Information Services Academic Skills Know-how

Harvard Reference examples
The Harvard referencing system is the most frequently used style at Staffordshire and is also known as the Author-Date style. It emphasises the name of the creator of a piece of information and the date of publication, with the list of references in alphabetical order at the end of your piece of work. A few subject areas use a different style of referencing, so you should check your module handbook for confirmation of what style is required by your tutor for a particular assignment. This guide provides examples of how a wide range of information sources should be referenced according to the Harvard style, including the order of the elements and punctuation used. For each source there are examples of how to cite within the text and how to write your list of references. If you cannot find the type of information you wish to reference included in this document please contact us at ask@staffs.ac.uk.

Punctuation when using Harvard
Punctuation can vary when using Harvard. Hence you might find that some Harvard references will have full stops after each part of the reference and some may not. The generally accepted rule when using Harvard is to be consistent with your style and use of punctuation throughout your assignment.

References used:
Harvard formats used in this document have been based on the following texts which can be found in the Library or through our e-resources: BRITISH STANDARDS INSTITUTE. (2010). BS ISO 690:2010. Information and documentation — Guidelines for bibliographic references and citations to information resources. Geneva: ISO. NEVILLE, C. (2010). The Complete Guide to Referencing and Avoiding Plagiarism.2ND edition. Maidenhead: Open University Press. PEARS, R & SHIELDS, G. (2006) Cite Them Right: The Essential Guide to Referencing and Plagiarism. Newcastle-upon-Tyne: Northumbria University Press.

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Contents
A ................................................................................................................................................. 5 Acts of Parliament (UK Statutes) ........................................................................................... 5 Archive material/Special collections...................................................................................... 5 Atlas ....................................................................................................................................... 5 Author: Contribution/Chapter in a Book ............................................................................... 6 B ................................................................................................................................................. 6 Blogs (weblogs) ...................................................................................................................... 6 Book (1 author) ...................................................................................................................... 6 Book (2 authors)..................................................................................................................... 6 Book (3 authors)..................................................................................................................... 7 Book (4 or more authors)....................................................................................................... 7 Book: Chapter in a Book........................................................................................................ 7 Format:................................................................................................................................... 7 Book (Editor/s) ....................................................................................................................... 8 Books (part of a series) .......................................................................................................... 8 Book (multiple works by an author in the same year) .......................................................... 9 Book (Electronic) .................................................................................................................... 9 Box of Broadcasts (BoB) ......................................................................................................... 9 British Standards .................................................................................................................... 9 C ............................................................................................................................................... 10 CD-ROMs (accompanying books)......................................................................................... 10 Command Papers/Official Publications ............................................................................... 10 Computer Games/Programs ................................................................................................ 11 Conference Papers ............................................................................................................... 11 Conference Proceedings ...................................................................................................... 11 Corporate authors (groups, committees, companies) ........................................................ 12 D ............................................................................................................................................... 12 Dance (live performance) .................................................................................................... 12 Dance (DVD/ Video) ............................................................................................................. 12 Dictionaries .......................................................................................................................... 13 Discussion List ...................................................................................................................... 13 2

................................................................................................... 14 Encyclopaedia entry .................................... 17 Journal article (printed journal article) ........... 19 Maps........... 21 No Author/Anonymous.......................................................................................................................... 16 Interview (recorded) ........................................................................................................ 22 Official Publications ...................................... 18 Lecture Notes ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................Books........................................................................................................................... 17 Lecture ...................................................... 22 3 .......................................... 20 Newspaper article (online/electronic article) .............................................................................................................................................. 15 I ....................................................................................................................................... 21 O ........................................................................................................................................................................ 19 Music scores...................................................................................................................................................... 17 Law Reports ................................................................................................. 18 M ...... 16 Image in a book ........................................................................................................ 15 Film on video/DVD .................................................................. 20 Newspaper article (no author)................................... 14 Email communication ............. 21 No publication date .......................................................................................................................................................................................... 20 Newspaper article (printed article)......................................................................... 21 Newspaper Cartoon ....................................................... 19 Market Survey report (printed) ...................................................................................................................................... 17 L .................................................. 19 Market Survey report (online/electronic) ...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................E.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 16 J ........................................................... 14 Exhibition catalogues ................. 20 N ...................................................................................................................................................... 14 E............................... 17 Journal article (online/electronic journal article) ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 15 F .............................................. 16 Interview (you have conducted) ......................

....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 26 T............... 24 Podcast .................. 23 Plays (performance) ............................................................................................................................................................... 22 Original works of Art .............................................................................................................................................................................................................Online video .......................................................................................................................................................................... 29 YouTube video .............................................................................................................................................................. 23 Play script (published)............................................................................ 27 Television broadcast .................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 28 Unpublished Work ............................................. 28 Website .................... 24 Poem (from an anthology) .............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 27 Thesis .............................................................................................. 23 P .................................................................................................................... 29 4 ................................ 25 S............................................................................................................ 25 Radio broadcast ...................................................................................................... Cassette...................................UK ................................................................................... 29 Y ................................................................................................................................................................................. Vinyl Records ..................................................................................................................... 28 W ............. 28 Website – Web document .......................................... 25 Secondary Referencing using Harvard ........................................................................... 26 Statutory Instruments – UK ...................... 29 Wikis .................................................................... 24 R ... 27 U ............................. 26 Statutes (Acts of Parliament) .................................................................. 25 Sound recording – audio CD.......... 28 UK Bills (House of Commons or House of Lords) ..............................................................................................................................................................................................

S. In-text example: The Human Rights Act 1998 indicated that…… “Direct quotations are placed in double quotations marks” (Author’s Surname. 2004) As can be seen in The Times Concise Atlas of the World (2000) 5 . Human Rights Act 1998: Elizabeth ll. A. Bibliography example: WAGNER. London: Times Books. Initials. (Year of publication . Initials.no Author: Title of Atlas – in italics or underlined. – followed by page number – in brackets) Atlas Atlases can be referenced in the same format as a book.in brackets) Title-in italics or underlined [Material type–in square brackets]. 1906) “Direct quotations are placed in double quotations marks” (Author’s Surname.if available. Name of Act: Name of Sovereign.in brackets) Series title and/or volume . Chapter Number – in italics or underlined. City. Chapter 42. (Year of Publication – in brackets) Place of Publication: Publisher. Bibliography example: GREAT BRITAIN. Archive/Library. (2000) 8th Ed. Format for Atlas . In-text example: (Turner.if available. Year of Publication. Place of Publication: Publisher. Format for Atlas with Author: FAMILY/SURNAME. Collection. London. (1998) London: The Stationery Office. shelfmark.S.A Acts of Parliament (UK Statutes) Format: COUNTRY. Place of publication: Publisher. – followed by page number – in brackets) Archive material/Special collections Format: FAMILY/SURNAME. Edition .if not the first. p. The Times Concise Atlas of the World. p. If no author is available then the title of the Atlas can be used. Year of Publication. Bibliography example: TURNER. P. Edition . (2004) Color Atlas of the Autopsy. Series title and volume . In text example: (Wagner. (Year of publication – in brackets) Title of Atlas in italics or underlined. Boca Raton: CRC Press. Holden Library. (1906) Image of an Artist [Manuscript] Holden Collection. 600.if not the first. (Year of publication .

