begun. 24th. UNHCR an assessment has noted. characteristics of these of the international mode of refugees of system of the state. Marxists had seized power in Afghanistan from Daoud government which replaced King Zahir Shah. including Pakistan dictator Zia Ul-Haq. Turkmen and Hazara). the civil conflict has let out the first streams of refugees from Afghanistan to Pakistan. Though super states relied on the guaranteed mutual destructions to prevent nuclear war. Nazif Shahrani had played key role in [tent village of refugees]. and the Afghani elements (many of which later to the form "Taliban"). the American government expanded support by that who wishes to struggle with Advice. the majority of refugees have received rather high standard of living in comparison with earlier operated standards . However. The government of Pakistan immediately gave shelter to Afghanistan refugees. 3. and ethnic minority in the north (Uzbek. Exchange of experience on refugees has led to development of the general political to objective and consolidation of authority the Afghani sides of resistance in Pakistan. secondly.1 First Wave of Afghan Refugees to Pakistan (1979) As stated above.Aman also support rights of refugees and protection has offered not-Muslims even if they are in the conflict with Muslims. Case Study: Pakistan’s Response to Afghan Refugees 3. that under direction of the USA war to end terrorism.

For example. for such women means loss of control. Not only women. Severe conditions of a life of refugees had taken toll on Pastuns.2 Afghan Refugees: The Role of Women. and had lost property. They considered that strange environments in camps of refugees and strengthening protection of women-refugees are required. The refugee’s camps in Pakistan became haven for militants. to symbolize honor of family. Anderson and Hatch approve. as reception of water and fuel and living in the another environment under fear. their political activity (and in some cases of eagerness . it is a "high" standard of living for refugees has led to a competition and intensity in attitudes between refugees and local population. 3. They approved. 2008) 3. based on independence. as the Afghani men and women disgust. The big percent of men Afghani refugees considered Pakistan camps as hostile for the Afghani women. Besides the life in exile. the compelled immigrants to hide about quantity of members of their families to receive the help suffices. but also all of Pashtun refugees suffer psychologically as a result of their position in refugee’s camp. during their all travel from Afghanistan to Pakistan. with many to believe. offered by UNHCR. During many years. Many women were unable get access to all services of healthcare in Pakistan in connection with remoteness of locations of camp and conservatism in some families. that they could assist fight of bearings more children. Though formation of such groups is not new. that the majority of the Afghani women alive individualists with sufficient possibilities for achievement of personal satisfaction and self-respect. However. about their unique decision to return to Afghanistan as soon as it is possible. Pakistan religious-political groups promoting Islamism look to establish rules and laws of the Koran and Sheriyat in political area. (Elmadad. children and spouses. Women also symbolize and supported jihad. Such situation threatens values of pashtun to self-identification. with daily problems. sometimes under fire of the Soviet helicopters. Besides distribution of the help from the foreign organizations created dependence. Besides many women became even more isolated than they were in Afghanistan. with an Islam as the state religion to accept Islamism. especially concerning distribution of the rations. and a solitude of women from such education. independence and capacity to protect the family.3 Religion and Politics in Pakistan After 1970th years. Many had given birth. whose moral values rotate around honor and independence. the Pakistan government displaced from "secular". In the majority of the Afghani families which is characteristic as patriarchal and patrilocal. but a political foundation. Violent corruption in camps. Besides dependence on the foreign organizations on rendering assistance it is created a mental consequence which threatens honor of pashtuns. The subsequent solitary life of women in veil limited physical freedom of movement of women. ideologies which assist an Islam not only as religious systems. Family and Honor Instead of the portrayal of the western mass-media as women from among refugees as helpless victims. The role of women in a Muslim society especially emphasizes an indispensability of religion should be taken into consideration at the decision of a refugee problem. the general laws of refugees in orthodox Islam are included a uncooperative altitude to secular education of the women. that the GoP should include an Islam in each aspect of the activity.and that of similar local groups. the Afghani women collide with dangerous and stressful conditions.

