You are on page 1of 491


"Law is not an abstract thing, it is a living organism since it is applied on living human beings". Industrialisation has brought with it, huge employment opportunities, mass production, distribution of goods and commodities but at the same time carried with it certain disadvantages to workmen as loss of freedom, unhygienic working conditions, no freedom of contract, the dynamics of market and self interest. Peter Drucker calls it "The age of discontinuity, turbulent environment and technocratic age". Technology has ushered in the following, (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) elimination of physical labour, mass production at low cost too much of control mechanisms, reduction in workers ability heavy monitoring , maintaining, repairing, adjusting sense of alienation among workmen

(vii) inter dependence and (viii) strict discipline. Industry demands interaction of people. Industrial relations involves inaction and violent action, conflict and co-operation. Labour management is based on labour policy, laws, rules, regulations, agreements, awards, social sciences, behaviour pattern, sociology,psychology and human approach. Industrial relation is the process by which working people and their organisation interact at the place of work to establish terms and conditions of work. Professor Lester "when people sell their services and spend their lives in the


premises of the purchaser of the services, a varying amount of dissatisfaction, discontent, industrial unrest likely to occur. Hence the need for employee legislations. The State has enacted many employee legislations to control the industries as to safeguard the interest of employees as well to cater to their welfare and security needs. The Employee Legislation, The Labour Legislation or The Industrial Legislation or The Human Resources Legislation, whatever name it may be called refers to the one and the same concept that covers a number of legislations passed by the Parliament to procure for the employees, higher wages, healthy working condition, opportunity to advance, satisfaction at work, avenues for raising industrial dispute and protection against loss of wages, over work and arbitrary treatment. This concept could easily be comprehended when we undertake the study of all the characters who play the roles in an industrial organisation. The main characters are Employer, Employee, the Trade Union and the Government. EMPLOYEE: Indian Labour generally speaking are exploited to the core. Most of them have migrated from rural areas to the urban areas and they are classified as illiterates, arrogant, undisciplined untrained, unskilled and uncontrollable. This assessment is made on the organised labour which constitutes merely 8 percent of the country's total labour force. The remaining work force falls under the category of unorganised sector who are not fully taken care of. The Indian Employee Legislations were oriented towards safeguarding the interest of employees and protecting them against exploitation. These Legislations are mostly Government controlled under the banner of Labour Commissioner, Labour Officer Conciliation, Inspectorate, Enforcement Officers



and other officers. These officers have in the past only tried to shield the employers and the execution of the laws was in fact unfavourable to Employees whose plight presents a pathetic picture. The Employees need to be groomed by applying Industrial Training which develops the mental and psychological capacity of workmen. The Industrial Training involves training in discipline, punctuality loyalty, leadership, communication skills, civics, ethics as to get the employees know their rights as well as their duties. THE EMPLOYER: The Indian Employer having invested money on running the organisation through their own source or by joint venture or through loans obtained from financial institution, it is natural for them to aim for profit but on the contrary, since they have extended their arms towards the concept of maximization of profit, the result is the exploitation of Human Resource and the reduction in quality of the produce under the wrong option of More production at a low cost. The Employers are surrounded by 'Yes Sir', officers who do not give proper advise during crisis. The Labour Managers, The Personnel Managers The Human Resource Managers are ill-equipped to achieve Industrial Peace, Industrial harmony and Industrial Democracy. The executives need training in Labour Legislations, Sociology, Psychology, psychiatry and Humane Approach. THE TRADE UNION: 'Trade Union is a necessary evil' as observed by experts of the labour field. The Trade Union Movement in India dates back to Colonial rule i.e. pre-independence period. The Employees of that era were Swinish Herd as Burke calls them. They were a ignorant lot not paid salary but provided with some food, shelter and some pieces of cloth to cover their body. Women and children were employed and were subjected to untold miseries and torture. Bonded Labour


was commonly prevalent and slavery was practiced everywhere. Since individual worker is no match to the rich and arrogant capitalist a combination of workmen had to form Trade Union to voice their grievances. THE TRADE UNION MOVEMENT: In India, the upheaval against the colonial rule was mainly by barristers, social workers, reformers, teachers preachers, editors and journalists. These elites had also voiced their concern over the plight of the working force in India. Most of the freedom fighters were Trade Union Leaders. To name some of them Annie Besant, C.R. Doss, Patel, Jawaharlal Nehru, Mahatma Gandhiji, Motilal Nehru, Iron man Patel, Balagangadara Tilak, Netaji Subash Chandra Bose and so on. They were selfless leaders who tried to liberate the Human Resources from slavery. Their concern over the plight of employees saw to the birth of several legislations. The early employee legislation under the colonial rule are 1. Fatal Accidents Act 1855. 2. The workmen's breach of Contract Act 1860. 3. The Employers and Workmen Disputes Act 1860. 4. The Factories Act of 1881 and 1891 5. The Mines Act 1901 6. The Workmen's Compensation Act 1923. 7. The Trade Union Act 1926. 8. The Payment of wages Act 1936. 9. The Employer's Liability Act 1938.


10. The Industrial Disputes Act 1947. THE TRADE UNION ACT The Trade Union Act 1926 was based on the British Trade Union Act. The definition of Trade Union as found in our act is a mere reproduction of the definition of the British Act. "Trade Union" means any combination, whether temporary or permanent, formed primarily for the purpose of regulating the relations between workmen and employers or between workmen and workmen, or between employers and employers, or for imposing restrictive conditions on the conduct of any trade or business, and includes any federation of two or more Trade Unions". This definition is defective in the sense that it has not eLabourated on the words any combination. The use of the words any combination has allowed outsiders of from trade union. In our country all the Trade Unions are formed by political parties. These political parties are loyal to their political bosses and carry certain ideologies that are outmoded and impractical. Socialism, Communism, can be preached but can never be practiced. These ideologies are stumbling blocks in the road to progress. The Trade Union Act has been amended as to ensure that Trade Union becomes an internal affair Earlier to amendment any seven persons can from a trade union, now at least 10 percent or one hundred of the workmen whichever is less are needed to form a union. The amended act also demands that one half of the office bearers should be insiders which should be slowly enhanced to 75 percent. The trade union leaders now are careerist who are little concerned with the interest of either the workmen or the employer. Trade Union is necessary but not in the current form but should be an internal affair managed by employees of the


organisation and not abused by the political parties. However it is to be contended that Trade Unions are necessary to voice the concern and anguish of workmen. The above comments are purely academic and not intended to offend any person or political party. These comments are oriented towards the welfare of the working force. GOVERNMENT: What is the role of the government in the industrial theatre? In fact it is the Government that plays the major role in employee legislation. All employee legislations are state controlled and the courts of law are to give verdicts only. The state functions through its commissioners, conciliation officers, Inspectors, enforcement officers. Minimum wages are fixed by State Governments as per the cost of living index. Payment of wages is watched by the State. Payment of ESI fund and payment of EPF are regulated by Central Government through its Enforcement Officers. Industrial Dispute cannot go to the court of law directly. Any dispute has to be raised before Labour Officer Conciliation and only on failure of conciliation the government frames issues to be answered and refers it to the Labour court or Labour Tribunal. The Award (Judgment) passed by the Court of law gets the legal power only on its publication by the Government in the official Gazette. Any violation of the Award is reported to the Labour commissioner who initiates action against the defaulter. Prior intimation to the Government and permission from the Government has to obtained for effecting closure of an industry that engages more than 100 workmen. To sum up most of our labour legislations are either before our independence or immediately after independence. These laws are outmoded and it is high time the laws are re-enacted as to suit the changing climate. Historical Dimension of Labour in India


The Evolution of industrial relations 1. Primitive stage 2. Agrarian Economy 3. Serfdom 4. Handicrafts 5. Cottage or Putting Out 6. Factory or Industrial Capitalisation stage. 1. Primitive Stage: People were nomads moving from one place to another. Their main occupation was fishing, hunting and pastoral. They lived as family groups. Whatever they produced, they consumed, they had no savings no accumulations and no exchange of productions. They were governed either by matriarchs or patriarchs. There was no employer - employee relationship. 2. Agrarian Economy or Middle Age: Landlords had slaves working and cultivating their lands. No salary was paid to these men and women but they were given some food, old clothes and a place to live. Government had no control and no labour legislation could regulate the employer - employee relationship. 3. Serfdom: Land owners were crowned as feudal princes, landlords and land owning class. People who worked under them were slaves with limited intellect, ignorant, depraved, without personal ethics and hence subject to complete dominations. Burke calls these slaves as Swinish Herd. 4. Handicraft Stage: Craftsman started their own guilds. There was no employer employee relations and so no employee legislations.



5. Cottage Industries: Use of steam and power created cottage industries. Workmen were hired on meager salaries. Government exercised no control on them and employee legislations were unknown to them. 6. Factory or Industries: This era invited untold miseries to workmen. It gave employment to many but the plight of the working class was deplorable. They were exploited to the core. Under the banner of Maximization of profit and with the help of technology, workmen had to work more than 12 hours in unhygienic conditions with low salaries. Added to this Women and children were employed in hazardous places. It was at this stage social reformers felt the necessity of employee legislations to save the workmen from the cruel treatment. EMPLOYEE LEGISLATIONS IN INDIA: Kautilya's Asthasasthra spelt rules and regulations on labour, like guilds, co-operative undertaking. Kautilya spoke about privileges of workmen, high wages, sick leave, old age pension and dispute settlement methods. Vedic period advocated happiness and good mutual relations between the employer and employees. As the years rolled the following important events took place. Sequence of Events : 1877 19th Century : Emperor Mills Nagpur Stoppage : Industrial Capitalism in Bombay and Surat.

18th and 19th Century : Industrialisation in Europe 1914 – 1918 : First World War – boon for employers because of raising prices - huge profits - Economic distress for workmen.


1917 1921 1921

: Trade Dispute Act enacted. : First Trade Union started at Madras by B.P. Wadia : Mahatma Gandhi advocated Collective Bargaining and re-opened the Ahmedabad Textile Mills.

1923 1926 1945 1946

: Workmen's Compensation Act was enacted. : Trade Union Act was born : Second World War : Huge profits to capitalists - Indian Employment Standing Order enacted.

1946 – 1947 1947 1947 1948

: Disturbed year : INTUC was born : Industrial Disputes Act : Minimum Wages Act, Employees State Insurance Act & Factories Act

LEGISLATIVE HISTORY OF LABOUR LEGISLATION The history of labour legislation is interwoven with the history of British colonialism. The early legislations were meant to protect the interest of British employers and to tame the Indian workers. The first Factories Act that was introduced in the year 1883 stipulated 8 hours work, abolition of child labour, restriction of women in night shifts and introduction of over-time wages. Though it

LABOUR LEGISLATION was a welfare legislation. forwarding and employment of Indian labourers under the indenture system to the various British colonies. the Workmen‗s Breach of Contract Act of 1859 and the Employers‗ and Workmen‗s (Disputes) Act of 1860. The history of growth of modern employee legislation may be classified as below: 1. it was sincerely believed that any interference in the employee-employer relationship would prove detrimental to both parties. Employee legislation between 1942-1947. Far from protecting the interests of labour. Although this legislation applied only to emigration to foreign countries. Post Independence Employee Legislation 1947-1975 5. The beginning of modern labour laws (1830 – 1918) The beginning of modern labour legislation in India go back to the ‗thirties‗ of the last century when the Government of India felt the need for regulating the recruitment. The country was then semi-feudal in character and laissez faire was the ruling doctrine of the day. such as the earlier Assam Labour Acts. Post-emergency Legislation 1975 onwards. 4. it was meant to protect the British Textile Magnates since the British Parliament was pressurized by the British Business people to make Indian Labour costlier to avoid export of textile goods from India. which rendered workmen liable to criminal penalties for breach of [10] . Employee legislation between two wars (1919-1942) 3. the first attempts to ‗regulate‗ labour consisted of enactments. especially in regard to the labour supply for the Assam tea gardens. The beginning of Employee Legislation (1830-1918) 2. it exerted a profound influence on the development of labour legislation within India.

there was a statutory limitation of hours of work for men. The earliest of these were the Factories Acts of 1881 and 1891. the workers were employed for fourteen and fifteen hours a day and the provisions regarding the minimum age of children and half-times were totally ineffective. The regulations about the employment of women and children were strengthened and. especially textiles. As a result. an Act was passed in 1911 with the object of removing some of the obvious shortcomings of the existing law. This and several other serious abuses were brought to the notice of the authorities by the Factory Labour Commission appointed in 1907 by the Government of India. The reasons generally ascribed for this accelerated pace are many. efforts were made to enact legislation to correct the more serious abuses in the employment of workers in factories. In factory industries. though this was confined to textile factories only. The first Mines Act passed in 1901 also had a limited objective of securing safe conditions of work and there were no provisions for the special protection of women and children or for the regulation of hours of work. which placed a limitation on the employment and working hours of women and children. It would thus be seen that early labour legislation was haphazard and tardy. In the political field the introduction of the Montague-Chelmsford reforms and the association of popular [11] . however. Towards the close of the nineteenth century. and in spite of opposition on the part of industries. for the first time in India. labour legislation took shape at a rapid rate. Wartime Legislation (Between 1919 – 1942) After the first World War. which were rapidly expanding in range and in the numbers employed.LABOUR LEGISLATION contract and the Indian Penal Code of 1860 also contained provisions of this character.

Povery anywhere constitutes a danger to prosperity everywhere. are : 1. conferring a modified degree of autonomy on the provinces. Labour is not a commodity. Its structure is tripartite and includes representatives of Governments. established by Peace Treaty of 1919 for promotion of industrial peace and social justice. there was a rising consciousness among workers through increased knowledge of general economic conditions and of the trade union movement in other countries.L. [12] . So far as labour was concerned the central legislature was given powers to legislate on all matters with the exception of housing. At about the same time the International Labour Organisation was set up and the attendance of workers‗. legislate on housing and also. for their part. The country received its first Constitution under the Reforms of 1919.O. employers‗ and government representatives at its meetings and the ratifications by the Government of India of many of the International Labour Conventions resulted in giving a great fillip to labour legislation in India. The provincial legislatures could. The industrial unrest which followed 1919 saw the birth of the first strong central organisation of workers in the All India Trade Union Congress. 2.LABOUR LEGISLATION representatives in the central legislature and the governments in the provinces served to bring the various problems of the country before public attention. Freedom of expression and of association are essential to continued progress. with the approval of the Central Government and the overriding authority of the central legislature on all other subjects except mining. at the conclusion of the first World War. employers and workers. The basic principles of the Labour policy of the I. (a) Rise of Trade Union Movement: Besides. is an inter-governmental agency. 3. (b) Birth of the international Labour Organisation: The International Labour Organisation.

L. India has been a member of the I. Labour Legislation between 1942 – 1947 The impact of International Labour Organisation‗s recommendations and conventions and the method of tripartite regulation has resulted in the enactment of a series of amendments to the Factories Act which gave workers in factories a 48 hour week. War against want requires to be carried on with unending vigour within each nation and by continuous efforts in which the representatives of workers and employers.O. from 1919. The post-Independence [13] . which requires the larger industrial establishments in the country to frame and adopt regular standing orders. Spectrum of Post-Independence legislation The considerations discussed earlier have undoubtedly contributed to the progressive development of industrial law in the country. which provides for the investigation and peaceful settlement of industrial disputes. and the Industrial Disputes Act. The two most important developments which affected the sphere of labour legislation in the post-war era were he complete transfer of power in India on 15 August 1947 and the partition of India into the Dominion of India and Pakistan and the rapid integration with the Union of India of the territories formerly known as the Indian States and the resultant automatic extension of the scope of the labour laws enacted by the Indian legislature. the Industrial Employment (Standing Orders) Act. 1946. enjoying equal status with those of Governments. 1947. join with them in free discussions and democratic decisions with a view to the promotion of the common welfare.LABOUR LEGISLATION 4. annual holidays with pay and canteen facilities.

and working journalists.. Post Emergency has ushered in a new era of Industrial relations With the declaration of national emergency with effect from 26th June 1975 and announcement of 20-point economic programme. industrial safety. Trade Unionism. vulnerable and weaker sections of society. may be divided into the following categories:1. Working conditions.g. 4. shops and establishments. Wages. mines. hygiene. transport. 9. the socio-economic policies including industrial relations.LABOUR LEGISLATION labour laws classified by the problems they seek to tackle. factories. plantations. Miscellaneous problems. Social Security. 6. 5. the [14] . Welfare outside the works. have taken a positive and a meaningful turn. 8. Industrial housing. Laws have also been enacted to meet the special needs of particular industries or employments e. Employment and unemployment. Industrial Relations. 7. this marks the beginning of a positive and new constructive era in industrial relations also. 2. 3. While on the one hand renewed and vigorous battle against poverty has been launched for mitigating the sufferings of the deprived. and welfare inside the works. Like in political and constitutional history of the country.

for providing homes for landless and site-less labour joint management and shop councils. income tax relief to low-income groups and more schemes of social security characterize the new labour law approach. retrenchments. A new leaf has turned in the jural management of social engineering in the country. witnesses not only laws for pruning the existing industrial and labour laws structure but also carving out a positive role for it. 1976 and the 42nd Amendment of the Constitution Act. laws to free the low earning industrial workers from debts. provisions for controlling lay-offs. Today the corporate sector has the major role to play in creating a sustainable world in the domestic as well as in the global level. 1975. the Equal Remuneration ordinance and Consequential Act. economic chaos and collapse of industrial production by interruptions. closures and ensuring greater security of service. have also been controlled. This marks an end of the era of governmental hesitation and opportunism plagued approach in favour of a determined and positive effort for the formulation of a rational industrial order based on socio-economic justice. the Bonded Labour Abolition Act. enlargement of apprenticeship scheme.. scheme for workers association in industries. Thus anti-inflationary laws like Payment of Bonus (Amendment) Act.LABOUR LEGISLATION attitudes. therefore. acquisition of surplus lands etc. Undoubtedly this is the first ever pragmatic and firm approach to put the labour jurisprudence on a socially just base. This era. TATA ENTERPRISE AS A FORERUNNER OF INDIAN LABOUR WELFARE LEGISLATION Sustainable Development is the dream envisaged by the architects of Human Rights Movement. The industrial man-power has been channelised for raising productivity. Additional Emoluments (Compulsory Deposit) Amendment Act. trends and activities of working classes leading to indiscipline. in a liberalized [15] .. introduction and / or revision of agricultural minimum wages. agitations etc.

centered development is a global imperative for action and economic growth. ethical and social dimensions. In India the public sector was a Model Employer providing decent salary with proper working conditions.LABOUR LEGISLATION and globalised economic order. The withdrawal of State from various sectors and the privatisation process has created ample opportunities to the private sector to come forward and forge partnerships. With the egoistic bureaucratic style of functioning and [16] . The globalised environment demands that economic growth is not sufficient and can in fact be detrimental without appropriate linkages to human. The sustainable development or the sustainable people centered development is possible in corporate sector only when the industrial relations cater to the following: Industrial Peace Industrial harmony Industrial democracy Workers participation in Management Welfare and security of workmen Hygienic Conditions at work Job Satisfaction Social security extended to family members of the workmen Research and Development Departments conduct research on Human Resource. Sustainable people . build and work with the skills and resources of other sectors. Governments feel that they must empower.

he laid the foundations of Indian industry. The Gandhian philosophy of ‗trusteeship‗. the Tata Group pioneered Labour Welfare Measures – even before these were enforced by Law – for instance. to mention a few. individual‗s charity and philanthropy in 1950s and 1960s found a place in their corporate philosophy and hence business agenda. and became a key figure in India‗s industrial renaissance. the eight hour working day (in 1915). [17] . for example. the Tata Community Development Guidelines reflects the Group‗s systematic and institutionalized approach to community development.LABOUR LEGISLATION with policy changes of the government. Traditionally corporate houses in India. the public sector barring a few have deteriorated and have gone down the levels. The Founder : Jamsetji Nusserwanji Tata (1839-1904)  Jamsetji Nusserwanji Tata ranks among the greatest visionaries of Industrial enterprises of all time. though not in large numbers.  Gifted with the most extraordinary imagination and prescience. In the modern day context as well. ensuring maternity benefits (1928). establishment of welfare department (1917). have recognized and appreciated the growth and sustainability of economic development with matching social and neighbourhood community development. contributed to its consolidation. Tata‗s have been pioneers in this effort as you all would know. To understand more about the functioning of the Tata Houses we have to study about its Founder Jamsetji Nusserivanji Tata and its pioneers. and community welfare comes out as central to the value system of companies in the Tata Group.

the hydro-electric schemes. he was educated at Elphinstone College. and set up at first.  Initiated early into the techniques of trade by his father.Sir Dorabji Tata (1859-1933)  J N Tata had exhorted to his sons to pursue and develop his life‗s work. textile business in India. introducing new machinery that vastly improved the production of cotton yarn in the country. Pioneers . the health and welfare of the employees. He however realised that India‗s real freedom depended upon her self-sufficiency in scientific knowledge. he was mainly responsible for modernising Bombay. As early as 1892. after him. Dorab Tata carried out the bequest with scrupulous zeal. later to be named Jamshedpur. a centre for age-old Parsi culture.  A pioneer in town planning. and his fortune to three great enterprises – The Indian Institute of Science at Bangalore. he established the J N Tata endowment for higher education abroad of outstanding Indian students. he travelled wide. and distinction. his elder son. and thus devoted the major part of his life. constantly reinforcing the norm that the success of industry depended upon sound and straightforward business principles.  Wealth to him was not the end but a means to an end. 1839 into a family descended from Parsi priests in Navsari. he envisaged and conceived a steel town to the very last detail. power and steel. Bombay. the interests of the shareholders. and the Iron & Steel Works at Jamshedpur. the increased prosperity of India. gained a scientific outlook. His attitude to labour was remarkably ahead of his times.LABOUR LEGISLATION  Born on 3rd March. [18] .

cricket). industrial products. football. and a founder member of the Willingdon Sports Club. power generation. expansion and modernisation. led the Tata Group to new heights of achievement. The great labour strike in 1920 in Jamshedpur ended in a day due to his intervention. consultancy services. [19] . art and culture. engineering. The Dorab Tata Charitable Trust that he executed.  A great sportsman (riding. he was President of the Indian Olympic Association which he served keenly with liberal funds. He was the Founder of the Parsi Gymkhana of Bombay. but his charismatic.  He was the pioneer of civil aviation in India. disciplined and forward-looking leadership over the next 50 years and more. In 1932.  He had a deep interest in people. tennis. information technology.  His charities were numerous and munificent. covering property and crores of rupees is used today for innumerable charitable causes and institutions. consumer goods. It demonstrated India could have no better employer of labour than Sir Dorab.  He assumed Chairmanship of Tata Sons Limited at the young age of 34. hotels. He was the first Chairman of the gigantic Tata enterprises.LABOUR LEGISLATION  Thus. Under his stewardship. Jehangir Ratanji Dadabhai Tata (1904-1993)  JRD Tata has been one of the greatest builders and personalities of modern India in the twentieth century. he introduced air transport in the country--the enterprise later became Air India. it was in fact Dorab Tata who actually brought the ventures to existence and fruition. the number of Tata ventures grew from 13 to around 80. even though it was Jamsetji Tata who had envisioned the mammoth projects. and total commitment. etc. encompassing steel.