(Year of publication . Initials. In-text example: (Batts.php. Series title and volume .. Place of Publication: Publisher.if not the first. Maidenhead: Open University Press. Format: FAMILY/SURNAME.if not the first. (Year of publication . p. & FAMILY/SURNAME. C. S. (Year of posting . B Blogs (weblogs) References from blogs will need to commence with the name of the blog owner and include the date and title of the posting (see example). Bibliography example: NEVILLE. “Direct quotations are placed in double quotations marks” (Author’s Surname. – followed by page number – in brackets) Book (2 authors) Format: FAMILY/SURNAME. Edition . [Online] April 24th 2007.in brackets) Book (1 author) Format: FAMILY/SURNAME.com/retrospectacle/2007/04/antioxidants_in_berries_increa_1. Initials. Bibliography example: BATTS.URL.if available. Initials.in italics or underlined. – followed by page number if available. 2007) Neville (2007) commented that… “Direct quotations are placed in double quotations marks” (Author’s Surname. [Online –in square brackets] Date the blog entry was written. Available from . Year of Publication.in brackets) Title of blog entry .in brackets) Book Title . Year of Publication. 2007) As can be seen in Batts (2007) results.in italics or underlined.if available.com http://scienceblogs. Edition . Initials. Place of Publication: Publisher. (2007) The Complete Guide to Referencing and Avoiding Plagiarism.. . Available from: Scienceblogs. p. (2007) Antioxidants in Berries Increased by Ethanol (but are daiquiris healthy).in brackets) Book Title . In-text examples: (Neville.in italics or underlined. [Accessed: followed by date in square brackets]. [Accessed: 2nd May 2008].Author: Contribution/Chapter in a Book See Book: Chapter in a book. Series title and volume . 6 .

8th Ed. & MORSE. Edition . – followed by page number – in brackets) Book (4 or more authors) Format: FAMILY/SURNAME. In-text examples: (Campbell et al. Year of Publication. N. p. Initials. In-text example: (Bradbury.if available.) or (eds. In: Author or Editor of Publication . Place of Publication: Publisher.if not the first. Initials. p. Edition . Initials.Bibliography example: MIDDLETON. I. (2008) Biology.. (Year of publication .Surname.. Bibliography example: BRADBURY. – followed by page number – in brackets) Book: Chapter in a Book Format: FAMILY/SURNAME. p. Book Title . Initials & Author . A. Series title and volume . BOYLE.in italics or underlined. et al. J. Place of Publication: Publisher. Place of Publication: Publisher. A.if not the first. (Year of publication .SURNAME. (2002) Scientific Principles for Physical Geographers.SURNAME. Initials.if available.in italics or underlined. & HAWKINS. – followed by page number – in brackets) Book (3 authors) Format: FAMILY/SURNAME.in italics or underlined. 1998) As stated by Middleton & Hawkins (1998) “Direct quotation are placed in double quotations marks” (First Author’s Surname & Second Author’s Surname. London: Pearson. (Year of publication . In-text examples: (Middleton & Hawkins. Year of Publication. Year of Publication. Series title and volume . (1998) Sustainable Tourism: A Marketing Perspective. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann. C. V.if available.in brackets) Title of chapter/contribution. Boyle & Morse. Author . R. et al. 2008) As concluded by Campbell et al (2008)… “Direct quotations are placed in double quotations marks” (Author’s Surname et al. Second Author’s Surname & Third Author's Surname. T. 7 . Bibliography example: CAMPBELL.) – in brackets. if relevant. Boyle & Morse (2002) “Direct quotations are placed in double quotations marks” (First Author’s Surname.if not the first. Initials with (ed.in brackets) Book Title . Harlow: Prentice Hall. 2002) As noted by Bradbury. Series title and volume .in brackets) Book Title . Edition .

Fontana-Giusti. 1975) As noted by Marshall (1975). Edition . D. London: Earthscan.in brackets for editor(s) (Year of publication . (ed.if not the first.if not the first. (eds.) or (eds. Bibliography example: MCILROY. Aylesbury. Series title and volume . The Bibliography must contain details of both the author providing the contribution and the author/editor(s) of the book (see above bibliography example for format). Year of Publication. Bibliography example: FONTANA-GIUSTI. Initials.Bibliography example: MARSHALL. “Direct quotations are placed in double quotations marks” (Author’s Surname. In: Sants. AND KEIL. W. Environmental and Psychological Sustainability. Brenner & Keil. (2003) Studying @ University: How to be a Successful Student. Series title and volume . – followed by page number – in brackets) Book (Editor/s) If the book has an editor then (ed. London: Routledge.if available. H. In-text example: (McIlroy 2003) The evidence supports McIlroy’s (2003) theory that… “Direct quotations are placed in double quotations marks” (Author’s Surname.) .in italics or underlined.in brackets) Book Title . p. J. In-text example: If you refer to an author who has contributed/produced a chapter in an edited book you will need to cite their name in the body of your work. Bucks: Hazell Watson & Viney Ltd. N. Initials.) or (eds.in italics or underlined.) (2008) Designing Cities for People: Social. 2008) (eds. J & Butcher. BRENNER.. R.in brackets) Book Title . (ed.. p. G.) – both in brackets. (Marshall. (1975) The Child as a Mirror of his Brain’s Development. Format: FAMILY/SURNAME. Place of Publication: Publisher. is added after the author’s name.) or (eds. London: Sage. Edition . In-text examples: (ed.if available. Sage Essential Study Skills. Place of Publication: Publisher. – followed by page number) 8 .) . (ed. Development Psychology. A. Year of Publication. (eds).) (2006) The Global Cities Reader. 2006) Books (part of a series) Format: FAMILY/SURNAME.in brackets for editor(s) (Year of publication .