in 1973 of the Constitution. kerosene. On pashtun code pashtunwali. In 1984. Zia had declared unconditional support of Pakistan in the Afghani refugees. Though Afghans have been registered as foreigners by the government. Shafqat approves. migrants had been received as visitors and have received traditional hospitality instead of protection as victims. Pakistan and increases of unity between various Afghani groupings and religious groups in Pakistan. with raised communications between the USA. In such countries such as Pakistan where Islamic political parties have appeared. (The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees in Pakistan. including are directed on the Afghani refugees. 2011) The Afghani refugees who surpassed the some people of local population. Besides many religious schools. and their ideas of the status of the refugee. Though shift of Pakistan Islamism in 1970th year’s expansion for hijrah gathered the state support. It shows that as Islamic principles and pashtun cultures perceive looking for refuges. As President Zia had emphasized. they basically are perceived as brothers and sisters of faith in Pakistan. 2011) Edwards’s research of the Afghani refugees. (The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees in Pakistan. as in appropriate way to run a condition of prosecution. But how many has made the Islam to affect acceptance Afghani refugees in Pakistan? 3. constantly refugee’s villages instead of camp had been developed for the house of refugees. that this growth of Islamism a religious-political activity. Thus. a religious element in value of refugees especially is important for a susceptibility of community. with mandatory teaching the Koran. Islamiat (bases of the Islam) and Arabian languages at the Pakistan school. or Madrasas. potable water. with free education and a diet for the Afghani refugees was also given. the Islam provides Muslims with a set of rules for an everyday life.4 Islam and the Acceptance of Afghan Refugees in Pakistan The Islam is of critical importance for understanding acceptance to the Afghani refugees in Pakistan. it has been helped from the government. Finally. testifies to importance of religious beliefs for migrant’s capacity to settle in Pakistan. the temporary habitation. and base formation has been given. it was necessary to receive for the government to receive support from local Muslim communities which have received the Afghani refugees. the Islam plays a key role in the Pakistan policy and political decisions. As a result. the basic medical services. Only restriction on reception of this help was mandatory registration of refugees in refugee’s camps. bases of protection of refugees has been connected from "an Islamic brotherhood" between all Muslims. As both spiritual and moral systems. especially Iranian revolution and the Soviet invasion into Afghanistan also plays a major part. the foodstuffs. culture and values as a Pashtun life in tribal areas of Pakistan.to fight) became more and more obvious. From the end 1970 prior to the beginning 1990 as the government and people of Pakistan has answered inflow of refugees from Afghanistan in spirit of hijrah. This group makes the majority of ethnic groups in Pakistan. Refugees from Afghanistan core has consisted of Afghani Pasthuns which have shared language. stated the Islam as a way of life. The Republican Party aspired internal recognition its refugee policy of settlement for ÐR with ethnic cousins. as well as the nongovernmental organizations and UNHCR. . External factors.

geopolitics had negatively affected Pakistan. Political authority was divided on seven Afghani Sides Peshawar .and the Republican party have declared. internal. For prevention of growth of Pashtun nationalism.6 Second Wave of Afghan Refugees to Pakistan (1989) During. by assistance for growth of the refugee’s armed community. 2008) Finally. As a result.3. During war. geo-politic influence waves of refugees were substantially responsible for shift of Pakistan from hospitable hostile accepting after the second wave arrived in Pakistan. With support of Pakistan and the United States. Accepting refugees. as well as with indifference of Washington under the nuclear program of Pakistan. the Government provided only religious parties to work in areas of residing of tribes. Extensive poverty and unemployment had resulted many young militants to become an easy target for recruitment. Owing to support of the USA. and in so that to modernize the armed forces. which were Taliban (students) at madrasahs (theological seminaries) in Pakistan. regional and global political factors also have served its purpose in the government decision. These schools offered the Afghani refugees and Pakistanis free education. that all refugees were to be registered in one of these of resistance of sides to receive the help. mujahedeen (resistance fighters) used help of UNHCR in strengthening their resistance. foodstuffs and military preparation. instead of militants. that participation of UNHCR in Pakistan was proofs. 1990) However. During all existence. hundreds of Madrasas had been constructed in Pakistan’s tribal areas adjoining on Afghanistan. authoritative dictatorship of general Zia had received a source of the income and improvement of the international political reputation. the civil conflicts by Taliban in 1996 continued to drive refugees to Pakistan. The Afghani refugees were politically valuable to general Zia as they have voted internal elections and support of Islamic parties. Pakistan aspired to support friendly Islamic government in Afghanistan. Other political factor assisting acceptance the Afghani refugees was its attempt to increase the military and economic power concerning India. for example. 3. This stream of money and the weapon. the Afghani refugees improved condition of Pakistan by creation of financial and military support for its government. however. the situation with refugees had been used for reception of the international support against the pro-Soviet communist mode in Afghanistan. to face that proof. Pakistan Government used refugees crisis to strengthen the political communications with the western states. Absence the international value and financings had led to growth of animosities from local population to refugees.5 Political Factors Contributing to the Acceptance of Refugees Pakistan has accepted the Afghani refugees per 1979 substantially because of Islamic values. Though Soviet Union moved from Afghanistan in 1989. attitudes towards Afghani refugees in its territory. Zia had called up to continue to manipulate refugees. habitation. (Anderson. Government officials had publicly declared. that the Republican party has allowed a stream of humanitarian aid to insurgents of operations in Sacred jihad. refugee’s right has been provided to vote purely for the political reasons. Taliban had appeared in 1994 as Islamic movement fundamentalist the Afghani refugees. second waves. that Afghans were refugees. Unlike the first wave. The Republican Party has specified its treatment of refugees by way of illustration to the commitment of humanism and human rights. Pakistan had received significant volumes of the financial and military help. (Kirmani. .