―To be a leader. Sri Jamsetji Tata believed that industry was meant to serve man. you‘ve got to lead human beings with affection. Bessemer Medal of the Institute of Metals. to the waters. to the forests. TATAs represent the spirit of adventure. He also personally crusaded for issues that he felt were imperative for India‗s development--family planning.‖ Probably no other family have ever contributed as [20] . to the environment. These included Knight Commander‗s Cross of the Order of Merit of the Federal Republic of Germany. and to the creations that inhabit them. Bharat Ratna to JRD Tata in 1992. His natural love for people endeared him to all. his ideal. London. JRD Tata was a modest. The Tatas believed ―Never start with diffidence. spread of literacy.. He said ―I believe that the social responsibilities of our industrial enterprise should now extend even beyond serving people.  Numerous national and international honours were bestowed on JRD Tata.  Government of India conferred the highest civilian award of the land.‖ JRD‗s working philosophy was rooted in Preserving nature‘s wealth to promote human health. sensitive man. directly emanate from JRD Tata‗s insight. humility and service to humanity.. women‗s education.  For all his colossal achievements. Many industrialists believe that man was meant to serve industry. The 100% successful family welfare schemes at Tata Steel and the various educational programmes for all. forever espousing the cause of his employees.LABOUR LEGISLATION  He implicitly followed the principles of business ethics of the great visionary Jamsetji Tata. This need is now fairly well recognized but there is still considerable scope for most industrial ventures to extend their support not only to human beings but also to the land. across the entire spectrum of society. and the United Nations Population Award. Always start with confidence‖.

This section would explore the meaning and implication of Tata paternalism in Jamshedpur. However. the precise forms of this behaviour vary from society to society because the culture of kinship varies. a son. One must forever strive for excellence. One must think for oneself and never accept at their face value slogans and catch phrases to which. [21] . and also because the nature of the tasks performed in paternalistic societies vary. It is a type of behaviour by a superior towards an inferior resembling that of a male parent to his child . our people are too easily susceptible. The word paternalism derives its meaning from the Latin-English kinship term. 2. both before and since independence (1947). unfortunately. 5. No success or achievement in material terms is worthwhile unless it serves the needs or interests of the country and its people and is achieved by fair and honest means. The following are the 5-guiding principles of JRD: 1.LABOUR LEGISLATION much in the way of wise guidance. TATA PATERNALISM In many ways Jamshedpur is the manifestation of Tata paternalism. industrial development and advancing philanthropy to any country as the Tatas have to most cases. or even perfection. Nothing worthwhile is ever achieved without deep thought and hard work. 3. Good human relations not only bring great personal rewards but also are essential to the success of any enterprise. 4. and never be satisfied with the second best. in any task however small.

In fact our concern with the planning activities in the town and the study of the general morphological development of Jamshedpur reflects flashes of paternalistic idea recurring many times. who developed the concept of patrimonialism. One could argue that since the sustenance of the steel works needed this kind of preliminary investments Jamshedpur was more a matter of practical exigency on the part of the Tatas rather than a paternalistic benevolence.LABOUR LEGISLATION Max Weber. But then to argue in this manner would be to gloss over the sophistication involved in the deliberation of the idea of paternalism by the Tatas. We have referred to this idea cursorily in the preceding chapters. In the development of Indian capitalism Jamshedpur perhaps is the most celebrated case of this idea. This is clearly visible in Jamshedpur. By giving it a separate focus we would attempt a synthesis where the question of the urban would be amalgamated with different streams of our discussion namely planning processes. first noted the theoretical relevance of paternalism. an error. The survival or creation of a paternalistic system depends on the needs and on the existing social organizational patterns and traditions. This would be carried forward by focusing on the idea of paternalism as practiced by the Tatas in Jamshedpur. the labour in the city and the factor of paternalism. In fact paternalism is different from patriarchy or patrimonialism. which comes from the assumption that male domination is the prime element in every category. Moreover we saw that the Tatas were not completely oblivious of [22] . We would be distinguishing these categories for the greater clarity in our discussion. But the focus on patrimonial relations by Weber cannot lead us to equate patrimonialism with paternalism. The development of the steel works in the jungles of Chotanagpur forced the Company to develop infrastructure that would enable and sustain the steel works.

In the Western case many small capitalists could be found extending the paternalistic privileges to their workers as done by the big enterprises. this attitude of paternal guidance was obvious and simultaneously an unique effort. Regulation and intrusion in other aspects of worker‗s life was a logical extension of the above beginning in setting up an industrial township. Even when the eastern half of the city was being leased to ancillary industries. Even after independence this is valid for India. Since majority of the workers remained uneducated and unskilled the employer did not feel obliged to give more to the worker than what was required by law or union contract. most of which were Tata controlled. J. although the Indian socio economic condition gives much space to allow this idea to thrive. Indian society continued to be a traditional patriarchal one where a strong emphasis on paternal power does not appear to have been much eroded by modernisation or urbanisation.LABOUR LEGISLATION their moral concern to provide for their employees. Tata and others down the line consistently spoke of making Jamshedpur an ideal industrial nucleus. For an enterprise like that of the Tatas in Jamshedpur. The idea of being an employer and protector of the welfare of the workers saw its manifestations in the act of the Company undertaking rural development projects in the surrounding villages. the Companies were impressed upon to build and maintain their own workers‗ colony following the model of TISCO. Paternalism is rare in Indian industries. But the extension of this idea could be hardly seen in the industrial sector. One of the reasons of this might be the lack of resources which constricted Indian businessmen‗s efforts. which started in the very beginning of the twentieth century with a conscious realisation of their role in Indian industrialisation. [23] . education. N. including health. family planning and economic sustenance initiatives.

The Tatas like many other progressive nationalists and leaders of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries were advocates of swadeshi. R. recreational. J. We have already traced the origins of the corporate culture of the Tata group in its founder‗s philosophy who passed on his social values to his sons and his successors. With some 220." said American writer and thinker Henry David Thoreau. Tata. Tata promoted many industries in his eventful lifetime and every venture of his became a model for successful industrial management and enterprise. N. In its conception. As early as 1840s Indian intellectuals realised that the key to Britain‗s power was its economic strength and that the only way India could become a free and a great nation was through industrialisation. the Empress Mill was the precursor of TISCO which he opened in Nagpur in 1877. employment is to the mind and morals. FAMILY VALUES BY TATA The Tata Group's relationship with its employees has changed from the patriarchal to the practical. but this is a bond that continues to be nourished with compassion and care. The [24] .LABOUR LEGISLATION The paternalism of the Tata Company had a profound philosophical base in its founder‗s objective. According to J. He provided housing. He not only invested the mill with the state of the art technology like proper ventilators and automatic fire sprinklers but also with an employee welfare policy. "What exercise is to the body. Jamsetji imbued the future Tata Management with a sense of social consciousness and trusteeship. the Tata Group touches and moulds the everyday lives of more people than any private sector employer in the country. D. and educational facilities for his workers and instituted provident fund and pension schemes. His early focus was the cotton textiles.000 members in its diverse and widespread family.

training institutes. hockey and parks. something less than completely explainable. Earmark areas for Hindu temples. it is necessary to peep into the past. Mohammedan mosques and Christian churches. accident compensation. represents a workplace culture that goes way beyond work. The transition from then to now has not eroded what remains a central theme with the group : providing its employees more than mere jobs. there's something positively distinctive.LABOUR LEGISLATION richness of this relationship. stated: "Be sure to lay wide streets planted with shady trees. leave with pay." It was but natural that the city built on this munificence came to be called Jamshedpur.resource methodologies. about working for the group the experience is cast in a hue quite different from the ordinary. Be sure that there is plenty of space for lawns and gardens. writing to this osn Dorab Tata in 1902. The Tatas pioneered a slew of employee benefits that would later be mandated through legislation in India and elsewhere in the world.all of these and more were introduced by the group before any legal rules were framed on them. moving from the paternalistic philosophy of youre to bring the group in line with ever-evolving human . Workers and their welfare were of utmost importance to group founder Jamsetji Tata. Reserve large areas for football. To understand the dynamics of the present. bonus and gratuity . welfare departments. fashioned by a tradition of benevolence and empathy. free medical aid. who. grievance cells. This view continues to hold despite the changes that have altered the way the Tatas interact with their people. maternity benefits. To give but one example of how far ahead of the [25] . provident fund. five years before a site for his proposed steel enterprise had been decided. every other of a quick-growing variety. The eight-hour working day. As any 'Tata person' will tell you.

LABOUR LEGISLATION times the Tatas were. Gopalakrishnan is under no illusions that the Tata value system does. Mr. "I don't think young people join the Tatas because of the culture and all that. Driving every one of the group's initiatives in the wide sphere of employee relations is a value system that. Mithapur. "Our induction and training programmes give new employees an opportunity to understand the history and background of the Group". a member of the Tata Group Corporate Centre (GCC). slowly but surely. while delivering succour to the poor and needy. they don't [26] . These workplace measures were complemented by what Tata companies created to enable their employees to live fuller lives away from their offices and factories. but he is certain it has a role to play in their decision. This is how we convert the implicit into the explicit". The third is the books. divides the imbibing process into implicit and explicit ways. such as the Tata archives in Jamshedpur and Pune. magazines and other publications that detail the Tata heritage. he or she will have a repertoire of influences and some of them are what I call entry tickets. R. The volunteering and community work that have now become a ritual in Tata companies fulfils another employee objective. by itself. Gopalakrishnan. I think whenever somebody makes a career choice. The Tata townships in Jamshedpur. Babarala. attract people to join the group. The management training programmes conducted by dedicated group institutions are devised to help employees give expression to their talent. percolates to each person looking to craft a career in the Tatas. Hosur and elsewhere are epitomes of communal existence. while its first provident fund scheme was started in 1920. "A second forum comprises the physical structures we have. and to realise their vocational potential. the government regulation on this issue came into force in 1952. he explains.

This is done by encouraging their cross-functional exposure and by making cross-company mobility an integral aspect of all leadership development efforts. The Tata Group has also created a basket of high-value leadership development programmes in partnership with some of the best universities in the world.. The primary instruments of the Group's learning and development endeavours for its people are the Tata Management Training Centre (TMTC).LABOUR LEGISLATION enhance the value of being in the Tatas but they have the assurance that this is a decent. TMTC offers management development and leadership development programmes for high-potential Tata managers. More about Tata Group The following script is borrowed from publication effected by TATA Sons Ltd. industries and functions — in order to impart a macro view of business. [27] . for the benefit of students and with due thanks: Grooming the managers of today into the leaders of tomorrow. TAS is perhaps the only employment brand in Indian business that consciously recruits for lifelong mobility — across companies. that's the broad objective of the Tata Group's leadership development programmes and processes. and TAS. which recruits fresh graduates and postgraduates from leading business schools with the objective of putting them on the business leadership path. upstanding group". superior-quality training interventions are targeted at maximising the potential of its pool of managers. The Group's high-value. which aims to provide training to high performers within the Group and to act as a cradle of change for Tata executives.

Standard Bank. Zurich. yet another of the Group's employee initiatives. At the entry level there is a greater focus on results. Benfield Group. These distinctive courses draw on the best of international faculty from the world's top business schools and specialised institutes. actionlearning projects.LABOUR LEGISLATION At the Tatas the mix of leadership development inputs differs by level. 'It is time to liberalise labour legislation' India‘s labour laws were intended to be friendly to employees. BHP Billiton. including training initiatives and cross-company mobility. Australia and South Africa. The goal is to develop leaders who will deliver organisational results. vice president of the Indian Hotels Company. Amsterdam. USA. an executive education partnership involving. The 'Tata Work Levels'. says T. These managers are then given specific developmental inputs. Additionally. London. The Group's human resources division has crafted a 'leadership development series' whose aim is to equip Tata managers with the knowledge that will enable Tata companies to stay competitive in a global business environment. Damu. South Africa. besides the group. is a methodology wherein high-potential managers are identified after putting them through various performance potential filters. and focus on executive development through business driven. six top-notch companies: Asea Brown Boveri. and the Boeing Company. at the top level the management of people is of greater importance. who adds that a holistic approach based on ‗welfare economics‘ is [28] . the Tata Group is a member of the International Consortium Programme. Some of the Consortium's goals are to bring leaders together from diverse regions of the world. but they have ended up being anti-employment. ABN Amro Bank. develop and deliver an exceptional global leadership development experience for senior executives.

as seen in the response of the labour unions to recent government policies which follow the cut-the-flab. etc. This trend continues today. This is because of the enormity and uniqueness of the subject. and the government was called a puppet in the hands of the developed countries. a majority of which belongs to the socially and economically backward communities of India. and also due to the initial approach the government and industry adopted to address it. welfare or human resources. be it in the sphere of employment. there is suspicion in the minds of the working class. needs careful handling. This should have started not as part of the second-generation reforms. low per-capita income. So. This means that whatever is taken up in the name of labour reforms. in the context of globalisation. given the ground realities of poverty. the immediate focus was on the retrenchment of ‗surplus workers‗ and the closure of ‗sick‗ public and private sector units. diseases. but also feared and misinterpreted. closing-shop philosophy without realising the significance of socio-economic factors in such an important exercise. Massive rallies were organised in protest. is much desired. The issue has been a touchy one ever since the liberalisation era began under the Narasimha Rao government in the early 1990s. In the hurry to reform and keep up with the globalisation trend set in motion by the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (now replaced by the World Trade Organisation). illiteracy. [29] .LABOUR LEGISLATION required to pave the road to reform Labour reform in India. Labour reform is a very sensitive subject in the Indian context. deprivation. exploitation. whenever there is a talk about labour reforms. The knee-jerk reaction from the workforce and trade unions was to resist this move.

and labour. However. [30] . are entering our markets. The group felt that unless a worker‗s welfare needs were met. several benefits — the eight-hour working day. leave with pay. Thus. maternity leave. there would be no profits for industry and no progress for the nation. Countries such as China. the trade and economic policies of the government come under closer scrutiny from world bodies such as the International Monetary Fund. China is a good example for Indian labour to emulate in terms of costs and productivity.LABOUR LEGISLATION but when initial economic reforms were undertaken. Given the Indian track record of getting financial help from outside for development. better late than never. with a view to ease the social burden of their employees and at the same time preserve the equilibrium of job security. Reform positive I mention these facts to emphasise the positive side of labour reforms that focus on social welfare. accident compensation. the Asian Development Bank and the WTO. where labour is cheap and labour disputes comparatively fewer. market. free medical aid. The Tatas were the pioneers in introducing a number of ‗firsts‗ in the field of labour welfare. The Tatas are now considering labour reforms very carefully. provident fund. it becomes inevitable for reforms of many kinds: economic and fiscal. etc — were incorporated by the Tatas into their workplace culture. With high productivity and mass production. law. Well ahead of any Indian legislation on this front. gratuity. Indian industry is going through a crucial phase of restructuring as competition increases. which is primarily the responsibility of industry.

The core issues of labour reforms centre on a few major points: wage policy. as an ideal place for economic activity. said recently: "India will have to opt for labour reforms and brave the pangs of change in the short-term in the interest of long-term economic sustainability. by continuously retraining and [31] . reforming trade unions. and it naturally follows that there will be more employment opportunities generated. which is in the unorganised sector? Two-fold benefits We must have proper labour reforms in both organised and unorganised sectors. There will be more industries coming up in our country. How are we going to deal with this problem? It is worth noting that labour reforms in India are discussed mostly in the context of organised labour. Many multinational companies view India." It is estimated that about 16 per cent of employees in the organised sector are actually redundant. If prompt and correct measures are taken up with honesty and transparency. Baird. then both industry and the labour community will benefit. labour market information and human resources development. and this constitutes merely 8 per cent of the country‗s total labour force. sans its archaic and anachronistic labour laws. employment security. enacting a flexible exit policy. labour redundancy. ‗rightsizing‗. These issues can be solved by liberalising existing labour legislation. the director of the Smith Centre for Private Enterprise Studies at California State University.LABOUR LEGISLATION Dr Charles W. Labour reform is not just about facilitating the closure of a sick industrial unit or about laying off employees. industrial relations. Are we concerned about only this sector? How about the majority of India‗s workforce. and to some extent its militant labour force.

sadly. measures that are beyond the scope of any [32] . intellectuals. the concerned parties in this issue are playing the blame game. all of these should be involved in the labour reform process. and by good and clean corporate governance. industry associations. A holistic and multi-disciplinary approach is required to solve the problems relating to labour reforms. Unfortunately. industry and trade unions — are equally responsible when it comes to putting effective labour reforms in place. Industry feels that the government is not doing enough.LABOUR LEGISLATION updating workforce skills. Government. and the trade unions argue that the government is dancing to industry‗s tune. and the media. sociologists. economists. industry. have liberalised their labour legislation. a conglomeration of opportunistic political parties. including Britain. trade unions. they have ended up becoming anti-employment. which is. One of the major issues of labour reform in India has to do with repealing certain laws. but it is more concerned with vote banks and extending its grip on power. ought to take bold and visionary decisions. New Zealand and the United States. Let‗s consider Tata Tea. Various countries. worker participation in management. institutes of management and social sciences. Cooperation required All three parties — government. but India remains hesitant about amending laws that are detrimental to economic growth. constitutional experts. It is unfortunate that while labour laws in India were designed to be employee-friendly. The government. This company has been undertaking a lot of welfare measures for its employees and their children.

industry. Because of their adamant nature the company and its employees suffered. models adopted by the Productivity Council of India. forms and related issues for long. Some suggestions to ease the path to labour reform. happen. etc need a thorough revamping. but the union leaders were not agreeable to the idea. These activities are costing Tata Tea a lot. and labour prejudices. This kind of old-order trade unionism has to go. This would have helped both the company and its workers. This sort of irrational and destructive approach is detrimental to India‗s industry and economy. with a renewed focus on unorganised labour. So the Tata Tea management requested its unions to cooperate with the company to increase productivity. anti-labour stand in the management mindset.LABOUR LEGISLATION legal requirement. These must be researched and corrective action taken to smoothen the road to reform. [33] . A media-relations strategy should be worked out to highlight issues relating to the subject. and at a time when the tea industry is passing through a serious crisis.