Boston. 2007a) (Carlson. [Online] Sterling. Format: FAMILY/SURNAME. (Year of publication . [Accessed: 6/5/2008] In-text example: (Sadler. N. (2003) Strategic management.com/Reader/. N. (Year of publication and lowercase alphabetical letter . Place of Publication: Name of 9 . If you want to reference a recording from the BoB archive you should use the same format as for Online videos. p.in brackets) Standard Number: Year. Available from URL. R. Mass: Pearson Allyn & Bacon.in brackets) Title . 2007b) Carlson (2007a) commented that… Carlson (2007b) indicated that… “Direct quotations are placed in double quotations marks” (Author’s Surname. Year of Publication. Bibliography example: CARLSON.in italics or underlined. Initials. Series title and volume . Initial(s). R.if available.Book (multiple works by an author in the same year) If you refer to an author who has produced more than one work in the same year you will need to add a lower case alphabetical letter after the year of publication i. Initials. Available from: http://www. (2007a) Foundations of Physiology and Psychology. London: Pearson Allyn & Bacon. R. 2003) As identified by Sadler (2003) “Direct quotations are placed in double quotations marks” (Author’s Surname. Edition . Title of the standard in italics or underlined. R. CARLSON.if not the first. P. VA Kogan Page. [Online – in square brackets] City of publication: Publisher. – followed by page number) Book (Electronic) Format: FAMILY/SURNAME. 7th Ed.in brackets) Book Title . Format: FAMILY/SURNAME.netlibrary. 2000a. British Standards The information you need to reference correctly can be found on the title page of the standard. p. (Year of publication . N.in italics or underlined. (2007b) Physiology of Behaviour. Place of publication: Publisher. [Accessed: followed by date in square brackets] Bibliography example: SADLER. 2000b. In-text example: (Carlson. Year of Publication. – followed by page number – in brackets) Box of Broadcasts (BoB) BoB is an off-air recording and media archiving service.e. N.

Healthcare Commission. Place of Publication: publisher. Audit Commission for Local Authorities in England and Wales. (Cm 3009). Audit Commission for Local Authorities in England and Wales National Audit Office.M. (Year of publication . (2006) Tackling Child Obesity: First Steps. Year of Publication. When using material from this source the following information needs to be included in your reference. – followed by page number – in brackets) C CD-ROMs (accompanying books) Many books now have a CD-ROM accompanying them. Department of Health. Department or Royal Commission (Year of publication – in brackets) Title of publication . (1990) BS5605:1990. p. Bibliography examples: GREAT BRITAIN.in brackets) Title of the main publication. Healthcare Commission. Place of Publication: Publisher.S. Bibliography example: BRITISH STANDARDS INSTITUTE. Initials or name of originator of item if no author present. [CD-ROM] London: TechPress. In-text example: (Great Britain.in italics or underlined. Recommendations for citing and referencing published material. (Paper number – if available in brackets). Name of Committee. C. Bibliography example: BARNES. National Audit Office. National Audit Office. Command Papers/Official Publications Format: COUNTRY. (2006) show that…… 10 .O. In-text example: (Who’s who 1998) (Barnes 1997) “Direct quotations are placed in double quotations marks” (Author’s Surname. (1995). In-text example: (British Standards Institute. Format: FAMILY/SURNAME. London’s Ambulance Service: Government response to the Second Report from the Health Committee Session 199495. Year of Publication. p. Statistics from the Great Britain Healthcare Commission. London: Stationery Office. – followed by page number – in brackets).Publisher. Milton Keynes: BSI. Who’s who 1897-1998. 2006). (1997) Working with Technology. London: H. GREAT BRITAIN. [CD-ROM – in square brackets]. (1998) [CD-ROM] London: Oxford University Press. 1990) “Direct quotations are placed in double quotations marks” (Author’s Surname. Audit Commission for Local Authorities in England and Wales.

Series title and numbers if available. “Direct quotations are placed in double quotations marks” (Author’s Surname. Department of Health. Year of Publication. B. p. Bibliography example: FISH.in brackets) Full Title of Conference Report . the contribution appears as part of a wider publication..in brackets) Title of Paper. (2003) The Sims.. J. [DISC] PlayStation2.in italics or underlined.. Place of Publication: Publisher Bibliography example: ELECTRONIC ARTS. Monday 18th to Wednesday 20th February 2008. Location and Date of Conference. Blackpool. As indicated by the Great Britain Department of Health (1995) “Direct quotations are placed in double quotations marks” (Author’s Surname. and MURTON. Series information and any dates or numeric information .e. Blackpool: PubM. Format: FAMILY/SURNAME. (Year of publication . pp.in square brackets]. (Year of publication . Bibliography examples: HARRIS.in italics or underlined.in italics or underlined. 42-45. the title will need to be underlined or placed in italics: . – followed by page number – in brackets) Computer Games/Programs Format: ORIGINATOR/AUTHOR. p. Place of Publication: Publisher. Initials or AUTHORING BODY OR GROUP. – followed by page number – in brackets) Conference Proceedings Format: FAMILY/SURNAME.in brackets) Game or program title .if necessary. i. Place of Publication: Publisher. London: Electronic Arts Inc. C.Full Title of Conference . Initials or Authoring body or group. Location and Date of Conference. In . Geological Society Special 11 .as can be seen in The Sims (2003) Conference Papers Conference Papers are similar to authors who contribute chapters to books. Series title and numbers .(Great Britain. 1995). Year of Publication. (2008) Managing changes in the workplace. (Year of publication . [Medium of item . Page numbers of paper. In-text example: (Fish 2008) Fish (2008) noted that…. In Professional Managers Conference..if available. In-text example: If you refer to a game or program in the body of your work. J. (2005) Cryospheric Systems: Glaciers and Permafrost: Selected Contributions to a Conference of the same name.

