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Fill the blanks with the correct answer. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. About ___400BCE___ the kingdom of Ghana began to develop in West Africa. GHANA was a large empire based on trade and agriculture. The king claimed the right to own all the gold nuggets that came from the mines of WANGARA. In 11th century, a group of Muslim Barbers, the ALMORAVIDS, lived in northwest of Ghana. In 1076, they attacked KUMBI SALEH in order to make people there better Muslims. SUNDIATA was the leader of a province of Ghana called Mali. MANSAS were the kings of Mali. MANSA MUSA was the nephew of Sundiata. The city of TIMBUKTU, on the bend of Niger River, was the cultural center of Mali. Timbuktu was taken over by the nomadic raiders known as the TUAREGS. Timbuktu was attacked and captured by SONNI ALI in 1468. A TYRANT is a cruel ruler who uses his power without limits. A SIEZE is a military plan in which the attacking army cuts off supplies to the defenders. With the capture of DJENNE, Songhai dominated the trans-Saharan trading routes. His son ruled for a few months and was later deposed by ASKIA MOHAMMAD. Islamic laws are based on the QURAN. Beginning about 500 BCE, the Mayan Indians developed a high culture located chiefly in the peninsula of YUCATAN. By 300 CE, in HONDURAS, north Guatemala, and nearby areas of Mexico, the MAYA had established a distinctive civilization. Its early phase, which lasted until the 9th century , is called the CLASSIC period, or OLD EMPIRE. The worship of a feathered serpent god that began with the northern tribe called the TOLTECS. In the 13th century, a warlike Indian people swept into Central Mexico from the northwest called AZTECS. The head of the Aztec government was called the CHIEF OF MEN. Aztec history was written on long strips of paper and folded like a fan to make a book called CODEX. Aztec girls married at 16and the boys at 20. HUITZILOPOCHTLI was the Aztecs god of the sun and war. TLAOC was the rain and fertility god. QUETZALCOATL , represented in the form of feathered snake. TIAHUANACO means the place of the dead. Around the 11th century, the Incas settled in a valley of the ANDES. They eventually conquered the Indians there and set up a capital city called CUZCO.

31. Gaul, Egypt and Spain were all subdivisions of the Empire called ____. Provinces 32. Arminius was a _______ leader who tricked and destroyed 3 Romans in the forests. German 33. What is a Roman apartment building called? Insula 34. _____ were large slave plantations owned by Patricians. Latifundia 35. If you were in charge of a province, you had the title of: ____. Governor

36. What are leaders called who use their popularity and the army to get around the Senate? Dictators 37. What carried water from the mountains to Roman cities? Aquaduct 38. What time period was characterized by great artistic or poetic accomplishment? Golden Age 39. What were the defenses along the Rhine and Danube Rivers called? Limes 40. Who was the first emperor of Rome? Augustus

41. Caesar made himself popular by invading the land of ____. Gaul 42.Who marked the doors of Senators with blood? Sulla 43. Marius was or was not part of the Triumvirate? Was not 44. Who gained the loyalty of his soldiers by paying them? Marius

45. Who fought for the poor and was beaten to death by a group of Senators? Gracchus 46.How did most dictators and social reformers gain popularity? Give them land and jobs 47. Why was Caesar assassinated? Senate was afraid he would seize total power in Rome 48.Brutus was/was not a member of the 2nd Triumvirate? Was not 49.Did Cleopatra have an affair with Octavian? No 50. Caesar/Pompey/Crassus/the mob: Which got brains? Caesar 51. Caesar/Pompey/Crassus/the mob: Which got the Army and popularity? Pompey 52. Caesar/Pompey/Crassus/the mob: Which got nothing? The mob 53. Caesar/Pompey/Crassus/the mob: Which got money? Crassus 54. What was the goal of the 2nd Triumvirate? Avenge the assassination of Caesar 55. Whose reforms saved Rome and allowed it to enter its greatest historical period? Augustus 56. In the battle of Actium, Octavian defeated ____. Marc Antony 57. What did Octavian blame all of Romes problems on? Romes loss of morals 58. What woman attempted to rebuild Egyptian greatness? Cleopatra

59. Octavian signed an agreement called the ___ which divided power between he and the Senate. Augustian Settlement 60.How did Octavian become Romes first emperor? He gave up some power and then the Senate asked him to be emperor 61. How did Octavian justify his war with Marc Anthony? He claimed his mind was bewitched by a woman 62. What were amphitheaters used for? Gladiator entertainment 63. When areas were conquered by Rome and the people there slowly started acting like Romans, this is said to have happened. Romanization 64.What were the greatest 200 years of Roman history called? Pax Romana 65. What is the political/business center of a Roman city called? Forum 66. Name 6 of Augustus major reforms that helped save Rome from collapse. Moral laws, encouraged move to provinces, gave locals citizenship, census, better tax laws, encouraged the arts