[34] .social. The article 38 and 39 spelt under Directive Principles of State Policy are now enforceable as per the dictums laid by our Supreme Court. A positive and careful approach is required to bring about painless labour reform in this country. Article 23 of the Constitution prohibits traffic in human beings and forced labour. in association with the Indian Chamber of Commerce and Industry and the National Institute of Personnel Management. strong political will. changes in the country‗s legal system and labour market flexibility.LABOUR LEGISLATION While India is labour intensive. This is an edited version of the paper presented by Mr Damu at a seminar held in Kochi on May 21. it also boasts top-notch intellectual capital. The theme for the seminar was: ‗Labour reforms and the social safety net in the context of globalisation‘ This edited version is reproduced for the benefit of Management Students. and the mainstay has to be ‗welfare economics‗. It also stresses Equality of status and of opportunity. 2002. Article 24 prohibits employment of children in factories. Neither an indifferent management approach nor trade union militancy is going to lead to labour reform. What is required is objectivity in understanding the problems at hand. The country‗s human talent and rich economic capital investment potential make it highly suited for industrial development. economic and political. New Delhi. LABOUR PROTECTION AND WELFARE (SOCIAL SECURITY AND SOCIAL JUSTICE) The preamble to our Indian Constitution promises justice . under the aegis of the Associated Chambers of Commerce and Industry of India.

(e) that the health and strength of workers. (d) that there is equal pay for equal work for both men and women. (2) The State shall. and the tender age of children are not abused and that citizens are not forced by economic necessity to enter avocations unsuited to their age or strength . not only amongst individuals but also amongst groups of people residing in different areas or engaged in different vocations. .The State shall. [35] . Article 38: State to secure a social order for the promotion of welfare of the people. men and women. (c) that the operation of the economic system does not result in the concentration of wealth and means of production to the common detriment . social.. (b) that the ownership and control of the material resources of the community are so distributed as best to subserve the common good. in particular. facilities and opportunities. strive to minimise the inequalities in income. have the right to an adequate means to livelihood .] Constitution of India. men and women equally. and endeavour to eliminate inequalities in status. Article 39: Certain principles of policy to be followed by the State.{(1)} The State shall strive to promote the welfare of the people by securing and protecting as effectively as it may a social order in which justice.LABOUR LEGISLATION Constitution of India. shall inform all the institutions of the national life. economic and political. in particular. direct its policy towards securing (a) that the citizens.

[36] . (vii) The Payment of Bonus Act. 1961 Let us now analyse the intention of the legislators in enacting the above employee legislations and how these legislations are implemented. Through social security and social justice are spelt in our Constitution. Some of the important Employee Legislations that promise but do not guarantee Labour Protection and Social Security are: (i) The Factories Act of 1948 (ii) The Employees State Insurance Act 1948 (iii) The payment of Wages Act 1936 (iv) The Minimum Wages Act (v) The Workmen's Compensation Act 1923 (vi) The Employees' Provident Funds and Miscellaneous Provisions Act 1952.LABOUR LEGISLATION (f) that children are given opportunities and facilities to develop in a healthy manner and in conditions of freedom and dignity and that childhood and youth are protected against exploitation and against moral and material abandonment}. 1947 (x) The Child Labour (Prohibition and Regulation) Act. 1965 (viii) The Payment of Gratuity Act. 1962 (ix) Industrial Disputes Act. they are never put into practice thanks to our Executives who only pretend to implement the programmes of the State. 1986 (xi) The Industrial Employment Standing Orders Act. 1946 (xii) The Maternity Benefit Act.

to provide safety measurers and to ensure social justice. HEALTH Section 11: Cleanliness Section 12: Disposal of wastes and effluents Section 13: Providing proper ventilation and maintaining proper temperature Section 14: Removal of Dust and fume Section 15: Providing Artificial humidification Section 16: No Overcrowding Section 17: Proper Lighting Section 18: Providing pure Drinking water Section 19: Providing Latrines and urinals Section 20: Providing Spittoons [37] . The Factories Act is meant to provide protection to the workers from being exploited by the greedy business employments and provides for the improvement of working conditions within the factory premises. Sections 11 to 20 of the Factories Act deal about Health. An act to consolidate and amend the law regulating labour in factories.LABOUR LEGISLATION FACTORIES ACT OF 1948 Purpose of this Act. The main function of this act is to look after the welfare of the workers. to protect the workers from exploitations and unhygienic working conditions.

ropes and lifting tackles Section 30: Protection near Revolving machinery Section 31: Protection near Pressure plant Section 32: Provision for Floors. sumps openings in floors. stairs and means of access Section 33: Providing and precautions near Pits. SAFETY Section 21: Proper Fencing of machinery Section 22: Precautions . etc. chains. Section 34: No Excessive weights Section 35: Protection of eyes Section 36: Precautions against dangerous fumes.LABOUR LEGISLATION Sections 21 to 40 discuss about safety measures.Work on or near machinery in motion Section 23: No Employment of young persons on dangerous machines Section 24: Providing Striking gear and devices for cutting off power Section 25: Precautions near Self-acting machines Section 26: Casing of new machinery Section 27: Prohibition of employment of women and children near cotton-openers Section 28: Providing Hoists and lifts Section 29: Provision for Lifting machines. etc Section 36A: Precautions regarding the use of portable electric light [38] . gases.

Section 38: Precautions in case of fire Section 39: Power to require specifications of defective parts or tests of stability Section 40: Safety of buildings and machinery. The child is a person who has not completed fifteenth [39] . Section 40A: Maintenance of buildings Section 40B: Appointment of Safety Officers Sections 42 to 49 speak about Welfare measures: WELFARE Section 42: Providing Washing facilities Section 43: Providing Facilities for storing and drying clothing Section 44: Providing Facilities for sitting Section 45: First-aid appliances to be kept. gas etc. Section 48: Creches for babies of working women. The other important features of Factories Act The Factories Act defines an adult as a person who has completed eighteenth years of age. an adolescent as a person who has completed fifteenth years but has not completed eighteenth year. Section 47: Shelters. rest rooms and lunch rooms for workmen. Section 46: Canteens at subsidised rates. Section 49: Appointment of Welfare officers.LABOUR LEGISLATION Section 37: Explosive or inflammable dust.

including poisoning by any preparation or compound of lead or their sequelae. their nitro or amide derivatives or its sequelae. Section 7 of the Act demands the occupier of a factory to give 15 days notice to the Chief Inspector of factories before commissioning a factory. weekly holidays. LIST OF NOTIFIABLE DISEASES 1. compensatory holidays. Lead poisoning. 5. Arsenic poisoning or its sequelae. 2. Carbon bisulphide poisoning. Phosphorus poisoning or its sequelae 4. This act prescribes weekly hours of work. Lead-tetra-ethyl poisoning 3.LABOUR LEGISLATION years of age. Section 89 of the Act directs the occupier to serve notice to the concerned authorities if any workman contracts any occupational disease. Section 67 of the Act prohibits the employment young children in factories. Benzene poisoning. 9. intervals for rest. 7. shifts extra wages for over-time and annual leave. [40] . daily hours. including poisoning by any of its homologues. Young person means a person who is either a child or an adolescent. 6. Section 8 deals about the appointment of Factory Inspector by the State. Poisoning by nitrous fumes 8. Mercury poisoning or its sequelae. Manganese poisoning or its sequelae. The Third schedule notifies the following as occupational diseases.

Poisoning by halogens or halogen derivatives of the hydrocarbons of the aliphatic series.LABOUR LEGISLATION 10. Chrome ulceration or its sequelae. Silicosis. Pathological manifestations due to (a) radium or other radio-active substances. 11. These are of two types. Noise induced hearing loss (exposure to high noise levels). 21. 22. Primary epitheliomatous cancer of the skin. 13. 19. Oil acne or dermatitis due to mineral oils and compounds containing mineral oil base. 18. Asbestosis. (b) X-ray. 23. 15. 14. that is. primary irritants and allergic sensitizers. Toxic anaemia 17. Occupational or contact dermatitis caused by direct contract with chemicals and paints. Beriyllium poisoning 24. 16. 12. Toxic jaundice due to poisonous substances. 20. Byssionosis. Anthrax. Carbon monoxide [41] .

This act encompasses all cases of accidents arising out of and in course of employment. Occupational cancer 28. The rate of Compensation to be paid in a lump sum. vaccinations water and sanitation. Isocyanates poisoning 29. This law applies to the organised as well as unorganised sectors who are not covered by the [42] . STATISTICAL DATA: It is reported that more than million workers die each year from occupational diseases. The Act provides the formula for calculating the compensation. 26. The younger the age of he worker and higher the wage the greater is the compensation. Toxic nephritis. The workmen's compensation Act 1923 is one of the earliest pieces of labour legislation. the compensation is claimed by dependents of the deceased. Phosgene poisoning 27.LABOUR LEGISLATION 25. Poverty is likely to remain the principal killer world wide because of lack of access to drugs. Coal miners' pneumoconiosis. THE WORKMEN'S COMPENSATION ACT 1923 Purpose of the Act : An Act to provide for the payment of certain classes of employers to their workmen of compensation for injury by accident. The injured person can claim compensation and in the case of death. Any violation of the provisions of this Act is liable to penal sanction. About 250 million accidents and 160 million cases of work related diseases occur each year round the globe. is determined by a schedule provided in the act proportionate to the extent of injury and the loss of earning capacity.

(g) a minor child of a pre-deceased daughter where no parent of the child is alive.I. (e) a widowed daughter-in-law.S. scheme.LABOUR LEGISLATION E. The following definitions and the sections of law are presented for the students to take note of them. a son or a daughter who has attained the age of 18 years and who is infirm. (iii) if wholly or in part dependant on the earnings of the workman at the time of his death. Section 2 (1) (d): "dependent" means any of the following relatives of a deceased workman. (f) a minor child of a pre-deceased son. and (ii) if wholly dependent on the earnings of the workman at the time of the death. namely:(i) a widow. (c) a minor illegitimate son. (d) a minor brother or an unmarried sister or a widowed sister if a minor. an unmarried illegitimate daughter or a daughter (legitimate or illegitimate or adopted) if married and a minor or if widowed and a minor. (b) a parent other than a widowed mother. or (h) a paternal grandparent if no parent of the workman is alive. [43] . (a) a widower. a minor (legitimate or adopted) son and unmarried (legitimate or adopted) daughter or a widowed mother.

LABOUR LEGISLATION Section 2 (1) (g) : "partial disablement" means. where the disablement is of a permanent nature. such disablement. as incapacitates a workman for all work which he was capable of performing at the time of the accident resulting in such disablement: (Provided that permanent total disablement shall be deemed to result from every injury specified in Part I of Schedule I or from any combination of injuries specified in Part II thereof where the aggregate percentage of the loss of earning capacity. such disablement as reduces the earning capacity of a workman in any employment in which he was engaged at the time of the accident resulting in the disablement. Section 2 (1) (l) : "total disablement" means. amounts to one hundred per cent or more.(1) If personal injury is caused to a workman by accident arising out of and in the course of his employment. his employer shall be liable to pay compensation in accordance with the provisions of this Chapter: Provided that the employer shall not be so liable - [44] .. such disablement as reduces his earning capacity in every employment which he was capable of undertaking at that time: provided that every injury specified shall be deemed to result in permanent partial disablement. Employer's liability for compensation. whether of a temporary or permanent nature. Section 3 of the Act is exhaustive and so only a portion of the section is reproduced here. where the disablement is of a temporary nature. as specified in the said Part II against those injuries. Section 3. and.

LABOUR LEGISLATION (a) in respect of any injury which does not result in the total or partial disablement of the workman for a period exceeding (three) days. or (ii) the willful disobedience of the workman to an order expressly given. including occupational disease is compensated according to a schedule of rates proportionate to the extent of injury and loss of earning capacity. Leave Certificates for health reasons are forwarded to the employer who is obliged to honour them. or (iii) the willful removal or disregard by the workman of any safety guard or other device which he knew to have been provided for the purpose of securing the safety of workman . It facilitates both outpatient and in-patient care and freely dispenses medicines and covers hospitalisation needs and costs. for the purpose of securing the safety of workmen. The Employees State Insurance Act provides a scheme under which the employer and the employee must contribute a certain percentage of the monthly wage to the Insurance Corporation that runs dispensaries and hospitals in working class localities. Employment injury. or to a rule expressly framed.. Despite the [45] . Payment. is monthly.. (b) in respect of any injury. THE E..I.S. unlike in the Workmen's Compensation Act. not resulting in death or permanent total disablement caused by an accident which is directly attributable to (i) the workman having been at the time thereof under the influence of drink or drugs. Act The purpose of the Act: An act to provide for certain benefits to employees in case of sickness maternity and employment injury and to make provisions for certain other matters in relation there to.

a legitimate or adopted son or daughter who has attained the age of eighteen years and is infirm. (a) a parent other than a widowed mother. an unmarried illegitimate daughter or a daughter legitimate or adopted or illegitimate if married and a minor or if widowed and a minor."dependant" means any of the following relatives of a deceased insured person. (ii) if wholly dependant on the earnings of the insured person at the time of his death. (ia) a widowed mother. (d) a widowed daughter-in-law. Workers in need of genuine medical attention rarely approach this facility though they use it quite liberally to obtain medical leave.LABOUR LEGISLATION existence of tripartite bodies to supervise the running of the scheme. The following definitions and the sections of law need a closer look: Section 6A:. the entire project has fallen into disrepute due to corruption and inefficiency. (c) a minor brother or an unmarried sister or a widowed sister if a minor. (b) a minor illegitimate son. There are interesting cases where workers have gone to court seeking exemption from the scheme in order to avail of better facilities available through collective bargaining. (iii) if wholly or in part dependant on the earnings of the insured person at the time of his death. an unmarried legitimate or adopted daughter. namely:(i) a widow. a minor legitimate or adopted son. [46] .

(v) dependant parents. (iii) a child who is wholly dependant on the earnings of the insured person and who is (a) receiving education. so long as the infirmity continues.LABOUR LEGISLATION (e) a minor child of a pre-deceased son. or [47] . (b) an unmarried daughter. (ii) a minor legitimate or adopted child dependant upon the insured person."family" means all or any of the following relatives of an insured person namely:(i) a spouse. till he or she attains the age of twenty-one years. and in any part of which a manufacturing process is being carried on with the aid of power or is ordinarily so carried on. (iv) a child who is infirm by reason of any physical or mental abnormality or injury and is wholly dependant on the earnings of the injured person. or (g) a paternal grand-parent if no parent of the insured person is alive. Section 11:. Section 12:. (f) a minor child of a pre-deceased daughter where no parent of the child is alive."factory" means any premises including the precincts thereof (a) whereon ten or more persons are employed or were employed for wages on any day of the preceding twelve months.

(1) All contributions paid under this Act and all other moneys received on behalf of the Corporation shall be paid into a fund called the Employees' State Insurance Fund which shall be held and administered by the Corporation for the purpose of this Act. namely : [48] . donations and gifts from the Central or any State Government. and in any part of which a manufacturing process is being carried on without the aid of power or is ordinarily so carried on. (4) Such account shall be operated on by such officers as may be authorised by the standing Committee with the approval of the Corporation.LABOUR LEGISLATION (b) whereon twenty or more persons are employed or were employed for wages on any day of the preceding twelve months. local authority. for all or any of the purposes of this Act. 1952 (35 of 1952) or a railway running shed. or any individual or body whether incorporated or not. the Employees' State Insurance Fund shall be expended only for the following purposes. Section 26. (3) Subject to the other provisions contained in this Act and to any rules or regulations made in this behalf. Section 28. but does not include a mine subject to the operation of the Mines Act. all moneys accruing or payable to the said Fund shall be paid into the Reserve Bank of India or such other bank as may be approved by the Central Government to the credit of an account styled the account of the Employees' State Insurance Fund. . Employees' State Insurance Fund. (2) The Corporation may accept grants. . Purposes for which the Fund may be expended.Subject to the provisions of this Act of any rules made by the Central Government in that behalf.

(iv) establishment and maintenance of hospitals. traveling and compensatory allowances. (iii) payment of salaries. where the medical benefit is extended to their families. where the medical benefit is extended to their families. (vii) defraying the cost (including all expenses) of the Employees' Insurance Courts set up under this Act. leave and joining time allowances. Local Committees and Regional and Local Medical Benefit Councils. towards the cost of medical treatment and attendance provided to insured persons. in accordance with the provisions of this Act and defraying the charges and costs in connection therewith. including the cost of any building and equipment. dispensaries and other institutions and the provision of medical and other ancillary services for the benefit of insured persons and. (ii) payment of fees and allowances to members of the Corporation. in accordance with any agreement entered into by the Corporation . and. contributions to provident or other benefit fund of officers and servants of the corporation and meeting the expenditure in respect of officers and other services set up for the purpose of giving effect to the provisions of this Act .LABOUR LEGISLATION (i) payment of benefits and provisions of medical treatment and attendance to insured persons and where the medical benefit is extended to their families. the Regional Boards. gratuities and compassionate allowances. (v) payment of contributions to any State Government. the provision of such medical benefit to their families. pensions. (vi) defraying the cost (including all expenses) of auditing the accounts of the Corporation an of the valuation of its assets and liabilities. local authority or any private body r individual. [49] . the Standing Committee and the Medical Benefit Council.

order or award of any Court or Tribunal against the Corporation or any of its officers or servants for any act done in the execution of his duty or under a compromise or settlement of any suit or other legal proceeding or claim instituted or made against the Corporation. [50] . on measures for the improvement of the health. and (xii) such other purposes as may be authorised by the Corporation with the previous approval of the Central Government. (ix) payment of sums under any decree. or establishments to which this Act applies shall be insured in the manner provided by this Act. welfare of insured persons and for the rehabilitation and re-employment of insured persons who have been disabled or injured.Subject to the provisions of this Act.LABOUR LEGISLATION (viii) payment of any sums under any contract entered into for the purpose of this Act by the Corporation or the Standing Committee or by any officer duly authorised by the Corporation or the Standing Committee in that behalf. all employees in factories. . All employees to be insured. Section 39.(1) The contribution payable under this Act in respect of an employee shall comprise contribution payable by the employer (hereinafter referred to as the employer's contribution) and contribution payable by the employee (hereinafter referred to as the employee's contribution) and shall be paid to the Corporation. within the limits prescribed. Section 38. Contributions. (2) The contributions shall be paid at such rates as may be prescribed by the Central Government. . (xi) defraying expenditure. (x) defraying the cost and other charges of instituting or defending any civil or criminal proceedings arising out of any action taken under this Act.

the contributions shall fall due on such days as may be specified in the regulations. (4) The contributions payable in respect of each {wage period} shall ordinarily fall due on the last day of the {wage period}. 1934 (2 of 1934). and where an employee is employed for part of the {wage period}. - [51] . Explanation. Section 41. "scheduled bank" means a bank for the time being included in the Second Schedule to the Reserve Bank of India Act. (3) The wage period in relation to an employee shall be the unit in respect of which all contributions shall be payable under this Act. . 1989. he shall be liable to pay simple interest at the rate of twelve percent per annum or at such higher rate as may be specified in the regulations till the date of its actual payment: Provided that higher interest specified in the regulations shall not exceed the lending rate of interest charged by any scheduled bank. (5) (a) If any contribution payable under this Act is not paid by the principal employer on the date on which such contribution has become due. (b) Any interest recoverable under clause (a) may be recovered as an arrear of land revenue or under section 45C to section 45I.In this sub-section. or is employed under two or more employers during the same {wage period}. Recovery of contribution from immediate employer.LABOUR LEGISLATION Provided that the rates so prescribed shall not be more than the rates which were in force immediately before the commencement of the Employees' State Insurance (Amendment) Act.