FAMILY/SURNAME. 2002) Harris & Murton (2005) support this theory…. Department of Energy. Place of publication: Publisher. (Year published or first transmission in brackets) Title of Video or programme – in italics or underlined.) Format: COUNTRY. Initials. p. companies. Bibliography Example: GREAT BRITAIN. 1977) The Great Britain Department of Energy (1977) concluded that… “Direct quotations are placed in double quotations marks” (Author’s Surname. Management Centre International.Publication 242. Year of Publication. companies) (Includes publications by groups. (Premier date . (2002). 2007) Dance (DVD/ Video) Format: Director/producer – FAMILY/SURNAME. Third European conference on knowledge management. The Geological Society of London. committees. – followed by page number – in brackets). DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY. [Victoria Hall.in brackets) Title – in italics or underlined. (Report Number – if available in brackets). Initials. 2005) (Management Centre International. committees. In-text examples: (Harris & Murton. Year of Publication. January 2003. London: H. (Energy Papers 23) In-text example: (Great Britain. [Material type e. (Year of publication in brackets) Title of publication – in italics or underlined. government departments. Ireland. (1977) Tidal Power Barrages in the Severn Trent Estuary: Recent Evidence on their Feasibility. 12 . place of performance and date seen – in square brackets] Bibliography example: JONES. As indicated by research from Management Centre International (2005) “Direct quotations are placed in double quotations marks” (Author’s Surname. 16th December 2007] In-text Example: (Hungarian Folk Dance. (2007) Hungarian Folk Dance.. Dublin. Stoke on Trent. p. R. O.S. London: The Geological Society. etc. NAME OF ISSUING BODY. Reading: MCIL.g. M. [Venue. Trinity College. – followed by page number – in brackets) D Dance (live performance) Format: Choreographer’s. 24-25 September 2002. Corporate authors (groups.

(2005) Ballet Moves [DVD]. Series title and/or volume . Place of Publication: Publisher. (ed. (Year of posting . – followed by page number – in brackets) Discussion List References from a discussion list will need to commence with the name of the author of a posting to the list.in brackets) Title of discussion posting . Name of discussion list. Initials. J. Dance Mat Ltd. Oxford: Oxford University Press.in italics or underlined.) or (eds. Date the entry was written. (Year of publication . Bibliography example: MORGAN. 2005) Dictionaries In some cases Dictionaries may not have authors so your citation or reference can use the title of the work.DVD/video – in square brackets].uk/RefZoneList [Accessed: 2nd May 2008]. (ed. In-text example: (Morgan. [Online] April 24th 2007. Edition . Production company or publisher [Further details to identify dance works] Bibliography example: JONES.). Format: FAMILY/SURNAME. Bibliography examples: HAWKINS.in brackets for editor(s) (Year of publication in brackets) Dictionary Title – in italics or underlined. M. [Online –in square brackets].staffs. K.no Author: Title of Dictionary – in italics or underlined. New York: McGraw-Hill. “Direct quotations are placed in double quotations marks” (Author’s Surname. Available from – discussion list address. Dictionary of Engineering.if available. McGraw-Hill.if not the first. (2007) Teaching Referencing Skills. Available from: http://www. L. (2003). Year of Publication. 2007) 13 . In-text examples: (Hawkins 1986) (McGraw-Hill 2003) As noted by Hawkins (1986) McGraw-Hill (2003) indicated that….) (1986) The Oxford Reference Dictionary. Dictionary Author-Editor present: FAMILY/SURNAME. [Clips of various ballets illustrating professional techniques] In-text example: (Ballet Moves.if not the first. Place of Publication: Publisher. [Accessed: followed by date in square brackets].if available. 2nd ed. p. Edition . Dictionary.. Initials.in brackets) Series title and/or volume .ac. RefZone Discussion List.

14 . T.Surname. Message to: Hatton.Books Format: FAMILY/SURNAME. initials. London: Academic Press.in italics or underlined.) or (eds. Day and month of communication Bibliography example: MORGAN. K.in italics or underlined. In-text example: (Morgan 2008) “Direct quotations are placed in double quotations marks” (Author’s Surname. Initials with (ed. [Accessed: followed by date in square brackets] Bibliography example: SADLER. when citing and referencing from Encyclopaedias use the same format as you would when referencing an author’s contributory chapter or article in a book. M. Charles (Darwinism). Format: FAMILY/SURNAME. E E. Year of Publication. (2001) Darwin. (Year of publication . Hence. [Online] Sterling: VA Kogan Page..if available. 2003) As identified by Sadler (2003) “Direct quotations are placed in double quotations marks” (Author’s Surname. (ed. p. p.if relevant. P. In: Author or Editor of Publication . (2003) Strategic management.)-in brackets for editor(s) (Year of publication in brackets) Title of entry or article. Initials. 10 April 2008. Format: FAMILY/SURNAME. Initials. In: Levin. Place of Publication: Publisher. Initials.if not the first. (Year of communication – in brackets) Title of communication – in italics or underlined.) or (eds. Title of Encyclopaedia . [E-mail].. A.in brackets) Title . Available from – URL of ebook provider or database. (2008) Refzone. [Medium of communication – in square brackets] Receiver of Communication – Surname. – followed by page number – in brackets) Email communication If you use personal email communication to support your assignment please ensure that you have the consent of those involved in the email. A. Volume 2 D-FI. Edition .netlibrary.As can be seen in Morgan’s (2007) results. Available from: http://www. [Accessed: 6/5/2008] In-text example: (Sadler.com/Reader/.) Encyclopaedia of Biodiversity. Series title and/or volume . (ed. Bibliography example: GHISELIN. [Online – in square brackets] Place of publication: Publisher. – followed by page number – in brackets) Encyclopaedia entry Encyclopaedias often contain entries or articles by a collection of authors. S.) . Year of Publication.

Place of distribution: Distribution Company. (2000) Animated Film. use the title of the gallery or museum. [VHS] UK: Pathe Distribution. Place of publication: Publisher. Edition . New York: Museum of Modern Art. [Material type – in square brackets]. Bibliography example: REED. or Gallery/Museum name. 2006) As Reed (2005) suggests……. “Direct quotations are placed in double quotations marks” (Author’s Surname. Bibliography examples: Requiem for a Dream.)-in brackets for editor(s) (Year of publication . Year of Publication. [DVD]. As the Museum of Modern Art (2006) exhibition highlights. In-text example: If you refer to a film in the body of your work. film.In-text example: (Ghiselin 2001) As suggested by Ghiselin (2001)…. 2005) (Museum of Modern Art. Initials..in italics or underlined. “Direct quotations are placed in double quotations marks” (Author’s Surname. F Film on video/DVD Format: Title . animated film. (2006).in brackets) Catalogue Title . Directed by Darren Aronofsky. UK: Momentum Pictures. New York: Museum of Modern Art. Directed by Peter Lord and Nick Park. the title will need to be underlined or placed in italics: 15 . Directed by – name of directors. Format: FAMILY/SURNAME. p. P.. (2005) Groundswell: constructing the contemporary landscape: published on the occasion of the exhibition at the Museum of Modern Art. New York. New York 17 February – 8 May 2006 with an introduction by Kynaston McShine. (Year of distribution . (2000) Film.e. – followed by page number – in brackets) Exhibition catalogues Cite and reference Exhibition Catalogues in the same format as a book. Museum of Modern Art. Series title and volume .in brackets) Format type i. (ed.in italics or underlined. if the exhibition catalogue has no author. – followed by page number – in brackets).if not the first. 25th February – 16 May 2005. However. p.if available. Chicken Run. Year of Publication. In-text examples: (Reed. Edvard Munch: the modern life of the soul: published on the occasion of the exhibition at the Museum of Modern Art.) or (eds.