that it continued millions refugees (who has not returned to Afghanistan). coalitions between Party Pakistan people and Muslim league dominate to the Pakistan policy. During 1990th years. 2010) More likely. Pakistan becomes more and more hostile to the Afghani refugees and plays a major role in securitization of this group. a addiction. to get rid of the link with "Taliban" and Islamic parties. In recent years Pakistan has justified its politicians concerning refugees on the basis of security concerned. (Haqqani.Long character of this movement had affected to Pakistan and that was initially generous reception become publicly hostile in the end 1990. As a result of these factors. resettlement and rehabilitation of the Afghani refugees. After more than 65000 Afghans had crossed border of Pakistan without an agreement in October. (Rivzi. 2005) 4. Pakistan had stirred up the Pakistan militaries. In 1999 general Pervez Musharraf had come to power by a military coup. 2008) During this time of the international help had started to be reduced partially as a result of weariness of donors. Islamic Non-Governmental Organizations Pakistan is a member of Executive committee of UNHCR which is a group of 56 states in United Nations and annually meet for discussion of global operations of UNHCR. Pakistan had closed the border for the Afghani refugees. and economic recession in Pakistan. Next year. approving. especially concerning an increase force and popularity Taliban. Though originally generous the accepting state. 3. connected with Afghanistan as communist threat have lost interest to the country’s internal disorders. 2001 president Musharraf created the president fund for fund raising. it was insufficiently for satisfaction of demands of the Afghani refugees. It is anti-extremism of campaign also the increase of animosities in relation to the Afghani refugees has been reflected to Pakistan relations. as stable decisions in crises of Muslim refugees were not necessary for protection of the rights of refugees. However Musharraf did not close boundary policy of Pakistan in relation to the Afghans. With falling Soviet Union and variation of the international system. Islamabad approves. that ignoring a principle of repatriations. GoP had accused the Afghani refugees of revelry of criminality. (Kirmani. After UNHCR help had been stopped in 1998.7 Third Wave of Afghan Refugees to Pakistan (2001) After 9 / 11. The international food aid and help by UNHCR also was sharply reduced. Though Islamic and not Islamic the nongovernmental organizations continued to assist to Pakistan. Closing of Pakistan borders in 2000 has coincided with ÐR is perceived as threat of a national security. however it does not have . but substantially in connection with variations in geopolitics. Refugees have been compelled to return home to Afghanistan or to move in others of camp further from border. the state earlier. has already exceeded the possibilities for rendering assistance. looking for refuges. that it any more does not presume to herself cost of such wide range of refugees unassisted from the international community. This set of events shows that Islamic laws of refugees support from the international community. the Afghani refugees were to be considered more negative by the Pakistan government and people.