1948 (63 of 1948)}. Provided that. if any) from the immediate employer. shall be entitled to recover the amount of the contribution so paid (that is to say the employer's contribution. [52] . in the case of persons employed (otherwise than by a contractor) (a) in factories. THE PAYMENT OF WAGES ACT: The Payment of Wages Act was enacted as early as 1936 during the colonial rule. Section 3: Responsibility for payment of wages. The purpose of this act is to regulate payment of wages.LABOUR LEGISLATION (1) A principal employer. (2) In the case referred to in sub-section (1). as well as the employee's contribution.Every employer shall be responsible for the payment to person employed by him of all wages required to be paid under this Act. who has paid contribution in respect of an employee employed by or through an immediate employer. subject to the conditions specified in the proviso to sub-section (2) of section 40. This insists on the payment of wages by the seventh day or the tenth day of the succeeding month and in case of weekly payment the last day of the week. either by deduction from any amount payable to him by the principall employer under any contract. or as a debt payable by the immediate employer. . the immediate employer shall be entitled to recover the employer's contribution from the employee employed by or through him by deduction from wages and not otherwise. if a person has been named as the manager of the factory under {clause (f) of sub-section (1) of section 7 of the Factories Act. (1A) The immediate employer shall maintain a register of employees employed by or through him as provided in the regulations and submit the same to the principal employer before the settlement of any amount payable under sub-section (1).

if there is a person responsible to the employer for the supervision and control of the industrial or other establishments. the balance of wages found due on completion of the final tonnage account of the ship or wagons loaded or unloaded. (b) any other railway. after the last day of the wage-period in respect of which the wages are payable: {Provided that in the case of persons employed on a dock. Section 5: Time of payment of wages. wharf or jetty or in a mine. the person so named. factory or {industrial or other establishment}. shall be paid before the expiry of the tenth day. the person so responsible to the employer. if the employer is the railway administration and the railway administration has nominated a person in this behalf for the local area concerned. Section 4: Fixation of wage-periods. shall be paid before the expiry of the seventh day. shall be paid before the expiry of the seventh day from the day of such completion} [53] . factory or {industrial or other establishment} upon or in which less than one thousand persons are employed. as the case may be (shall also be responsible) for such payment. or the person so nominated. (c) upon railways (otherwise that in factories). (2) No wage-period shall exceed one month.(1) Every person responsible for the payment of wages under section 3 shall fix periods (in this Act referred to as wageperiods) in respect of which such wages shall be payable.. .(1) The wages of every person employed upon or in (a) any railway.LABOUR LEGISLATION (b) in industrial or other establishments. as the case may be.

to such extent and subject to such conditions as may be specified in the order. by general or special order. day basis. all payments} of wages shall be made on a working day. Minimum wages are fixed by the State Governments based on the cost of living index on hourly basis. THE MINIMUM WAGES ACT The Minimum Wages Act 1948 is to provide for fixing the minimum rates of wages. the person responsible for the payment of wages to persons employed upon any railway (otherwise than in a factory) {or to persons employed as daily-read workers in the Public Works Department of the Central Government or the State Government} from the operation of this section in respect of the wages of any such persons or class of such persons: {Provided that in the case of persons employed as daily-rated workers as aforesaid.LABOUR LEGISLATION (2) Where the employment of any person is terminated by or on behalf of the employer. no such order shall be made except in consultation with the Central Government}. the wages. monthly basis and any larger period. (3) The State Government may. The [54] . the wages earned by him shall be paid before the expiry of the second day from the day on which his employment is so terminated}. (4) {Save as otherwise provided in sub-section (2). {Provided that where he employment of any person in an establishment is terminated due to the closure of the establishment for any reason other than a weekly or other recognised holiday. earned by him shall be paid before the expiry of the second working day from the day on which his employment is terminated. exempt.

the appropriate Government may refrain from fixing minimum rates of wages in respect of any [55] . as it may think fit. if necessary: {Provided that where for any reason the appropriate Government has not reviewed the minimum rates of wages fixed by it in respect of any scheduled employment within any interval of five years. {(a) fix the minimum rate of wages payable to employees employed in an employment specified in Part I or Part II of the Schedule and in an employment added to either Part by notification under section 27: Provided that the appropriate Government may. Section 3: Fixing of minimum rate of wages.LABOUR LEGISLATION Minimum thus fixed is below poverty line and has to restructured and reconsidered by the officials. nothing contained in this clause shall be deemed to prevent it from reviewing the minimum rates after the expiry of the said period of five years and revising them. if necessary.{(1) The appropriate Government shall. in the manner hereinafter provided. fix such rates for a part of the State or for any specified class or classes of such employment in the whole State or part thereof. such intervals not exceeding five years.. and until they are so revised the minimum rates in force immediately before the expiry of the said period of five years shall continue in force. the minimum rate of wages so fixed and revise the minimum rates. in respect of employees employed in an employment specified in Part II of the Schedule. instead of fixing minimum rate of wages under this clause for the whole State.} (1A) Notwithstanding anything contained in sub-section (1).} (b) review at such intervals.

it shall fix minimum rates of wages payable to employees in such employment {as soon as may be after such finding}}. (b) a minimum rate of wages for piece work (hereinafter referred to as 'a minimum piece rate'). (d) a minimum rate 9whether a time rate or a piece rate) to apply in substitution for the minimum rate which would otherwise be applicable. the appropriate Government comes to a finding after such inquiry.LABOUR LEGISLATION scheduled employment in which there are in the whole State less than one thousand employees engaged in such employment. National Tribunal or such authority is in operation. in respect of overtime work done by employees (hereinafter referred to as 'overtime rate'). (c) a minimum rate of remuneration to apply in the case of employees employed on piece work for the purpose of securing to such employees a minimum rate of wages on a time work basis (hereinafter referred to as 'a guaranteed time rate'). as it may make or cause to be made in this behalf. or an award made by any Tribunal. {(2A) Where in respect o fan industrial dispute relating to the rates of wages payable to any of the employees employed in a scheduled employment. (2) The appropriate Government may fix (a) a minimum rate of wages for time work (hereinafter referred to as 'a minimum time rate'). for the time being in force. 1947 (14 of 1947) or before any like authority under any other law. and a notification fixing or revising the [56] . that the number of employees in any scheduled employment in respect of which it has refrained from fixing minimum rates of wages has risen to one thousand or more. but if at any time. any proceeding is pending before a Tribunal or National Tribunal under the Industrial Disputes Act.

where the notification is issued during the period of operation of an award.LABOUR LEGISLATION minimum rates of wages in respect of the scheduled employment is issued during the pendency of such proceeding or the operation of the award. (iv) different localities. [57] . no minimum rates of wages shall be fixed or revised in respect of that employment during the said period} (3) In fixing or revising minimum rates of wages under this section. (ii) different classes of work in the same scheduled employment. the minimum rates of wages so fixed or so revised shall not apply to those employees during the period in which the proceeding is pending and the award made therein is in operation or. adolescents. then. (iii) by the month. (a) different minimum rates of wages may be fixed for (i) different scheduled employments. during that period. namely (i) by the hour. and where such proceeding or award relates to the rates of wages payable to all the employees in the scheduled employment. children and apprentices. (iii) adults. as the case may be. or (iv) by such other larger wage-period as may be prescribed. notwithstanding anything contained in this Act. (b) minimum rates of wages may be fixed by any one or more of the following wage-periods. (ii) by the day.

This amount is deposited with the government which pays an interest. the manner of calculating wages for a month or for a day. and be administered by. pension funds and deposit linked fund for employees in factories and other establishments.LABOUR LEGISLATION and where such rates are fixed by the day or by the month. frame a Scheme to be called the Employees' Provident Fund Scheme for the establishment of provident funds under this Act for employees or for any class of employees and specify the {establishment} or class of {establishments} to which the said Scheme shall apply {and there shall be established. a Fund in accordance with the provisions of this Act and the Scheme. may be indicated:} Provided that where any wage-periods have been fixed under section 4 of the Payment of Wages Act. the Central Board constituted under section 5A. minimum wages shall be fixed in accordance therewith. 1952 The purpose of this Act: An Act to provide for the institution of Provident Funds. This Act also now has provisions for pension scheme. Contributions of 10% of the wages are paid by the employer and another 10% by the employees.{(1) The Central Government may. Section 5: Employees' Provident Fund Schemes. (1B) Subject to the provisions of this Act. as the case may be. by notification in the Official Gazette.} [58] . THE EMPLOYEES’ PROVIDENT FUND AND MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS ACT. a scheme framed under sub-section (1) may provide for all or any of the matters specified in Schedule II. as soon as may be after the framing of the Scheme. 1936 (4 of 1936). .} {(1A) The Fund shall vest in.

by notification in the Official Gazette. (c) the net assets of the Employees' Family Pension Fund as on the date of the establishment of the Pension Fund. if any.LABOUR LEGISLATION {(2) A Scheme framed under sub-section (1) may provide that any of its provisions shall take effect either prospectively or retrospectively on such date as may be specified in this behalf in the Scheme. frame a scheme to be called the employees' Pension Scheme for the purpose of providing for (a) superannuation pension.. dearness allowances and retaining allowance. as soon as may be after framing of the Pension Scheme. a Pension Fund into which there shall be paid. (b) such sums as are payable by the employers of exempted establishments under sub-section (6) of section 17. children pension or orphan pension payable to the beneficiaries of such employees. not exceeding eight and one-third percent of the basic wages. of the concerned employees. and (b) Widow or widower's pension.} Section 6A: Employees' Pension Scheme. retiring pension or permanent total disablement pension to the employees of any establishment or class of establishments to which this Act applies. in respect of every employee who is a member of the Pension Scheme.(1) The Central government may. [59] . as may be specified in the Pension Scheme. from time to time. (a) such sums from the employer's contribution under section 6. there shall be established. (2) Notwithstanding anything contained in section 6.

and all liabilities under the ceased scheme shall be enforceable against. (3) On the establishment of the Pension Fund. the Pension Fund and the beneficiaries under the ceased scheme shall be entitled to draw the benefits. while it is in session. (5) Subject to the provisions of this Act. as soon as may be after it is made. the scheme shall thereafter have effect only in such modified form or be of no effect. before the expiry of the session immediately following the session or the successive sessions aforesaid. and if. both Houses agree in making any modification in the scheme or both Houses agree that that the scheme should not be made. as the may be. framed under sub-section (1) shall be laid. before each House of Parliament. so however. that any such modification or [60] . (6) The Pension scheme may provide that all or any of its provisions shall take effect either prospectively or retrospectively on such date as may be specified in that behalf in that scheme. (4) The Pension fund shall vest in and be administered by the Central Board in such manner as may be specified in the Pension Scheme. from the Pension fund. specify. the Pension Scheme may provide for all of any of the matters specified in Schedule III.LABOUR LEGISLATION (d) such sums as the Central Government may. not less than the benefits they were entitled to under the ceased scheme. the Family Pension scheme (hereinafter referred to as the ceased scheme) shall cease to operate and all assets of the ceased scheme shall vest in and shall stand transferred to. for a total period of thirty days which may be comprised in one session or in two or more successive sessions. after due appropriation by Parliament by law in this behalf. (7) A Pension Scheme.

(a) on his superannuation. THE PAYMENT OF GRATUITY ACT. 1972 Purpose: An act to provide for scheme for the payment of gratuity to employees engaged in factories. (a) on his superannuation (b) on his retirement or resignation (c) on his death or disablement For every completed year of service or part thereof in excess of six months the employer shall pay gratuity to an employee at the rate of 15 days‗ wages based on the rate of wages last drawn by the employee concerned. ports.(1) Gratuity shall be payable to an employee on the termination of his employment after he has rendered continuous service for not less than five years. [61] . railway companies. Section 4: Payment of gratuity. shops or other establishments and matters connected therewith or incidental thereto. or (b) on his retirement or resignation.LABOUR LEGISLATION annulment shall be without prejudice to the validity of anything previously done under hat scheme. mines. oil fields. Gratuity shall be payable to an employee on the termination of his employment after he has rendered continuous service for not less than five years. plantations. or (c) on his death or disablement due to accident or disease. .

.For the purposes of this section.LABOUR LEGISLATION Provided that the completion of continuous service of five years shall not be necessary where the termination of the employment of any employee is due to death or disablement. daily wages shall be computed on the average of the total wages received by him for a period of three months immediately preceding the termination of his employment. [62] . the employer shall pay gratuity to an employee at the rate of fifteen days' wages based on the rate of wages last drawn by the employee concerned. Explanation. and where any such nominees or heirs is a minor. and. Provided that in the case of a piece-rated employee. if no nomination has been made. for the purpose. to his heirs. the share of such minor. gratuity payable to him shall be paid to his nominee or. Provided further that in the case of death of the employee. (2) For every completed year of service or part thereof in excess of six months. shall be deposited with the controlling authority who shall invest the same for the benefit of such minor in such bank or other financial institution. the wages paid for any overtime work shall not be taken into account. Provided further that that in the case of {an employee who is employed in a seasonal establishment and who is not so employed throughout the year} the employer shall pay the gratuity at the rate of seven days' wages for each season. disablement means such disablement as incapacitates an employee for the work which he was capable of performing before the accident or disease resulting in such disablement. as may be prescribed. until such minor attains majority.

or destruction of. willful omission or negligence causing any damage or loss to. the fifteen days' wages shall be calculated by dividing the monthly rate of wages last dawn by him by twenty six and multiplying the quotient by fifteen. and his wages for the period subsequent to his disablement shall be taken to be the wages as so reduced. (4) For he purpose of computing the gratuity payable to an employee who is employed. his wages for the period preceding his disablement shall be taken to be the wages received by him during that period. or (ii) if the services of such employee have been terminated for any act which constitutes an offence involving moral turpitude.LABOUR LEGISLATION Explanation. provided that such offence is committed by him in the course of his employment. (5) Nothing in this section shall affect the right of an employee to receive better terms of gratuity under any award or agreement or contract with the employer. (6) Notwithstanding anything contained in sub-section (1) (a) the gratuity of an employee. whose services have been terminated for any act.} (3) The amount of gratuity payable to an employee shall not exceed {three lakhs and fifty thousand} rupees. on reduced wages. after his disablement. (b) the gratuity payable to an employee {may be wholly or partially forfeited} (i) if the services of such employee have been terminated for his riotous or disorderly conduct or any other act of violence on his part. [63] . . property belonging to the employer' shall be forfeited to the extent of the damage or loss so caused .In the case of a monthly rated employee.

It shall be the duty of the Works Committee to promote measures for securing and preserving amity and good relations between the employer and workmen and. appoint such number of persons as it thinks fit. [64] .(1) The appropriate Government may. Boards of Conciliation.(1) The appropriate Government may as occasion arises by notification in the Official Gazette constitute a Board of Conciliation for promoting the settlement of any industrial dispute. charged with the duty of mediating in and promoting the settlement of Industrial disputes. The Authorities under this act Works Committee : In establishments where more than 100 workmen are employed. . the employer is required to constitute works committee with equal number of representatives from the employer and the employees. (2) A conciliation officer may be appointed for a specified area or for specified industries in a specified area or for one or more specified industries and either permanently or for a limited period. 5. to comment upon matters of their common interest or concern and endeavour to compose any material difference of opinion in respect of such matters. to be conciliation officers. 4. Conciliation officers. to that end. by notification in the Official Gazette.LABOUR LEGISLATION INDUSTRIAL DISPUTES ACT 1947 Purpose : An Act to make provisions for the investigation and settlement of industrial disputes and for certain other purposes. .

Courts of Inquiry . the appropriate Government shall appoint such persons as it thinks fit to represent that party. (2) A Court may consist of one independent person or of such number of independent persons as the appropriate Government may think fit and where a Court consists of two or more members. the Board shall not act until a new chairman or member. [65] . constitute a Court of Inquiry for inquiring into any matter appearing to be connected with or relevant to an industrial dispute. (4) A Board. one of them shall be appointed as the chairman. as the case may be has been appointed. as the appropriate Government thinks fit. (3) The chairman shall be an independent person and the other members shall be persons appointed in equal numbers to represent the parties to the dispute and any person appointed to represent a party shall be appointed n the recommendation of that party: Provided that. having the prescribed quorum. may act notwithstanding the absence of the chairman or of any of its members or any vacancy in its number: Provided that if the appropriate Government notifies the Board that the services of the chairman or of any other member have ceased to be available. if any party fails to make a recommendation as aforesaid within the prescribed time. may act notwithstanding the absence of the chairman or any of its members or any vacancy in its number. 6.LABOUR LEGISLATION (2) A Board shall consist of a chairman and two or four other members. having the prescribed quorum.(1) The appropriate Government may as occasion arises by notification in the Official Gazette. (3) A Court.

[66] .(1) The appropriate Government may. . the Court shall not act until a new chairman has been appointed. 7-A Tribunals. 7. been a District Judge or an Additional District Judge. . (3) A person shall not be qualified for appointment as the Presiding Officer of a Labour court. Labour Courts. or {(c)} he has held any judicial office in India for not less than seven years. unless {(a) he is. or has been. if the appropriate Government notifies the Court that the services of the chairman have ceased to be available.(1) The appropriate Government may. (2) A Labour Court shall consist of one person only to be appointed by the appropriate Government. for a period of not less than three years. constitute one or more Industrial Tribunals for the adjudication of industrial disputes relating to any matter.LABOUR LEGISLATION Provided that. by notification in the Official Gazette. a Judge of a High Court. constitute one or more Labour Courts for the adjudication of industrial disputes relating to any matter specified in the Second Schedule and for performing such other functions as may be assigned to them under this Act. by notification in the Official Gazette. whether specified in the Second Schedule or the Third Schedule {and for performing such other functions as may be assigned to them under this Act}. or {(d)} he has been the Presiding Officer of a Labour Court constituted under any Provincial Act or State Act for not less than five years. or (b) he has.

been a District Judge or an Additional District Judge . or affected by.LABOUR LEGISLATION (2) A Tribunal shall consist of one person only to be appointed by the appropriate Government. (2) A National Tribunal shall consist of one person only to be appointed by the Central Government. if it so thinks fit. (3) A person shall not be qualified for appointment as the presiding officer of a Tribunal unless (a) he is. involve questions of national importance or are of such a nature that industrial establishments situated in more than one State are likely to be interested in. or (aa) he has. Setting up of Grievance Settlement Authorities and reference of certain individual disputes to such Authorities. in the opinion of the Central Government. if it so thinks fit. appoint two persons as assessors to advise the Tribunal in the proceeding before it. Grievance Settlement. constitute one or more National Industrial Tribunals for the adjudication of industrial disputes which. or has been.(1) The Central Government may. (4) The Central Government may. 7-B National Tribunals. a Judge of a High Court}. . appoint two persons as assessors to advise the National Tribunal in the proceeding before it. a Judge of a High Court. such disputes. (4) The appropriate Government may.(1) The employer in [67] . 9-C. or has been. for a period of not less than three years. (3) A person shall not be qualified for appointment as the Presiding Officer of a National Tribunal {unless he is. . by notification in the Official Gazette.

To understand the process of settlement of Industrial Dispute we must have the knowledge of the following definitions given under the Act : (b) "award" means an interim or a final determination of any Industrial Dispute or any question relating thereto by any Labour Court. a Grievance Settlement Authority for the settlement of industrial disputes connected with an individual workman employed in the establishment. (4) No reference shall be made under Chapter III with respect to any dispute referred to in this section unless such dispute has been referred to the Grievance Settlement Authority concerned and the decision of the Grievance Settlement Authority is not acceptable to any of the parties to the dispute. (3) The Grievance Settlement Authority referred to in Sub-section (1) shall follow such procedure and complete its proceedings within such period as may be prescribed. refer. a workman or any trade union of workmen of which such workman is a member. {(cc)} "closure" means the permanent closing down of a place of employment or part thereof. [68] . in accordance with the rules made in that behalf under this Act. shall provide for. Industrial Tribunal or National Industrial Tribunal and includes an arbitration award made under Section 10-A.LABOUR LEGISLATION relation to every industrial establishment in which fifty or more workmen are employed or have been employed on any day in the preceding twelve months. in such manner as may be prescribed such dispute to the Grievance Settlement Authority provided for by the employer under that sub-section for settlement. (2) Where an industrial dispute connected with an individual workman arises in an establishment referred to in sub-section (1).