Photographs and Art.67) shows. 2004. p. in a book are highlighted in the text by italics or underlining the title of the work and following it with the (surname of the author.) where you found the image. I Image in a book Images. – followed by page number where the image can be located – in brackets): The photograph Night time by Bloggs in 2001 (Fish. (2008) Development of library support for early years students. Bibliography example: If you refer to an image in your work from a book. art work.(Chicken Run. London: Fish and Sons. [Interview – medium of source].. 2000) …this is highlighted by Harry’s character in the film Requiem for a Dream (2000). but in the Bibliography you will need to reference the source (book.. for example a photograph from the following book. Initials. etc. Bibliography format: FAMILY/SURNAME. etc. A.)-in brackets for editor(s) (Year of publication in brackets) Book Title . [Recording in possession of author] 16 . (ed. Initials. 2008) . p.as indicated by Hatton (2008) Interview (recorded) Format: Name of person interviewed . 67).if available. 24th April 2008. [Interview]. 2004. Series title and volume . Interview (you have conducted) Format: Name of person interviewed – FAMILY/SURNAME. Place of interview. Edition .. etc. Bibliography example: HATTON. J. (Year of interview – in brackets) Interview with Author and Date – in italics of underlined. In-text you need to mention the image or art work and the page number. In-text example: (Hatton.if not the first.. graphs and charts from books are not referenced in the same way as book chapters. (2004). Year of Publication.) or (eds.. Place of Publication: Publisher. Initials.FAMILY/SURNAME. (Year of interview – in brackets) Title of interview – in italics or underlined. p. In-text: In-text references to works of art. Date the interview was conducted. images.. you will need to reference the source (book) where the item can be found: FISH.in italics or underlined. art work. This was highlighted in Blogg’s Night time (Fish.

(2000) Did you hear the one about Boolean operators? Incorporating comedy into library instruction. Available from: http://www. Interview with A. Available from . (1995) Enter the cyberpunk librarian: future directions in cyberspace.Hatton on 15th April 2008. 1995) According to Wilson (1995)…. p.com [Accessed: 30/01/2008] In-text example: (Wilson.Bibliography example: HATTON. Reference Services Review.followed by page numbers. p. Title of journal . A. (2008). p. J. 28 (4). followed by page numbers. square brackets are used for the year of publication 17 . [Recording in possession of author] In-text example: (Hatton. 369-378. [Online – in square brackets] Volume number. Initials. S. & BLAKSEE.in italics or underlined. p. J. p. Volume number.in italics or underlined. (Year of publication – in brackets) Title of article.emeraldinsight. 2008) …. p.as noted by Hatton (2008) J Journal article (printed journal article) Printed article format: FAMILY/SURNAME. Bibliography examples: TEFTS. – followed by page number – in brackets) Journal article (online/electronic journal article) Online article format: FAMILY/SURNAME. Year of Publication.URL. “Direct quotations are placed in double quotations marks” (Author’s Surname.63-72. (Year of publication – in brackets) Title of article. [Accessed: followed by date in square brackets] Bibliography example: WILSON. Year of Publication. (Part number/month – in brackets). . – followed by page number – in brackets). [Online] 44 (8). (Part number/month – in brackets). K. In-text example: (Trefts & Blaksee 2000) This supports Trefts & Blaksee’s (2000) evidence that… “Direct quotations are placed in double quotations marks” (Author’s Surname. Library Review. Title of journal . Initials. Stoke on Trent. L Law Reports When referencing Law Reports.

Staffordshire University.C. [Lecture notes] Academic Futures. Lecture Format: FAMILY/SURNAME. Name of teaching organisation. date. J.. (1951) 2 K. Bibliography example: FISH. J. the location. Title of Module. Title of Module. 18th July 2011. Initials. – followed by page number – in brackets) Lecture Notes Provide as much detail as possible if you are referencing from Lecture notes and/or handouts. 2011) As indicated by Fish (2011). 678. Library.B. Bibliography example: FISH. Parkinson v Axon. 18th July 2011. Library. J. Information Management Module. J. – followed by page number – in brackets).capitalised. p. Module Code .when the date is essential for finding the report. In-text examples (Fish. (Year of Lecture – in brackets) Title of Lecture. Department. CC-FOINFOY2. “Direct quotations are placed in double quotations marks” (Author’s Surname. Year of Publication. [Lecture notes or handouts in square brackets] Title of Lecture notes distributed – in italics or underlined. Format: Names of parties – in italics. Year of Publication. Department. Round brackets are used when the law reports series has continuous volume numbers. – followed by page number – in brackets) 18 . Initials... Room OX33. [Year – in square brackets or round brackets – see above] Date and/or volume – if available and abbreviated name of the report and number of first page.. Bibliography example: Gillick v West Norfolk and Wisbech AHA. In-text examples (Fish. [Lecture]. “Direct quotations are placed in double quotations marks” (Author’s Surname. Name of teaching organisation. Staffordshire University. [1986] A. Format: FAMILY/SURNAME. (2011) Future of Information. Room OX33. Information Management Module. p. 2011) As indicated by Fish (2011). (2011) Future of Information [Lecture] Academic Futures. Year of Publication. 112. (Year of lecture – in brackets) Title of lecture – in italics or underlined. the location and date. p. In-text example: As highlighted in Gillick v West Norfolk and Wisbech AHA [1986] Parkinson v Axon (1951) indicated that… “Direct quotations are placed in double quotations marks” (Author’s Surname.