These organizations often carry out a policy of the governments and the intergovernmental organizations. are channels for a state policy and those powerful western countries in particular. 4. Unlike current acceptance of Pakistan refugees it is carried out on a single basis on which refugees are considered as foreigners. but nongovernmental the organizations which render considerable aid to refugees. (Rivzi. however. From the beginning. . the government had understood that its capacity to support refugee’s is limited with resources and help from international community is much necessary. and. The international organizations. UNHCR faces numerous problems. to receive confidence in Muslim communities. and has not signed the United Nations of 1951 Convention on the status of refugees and 1967. by granting the help of the Afghani refugees in Pakistan. the Islamic help has that advantage. and it can be considered differently at various times. having paid attention to both crises and the response from all subjects participating in the refugee of the help and policy it is necessary for protection of the rights of refugees in Pakistan. resistance as Pakistan Government and ÐR have prevented to it. The Islamic organizations working in Pakistan in a greater degree are informed and sensitive to religious requirements of refugees.1 UNHCR Operations in Pakistan During the participation in Pakistan. holding them near border. More than 200 have took part in various roles during validity of the Afghani conflict. As empirical data testify. Therefore. it is important to remember. on the basis of the general culture and religion. Pakistan was not prepared. including support through Islamic principles of financing. though UNHCR insist on moving of camps of refugees further from border with Afghanistan. such as UNHCR. and lobbying of the governments and the public to an increase of support Afghani reasons. 2010) Originally. These actors include not only the separate states and the international organizations. the state inspire political benefits. The Islamic help has been concentrated on long-term demands in the field of progress of refugees. Western NGO’s in Pakistan have included the Christian organizations and more secular establishments. thus an increase of probability that Pakistan can refuse the opposition of the Soviet intervention in Afghanistan. camps for refugees engaged militarization on mujahedeen. On the other hand. As Islamic organization. For example. that. UNHCR wanted demilitarization of camps. and maintenance of authority of UNHCR as it is not political. including: search of the long-term decision of the Afghani crisis of the refugees. despite of Key role played by Islamic NGO. for NGO operations. a key role in it remains crisis of refugees in Pakistan which carries out the policy through these organizations.not enough protection of refugees mode. separating from them border. the Islamic religious organizations have a high degree of confidence and approval among Muslim communities. restrictions on operations of the organization have been widely widespread. In this concern in occasion of absence of the international help will cause intensity in attitudes between local residents and refugees. that the international organizations (IO) or representatives of NGO to for work the camps of refugees. However. Though refugees wished to remain near the house in Afghanistan and ethnic attitudes in Pakistan. humanitarian organization. NGO’s plays a major part in rendering assistance to refugees. rendering assistance in zones of military actions.

Islamic beliefs local Pushtons have played key role in acceptance of the Afghani refugees. Pakistan used the Afghani refugees as hostages with reduction the international interest and support of war in Afghanistan. having left the Afghani refugees and to the adjacent states in struggle against crisis independently. primary reception of Pakistan refugees because the core to the general Islamic values of a refuge and refugees. that the Pakistan government had addressed for help from UNHCR in April. (Rivzi. Thus. definition of UNHCR for "refugee" cannot adequately define those persons who are considered as refugees in the field of the Islamic right. variations should be directed on improvement as UNHCR answers the Muslim state to Muslim refugee’s crises. in Southern Asia. influence of the strong states on UNHCR. refugees even more often are considered as threat of a national and international security. 2005) Though the situation in Afghanistan remains the largest and complex crisis of refugees in last histories. and on their capacity to receive refuges in the accepting states. than local population? . and feeling of a brotherhood of Muslims. and degrees of prosecution of refugees do not bear the same weight in Islamic against international law. In particular. 1979 on two principal causes. Refugees also have allowed Pakistan to display it supposed the obligation of humanism and human rights. 2010) For example. First. As a result of these lacks. during the history. Secondly for improvement of the status of refugees of Pakistan on international scene by mobilizing financial and military support of the Republican Party. it offers valuable comparisons with other Muslim refugees of crises. Though to cleanly Islamic basis of action of the government remains in doubt. the international attention also has removed. However. Arrival of refugees from Afghanistan has resulted general Zia authoritative government a source of incomes and improvement of reputation. the mandate acted as the humanitarian and not political organization. Exaggerated refugees of the states. (Haqqani. on closer examination. Secondly. the Afghani refugees served political propagation to get the international support in the attitude of the pro-Soviet communist mode. For achievement of this objective. Summary: the Afghan Case It is represented. After a conclusion of the Soviet armies from Afghanistan. Pakistan aspired to improve the position of authority. First. Besides hasty return are badly informed the Afghani refugees from Pakistan to Afghanistan reflects these present priorities of UNHCR. active eagerness to fight.5. instead of extremely on principles of international law of refugees. there is a potential for the future decisions on the compelled immigrants should be based on Islamic principles. the military and economic attitude. number of intersections of border.1 Remaining Challenges and Potential Solutions Researches in Afghani case open some of lacks in UNHCR operations in Pakistan which can lead consequences for other crisis situations with refugees Muslims. represents the basic obstacle for protection of refugees of the right as Afghani the case illustrates. In the present international system filled anti Islamic mood from the West. the UNO have grave consequences for well-being of refugees. or political interests of the accepting state 5. Can Islamic provide structures well-beings validity for more.