It does not include (a) industry (not integrated) [69] . undertaking. handicraft. Whether or not (a) any gain or profit made out (b) any capital invested III. employment. This definition has been amended on the observation made by his Lordship Justice Krishna Iyyer while delivering the judgement Bangalore Water Supply and Sewage Board V Rajappa AIR 1978 SC 548. manufacture or calling of employers and includes any calling.LABOUR LEGISLATION (j) "industry" means any business. trade. It includes (a) Dock Labour (b) Promotion of sales or business IV. Amended definition j I. or industrial occupation or avocation of workmen. industry means (a) any systematic activity (b) carried on by co-operation between Employer and Employee (c) for production. supply or distribution of goods or services required to satisfy human wants or wishes (not religious or spiritual) II. service.

or between workmen and workmen. [70] . power or raw materials or the accumulation of stocks or the breakdown of machinery (or natural calamity or for any other connected reason) to give employment to a workman whose name is borne on the muster-rolls of his industrial establishment and who has not been retrenched. (l) "lock-out" means the {temporary closing of a place of employment} or the suspension of work. which is connected with the employment or non-employment or the terms of employment or with the conditions of labour. refusal or inability of an employer on account of shortage of coal. social or philanthropic institutes (e) Khadi or village industries (f) Sovereign functions of government (g) domestic service (h) professional activities (less than ten) (i) co-operative society (k) "Industrial dispute" means any dispute or difference between employers and employers.LABOUR LEGISLATION (b) hospitals or dispensaries (c) educational. or the refusal by an employer to continue to employ any number of persons employed by him. training institutions (d) charitable. or between employers and workmen. scientific. of any person. (kkk) "lay-off" (with its grammatical variations and cognate expressions) means the failure. research.

or {(bb) termination of the service of the workman as a result of the non-renewal of the contract of employment between the employer and the workman concerned on its expiry or of such contract being terminated under a stipulation in that behalf contained therein . unskilled. clerical or [71] . or a concerned refusal. skilled. or (c) termination of the service of a workman on the ground of continued ill-health. technical. (q) "strike" means a cessation of work by a body of persons employed in any industry acting in combination. or a refusal under a common understanding. otherwise than as a punishment inflicted by way of disciplinary action.} (p) "settlement" means a settlement arrive at in the course of conciliation proceeding and includes a written agreement between the employer and workmen arrived at otherwise than in the course of conciliation proceeding where such agreement has been signed by the parties thereto in such manner as may be prescribed and a copy thereof has been sent to {an officer authorised in this behalf by the appropriate Government and the conciliation officer .LABOUR LEGISLATION {(oo) "retrenchment" means the termination by the employer of the service of a workman for any reason whatsoever. but does not include (a) voluntary retirement of the workman. {(s) "workman" means any person (including an apprentice) employed in any industry to do any manual. of any number of persons who are or have been so employed to continue to work or to accept employment . or (b) retirement of the workman on reaching the age of superannuation if the contract of employment between the employer and the workman concerned contains a stipulation in that behalf. operational.

. but does not include any such person (i) who is subject to the Air Force Act.. retrenchment or termination shall be deemed to be an industrial dispute notwithstanding that no other workman nor any union of workmen is a party to the dispute. or the Navy Act. includes any such person who has been dismissed. of an individual workman to be deemed to be an industrial dispute. any dispute or difference between that workman and his employer connected with. functions mainly of a managerial nature. discharged or retrenched in connection. or (iii) who is employed mainly in a managerial or administrative capacity.LABOUR LEGISLATION supervisory work for hire or reward. or the Army Act. etc. and for the purposes of any proceeding under this Act in relation to an industrial dispute. such discharge. or (iv) who being employed in a supervisory capacity. or (ii) who is employed in the police service or as an officer or other employee of a prison . whether the terms of employment be express or implied. or as a consequence of. with.} 2-A. 1950 (46 of 1950). discharge or retrenchment has led to that dispute. draws wages exceeding one thousand six hundred rupees per mensem or exercises. 1957 (62 of 1957). or arising out of. Dismissal. retrenches or otherwise terminates the services of an individual workman.Where any employer discharges. dismissal. or whose dismissal. 1950 (45 of 1950). either by the nature of the duties attached to the office or by reason of the powers vested in him. Other Salient Features of the Act Settlement Procedure [72] .. dismisses. that dispute.

Strikes and Lock outs [73] . From the date of publications the award has a life for one year during which period the aggrieved party has to approach the Government for the enforcement of the award. This settlement is sent by the conciliation officer to the government which notifies the settlement in the Gazette.LABOUR LEGISLATION Any industrial dispute is presented by the aggrieved party to the Conciliation officer who summons both the parties at dispute.10. advise. signed by the parties at dispute. The Parties are at liberty to break away from conciliation. When no settlement is possible the conciliation officer drafts a failure report and sends the report to the Government. Powers of Conciliation Officer Summoning parties or issuing directions to produce documents or relevant records. The role of the Conciliation Officer It is limited. The Government through the Labour Commissioner frames issues and refers the dispute to the Labour Court under sec. If a settlement is arrived. Oral and documentary evidence recorded and arguments heard. He cannot compel the parties to arrive at any particular settlement. the Labour Court issues summons to both the parties. The Labour Court The dispute on being referred to court under sec. give solutions and request parties to opt for settlement. 10 of the Act. He can only guide. This award is published in Gazette. the terms of the settlement are reduced into writing. Then the Labour Court passes the award which is sent to the Government. The aggrieved party has to file the claim statement and the other party has to file the counter statement.

25. conditions for declaring lay off. restrain from.25. that is to say (a) threatening workmen with discharge or dismissal.U imposes penal sanction on Unfair Labour Practice which may be imprisonment extending to six months or with fine extending to one thousand rupees or with both. UNFAIR LABOUR PRACTICES I . retrenchment and closure and any isolation of the rules would invite penal sanction. Lay off. [74] . join or assist a trade union or to engage in concerted activities for the purposes of collective bargaining or other mutual aid or protection.LABOUR LEGISLATION Strike is the weapon in the hands of workmen and Lock out is the weapon in the hands of the Employer. form. or coerce. workmen in the exercise of their right to organise.On the part of employers and trade unions of employers 1.T prohibits Unfair Labour Practices that are listed in the fifth schedule Sec. To interfere with. with a view to undermining the efforts of the trade union at organisation. Retrenchment and Closure The act prescribes rules. Even in public utility service establishment strike and lock out can be declared by giving prior notice of six weeks.(b) threatening a lock-out or closure. if they join a trade union . if a trade union is organised . (c) granting wage increase to workmen at crucial periods of trade union organisation. Unfair Labour Practices Sec. Right to protest is an inherent right and this act has legalised strikes and lock outs.

To establish employer-sponsored trade unions of workmen.LABOUR LEGISLATION 2. 4. where such a trade union is not a recognised trade union. (f) discharging office bearers or active members of the trade union on account of their trade union activities. and (b) an employer showing partiality or granting favour to one of several trade unions attempting to organise his workmen or to its members. financial or otherwise. (d) refusing to promote workmen to higher posts on account of their trade union activities . that is to say :(a) discharging or punishing a workman because he urged other workmen to join or organise a trade unon : (b) discharging or dismissing a workman for taking part in any strike (not being a strike which it deemed to be an illegal strike under this Act) . (c) changing seniority rating of workmen because of trade union activities . (e) giving unmerited promotions to certain workmen with a view to creating discord amongst other workmen. To dominate. 3. To discharge or dismiss workmen [75] . interfere with or contribute support. to any trade union. or to undermine the strength of their trade union . To encourage or discourage membership in any trade union by discriminating against any workman. that is to say :(a) an employer taking an active interest in organising a trade union of his workmen . 5.

but in the colourable exercise of the employer's rights . To show favouritism or partiality to one set of workers regardless of merit. without having any regard to the nature of the particular misconduct or the past record or service of the workman. as a pre-condition to allowing them to resume work. [76] . (f) in utter disregard of the principles of natural justie in the conduct of domestic enquiry or with undue haste . (g) for misconduct of a minor or technical character. and to give such work to contractors as a measure of breaking a strike. casuals or temporaries and to continue them as such for years. 10. To transfer a workman mala fide from one place to another. 9. 7. (b) not in good faith. 6. To employ workmen as "badlis". 8. with the object of depriving them of the status and privileges of permanent workmen. who are on a legal strike to sign a good conduct bond. thereby leading to a disproportionate punishment. To abolish the work of a regular nature being done by workmen. (c) by falsely implicating a workman in a criminal case on false evidence or on concocted evidence .LABOUR LEGISLATION (a) by way of victimisation . to insist upon individual workmen. (d) for patently false reasons . under the guise of following management policy. (e) on untrue or trumped up allegations of absence without leave.

II . 16.LABOUR LEGISLATION 11. To indulge in coercive activities against certification of a bargaining representative. 15. 3. To advice or actively support or instigate any strike deemed to be illegal under this Act. in good faith with the recognised trade unions. that is to say (a) for a trade union or its members to picketing in such a manner that non-striking workmen are physically debarred from entering the work places. 2. To discharge or discriminate against any workman for filing charges or testifying against an employer in any enquiry or proceeding relating to any industrial dispute. (b) to indulge in acts of force or violence or to hold out threats of intimidation in connection with a strike against non-striking workmen or against managerial staff. 12. To refuse to bargain collectively. 13. settlement or agreement. 4. To coerce workmen in the exercise of their right to self-organisation or to join a trade union or refrain from joining any trade union. To recruit workmen during a strike which is not an illegal strike.On the part of workmen and trade unions of workmen 1. Proposing or continuing a lock-out deemed to be illegal under this Act. [77] . 14. To indulge in acts of force or violence. For a recognised union to refuse to bargain collectively in good faith with the employer. Failure to implement award.

squatting on the work premises after working hours or 'gherao' of any of the members of the managerial or other staff. encourage or instigate such forms of coercive actions as wilful 'go slow'. To indulge in acts of force or violence or to hold out threats of intimidation against any workman with a view to prevent him from attending work. . Section 3 : Prohibition of employment of children in certain occupations and processes. To stage. To incite or indulge in wilful damage to employer's property connected with the industry. and their children. 6. CHILD LABOUR (PROHIBITION AND REGULATION) ACT 1986 Purpose of this Act : An act to prohibit the engagement of children in certain employments and to regulate the conditions of work of children in certain other employments. "family" in relation to an occupier.No child shall be employed or permitted to work in any of the occupations set forth in Part A of the Schedule or in any workshop wherein any of the processes set forth in Part B of the Schedule is carried on : [78] . To stage demonstrations at the residences of the employers or the managerial staff members. the wife or husband as the case may be. The following sections needs to be studied under the Act: "child" means a person who has not completed his fourteenth year of age. of such individual. brother or sister of such individual . means the individual. 7. 8.LABOUR LEGISLATION 5.

(1) No child shall be required or permitted to work in any establishment in excess of such number of hours as may be prescribed for such establishment or class of establishments. under sub-section (2).Every child employed in an establishment shall be allowed in each week.(1) The appropriate Government may. a holiday of one whole day. (4) No child shall be permitted or required to work between 7 PM and 8 AM. including the time spent in waiting for work on any day. . (6) No child shall be required or permitted to work in any establishment on any day on which he has already been working in another establishment. (2) The period of work on each day shall be so fixed that no period shall exceed three hours and that no child shall work for more than three hours before he has had an interval for rest for at least one hour. (3) The period of work of a child shall be so arranged that inclusive of his interval for rest. by notification in the Official Gazette. . Section 8: Weekly holidays.LABOUR LEGISLATION Provided that nothing in this section shall apply to any workshop wherein any process is carried on by the occupier with the aid of his family or to any school established by. Section 13 : Health and safety. it shall not be spread over more than six hours. or receiving assistance or recognition from. (5) No child shall be required or permitted to work overtime. make rules for the health and safety of the [79] . which day shall be specified by the occupier in a notice permanently exhibited in a conspicuous place in the establishment and the day so specified shall not be altered by the occupier more than once in three months.. Section 7 : Hours and period of work. Government.

(d) dust and fume. (g) drinking water. (c) ventilation and temperature.LABOUR LEGISLATION children employed or permitted to work in any establishment or class of establishments. (2) Without prejudice to the generality of the foregoing provisions the said rules may provide for all or any of the following matters. (l) employment of children on dangerous machines. (j) fencing of machinery . (n) device for cutting off power. (h) latrine and urinals . namely:(a) cleanliness in the place of work and its freedom from nuisance. (i) spittoons. (o) self-acting machines. [80] . (e) artificial humidification. (f) lighting. (k) work at or near machinery in motion. (m) instructions. (b) disposal of wastes and effluents. training and supervision in relation to employment of children on dangerous machines.

Every employee shall be entitled to be paid by his employer in an accounting year. Section 8.. THE PAYMENT OF BONUS ACT. in accordance with the provisions of this Act.33 percent [81] . provided he has worked in the establishment for not less than thirty working days in that year. : Payment of minimum bonus. 1965 Purpose of he Act : An Act to provide for the payment of bonus to persons employed in certain establishments on the basis of profits or on the basis of production or productivity and for matters connected therewith.. (s) excessive weights. bonus. (t) protection of eyes. (q) floor. etc.LABOUR LEGISLATION (p) easing of new machinery. (u) explosive or inflammable dust. a minimum bonus which shall be 8. : Eligibility for bonus. etc. openings in floors. .Subject to the other provisions of this Act. sumps. Section 10. every employer shall be bound to pay to every employee in respect of the accounting year commencing on any day in the year 1979 and in respect of every subsequent accounting year. (v) precautions in case of fire.. (r) pits. . gas. (w) maintenance of buildings. and (x) safety of buildings and machinery. stairs and means of access..

be bound to pay to every employee in respect of that accounting year bonus which shall be an amount in proportion to the salary or age earned by the employee during the accounting year subject to a maximum of twenty percent of such salary or wage.(1) Where in respect of any accounting year referred to in section 10. the employer shall. 1961 Purpose of him Act: An Act to regulate the employment of women in certain establishments for certain period before and after child-birth and to provide for maternity benefit and certain other benefits. the provisions of this section shall have effect in relation to such employee as if for the words "one hundred rupees". Section 4: Employment of or work by. the words "sixty rupees" were substituted. in lieu of such minimum bonus. Section 11: Payment of maximum bonus. the allocable surplus exceeds the amount of minimum bonus payable to the employees under that section.LABOUR LEGISLATION of the salary or wage earned by the employee during the accounting year or one hundred rupees.(1) No employer shall knowingly employ a woman in any establishment during the [82] . THE MATERNITY BENEFIT ACT. women. whether or not the employer has any allocable surplus in the accounting year : Provided that where an employee has not completed fifteen years of age at the beginning of the accounting year. (2) In computing the allocable surplus under this section. prohibited during certain periods. the amount set on or the amount set off under the provisions of section 15 shall be taken into account in accordance with the provisions of that section. . whichever is higher.

(3) Without prejudice to the provisions of section 6. the period immediately preceding the day of her delivery. (4) The period referred to in sub-section (3) shall be (a) the period of one month immediately preceding the period of six weeks. the actual day of her delivery and any period immediately following that day. or is likely to cause her miscarriage or otherwise to adversely after her health. before the date of her expected delivery. on a request being made by her in his behalf. Explanation : For the purpose of this sub-section. (miscarriage or medical termination of pregnancy). or which in any way is likely to interfere with her pregnancy or the normal development of the foetus. every woman shall be entitled to. that is to say. no pregnant women hall.LABOUR LEGISLATION six weeks immediately following the day of her delivery. Section 5: Right to payment of maternity benefits.. be required by her employer to do during the period specified in sub-section (4) any work which is of an arduous nature or which involves long hours of standing.(1) Subject to the provisions of this Act. and her employer shall be liable for. the average daily wage means the average of the woman's wages payable to her for the days on which she has [83] . the payment of maternity benefit at the rate of the average daily wage for the period of her actual absence. (2) No women shall work in any establishment during the six weeks immediately following the day of her delivery (miscarriage or medical termination of pregnancy). (b) any period during the said period of six weeks for which the pregnant woman does not avail of leave of absence under section 6.

For the purpose of calculating under the sub-section the days on which a woman has actually worked in the establishment {the days for which she has been laid off or was on holidays declared under any law for the time being in force to be holidays with wages} during the period of twelve months immediately preceding the date of her expected delivery shall be taken into account. the maternity benefit shall be payable only for the days up to and including the day of her death . Explanation.LABOUR LEGISLATION worked during the period of three calendar months immediately preceding the date from which she absents herself on account of maternity. 1948 (11 of 1948) or ten rupees. (The minimum rate of wage fixed or revised under the Minimum Wages Act. Provided that the qualifying period of {eighty days} aforesaid shall not apply to a woman who has immigrated into the State of Assam and was pregnant at the time of the immigration. Provided that where a woman dies during this period.) (2) No woman shall be entitled to maternity benefit unless she has actually worked in an establishment of the employer from whom she claims maternity benefit. for a period of not less than {eighty days} in the twelve months immediately preceding the date of her expected delivery. leaving behind in either case the [84] . (3) The maximum period for which any woman shall be entitled to maternity benefit shall be twelve weeks of which not more than six weeks shall precede the date of her expected delivery. having been delivered of a child. . Provided further that where a woman. whichever is the highest. dies during her delivery or during the period immediately following the date of her delivery for which she is entitled for the maternity benefit.

if any. Conditions for certification of standing orders. in conformity with such model..LABOUR LEGISLATION child.(1) Within six months from the date on which this Act becomes applicable to an industrial establishment. to which they belong. (3) The draft standing orders submitted under this section shall be accompanied by a statement giving prescribed particulars of the workmen employed in the industrial establishment including the name of the trade union. and when model standing orders have been prescribed. then. shall be. Submission of draft standing orders. the employer shall be liable for the maternity benefit for that entire period but if the child also dies during the said period. THE INDUSTRIAL EMPLOYMENT (STANDING ORDERS) ACT. Section 3. so far as is practicable. . 1946 Purpose: An Act to require employees in industrial establishments formally to define conditions of employment under them. the employer shall submit to the Certifying Officer five copies of the draft standing orders proposed by him for adoption in his industrial establishment. (2) Provision shall be made in such draft for every matter set out in the Schedule which may be applicable to the industrial establishment. for the days up to and including the date of the death of the child.Standing orders shall be certifiable under this Act if [85] . a group of employees in similar industrial establishments may submit a joint draft of standing orders under this section Section 4. (4) Subject to such conditions as may be prescribed.

Closing and re-opening of sections of the industrial establishment. probationers.. whether permanent. and it shall be the function of the Certifying Officer or appellate authority to adjudicate upon the fairness or reasonableness of the provisions of any standing orders. or badis. 4. Manner of intimating to workmen periods and hours of work. 5. and liability to search. Requirement to enter premises by certain gates. Attendance and late coming. 7. temporary. and temporary stoppages of work and the rights and liabilities of the employer and workmen arising there from. Shift working. and the authority which may grant. [86] . Classification of workmen. eg. apprentices. 6. 3. Conditions of procedure in applying for. THE SCHEDULE (See sections 2(g) and 3(2)) MATTERS TO BE PROVIDED IN STANDING ORDER UNDER THIS ACT 1.LABOUR LEGISLATION (a) provision is made therein for every matter set out in the Schedule which is applicable to the industrial establishment. leave and holidays. holidays. and (b) the standing orders are otherwise in conformity with the provisions of this Act. pay-days and wage rates. 2.