Initials or ISSUING ORGANISATION. In-text example: (Mintel 2002) The trends highlighted by Mintel (2002) “Direct quotations are placed in double quotations marks” (Author’s Surname. Available from http://academic. In-text example: (Ordnance Survey. or CORPORATE AUTHOR/RESEARCH GROUP.URL. Place of Publication: Publisher. 19 .in brackets) Report Title including dates and series if available .com/ [Accessed: 25/04/2008] In-text format: Mintel (2007) As highlighted by Mintel (2007) “Direct quotations are placed in double quotations marks” (Author’s Surname. Place of Publication: Publisher. Year of Publication. 1956) Market Survey report (printed) Format: FAMILY/SURNAME. Scale details. Scale sixteen miles to one inch.in italics or underlined [Online – in square brackets]. Southampton: Ordnance Survey. – followed by page number – in brackets).if not the first. Initials. Bibliography example: MINTEL (2008) Pizza and Pasta Restaurants . Series – if available. Bibliography example: ORDNANCE SURVEY.in italics or underlined. [Accessed: followed by the date – in square brackets] Bibliography format: MINTEL (2007) Leisure Venue Catering UK March 2007 [Online]. 1956) As can be seen in the Map of Roman Britain (Ordnance Survey. (Year of publication – in brackets) Title of map in italics or underlined. Sheet number – if available.UK. Initials. p.M Maps Format: FAMILY/ SURNAME. London: Mintel.mintel. Or CORPORATE AUTHOR/RESEARCH GROUP.in brackets) Report Title including dates and series if available . Year of Publication. (Year of publication .if not the first. p. – followed by page number – in brackets). London: Mintel. Edition . Market Survey report (online/electronic) Format: FAMILY/SURNAME. Available from . Edition . Place of Publication: Publisher. (Year of publication . (1956) Map of Roman Britain.

(Year of publication . Place of Publication: Publisher. p. Bibliography example: RANDERSON.if available. UK: Music Sales Ltd. 26th February. [Accessed: followed by date in square brackets] Bibliography example: RANDERSON. 2008) Randerson’s (2008) article indicates that… “Direct quotations are placed in double quotations marks” (Author’s Surname. Initials. 26th February. In-text example: (Nyman 2003) N Newspaper article (printed article) Format: SURNAME. The Guardian. p. J. In-text example: (Randerson. Available from: http://www.if available. (2003) Pieces from the Piano (Pocket Manual) (Sheet Music).com/uk. – followed by page number – in brackets) 20 . [Accessed: 22nd May 2008]. Initials. Format: FAMILY/ SURNAME. Page number of article . Title of Newspaper . J.in brackets) Title of Article. Page number of article . M. (Year of publication .14. Day and month of article.in italics or underlined. 2008) Randerson’s (2008) article indicates that… “Direct quotations are placed in double quotations marks” (Author’s Surname. [Online] Day and month of article.in brackets) Title of score – in italics or underlined. Series title and volume . (2008) Researchers find fish that can count up to four. Available from – URL of database supplier. Title of Newspaper . Initials.if available.lexisnexis. p. The Guardian. Year of Publication.in brackets) Title of Article. (2008) Researchers find fish that can count up to four. (Year of publication . Bibliography example: NYMAN.Music scores Musical scores are treated the same as referencing a book. Edition . In-text Example: (Randerson.in italics or underlined. – followed by page number – in brackets) Newspaper article (online/electronic article) Format: FAMILY/SURNAME.if not the first. Year of Publication.

[Cartoon] East Coast Independent. if you are referring to a newspaper article without an author.if available.d. (for circa) in brackets. [Cartoon] Title of Newspaper . No Author/Anonymous For publications without individual authors use Anon instead of the author’s name. A.) in brackets If there is only an approximate date available precede the approximate date with a lowercase c.in italics or underlined. (Year of publication . for example (c. However. p. Title of Article. (1987) Exploration of the Coast. (2002) Atlas of Anatomy. Series title and volume . – followed by page number – in brackets) Newspaper Cartoon Format: FAMILY/SURNAME (Year of publication -in brackets) Title of Cartoon. 1987) The Guardian (1987) article indicates that… “Direct quotations are placed in double quotations marks” (Author’s Surname. Cobham.Newspaper article (no author) If there is no author present. Format: ANON. Surrey: Taj Books. Year of Publication. Day and month of article.. In-text example: (Bateman 2008) …as depicted in Bateman’s (2008) cartoon. Bibliography example: The Guardian. Place of Publication: Publisher.in italics or underlined. No publication date Format: If the item you are referencing has no publication date or only an approximate or dubious date. 21 .if available. Nov 24th.if not the first. Day and month of cartoon. In-text example: (The Guardian. Bibliography example: ANON.1903).in brackets).in brackets) Book Title . What a Political battle. In-text example: Human anatomy can be seen in this way (Anon 2002).if available. use the title of the newspaper – in italics of underlined to start your reference. Bibliography example: BATEMAN. (2008). (Year of publication . Page number of cartoon . use the following information to best describe the item: • • If there is no date available use the abbreviation (n. replace anon with the title of the Newspaper. p6. Format: Title of Newspaper – in italics or underlined. 14th April 2008. Edition . Page number of article .

p. In-text example: (Dundee City Art Gallery and Museum. n. HEALTHCARE COMMISSION. (Great Britain. London: H.) This was shown at the exhibition hosted at the Dundee City Art Gallery and Museum (n.URL. (1995). 2006).Bibliography example: DUNDEE CITY ART GALLERY and MUSEUM. Place of Publication: Publisher.. GREAT BRITAIN.M. In-text example: (Great Britain.in italics or underlined. (Paper number – if available in brackets).in brackets) Title of Online Video – in italics or underlined. National Audit Office. [Accessed: followed by date in square brackets].S. (Year of distribution .d. DEPARTMENT or ROYAL COMMISION (Year of publication – in brackets) Title of publication . Boston and New York: Houghton-Mifflin and Company. London: Stationery Office. (2006) Tackling Child Obesity: First Steps. Bibliography examples: GREAT BRITAIN. – followed by page number – in brackets).d. Format: FAMILY/ SURNAME. [Online video – in square brackets]. Year of Publication. Year of Publication. Audit Commission for Local Authorities in England and Wales. 22 .O (Cm 3009). Available from . (2006) show that. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH.NAME OF COMMITTEE. Online video Online video citation should commence with the name of the originator (screen name) or organisation which produced the online video. T. AUDIT COMMISSION for LOCAL AUTHORITIES in ENGLAND and WALES. (c. Dundee: Dundee City Art Gallery and Museum. ROOSEVELT. Healthcare Commission. – followed by page number – in brackets). Audit Commission for Local Authorities in England and Wales.. Thomas Hart Benton.) Dundee Tiles 1880-1930. As indicated by the Great Britain Department of Health (1995) “Direct quotations are placed in double quotations marks” (Author’s Surname. Statistics from the Great Britain Healthcare Commission. O Official Publications Format: COUNTRY. (n.) “Direct quotations are placed in double quotations marks” (Author’s Surname. Department of Health. London’s Ambulance Service: Government Response to the Second Report from the Health Committee Session 199495.d.1886). 1995). Initials or ORGANISATION IF NO NAMED PERSON IS AVAILABLE. If available indicate the Number and/or title if part of a series. Date of the online video. p. NATIONAL AUDIT OFFICE. National Audit Office.