Conclusions Important for Islam that it should take into consideration while interpretation and respond on Muslim refugee problems and experience. than the international agreements. By studying of other refugees crises of Muslim states. existing appendices of modern international law basically do not suffice for this purpose. In particular. that these values can the champion of protection Muslim refugees of the rights of the Muslim states. and existing theories of surrounding Islamic concepts of refugees and granting of a refuge. additional qualitative researches should be made on various cases of refugees in an Islam. in the Koran is a place upon the Islamic states to comply with additional pressure these of principles. the governments. culture or a nationality. for protection of the rights of refugees-Muslims. In an Islam. Muslim scholars approved that the humanitarian organizations. Though the some people have been concluded agreements between the Muslim states on a question on refugees. These mechanisms are deep roots in an island. Secondly. Though various interpretations of an Islam exist. 2008) There are a number of consequences for the future scientific researches. the countries have signed the charter of statement for many general Islamic values. a role of refugees and persons. Though this thesis does not go so far to approve. and thus wide recognition from Muslims. the separate states can agree about the general national laws it should be carried out with a view of deal with refugees and the persons who are looking for refuges. Afghani case specifies the potential importance of Islamic concept of refugees and persons. from the point of view of policy. poor have the right to abundance rich to satisfy the basic needs. the Islam encourages solidarity. as well as more universal comparison of the last and present crises of Muslim refugees. that compelled migration of refugees as are powerless to be with not consciousness of history. By means of these agreements. can shed more light on possibilities of the coordination of the Islamic concept of refugees and persons. Moreover. Besides one of interpretation of the Koran declare that people have the right to seek asylum in connection with their dignity and spiritual equality. Financial well-being of such principles as also can provide an actual basis for increase of sources of the help to refugees in the Muslim states. such as Palestine and Sudan. (Kirmani. Islamic financial mechanisms of maintenance and regional agreements have such two mechanisms. mass media as a whole support the assumption. with modern international law. the future researches are necessary for definition or not Afghani case is unique and have no place of a consequence for current refugees Muslim crises. Regional agreements between the Muslim states concerning representing violent move maybe more successful. First. . community of validity and the general responsibility. it approves. However. UNHCR do not accept various definitions of refugees itself and often represents refugees as passive persons Independence of religious beliefs. that it is better answers on Muslim than refugees crises maybe reached by application of Islamic concepts of refugees and granting of a refuge.In general. versatility of application of Islamic principles of all refugees crises. traditions. additional researches it is necessary to advance for creation the past and potential of the future success of such agreements. this example shows. and can aspire to include the agreement on the status of refugees. For example. a state policy.

Besides this thesis shows. Agata. that Islamic understanding of refugees and persons.” Third World Quarterly 12. eds. “A socio-cultural dimension: Afghan women refugees in Pakistan. Besides has paid attention to similarity between international and Islamic laws of refugees. 1987.” Geneva: UNHCR.” Refugee Studies Centre. Said. “From Refugees to Forced Migration: The UNHCR and Human Security. and Nancy Hatch. Edwards. “Marginality and Migration: Cultural Dimensions of the Afghan Refugee Problem. that various definitions and understandings of refugees exist in an Islam and international law. London and New York: Pinter Publishers. Ewan W. 2008. http://www. no. 2001. References Adelman. can assist the Muslim states on protection of the rights of Muslim refugees which make the majority of refugees worldwide.Thirdly. 1990. Oxford. “Asylum in the Arab-Islamic Tradition.org/stable/3992448. 1986. as well as a possibility to reconcile two. Howard.”Refugee Survey . and that Islamic aspects of a refuge help to explain behavior and demands of Muslim refugees.” Chapter 11 from The Cultural Basis of Afghan Nationalism. 2. “Afghan Refugees in Pakistan: The Pakistani View. “NGOs and the Afghan war: the politicisation of humanitarian aid.jstor. Khadija. “Asylum in Islam and in Modern Refugee Law. “‘Voluntary Repatriation’ and the case of Afghanistan: A Critical Examination. RSC Working Paper No. Helga. Baitenmann. Anderson. 2011.. David Busby. can reduce some of anti-Islamic moods and intensity now felt in the West. G. Arnaout.” International Migration Review 35.” International Migration Review 20. 1 (Jan 1990): 62-85. Bialczyck. Afghani case shows importance of cooperation between the international community (through UNHCR) and the Muslim states. in connection with theoretical consequences of this research. 2008. no. International Institute of Humanitarian Law.46. no. accessed on April 4.1. It shows. Afghani case emphasizes complex attitudes between NGO’s and the states in the politician concerning refugees.” Chapter 9 fromThe Cultural Basis of Afghan Nationalism. Azhar. Both financings and political support from other states is necessary for realization of successful rendering assistance to refugees. M. Elmadad. Finally.

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