[87] . Termination of employment. In our industries we find the Research and Development Wing is almost dormant and in such industries where it functions. lazy and disobedient.LABOUR LEGISLATION 8. The management immediately shifted these sick persons to hospitals and spent on their medical bills. The non-statutory welfare measures are based on the maintenance of the family members of the working force. Means of redress for workmen against unfair treatment or wrongful exactions by the employer or his agents or servants. In India TATA houses were pioneers in carrying out these non-statutory welfare measures followed by our public sector units. There was a total change in the behaviour of the above-said workmen. NON STATUTORY WELFARE MEASURES We have scanned across some of the Labour Welfare legislations of our country. They were brought home hale and healthy. We are here to discuss what are non-statutory welfare measures. Any other matter which may be prescribed. 11. The company conducted research on them and invariably found that in each of these workmen houses. These legislations spell only statutory welfare measures. and acts or omissions which constitute misconduct. It was mother or wife or son or daughter or father or a close relative and dependent of the workman. 9. and the notice thereof to be given by employer and workmen. the research is oriented towards the quality. about 10 to 15 workmen were found to be arrogant. Suspension or dismissal for misconduct. 10. In a multi-national company. quantity of the produce and related to marketing problems. someone was bed-ridden and required long-term medical care. lethargic.

air-conditioners. (f) Supermarkets at subsidized rates. (b) Running schools or providing education facilities for the children of the workmen. refrigerators. to school going children. etc. (iv) annual sports (v) get-together with family members (vi) arranging tours and outings (vii) dinner meetings with family members (viii) Parks and playgrounds (d) Transport facilities to the workmen. [88] . (i) Television rooms (ii) indoor games. This incident clearly would expose that family members of the workmen need to be cared by the establishment so that the workmen would utilize their energies for the upliftment of the establishment. (e) Gifts during festivals as TV sets. (iii) outdoor games. (c) Recreation facilities to the workmen and to the family members. The following are a few of non-statutory welfare measures that are demanded from the employer: (a) Health and medical care of the dependents of the workmen.LABOUR LEGISLATION They became sincere and loyal workers. furnitures.

ECONOMIC GOVERNANCE What is it and why is it important? Economic governance encompasses the policy. 6. company law and legal institutions all form part of an economy's economic governance.LABOUR LEGISLATION (g) canteens at subsidized rates. Macroeconomic. regulatory policies and bodies. The Environment (Protection) Act. [89] . 1970. 5. 4. The other important employee legislations are : 1. The Contract Labour (Regulation and Abolition)Act. 3. microeconomic and fiscal policies. The Mines Act. OTHER IMPORTANT EMPLOYEE LEGISLATIONS OF INDIA. etc. 1979. (i) allowances as washing. 1976. 1986. The Equal Remuneration Act. and legal environment within which an economy functions. The Bonded Labour System (Abolition) Act. 1976 2. (h) proper uniform to workmen with safety gadgets. government economic agencies. (j) dress materials to children and family members of the workmen. 1952. The Inter-State Migrant Workmen (Regulation of Employment and Conditions of Service) Act. institutional.

LABOUR LEGISLATION All Asia-Pacific economies have made considerable progress in developing appropriate economic governance frameworks. In particular. These are further strong motivations [90] . The financial crisis that has swept through many East Asian economies and beyond has exposed aspects of economic governance that need strengthening to meet the demands. the level of shared interest in the economic governance systems of regional partners also grows. and reap the benefits. both domestically and in global capital markets. Strengthened economic governance across a broad spectrum of policy. As economies in the Asia Pacific region become increasingly integrated. Many East Asian economies have witnessed the swift growth of private sectors. the need for effective regulatory and policy environments for the banking and financial services sectors has been brought into sharp focus. administrative and institutional issues is now widely accepted as a key factor in rebuilding domestic and international confidence in East Asian economies. some have found it difficult to ensure all aspects of economic governance have kept in step with these changes. These reasons underscore the priority for concerted international and regional efforts to enhance economic governance. all economies in the region have learnt the danger of complacency in relation to domestic economic governance institutions . prospects for each economy are enmeshed with the strengths and weaknesses of others. in an increasingly integrated region and globe. a dramatic increase in foreign capital flows and rapid evolution of financial markets and instruments. the pace of economic change in the past two decades. Indeed. The Asian financial crisis has clearly demonstrated that. of an increasingly integrated world economy. However.building good institutions is an ongoing imperative for all economies. has given rise to significant challenges in this area for developed and developing economies alike.

On the one hand.LABOUR LEGISLATION for cooperation to improve economic governance. have worked to promote global interdependence. and marginalisation. exclusion. together with the explosion in international finance through deregulation of the financial sector and capital account liberalisation. These trends have become salient [91] . The major role is played by the intergovernmental organisations. standards. practices and decision-making processes from which rules. poverty and inequality continue and in fact are on the rise in much of Africa and parts of Latin America and Asia. and codes arise in order to manage the global economy. and World Trade Organisation (WTO). whilst on the other hand. mainly the International Monetary Fund (IMF). the global economy proceeds to evolve in a rapid and complex manner in the absence of any institutional framework to regulate it. norms. or in some cases. These three institutions warrant specific attention as they have emerged as central pillars of global economic governance. As such. covering a third of the world‗s population. World Bank (IMF and WB also being known as the Bretton Woods institutions). IMPROVING GLOBAL ECONOMIC GOVERNANCE Global economic governance refers to the institutions. guidelines. they are an essential and obvious starting point for considering any improvements to governance of the world economy. There are various actors who can be identified in the global economic governance landscape. therefore presenting developing countries with a heightened level of vulnerability in the form of volatility. contagion. Trade liberalisation.

(Braithwaite and Drahos 2000) Notably. This would be done [92] . including exchange instability. plans for the emergence of the Bretton Woods institutions came about in the context of rhetoric for enhanced economic coordination amongst states as a way to ensure economic renewal. reconstruction. and an absence of mechanisms to adjust balance of payments problems. to one which was centred on a formalised multilateral system. and trade. it was seen as a much easier area for agreement than trade. moving away from one which was based on ad-hoc bilateral cooperative arrangements. In addition. prosperity. erratic movements of ‗hot‗ money. and peace. The need for rules and principles for the conduct of monetary affairs was seen as the priority in light of the problems being experienced at the time.LABOUR LEGISLATION features of the global economy and pose a serious challenge to the current institutional arrangements of global economic governance. Hence the Bretton Woods institutions were established at the New Hampshire Conference in 1944 in the presence of 44 countries. shortage of gold. the inclusion of movement of international capital was absent from this vision of a global framework covering exchange rates/international payments. and remains so today. The IMF was designed to oversee a stable monetary and financial system which would provide the basis for an open trading environment. This signified a prominent shift in approach to global economic management. HISTORICAL BACKGROUND Birth of the Bretton Woods institutions After World War II. in the form of gentlemen‗s agreements primarily amongst central banks in the major economies.

and reconstruction objectives.LABOUR LEGISLATION through an adjustable peg system and currency convertibility to ensure a stable exchange rate regime. the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) came into existence in 1947 on a provisional basis on merchandise goods. However. was to include on its ambitious agenda rules relating to employment. Relationship to UN [93] . and surveillance powers. development. This approach clearly recognised the role of intervention and regulation. The Bank‗s main role would be to act as an intermediary between governments in need of financial resources for development and reconstruction and for the capital market. commodity agreements. and to offer funds at reduced rates to governments. (Shukla 2000) Instead. the establishment of the ITO was not to be realized due to the failure of the US to bring the treaty before Congress for ratification as a result of the political and economic climate at the time. GATT‗s prime purpose would be to steer countries on the path of free trade and prevent them from resorting to protectionism as a way of responding to balance of payments problems (Nayyar 2000). together with industrialisation in developing countries. by ‗facilitating the (longer term) investment of capital for productive purposes‗. The World Bank‗s (International Bank for Reconstruction and Development IBRD) main responsibility was to assist in the economic and industrial reconstruction of Europe. while a trade treaty (Havana Charter). restrictive business practices. provision of short-term balance of payments financial relief to avoid resort to deflationary or import restriction policies. ITO The International Trade Organisation (ITO). and recognition of the role of governments.

at which point the negotiations for the Articles of Agreement for both the IMF and the World Bank were undertaken independently of the launch of the UN Charter. (Article 57 of UN Charter) It is clear that the underlying premise of the relationship between the UN and Bretton Woods Institutions was one of international cooperation and coordination. it remained even further outside of the UN system due to its provisional character. the idea was that various specialised agencies. Under the economic sphere.and this has since been interpreted in the widest sense possible.LABOUR LEGISLATION Whilst the Bretton Woods institutions were discussed ahead of the establishment of the UN. The IMF moved into development financing accompanied by structural reform programmes -. political. would be under the aegis of the UN (as the overseer and centrepiece) to assist it in undertaking its duties. which has ensured infiltration into the domestic policies of developing countries. (Taylor 2000). together with mechanisms for constant surveillance.thus moving beyond its mandate -. Although Association Agreements with the UN Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) were signed by both the IMF and the World Bank. As for the GATT. a break away of the Bretton Woods institutions from the UN can actually be traced to the time of their establishment. or social. the UN Charter gave the latter the authority for dealing with all aspects of international relations. the latter organisations were able to remain ‗independent organisations‗ . whether economic. The stronghold of the IMF and World Bank within global governance can be owed to the advent of conditionality. including the IMF and World Bank.whilst the World Bank increased its role in providing loans for balance of payments support (as opposed [94] . However.

This is something which goes beyond the mandate and expertise of the IMF. corruption. Moving beyond macroeconomics indicators and Sectoral reform. privatisation. the division of labour between the IMF and World Bank with respect to development keeps blurring. onesize-fitsall/ tunnel vision approach (which lacks regard for local conditions and lack of ownership & participation by developing countries). and due to their failure to promote economic growth and macroeconomic stabilisation. which is mainly attributed to their short-sighted. and liberalisation. Even more recently. and judicial reform. This overlap in the division of labour has led more to the convergence of approaches (rather than conflict) as far as developing countries are concerned.LABOUR LEGISLATION to specific projects or sectors) to developing countries. especially on the poorest. (Heinrich Boll Foundation Report 2000) [95] . together with specific conditionalities for policy reform. This involved the coming together of the IMF‗s agenda of antideficit and anti-inflationary policies with the World Bank‗s efficiency prescriptions for deregulation. The IMF‗s ESAF (Enhanced Structural Adjustment Facility) structural adjustment programmes have been heavily criticised due to their harsh impact. much IMF lending is dependent on conditions which have direct implications for achieving development objectives. For example. the conditionality programmes of each have deeply extended into areas such as governance. culminating in the ‗Washington Consensus‗ which characterised much of the Bretton Woods activities in developing countries throughout the 1980s and 90s (Helleiner 2000b).

labour issues etc (Mosely et al 1995). Moreover.LABOUR LEGISLATION The PRGF (Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility) which takes shape through the PRSP (Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper) process. Asia. the role of the UN and its specialised agencies diminish. environment.a goal to which it had never aspired previously. and Russia. Then there is the enhanced HIPC initiative which in essence is based on the acceptance and continuation of debt management whereby a PRSP must be developed as a precondition for HIPC debt relief – however. a rather timeconsuming process. the PRSP process is still predicated on conditionality (thus PRSP is termed by some as ‗second generation conditionality‗) and this clearly negates any potential for developing countries having any ownership over their national plans for poverty reduction. In the context of the financial crises in parts of Latin America. these issues will keep accruing within the remit of the Bretton Woods Institutions. covering health. is the successor to the ESAF and is the IMF‗s way of justifying its existence and role in the face of increasing criticism by ‗fighting poverty‗ . With this expansion. as demonstrated so clearly during the Asian crisis when it imposed structural [96] . and without a strengthened UN system. the PRSP process can be perceived as a way for the IMF and World Bank to further micro-manage developing countries. Rather than being used as an opportunity to learn lessons from past experiences and to challenge the assumptions made in relation to their traditional structural and stabilisation measures (and the impact of this on poverty) with a view to reform. the IMF‗s dose of strict fiscal and monetary policies exacerbated the crises -especially in Asia by ‗turning slowdowns into recessions and recessions into economic depressions‗ (Rodrik 2000). the actual relief will only be forthcoming once the strategy is implemented. This is largely because the IMF does not have a good track record on distinguishing between solvency and liquidity crises.

the WTO‗s power comes from its sanctions-based dispute settlement mechanism which in reality is accessible only to the wealthier countries. Little risk is actually born by shareholders or creditors. which partly contribute to their clout. Also a departure from the GATT. trade facilitation and transparency in government procurement. with the inclusion of environment and the possibility of additional areas. as seen in cases of World Bank project failures and the IMF‗s role in several financial crises. thus further consolidating the organisation‗s central role (within economic governance) and the on-going process of liberalisation. competition policy. was seen as one of the main causes of the crises. This enroachment has continued since the Doha Ministerial Conference in 2001. nor the institutions for that matter. the IMF‗s policy prescription advice of financial and capital liberalisation which was so fervently pursued especially from the mid 1990s. Although the WTO‗s budget is nowhere near as large as those of the Bretton Woods institutions. the Uruguay Round was adopted as a single undertaking whereby Members were required to adopt the full menu of obligations. trade related investment measures) and other areas such as services (not to mention non trade-related areas such as intellectual property). In parallel to the expansion of the domains of both IMF and World Bank. technical barriers to trade. subsidies and countervailing duties.LABOUR LEGISLATION reform during a short-term liquidity crisis. including in the area of non-tariff barriers reductions (sanitary and phytosanitary measures. Also. as the condition for accession into the WTO. [97] . all of which means that the developing countriesare left to bear the main costs of such crises. the WTO was established in 1995 as an intergovernmental negotiating forum for formulating international trade rules. anti-dumping. such as investment.

Increasing cooperation between the WTO and Bretton Woods institutions (mainly in the form of information exchange. participation at meetings. movement of labour. intellectual property rights -. and technical cooperation) has raised particular concerns given it represents a partnership between the most powerful actors in the global economy pursuing an agenda of convergence. such as services and. [98] . it should be noted that the liberalisation which has taken place has been on an asymmetrical basis. There is also a trend towards the WTO not only deepening liberalisation in a given area but also subsuming regulation of that area into its own regulatory system.LABOUR LEGISLATION However. This represents a movement of regulatory sovereignty away from national governments to a global system in the pursuit of a particular model of regulation (ie deregulation) which largely meets the needs of transnational interests (Lunde 2000). joint seminars. This involves an organic form of cooperation between the WTO and various ‗relevant‗ organisations such as the Bretton Woods institutions. textiles. It has occurred and rapidly continues to do so in areas of interest to developed countries (and often to the detriment of developing countries). whilst at the same time developing countries are denied the same right to safeguard their developmental interests. However. barriers remain in developed countries. the benefits of trade liberalisation have yet to be seen.all heavily pushed by US and EU multinational interests. although not trade-related. especially when considered in the context of the least developed countries who continue to be marginalised from the international trading system and have in fact experienced a decline in their share of world trade (WTO 2002). Thus. in areas of interest to developing countries such as agriculture.

36 countries were obligated to reform their trade regime in line with WTO accession requirements or accelerate implementation of WTO commitments (Rowden 2002).all outside the UN framework . 65 percent of all World Bank adjustment operations supported trade policy reforms and between 1995-2001.where they can extend full control (Centre of Concern 2002). and the permanent loss of the national sovereignty to pursue any chosen path of development based on national interests and needs. From the outset. UN The original central role envisaged for the UN in global economic affairs remains unfulfilled. under IMF loans. the ‗locking in‗ of liberalisation commitments through the WTO‗s dispute settlement mechanism. GATT/WTO and other initiatives . The implications of IMF-World Bank-WTO ‗coherence‗ are threefold: the proliferation of a tunnel vision or singular and therefore flawed model of development based on trade liberalisation as the vehicle to growth and poverty reduction. the Bretton Woods institutions have instituted an extensive series of trade liberalization measures within developing countries which have served as significant tools for supporting the trade liberalisation objectives of the WTO. Although a consultative and selective forum of the richest seven countries to discuss a range of global issues covering macroeconomic. This has been an intentional move as the G7 have preferred to work through mainly the Bretton Woods institutions. For example.LABOUR LEGISLATION Through their structural reform programmes and conditionalities. such as the Marshal Plan and the European Payments Union (Nayyar 2000). between 1995-99. using its influence to provide direction and [99] . political and security policies. major ‗multilateral‗ developments in the economic sphere took place outside the UN framework. the G7 acts as the engine of current global economic governance.

research. 50. As a result. in contrast to. the UN agencies are viewed more as a fora where opinion polls are taken on issues of global interest than as a fora where hard decisions are made and implemented. and analysis on an extensive range of economic and financial issues is of great importance to developing countries. In the few cases where ambitious objectives are made. whereas the budget of UNDP has been on the decline. UNESCO and WHO. headquarters. but they have also moved into those areas of human development which have been traditionally under the purview of the UN. World Bank spending in these areas also exceeds that of both operational agencies. for example. The role of UNCTAD in terms of policy advice. For example.LABOUR LEGISLATION to set the agenda for global governance. Not only have the Bretton Woods institutions undermined the economic decision making authority of the UN. however its work remains marginalised from having any tangible role in the dominant economic fora and it is often subject to the political pressures of the time. This process has been driven by donor governments. posing a serious challenge to its functions. and directly undermining the role of the UN in general. rules of operation nor legal/ formal powers. such as in the case of the Third UN Conference on LDCs. Yet its actions have consequences on a global level and therefore its legitimacy and representation is facing increasing challenge. World Bank lending for human development in areas such as health and education has increased ten-fold between 1985-1995. the functioning of ECOSOC has had little impact and overall. It has no secretariat. (Lunde 2000) [100] . the recent Monterrey Conference on Financing for Development. their impact is weakened due to the deliberate lack of resources provided to implement them.

effective governance of the global economy remains an outstanding issue yet to be addressed. the objective should be to reach a balance between the two. This becomes easier to understand once put into the wider perspective of what is the purpose of global governance.BASIC PRINCIPLES Looking to the current global economic framework. overall global economic management is left to the markets or ad hoc initiatives by consultative fora of the [101] . rather than consolidating their power and roles. rather than having one pursued at the expense of the other. Today. While this can often create a tension between democracy and efficiency. if not more so. the ‗means‗ are just as important as the ‗ends‗.LABOUR LEGISLATION REFORMING GLOBAL ECONOMIC GOVERNANCE . Between them. these institutions have accumulated much experience and have the resources to fulfil roles which are currently missing yet needed. more than 50 years later after the Bretton Woods institutions were established. Instead. In other words. At the same time. and which needs to emerge based on broader objectives such as economic stability and redistribution. elimination is not a sensible option. together with the process for reaching that point: one should reflect the other. This is mainly due to the fact that there is neither an institutional framework to discuss global economic policies nor any corresponding regulatory regime to coordinate and support it. World Bank. their reform should be viewed as an exercise in re-alignment to fit within a wider framework (which is currently missing). It is clear that good governance within international institutions should fulfil the function of being both effective and legitimate. and WTO as long as they are reformed accordingly. There is certainly a constructive role for the IMF.

this has taken away focus on the need for any surveillance and coordination among the major industrial countries in terms of the implications of their macroeconomic policies. namely the G7. It follows then that the focus of this type of system is more on output rather than process. This includes the exercise of unilateral power and veto power by the most powerful countries through subtle (consensus) and less than subtle ways (opting out) in terms of agenda setting and decision-making. Partly as a result of this void. for global economic prospects. the Bretton Woods institutions have adjusted their roles over time in response to on the ground realities. Instead of acting as constructive agents in coordinating and promoting global stability and development. BIS etc). This level of penetration has provided them and the WTO with the power and authority to become monopoly actors in the global economy. At the same time. This has directly worked to the detriment of the potential role of the UN and has led to a skewed global economic agenda in terms of orientation and policies by these organizations. such as interest rate policy.e. and Northern driven ‗network governance‗ (i. intrusive and asymmetrical rights and obligations through the domination of three institutions. the universal character of the Bretton Woods institutions and WTO require them to fulfil this aspect of [102] .LABOUR LEGISLATION major industrial countries. they have focused their efforts on micromanaging developing countries with a standard and stern dose of neo-liberal policy prescriptions and conditionalities (usually under the direction of the G7) with implications for a wide range of domestic policy areas. However. however it is has not necessarily been in the right direction. Efforts to address the governance of international finance is a case in point. The current system of economic governance is characterized by governance structures which work to the detriment of developing countries.

and the power and influence of the Northern driven organizations require them to take into account this aspect of governance. and which are reflected in the nature and work of the organization. objectives which meet the interests of the full membership. are all important in considering the effective and legitimate functioning of international institutions of governance. This requires a combination of fair rules and equitable participation by developing countries in decision-making processes. In order for that to be achieved. Millions of the new entrants [103] . in addition to designing a more stable financial system.LABOUR LEGISLATION governance. evolve accordingly. serious reform and strengthening of existing institutions (at all levels). Any agenda for pursuing reform of these organizations should be done in congruence with each other and with a view to contributing to shaping a new system of economic governance which is especially geared towards addressing the persistent challenge of poverty and inequality. a fundamental overhaul of these institutions is necessary. their internal governance structures and processes must be drastically changed in order to include developing countries as active and equal participants. fair and consistent decision-making rules which are constitutional and culturally reinforced. transparency. yet needed. Clearly. INTERNATIONAL LABOUR STANDARDS The global labour force has doubled over the past fifteen years with the entry of China. Principles such as balanced and equitable representation and participation. India and Russia into the global economy. and being open to the possibility of the creation of new institutions in order to fulfill overriding objectives and cover areas where governance is missing. effective information flows. Otherwise the existing asymmetry in the global economic agenda will continue to exist.

will contribute to even greater inequality between in rich and poor. This is manifest in many developing countries or when fundamental rights are denied to workers in export-processing zones and companies threaten to shift production to China where free trade unions are banned. Assuring human rights for workers must become at least as important an objective of international policy.4 billion . as protecting investors' right or intellectual property rights. a doubling of official development assistance as well as the introduction of innovative methods of development finance were among the [104] . rather than bidding up living standards for everyone. In Global countries themselves growth prospects remain unsustainably out of balance. provision of vaccines for the poorest countries. More than a billion men and women are unemployed or underemployed while nearly 1.struggle to survive below the US $2 a day poverty line. universal access to AIDS treatment. share of national income has shifted alarmingly from wages to profits and unemployment remains in key countries unacceptably high. Unless appropriate policies to regulate globalisation and provide decent work and sustainable development are adopted by governments and the international institutions. globalisation. Government need to put in place the right regulations and a framework that helps create jobs and links the creation of decent work in the 'North' with the same objective in the 'South'. between capital and labour. including trade and investment agreements. Global leaders have failed to galvanise an ethical and human rights dimension in globalisation.almost half of the world's total workforce . Debt cancellation. Free markets will not rectify these imbalances.LABOUR LEGISLATION work for wages and in conditions inferior to those of workers in OECD countries.