(Year – in brackets) Title of artwork – in italics or underlined. In-text example: (Broom.youtube. cartoons. illustrations. (Year of publication . UCBERKELEYEVENTS (2007) Building Academic Library 2. Available from: http://www. M. Museum etc. J. use the title of the piece – in italics or underlined as the first element of the reference. Manchester. sculptures. If no name is available. 1957) …supported by Osborne’s (1957) play Look Back in Anger. November 19th. S. Title of Art Gallery.. [Photograph]. (2002) Daylight. [Material type – in square brackets]. emphasis is given to the author first and the play is referenced as a book (see example): Format: FAMILY/SURNAME. Format: FAMILY/SURNAME. “Direct quotations from a play are placed in double quotations marks” (playwrights’ Surname. Bibliography example: OSBORNE. Your reference should state the artist’s name. Manor Art Gallery. CEDAR. etchings. Scene and/or page number – in brackets) 23 . London: Faber and Faber.0 (2007). In-text: If you refer to an online video in the body of your work. 2002) …highlighted by Cedar’s Mars at Night (1938) P Play script (published) If you are referring to the printed publication/script of a play.in italics or underlined.Bibliography example: BERKERLEY UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA EVENTS. Original works of Art Material types can include: paintings. its title and where the item can be located or viewed. ceramics. (1938). Mars at Night. Act. [Accessed: May 19th 2008]. photographs. [Sculpture]. In-text example: (Osborne.. Place of Publication: Publisher. followed by Year of Publication. Initials. [Online Video]. the title will need to be underlined or placed in italics: …as can be seen in Berkeley’s presentation Building Academic Library 2. initials. drawing.in brackets) Title of Play.com/watch?v=q_uOKFhoznI.0. Manchester. (1957) Look Back in Anger. Manor Art Gallery. Location or City Bibliography example: BROOM. woodcut and others.

shtml.)-in brackets for editor(s). Podcast Podcast citations should commence with the name of the originator or organisation which produced the podcast. In-text you need to mention the poem and poet and page number.in italics or underlined.examined in BBC Radio 4’s podcast Material World: Severn Barrage & Palaeopathology (2008). Performers: I. (Year of distribution . Bloggs & S. Jones. etc.in brackets) Book Title . Format: FAMILY/SURNAME. First Produced 18th June. Thursday 15th May. [Accessed: followed by date in square brackets] Bibliography examples: BBC RADIO 4. your reference will need to give emphasis to the title of the play first (see examples).. Director: Harry Green. Format: FAMILY/SURNAME.uk/radio4/science/thematerialworld. the title will need to be underlined or placed in italics: .) or (eds.in brackets) [Play – in square brackets]. Place of Publication: Publisher.) where you found the poem. By HARRY GREEN.co.URL.if available.. [Online]. Edition .bbc. Format: Title of Play. Round Theatre. Available from: http://www. Number and/or title of the episode – if needed. [Accessed: 19th May 2008] In-text example: If you refer to a podcast in the body of your work.in italics or underlined. (Year of publication . (Year of publication .in brackets) Title of Podcast – in italics or underlined. Series title and volume . Theatre and Place of performance.if not the first. Initials or organisation if no named person is available. Bibliography example: A Round of Applause. but in the Bibliography you will need to reference the source (book. Available from . Poem (from an anthology) Poems are not referenced in the same way as book chapters. (2006) [Play]. (ed. Burns Wood. you will need to reference the source (book) where the poem can be found: 24 . Date of the Podcast.Plays (performance) If you refer to production and performance elements of a play that you have viewed. [Online – in square brackets]. Director. Initials. (2008) Material World: Severn Barrage & Palaeopathology introduced by Quentin Cooper. By AUTHOR. Production date. Performers names. Fictitious Bibliography example: If you refer to a poem in your work from a book.

This was highlighted in Bloggs’ Spring Time (Fish. 2004. Jean Smith and her ideas of ‘organisational devolution’ (1987) and you 25 . In-text: The poem Spring Time by Bloggs (Fish.. You locate the original research so that you can read. and you want to use this to support your own assignment. This is often the preferred method as this shows that you have increased your own research for your assignment. In some instances this may not be possible as the original research may be difficult to find or gain access to.. the title will need to be underlined or placed in italics: …highlighted in It’s Not Just about the Music (2008)… S Secondary Referencing using Harvard What is Secondary Referencing? Secondary referencing occurs when you are reading a book or journal article whose author uses facts or information from research done by someone else.. 1968 Season. p. they should be cited using the title of the broadcast first. In-text example: If you have read the book ‘Modern Organisations’ by Bill Jones (2007) and he refers to another author. use and cite directly from this original source. p. p. (2004) The Art of Poetry. Format: Title . “Direct quotations are placed in double quotations marks” (Author’s Surname.. (Year of distribution . the episode should also be indicated after the series title. Thursday 10th April. Broadcast or transmission date. (2008) BBC Radio 4. Bibliography example: It’s Not Just about the Music.in italics or underlined. 2004.67). – followed by page number – in brackets) R Radio broadcast As Radio broadcasts are the production of a collection of individuals. London: Fish and Sons. J. In-text example: If you refer to a radio broadcast in the body of your work.FISH. 2.in brackets) Name of broadcaster.67) shows. If you are confident that this secondary source is reliable and accurate you can refer to it in your own work using the Harvard rules for secondary referencing (see below for examples). Year of Publication. For programmes within a series. Number and/or title of the episode – if needed. How to Secondary Reference There are 2 ways that you can approach a secondary reference: 1.