Deadlines for meeting the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) look ever more unattainable without a fundamental shift in priorities on the part of the Global nations present here in this forum today. For many individuals and peoples in this world poverty is closer and life is less secure and more violent that it was a year ago. Nearly one and a half billion people still lack access to safe drinking water. social justice. the international trade union movement will be working with our allies in civil society to pressure governments to get attainment of the MDGs back on track. Building on the campaign work of the Global Call to Action against Poverty (GCAP) since 2005. No fewer than 104 million children lack access to primary education and 860 million adults are illiterate. in poverty. Progress depends on creating decent and sustainable jobs and livelihoods throughout the global economy. corruption. Apart from. The fight against terrorism can only succeed if be conducted on the basis civilised human values. Many conflicts have their origins in extreme injustice. inequality. While the Global nations meet. As Global leaders meet for the Saint-Petersburg Summit few of these commitments have even been acted upon. employment and development. Achievement of peace and security is a prerequisite for trade union goals of democracy. the direct tragedy of the loss of human life. armed conflicts affecting people worldwide in more than 40 countries are taking place. the tragedy of the Middle East is escalating. this represents a massive diversion of resources badly needed for development. The world continues to face the scourge of an AIDS and malaria emergency with 40 million adults and children infected with HIV AIDS. whether governments or [105] . declared commitments of the Global Summit in Gleneagles a year ago. The world has sufficient resources. and the denial of human rights and democracy by those wielding power.LABOUR LEGISLATION central. knowledge and technology to stamp out poverty.

Globalisation in itself draws dramatic attention to the need to strengthen protection of workers' rights. Burma. Over the past 15 yeas. Respect for fundamental workers rights also leads to long term economic gains. of good governance and dialogue with the whole of civil society and the world of work. This is turn confirms the importance of democratic institutions. a condition which cannot be dictated solely by market forces. particularly in transition economies and in Russia itself. Assuring the human rights of workers must become at least as important an objective of international trade and investment agreements as protecting intellectual property rights or rights of foreign investment. we are supposed to believe. Unless there is [106] . is supposed automatically to bring us growth and prosperity. Economic development requires institutions that are capable of ensuring social justice. CIS countries included. and Belarus. have been exposed and clearly condemned under ILO procedures.LABOUR LEGISLATION those fighting against governments. Promoting and defending the rights of working people to form and join unions is a key component of the quest for peace and security. Trade unionists are often singled out as the targets of terror. Core workers' rights such as the right to freedom of association and of collective bargaining are fundamental human rights and must be respected. Some of the most flagrant cases of repeated violation of union rights in countries such as Colombia. Respect for trade union rights seems to be weakening worldwide. reform processes that have taken place have too often been simplistically based on the idea of 'less state' and on preaching the virtues of a market economy that. Core workers' rights are under threat in many developing countries as companies threaten to shift production to China where the rights of workers to organise are not respected. yet these abuses continue.

These resources must also support sustainable development workers' rights. Donor governments and international institutions must provide the major increase in the quality and quantity of resources needed for the eradication of poverty and promotion of social justice. However. malaria. increased financing assistance for development and new sources of development funding as well as a new 'development contract' establishing good governance in developing countries and fair trading arrangements. About 40 [107] . thus the problem of demographic growth has become a challenge of national dimension. as represented by those companies that do strictly adhere to the legal framework and rules. pneumonia. support and direct the forces of the market. tuberculosis. average life expectancy in the least developed countries remains stuck at 49 years. In Russia it has fallen with the transition to a market economy. Over the past decade. the achievement of the MDGs. unless trade union rights are respected and unless states and governments are able to regulate. which compares to 75 years in developed countries. what results is the explosion of inequality and the surge of an informal economy with its destructive impact on institutions. migrants' rights and interests of marginalized groups including indigenous peoples. social protection systems. The challenge for the international community is to deliver on commitments for debt relief. Rebuilding means enabling them to implement the rights of their citizens. This is a matter of the utmost urgency. average life expectancy in the world has increased with notable progress made toward the eradication or elimination of various major infectious diseases.LABOUR LEGISLATION parallel work by the institutions. diarrhoeal diseases and measles. Resources must serve to rebuild not to undermine governments and the public sector. Six major communicable diseases currently cause 90% of avoidable deaths: AIDS. and the creation of decent work. industrial relations and the 'formal' economy itself.

The disproportionate burden of disease will continue to be borne by disadvantaged or marginalised sectors of society. More than 12 million Africans have died of AIDS (more than two million in a single year). trade. as a result of growing inequality. Yet the Chinese growth model is threatened by serious imbalances between regions. as would the elimination of malnutrition among 30% of the world's population. Improving access to water supplies for 1 billion people and improved sanitation for 2. as well as proper ill-health detection and treatment services. many deaths could be prevented by the use of low-cost antibiotics and improved access to primary health care. agriculture well as solutions to ill-health -. Rising infection rates are manifest in many other parts of the world and it is now together with TB a major problem and potential cause of death worldwide. and many millions have been orphaned due to HIV/AIDS. Meanwhile. water and sanitation. Many key determinants of health and disease . 95% of them in developing countries. within China constitute an exploited underclass. employment. young and old. In developing countries. The net effect [108] .LABOUR LEGISLATION million adults and children are now living with HIV/AIDS. tourism. as well as resource depletion and environmental pillaging.4 billion would have a sizeable impact on health. in areas concerned with environment. vaccinations.lie beyond the direct control of the health sectors. due to capital inefficiency and insolvency of the banking system. water and sanitation. Poverty is likely to remain the principal killer world-wide because of lack of access to drugs. the Chinese model of export-led growth has increased competitive pressures on markets in the OECD countries. A generation of migrant workers. China's continuing high rates of growth and the associated increase in foreign direct investment have turned out to be the economic phenomenon of the 21st century. urban and rural livelihoods. energy and housing.

With the growth of the private sector. all in order to obtain labour-cost advantage coupled with an administered foreign exchange rate and a foreign investment regime 'a la carte'. This cannot be done from the 'top down'-it needs vibrant civil society. The export orientation of growth is based upon the suppression of workers' core rights. as can be seen in their current impact on energy intensive industries and on the least developed.a labour-intensive sector. environmentally friendly and affordable energy. clean. Employment is directly affected by high and volatile prices. trade unions favour a policy approach to achieve those three goals.LABOUR LEGISLATION of China's conduct is to undermine labour standards in other developing countries while raising demand for commodities. [109] . fundamental civil and political liberties plus strong and effective unions operating on ILO standards of freedom of association and the right to strike. As employment and living standards of workers depend on policies which can deliver secure. High prices cut into living standards and push more working people into fuel poverty. fuel-importing countries as well. state authorities should acknowledge the need to strengthen their capacity to introduce and enforce decent labour-market regulation to protect workers against the extremes of the market system and to manage change in a socially sustainable way. Policies for employment need to be linked with the strengthening of pollution control through the promotion of renewable energy . The priority for China must be to evolve from being an outlier in terms of respect for internationally recognised standards and to shift to better balanced and qualitative growth that is sustainable both socially and environmentally.

cooperatives. labour law and industrial relations. equality of opportunity and treatment. but related. [110] . hardship and privation‖. social security. It was founded in 1919 and is the only surviving major creation of the Treaty of Versailles which brought the League of Nations into being and it became the first specialized agency of the UN in 1946. labour statistics and occupational safety and health. working conditions. and other standards regulating conditions across the entire spectrum of work related issues. It promotes the development of independent employers' and workers' organizations and provides training and advisory services to those organizations. the ILO has a unique tripartite structure with workers and employers participating as equal partners with governments in the work of its governing organs. Within the UN system. social policy. With the incorporation of the Declaration of Philadelphia into its Constitution in 1944. the Organization‗s standard setting mandate was broadened to include more general. The ILO formulates international labour standards in the form of Conventions and Recommendations setting minimum standards of basic labour rights: freedom of association. International labour standards are essentially expressions of international tripartite agreement on these matters.LABOUR LEGISLATION The ILO was created in 1919 primarily for the purpose of adopting international standards to cope with the problem of labour conditions involving ―injustice. the right to organize. collective bargaining. The International Labour Organization is the UN specialized agency which seeks the promotion of social justice and internationally recognized human and labour rights. human and civil rights matters. employment policy. abolition of forced labour. It provides technical assistance primarily in the fields of vocational training and vocational rehabilitation. labour administration. management development.

often agree upon documents less formal than Conventions and Recommendations. Joint Maritime Commission. however. Its Recommendations are non-binding instruments -. These documents are often intended to have a normative effect but are not referred to as part of the ILO's system of international labour standards. there are resolutions and conclusions agreed by various ILO organs. resolutions and declarations. bodies set up to cover specific sectors (industrial committees. Both forms are intended to have a concrete impact on working conditions and practices in every country of the world.typically dealing with the same subjects as Conventions -. [111] . "normative instruments" -. resolutions and conclusions of the Governing Body and of other ILO organs can be said to be other. recognised as international labour standards in the ILO's Constitution The Governing Body's Tripartite Declaration of Principles concerning Multinational Enterprises and Social Policy is perhaps the most well known of the "informal" international labour standards.They are not. special conferences. There are a number of important examples of these. In addition to Conventions and Recommendations. more informal. as well as other ILO bodies. Declarations. technical committees of experts. such as the International Labour Conference (ILC). The annual International Labour Conference. The ILO's Conventions are international treaties.which set out guidelines which can orient national policy and action. subject to ratification by ILO member States. These take such forms as codes of conduct.LABOUR LEGISLATION The ILO's standards take the form of international labour Conventions and Recommendations.

These resolutions and conclusions take various forms. standards are often written with certain flexibility in their obligations. and regional conferences and technical meetings in Asia and the Pacific. They may cover specific categories of workers or deal in a detailed manner with particular technical themes. International labour standards are universal in character as their drafters intend that all countries be able to implement and ratify them -. while others are of a very technical nature. Because of this intent. such resolutions and conclusions refer directly to relevant international labour standards. A list of some titles of resolutions adopted by the International Labour Conference between 1984 and 1999 may suggest their relevance to international labour standards. or social or economic system. In general. the Americas. sometimes including new definitions and concepts. Related to the universality of standards and the flexibility they must sometimes have as a [112] . and the most recent socioeconomic developments on which the Organization expresses itself. They also differ as to the weight given to them in practice. which makes them particularly valuable when planning the ILO's technical cooperation activities. Some cover basic principles. sometimes new.regardless of each's stage of economic development. These differ considerably in their content. resolutions and conclusions respond to specific situations and needs. emphasis. A resolution or conclusions adopted by the International Labour Conference necessarily carry the highest authority. Africa and Europe.).LABOUR LEGISLATION etc. giving both the international labour standards referred to and the document mentioning the international labour standards a fresh. Often.

at ensuring that the results are viable. several very important standards set only goals for national policy and a broad framework for national action. that the final piece of international law can. The tripartite deliberation which goes into standards' adoption is aimed. [113] . amongst other things. These characteristics come together in a unique way in international labour standards. The desire all along is to set a labour standard which can be used internationally. In connection with this. In addition.and to be able to demonstrate progress over time in achieving the goals. be implemented and accepted by member States as the international standard on the subject at hand.LABOUR LEGISLATION result. When ratified. Transforming these universally accepted goals and rules into a binding legal obligation is each State's sovereign privilege. Consideration of prevailing diverse national practices goes into their preparation and framing. it has become routine for those concerned with social problems to refer to international labour standards for guidance as reflecting the considered views of a representative world assembly. the systematic regularity with which international labour standards are adopted enhances their influence as even in the absence of obligations arising out of ratification. This is done through ratification. in fact. That is. international labour standards are set sensitive to the possibility that they may need to be modified or adapted as time goes on. International labour standards are debated and adopted by delegates from all parts of the world. They provide for widely accepted goals and rules for national action that all countries can follow. these promotional standards oblige a country to use means appropriate to national circumstance to promote these goals -.

the Trade Union Movement in India was pioneered by Barristers. the colonial era ended. scarred by two world wars and other conflicts. In recent years. Many newly independent nations entered the international community. In such an environment. ILO delegations "refuse categorically to accept the very idea that there could be sub-standards for sub-humans". ILO bodies have consistently opposed the idea of having different standards for different regions or groups of countries. and all along. Since 1919 international labour standards have had to adapt to a rapidly changing world. new standards have been adopted and older standards have been revised whenever necessary to bring them up to date. teachers and preachers. When we analyse. The objective has been to maintain the reputation of the system of standards as one which is relevant and well adapted to the global situation. the labour in India we have to study the Trade Union Movement in India. As stated in earlier paragraphs. the standards nevertheless remain a reference point for developing policy and action on the matter at hand. Most of our national leaders who fought for the [114] .LABOUR LEGISLATION Even before this is done in any particular State. During this same period. standards are adopted with a view to the possibility that they may need to be modified in the future. social reformers. the Governing Body has been systematically reviewing individual standards with an eye to the viability of each. determined to pursue their own development in co-operation with the rest of the world. editors. confronted by economic crises and rapid cultural changes. Features of the system have been developed with this in mind. INDIAN LABOUR STANDARDS India presents a confused and a gloomy picture when we probe into labour standards practiced in India.

and both the Hind Mazdoor Sabha and the Centre of Indian Trade Unions made significant progress in the labour movement. Unions and bargaining structures were highly centralized. there were massive inter-union rivalries. State intervention in the determination of wages and working conditions was the norm and "statedominated pluralism" was the labour regime during this first phase. Centralized bargaining institutions now started feeling the pressure of dissent from below. The Indian National Trade Union Congress was born in 1947 and it was under the banner of the then Congress Party. the two main federations were the nationalist Indian National Trade Union Congress and the communist All India Trade Union Congress. have also waged a war with the colonial Government to liberate the working force from slavery. The evolution of trade unionism in India can be classified under four phases. The crisis culminated in the May 1974 railway [115] . The second phase (mid-1960s to 1979) is associated with a period of economic stagnation and political turmoil. and industrial conflict increased. when public-sector employment and public-sector unionism rose phenomenally.LABOUR LEGISLATION liberation of India from the clutches of the colonial rule. All the Trade Unions in India are only organized by political parties. The economic governance demands privatization of all fields which policy is totally opposed by many of the Trade Unions in India. It was this long drawn battle that saw to the birth of many employee legislations during the colonial period. Employment slowed down. The first phase (1950 to mid-1960s) corresponds to an era of state planning and import substitution. The Trade Unions carry with them certain ideologies which are totally outmoded and away from the current demand of economic governance. The other Trade Unions that followed took a leaf from INTUC and owed allegiance to political parties.

labourmanagement relations. Gandhi. wages and working conditions. An "involuted" pluralism dominated Indian labour relations during this second phase. In non-viable public enterprises. Finally.LABOUR LEGISLATION strike that was followed by the 1975-77 Emergency Regime of Mrs. but there now seem to be several barriers to this form of engagement. Two major strikes (the 1980/81 Bangalore public-sector strike and the 1982 Mumbai textile workers strike) marked this phase. workers lost out and unions were left with few strategies. unions are coming to terms with "voluntary" retirement schemes. In the early years of economic reform there were sincere attempts by all parties to engage in tripartite consultations. The following findings would bring about the labour standards in India: [116] . the nature of collective bargaining. This has led to a recruitment freeze in many public sector sites. intestate and regional variations in labour regimes. but in the unorganized and declining sector. In the more profitable economic sectors the unions gained. the fourth phase of unionism (as yet incomplete. the plight of women workers. 1991-2000) represents the post-economic reform period. and inter-state and inter-regional variations in the nature of labourmanagement regimes became much wider. especially employment flexibility. The crucial issues relevant to the Trade Union movement in India are the relationship between the Trade Union and employment. The stabilization and structural adjustment programmes led to demands for increased labour market flexibility. the industrial disputes. Decentralized bargaining and independent trade unionism enter the stage in a significant way. and unions in these sectors now have to cope with competition at local level. The third phase (1980-1991) corresponds to a period of segmented and uneven economic development.

they lack new strategies in the older and declining sectors of production where industry-wide bargaining structures are typically the norm. but also in some public sector firms with decentralized bargaining structures. age and scope of long-term agreements. absence of a single bargaining agent. especially since the economic reforms. However. especially since the beginning of economic reform.LABOUR LEGISLATION declined. Competitive market pressures. which may have caused a decline in the power of centralized affiliated unions. (often multinational) enterprises. have forced bargaining outcomes to be decided at local level. The trend in most industries is to reduce permanent employment and to use more contract. Whereas workers and unions in non-viable public enterprises are facing closure and an uncertain future. This makes the organized [117] . especially in the private sector. temporary and casual workers. m to work at its best is still absent from the Indian industrial relations system (absence of a secret ballot. employment in public sector services has increased since the third phase of unionism. however. centralized unions representing employees in public services remain strong due to the monopolistic nature of their product markets. of plant-based independent and unaffiliated trade unions has risen. absence of third-party arbitration and strong restraints on "legal" strikes).

-employed and unorganized sectors with little representation in trade unions. these variations are likely to be accentuated with the progress of economic reform. management relations in the advanced sectors of production without necessarily leading to a decline in union bargaining power.LABOUR LEGISLATION labour movement still very dependent on state recognition and patronage. The employer and employees have now opted to arbitration and collective bargaining to get their wage raise and periodical revision of wages instead of raising industrial disputes. and in the absence of a concerted effort on the part of the central government to reform labour laws. Collective bargaining [118] . All parties recognize the urgent need for comprehensive labour law reform. Wages and working conditions The wage structure in India is very low when compared with those provided in western countries. The capitalist employer do not like the presence of Union in the premises controlling the functioning of the factory. -state and inter-city variations in labour-management relations have increased since the mid-1980s. Unionisation and Employment Unionisation in India has in fact reduced the employment opportunities. Non-governmental organizations have made considerable efforts to organize women in these vulnerable occupations.