Modern Organisations. Sound recording – audio CD. p. Bibliography example: GREAT BRITAIN. Vinyl Records Format: FAMILY/SURNAME. initials. Cassette.UK Format: COUNTRY. (2001) Love and Theft [CD] UK: Columbia Recordings. In-text example: If you refer to the title of a recording in the body of your work. Using the example above. 26 . London: Routledge. Name of Act: Name of Sovereign. In-text example: The Human Rights Act 1998 indicated that… “Direct quotations are placed in double quotations marks” (Author’s Surname. as summarized by Jones (2007) highlights the application of ‘organisational devolution’ to result in… Or Smith’s (1987) ‘organisational devolution’ indicates this possibility (in Jones 2007. Chapter Number – in italics or underlined. B (2007).want to include Smith’s ideas. Chapter 42. the title will need to be underlined or placed in italics: (Dylan. 2001) …as influenced by Dylan’s Love and Theft (2001)… Statutes (Acts of Parliament) .in brackets) Title-in italics or underlined [Material type–in square brackets]. (1998) London: The Stationery Office. (Year of publication . Bibliography example: DYLAN. Human Rights Act 1998: Elizabeth ll. Place of Distribution: Distribution Company. p. – followed by page number – in brackets) Statutory Instruments – UK Format: Name and date of Statutory Instrument – in italics or underlined. Year of Publication. 45) Bibliography example: When using the Harvard system in terms of secondary referencing your Bibliography only needs to give the details of the source that you have read for the assignment. you would refer to the main text (Jones 2007) as JONES. B. (SI number – in brackets). (Year of Publication – in brackets) Place of Publication: Publisher. using the Harvard system your citation must indicate that you have used a secondary source and not the original work undertaken by Smith: Jean Smith (1987).

p. Thursday 15th May. Stoke-on-Trent: Staffordshire University. the episode should also be indicated after the series title. In-text example: (Barnes 2000) …indicated by Barnes (2000) “Direct quotations are placed in double quotations marks” (Author’s Surname. the title will need to be underlined or placed in italics: (Panorama. The Challenge of the Sixties.in italics or underlined. The Air Quality Standards Regulations 2007. Location: Name of University.Bibliography example: The Rural Development (Enforcement) (England) Regulations 2007. The Challenge of the Sixties 2008) …as examined in Panorama’s The Challenge of the Sixties (2008) Thesis Format: FAMILY/SURNAME. D. Degree Awarding Body. Year of Publication. they should be cited using the title of the broadcast first. (2008) BBC4. L. Format: Series title – in italics or underlined. full date and time of transmission. 17:45. – followed by page number – in brackets) 27 .in brackets) Title of Thesis . In-text example: If you refer to a television broadcast in the body of your work. Initials.in brackets) Transmitting organisation and channel. (2000) An Investigation into the Process of Formation of Operations Strategy in Small Manufacturing Companies. – followed by page number – in brackets) T Television broadcast As Television broadcasts are the production of a collection of individuals. A Thesis Submitted in partial fulfilment of the Requirements of Staffordshire University for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy. (SI 2007/75). (Year of distribution . For programmes within a series. Year of Publication. In-text example: The Air Quality Standards Regulations 2007 indicated that…… (The Rural Development (Enforcement) (England) Regulations 2007) “Direct quotations are placed in double quotations marks” (Author’s Surname. p. Bibliography examples: Panorama. Degree statement. (SI 2007/64). (Year of submission . Number and/or title of the episode – if needed. Bibliography example: BARNES.

(number of the Bill – in brackets) Bibliography example: Climate Change Bill 2007-08. Year of Publication. [Online] Available from: http://news. (2002) The Local. p.uk/1/hi/business/7681569. [Accessed: followed by date in square brackets] Bibliography format: BBC NEWS (2008) Factory Gloom worst since 1980. C.bbc. any relevant section numbers. House of Parliament from which the bill originated in abbreviation format i.in brackets) Item title – in italics or underlined. 2002) This was the conclusion supported by Brick (2002) “Direct quotations are placed in double quotations marks” (Author’s Surname.URL.in brackets) Title of website – in italics or underlined. Initials.stm [Accessed: 21 October 2008] In-text example: (BBC News 2008) …as reported on BBC News (2008) 28 . Unpublished. Bibliography example: BRICK.e. Year of Publication. Initials or name of website if no author is available. (Year . if available. Unpublished.U Unpublished Work Format: FAMILY/SURNAME. C. – followed by page number – in brackets) UK Bills (House of Commons or House of Lords) Format: Name and year of Bill. p. – followed by page number – in brackets) W Website Format: FAMILY/SURNAME. (Year of publication .co. HL Bill (9) In-text example: As can be seen in the Climate Change Bill 2007-08… “Direct quotations are placed in double quotations marks” (Author’s Surname. Any numbers if website is part of a series – if needed. House of Lords = HL or House of Commons = HC. [Online –in square brackets] Available from . In-text example: (Brick.

pdf. Initials or name of website if no author is available.URL. [Online] October 2005.uk/subjectwiki/Geography.org/licenses/by-ncsa/2. [Accessed: followed by date in square brackets] Bibliography format: SUBJECT WIKI for GEOGRAPHY LIBRARY RESOURCES –STAFFORDSHIRE UNIVERSITY. [Accessed: 20th May 2008] In-text example: (English Heritage. 2008) …as indicated by English Heritage in their report Wind Energy and the Historic Environment (2005) Wikis Format: NAME OF WIKI (Year .uk/upload/pdf/Wind_Energy_(final). (2012) [Online] Available from: http://crwnwiki1. Academic Skills Tutors. if part of a series .if needed.0 UK: England & Wales License. Information Services Updated: November 2012 This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Non-Commercial-Share Alike 2. To view a copy of this licence. the title will need to be underlined or placed in italics: (Subject Wiki for Geography Library Resources – Staffordshire University. 2012) Y YouTube video See Online video.englishheritage.e. Any numbers as indicated on the web document.0/uk/ 29 .org. [Online– in square brackets]. [Accessed: followed by date in square brackets] Bibliography format: ENGLISH HERITAGE. [Online – in square brackets] Date of document – if specified.staffs. Available from: http://www. Available from . i. Available from .URL.in brackets) Title of Wiki – in italics or underlined.ac. [Accessed: 19th May 2012] In-text example: If you refer to a Wiki in the body of your work. (2005) Wind Energy and the Historic Environment.Website – Web document Format: FAMILY/SURNAME. visit http://creativecommons.in brackets) Title of web document – in italics or underlined. (Year .