Hoxie : 'Collective Bargaining is the mode of fixing the terms of employment by means of bargaining between organized bodies of employees and employer acting through their agents. 2. It manifests in politics. administration. There is no work stoppage or outside intervention and minor differences are sorted out immediately through discussion and interaction. It is collective and not individual. brings about better understanding between the labour and management. The essence of collective bargaining is a bargain between interested parties and not a decree from outside parties'. It is between representatives of the employers and the representatives of the Union. Encyclopedia of social sciences defines collective bargaining: 'It is a process through discussion and negotiation between two parties wherein the employer and workmen agree upon the conditions of work'. [119] .LABOUR LEGISLATION Management and Union reconciled conflicts through collective bargaining. RF. education and propaganda. Government. It is above all a technique whereby an inferior social class or group exerts a never-slackening pressure for a bigger share in social sovereignty as well for the welfare and greater security and liberty for its members. legislation. representatives of the Union and representatives of the Management hold joint sessions and solved problems through negotiations and discussions. Serlig Perlman: 'Collective bargaining is not just a means of raising wages and improving conditions of employment nor is it merely a democratic Government in industry. religion.' Important factors about Collective Bargaining: 1. In collective bargaining. Collective bargaining creates industrial harmony and peace.

10. 16. 12. 11. It is a continuous process. Arnold Campo gives the following advice to both the parties as to how to behave at the collective bargaining table: 1. 14. It is a civilized bipartite confrontation. 17.LABOUR LEGISLATION 3. It is a two-party process. 6. 8. It avoids industrial disputes and creates stable peace. 4. 7. It creates stability and prosperity. It creates industrial democracy at work. 13. It involves discussion and negotiation. 2. It builds up uniform conditions. It is not competitive but complementary. It accords fair wages and decent working conditions. It avoids strikes and coercive methods. It is not fixed and static. 9. Release tension. 15. It increases economic strength. It is flexible and mobile. 5. Be friendly. [120] . It secures fair redressal of grievances.

notably in multinationals and other private firms. No stalemate. 9. 6. Since the economic reforms of 1991. 11. 8. Be right and fair. Define the issues. Give opportunity to all. Collective Bargaining was effected as early as 1920 by the employer and employees of Ahmedabad Textile Industry on the request made by Mahatma Gandhi. 7. 12. 4. Labour Management Relations Since the mid-1980s the practice of human resources management (HRM) has significantly altered traditional union-management relations in the advanced sectors of production. some public sector firms have also incorporated [121] . 5.LABOUR LEGISLATION 3. Listen carefully. Collective bargaining is the best method of solving disputes between employer and labour and a best method of agreeing upon the conditions of work. 10. Think rather than feel. Learn the personal history of representatives present. Let the discussion wander. All disputes were resolved and the textile mill started functioning within a month. Search for solutions. 13. Keep members as small. Respect all.

modular organization of production through work teams with team leaders who often form part of the management structure. mainly foreign. In the skill-intensive service sectors such as information technology. and to tripartism with responsibility and accountability in the public sector. If labour law reforms facilitate competitive pluralism and lead to efficient collective bargaining in the private sector. It is no coincidence that the most publicized post-reform industrial conflict at national level has been in banking and insurance. unions will have little success if they resist modernization. players in these sites. Unions have a strong presence in the firms where modern HRM practices are implemented successfully. and it is only with cooperative union-management behaviour that this has been possible. HRM practices continue to pose a challenge and possibly create permanent barriers to union entry and organization. there is no clear evidence of this in India. While many would argue that modern HRM practices undercut union effectiveness at enterprise level. individualized and/or contingency pay systems.LABOUR LEGISLATION modern HRM practices into their otherwise traditional labour-management relationship. carefully designed and fairly implemented performance appraisal systems. Some of the essential characteristics of these HRM practices are: attempts at direct communication between managers and employees. To the extent that information technology redefines the nature of work in banking and insurance. and so on. But this applies mainly to the manufacturing sector. Inter-state variations [122] . given the entry of new. we can postulate that the effectiveness of unions would not necessarily diminish if modern HRM practices were introduced in enterprises.

This has clearly happened to some extent and has often taken violent forms. and also leading to chasms between political parties and their affiliated unions. Other Factors As suggested earlier. Apart from the TATA companies. both among the leaders and the rank and file. The Trade Unions with their agelong ideologies are opposing every move of the Government on the above lines. social productivity and civil society at large. The Union Government has been suggesting on legislating a new labour code in tune with the demand made by the global economic governance as to eradicate poverty. States with a less organized labour movement. temporary or issue-based alliances have been formed between unions affiliated to opposition parties. These attempts are causing confusion within the union movement. raise the standard of living of the working class and to opt for privatization of all sectors to improve the functioning of the industries in India and to free the Government-controlled industries from the egoistic and bureaucratic style of functioning. if controlled by pro-capital state governments. In several instances. may attempt to attract capital with implicit promises of a union-free environment. The declaration on the Human Rights and the covenants that follow. regularize wage fixation. Ruling governments in other states with a long history of proletarian politics are desperately attempting to change their signals. the multi-national companies have become model employers catering to the statutory and non-statutory welfare measures of the workmen. clearly reiterate that the standard of living means that every citizen on the globe [123] . the employee legislations in India are totally out-moded and impractical.LABOUR LEGISLATION One of the most important concerns of social scientists in India today is the effect that economic liberalization will have on inter-state variations in human development. especially with regard to privatization of public sector services and utilities.

freedom of association and the effective recognition of the right to collective bargaining. globalization and privatization.LABOUR LEGISLATION must enjoy the standard of living that is given to the American citizen. Women and Children employed in factories need better care. let us recall the 1998 International Labour Organisation Declaration on Fundamental Principles and Rights at Work. The core labour rights are : 1. 3.‖ -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------UNIT – II LESSON – I INTRODUCTION AND OVERVIEW OF EMPLOYEE LEGISLATION INTRODUCTION: In this unit we are going to analyze the purpose of employee legislation and the employee legislation as enacted by the Government. and 4. It is high time that the Government of India raises the labour standards in India as currently such standards are appalling and pathetic. Abolition of child labour is voiced vociferously in India currently and we fondly believe all children are sent to school and not to working places. 2. the effective abolition of child labor. the elimination of all forms of forced or compulsory labor. the elimination of discrimination in respect of employment and occupation. To conclude. Further the experience from implementation of the [124] . both Central and State and the improvements which could be incorporated in the law due to the development of international trade and commerce due to liberalization. It is not the question of minimum standard of living but the real and the actual standard of living.

Lastly the imperatives of labour reforms are discussed critically giving certain suggestions for the improvement of the existing employee legislation. The Act granted immunity to registered trade unions and their members from legal proceedings in civil and criminal courts. In a modern industrial unit a large number of workers are employed. The workers were unable to protect themselves from exploitation by the industrialist. Even women and children were employed under conditions which were detrimental to their health. safety and welfare. Such protective legislation was of elementary and haphazard in nature.L. After the World War I. employees‗ government and society‗s angle is discussed with reference to landmark judgments. politicians and trade unions became increasingly aware of the plight of workers. the Government stepped into protect the interests of workers. It enacted labour laws to impose statutory obligations on employers to provide reasonably good working conditions. Under the handicrafts system every production unit was small and there was direct personal contact between the employer and the craftsman.O. However the labour laws enacted before the World War I were designed mainly to protect the interests of Great Britain. In 1919 India became a member of I. In 1926 the Trade Unions Act was passed.LABOUR LEGISLATION laws from employers‗. But the Act made no [125] . In 1918 the textile workers of Ahmedabad successfully launched a strike under the leadership of Mahatma Gandhi. After the industrial revolution large scale industry came into being. ORIGIN OF LABOUR LAW: The origin and growth of labour law can be traced to the rise of the modern factory system. As the workers had no bargaining a capacity with the capitalist employer they had to work on nominal wages for long hours and under the unhealthiest conditions. As a Welfare State.

All laws which have a bearing on labour are included in the category of labour laws.LABOUR LEGISLATION provision for settlement of industrial disputes. industrial relations. EMPLOYEE LEGISLATION-AN OVERVIEW: The term ‗Labour Law‘ or ‗Employee Legislation‘ refers to that body of laws which are enacted to protect and promote the interests of the working class in society. More than 100 labour laws have not succeeded in checking growing militancy in industrial relations. In 1942 permanent tripartite labour machinery was set up to promote uniformity in labour legislation. Too many labour laws have been enacted due to emphasis on high ideals. social security. India has not been able to maintain peaceful employer employee relations. But faulty implementation has instead of protecting labour deprived them of their due benefits. Despite most comprehensive labour legislation. After independence the Government of India passed a number of labour statutes. This machinery consisted of a Standing Committee and an annual Labour Conference. [126] . Further labour legislation in any country should be based on the principles of social justice and social equity. There has been a spurt in industrial disputes and work stoppages which have hampered faster industrial development of the country. embezzlement of provident fund money and other undesirable trends in industrial relations. wages working conditions. comprehensively covering every aspect of labour. Labour laws comprise all those laws by which relationships between employers and employees are governed. Labour legislation is the ex-pression of the feelings of the people and gives practical shape to current human and social values of the community. Labour law seeks to establish a harmonious relationship between the employers and the employees and to strike a right-balance between capital ad labour. Labour laws deal with the employment. labour welfare. etc.

The Payment of Bonus act. The Workmen‗s [127] . 2. 1946. PRINCIPLES OF LABOUR LEGISLATION: The fundamental principles on which legislation is based are as follows: 1. The Minimum Wages Act. The tune of social justice is most vibrant in industrial jurisprudence. The Factories Act. 4. THE OBJECTIVES OF LABOUR LAWS: The objectives are to ensure good working and living conditions for workers and to maintain industrial peace and cordial relations between employers and workers. 1947. since labour is in the concurrent list and also introduced measures for social security of the workers in the Employees State Insurance Act. 6. 1948. Payment of Wages Act. 1972. The Industrial Employment (Standing Orders) Act. The Trade Unions Act. 1936. 1952 and The Payment of Gratuity Act. Employees‗ Provident Funds and Miscellaneous Provisions Act. In industry social justice implies an equitable distribution of the benefits of industry among employers and employees. 1948 Further the state has enacted labour laws. 1965 7. 3. 1926. The Industrial Disputes Act. through State amendments. 1948. It also means protection of the health safety and welfare of workers.LABOUR LEGISLATION The major industrial disputes legislation in India are:1. 5. SOCIAL JUSTICE: Our constitution enshrines the concept of social justice as the basic object of state Policy and action.

the level of compensation. For example the quantum of minimum wages.LABOUR LEGISLATION Compensation Act. Such legislation is based on the principle of social equity. The Government may modify or amend the law to suit the changing circumstances. The I. The Government has acquired the power of changing the law. The Factories Act.O. 1948 are attempts at securing social justice to labour. [128] . It has formulated several conventions and recommendations for the welfare of labour. It can make rules regarding certain specified matters to enforce the law. But as the conditions change there arises need to change the standards and the law. 2. 4. 1923. Labour Legislation in India is designed to fulfill the pledge and ideology enshrined in the Indian Constitution. CONSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK OF LABOUR LEGISLATION: Indian Constitution serves as the most important basis for labour laws in our country. NATIONAL ECONOMY: The general economic situation of the country is another principle on which labour legislation is based. Conventions have served as the guide to most of the labour law of India. the standard of safety. Member countries that ratify these conventions are required to implement them through appropriate legislation. SOCIAL EQUITY: Social justice provides definite standards to be adopted in labour legislation.O.L. etc are all influenced by the state of the national economy.) has done commendable work to develop uniform standards of labour legislation among the member countries. The purpose of the law may be defeated if this is not considered wile enacting labour legislation.L. 3. 1948. the Minimum Wages Act. INTERNATIONAL UNIFORMITY: The International Labour Organisation (I. The Fundamental Rights and the Directive Principles of state Policy enshrined in our Constitution provides guidelines for labour legislation in the country.

Any law which contravenes a fundamental right can be declared by the appropriate court to be void. sex or place of birth. (viii)People have the right to be protected against exploitation. Labour is the concurrent list on which both the Centre as well as the States gave the power to make laws. (iii)All citizens will have the right to form association or unions (iv) People will have freedom of speech and freedom of assembly.LABOUR LEGISLATION FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS: The Constitution of India has guaranteed some fundamental rights to all the citizens of the country. (vii)All citizens enjoy protection of life and personal liberty. (ix)Article 24 of the Constitution specifically provides that no child below the age of 14 yeas shall be employed to work in any factory or mine or engaged in any other hazardous employment. In case of any repugnancy between the Union and the State legislation naturally the legislation of the Union shall prevail. Individuals can enforce the Fundamental Rights in Courts. caste. [129] . race. (v)All citizens have the freedom to practice any profession (vi) No discrimination will be made on grounds of religion. Some of these are: (i)The State shall not deny to any person equality before the law or the equal protection of laws. (ii)There shall be equality of opportunity to all citizens in matters relating to employment or appointment to any office under the State.

LABOUR LEGISLATION DIRECTIVE PRINCIPLES OF STAE POLICY: The Directive Principles of State Policy as enshrined in the Constitution lay down the guiding principles which the State ought to follow in framing and enforcing various laws. Nevertheless.Art. [130] . The Directive Principles which are relevant to labour legislation are given hereunder: 1. social and political justice for all. 2.Art. They are the sheet anchor of the labour legislation and constitute the substratum of the industrial jurisprudence.38 lays down that the State shall strive to promote the welfare of the people by securing and protecting as effectively as it may a social order in which there is economic. (d) That there is equal pay for equal work for both men and women. However they are not enforceable by any court and provide no legal rights to individuals. (c) That the operation of the economic system does not result in the concentration of the wealth and means of production to the common detriment. these are a good guide to the State in the governance of the country. It states that the State shall direct its policy towards securing(a) That the citizens men and women equally.39 lays down the basic philosophy of the ideal of democratic socialism which is enshrined in the Preamble of Indian constitution and which is the motivating force behind the ‗Directive Principles‗. have the right to an adequate means of livelihood (b) That the ownership and control of the material resources of the community are so distributed as best to sub serve the common good.

on a basis of equal opportunity and shall in particular provide for legal aid.39-A provides that the State shall secure that the operation of the legal system promote justice. agricultural.42 lays down that the State shall make provision for securing just and humane conditions of work and for maternity relief. [131] . Art. to all workers. the state shall endeavor to promote cottage industries on an individual or co-operative basis in rural areas. by suitable legislation or economic organisation or in any other way. 4.41 lays down that the State shall make effective provision for securing the right to work. Aret. sickness and disablement and in other cases of undeserved want.43 provides that the State shall endeavor to secure. industrial or otherwise work a living wage conditions of work ensuring decent standard of life and full enjoyment of leisure and social and cultural opportunities and in particular. Art. Art. old age. Art. men and women and the tender age of children are not abused and that citizen are not forced by economic necessity to enter into vocations unsuited to their age or strength. and to public assistance in case of unemployment. establishments or other organisations engage in any industry. by suitable legislation or scheme or in any other way. 5. to secure the participation of workers in the management of undertakings. (f) That childhood and youth are protected against exploitation and against moral and material abandonment 3. by suitable legislation or in any other way. to ensure that opportunities for securing justice are not denied to any citizen by reasons of economic or other disabilities.43-A lays down that the State shall take steps. to education. 7.LABOUR LEGISLATION (e) that the health and strength of workers. 6.

CLASSIFICATION OF LABOUR LEGISLATION Acts Regulating conditions of Work Acts Regulating Terms and Conditions of Employment 1.Payment of Bonus Act 2. in particular.Payment of Wages Act 2.LABOUR LEGISLATION 8.Payment of Gratuity Act 3.S.Employees Provident Fund Act LESSON – II THE INDUSTRIAL EMPLOYMENT (STANDING ORDERS) ACT.Conferment of permanent status to workmen Act Acts providing Social Security Benefits Acts providing Medical facilities/Compe nsation for Accidents 1. Art.Standing Orders Act 2.I. of the scheduled castes and the scheduled tribes and shall protect them from social injustice and all forms of exploitation.Shops & Establishments Act 3. Art. 1946 [132] .E.Workmen‗s Compensation Act 2. 9.Industrial Disputes Act 3.47 describes that the State shall raise level of nutrition and the standards of living and to improve public health and shall endeavor to bring about prohibition of the consumption (except for medicinal purposes) of intoxicating drinks and of drugs which are injurious to health.Factories Act 2.46 mentions that the State shall promote with special care the educational and economic interests of the weaker sections of the people and.National & Festival Holidays Act 4.Act Acts Regulating payment of wages/subsisten ce Allowance 1.Subsistence Allowance Act 1.Contract Labour Regulation & Abolition Act 1.

1946 goes to the year 1944. It applies to (1) every industrial establishment wherein 100 or more workmen are employed or (b) wherein 100 or more persons were employed on any day of the preceding 12 months and (c) the establishment of a contractor who employs workmen in order to fulfill a contract with the owner of n industrial establishment. The main reason for the passage of The Industrial Employment (Standing Orders) Act on 23rd April. [133] . It is obligatory upon all employers covered by this Act to define precisely the conditions of employment under them which will govern relations between the employer and the employees and to make the said conditions known to the workmen employed by them‖ This is a Central Act and as such extends to the whole of India.. discharge. 1947. when the question of framing Standing Orders were considered by the Sixth Indian Labour Conference. disciplinary action. holidays.LABOUR LEGISLATION INTRODUCTION: The genesis of the Industrial Employment (Standing Orders) Act. PROVISIONS OF LAW: The Preamble of the Act clearly says tat the ―Standing Orders shall deal with the conditions of employment of workers in industrial establishment. goes a long way towards minimizing friction between the management and the workers in industrial undertaking‗. was the feeling that ―experience has shown that ‗Standing Orders‗ defining the conditions of recruitment. 1946. leave etc. This Act came into force from 1st April. The main features of the Act are:(a) Defining conditions of employment in industrial establishments and to make these known to the workmen concerned.

Section [134] . Section 8 provides for the maintenance of a Register of all Standing Orders which are finally certified by the Certifying Officer under the Act. Section 7 lays down the date from which the Standing Order shall come into operation and from that date they are binding upon the employer and the employees. (e) Provision for sanctity to standing orders and (f) Clarifying misconduct. Section 5 prescribes the procedure to be followed by the Certifying Officer before certification and the procedure is intended to provide an opportunity to both the employer and workmen. (c) Maintenance of proper discipline and detailing the principles and procedure. (d) Provisions of grievance redressal arising out of unfair treatment or wrongful exaction. workman. The Act has 15 sections in all and a schedule. Section 1 deals with the title and applicability of the Act. Sections 3 casts upon the employer a duty of drafting within 6 months from the date on which the Act becomes applicable to an industrial establishment. Section 4 says that Standing Orders become certifiable if every matter is included (as given in the Schedule) and is found by the Certifying Officer to be in conformity with the provisions of the Act. Appellate Authority. Appropriate Government Standing Orders etc. Section 6 provides for an appeal against the decision of the certifying officer. Certifying Officers. such as employer. the Standing Orders and submitting them to the Certifying Officer. to be heard before the final order is passed. Section 2 defines various terms connected with industrial establishments.LABOUR LEGISLATION (b) Regulating standards of conduct of employers and employees to improve workplace relations.

Clause 11 authorises the government to make addition of any matter it thinks necessary to do so. Clause 1 to 10 specifies several topics in respect of which the Standing Orders have to make provisions (Refer to Annexure I to this lesson). The Schedule to the Act contains 11 items regarding matters to be provided in the Standing Orders. Section 12A states about the application of the Model Standing Orders. Annexure I THE SCHEDULE [See Sections 2(g) and 3(2)] [135] . pending certification of the Standing Orders. Section 11 gives the Certifying Officer and the appellate authorities the powers of a Civil Court.LABOUR LEGISLATION 9 provides for their passing in English and in a language understood by the majority of the workers on a notice board. or upon an agreement between the employer and the employee. Section 12 specifies that no oral evidence shall be admitted in any Court which has the effect of varying or contradicting the standing orders finally certified. Section 10 deals with the duration and for the modification of the Certifying Orders at the instance of either party after they have been in force for 6 months. Section 14 provides that the employer may specify therein. the acts and omissions which will constitute misconduct and which entails the employer to take disciplinary action against an employee. Section 15 confers upon the appropriate government the power to make rules to carry out the purposes of the Act. Section 13 provides for penalties and procedures to enforce them. Section 10 A deals with the payment of subsistence allowance to the suspended employee pending investigation or inquiry into complaints or charges of misconduct against him at rates specified in the said section.

Termination of employment. 3. temporary. --- [136] . holidays. 4. Any other matter which may be prescribed. 2. Requirement to enter premises by certain gates. e. apprentices. and the authority.Clasification of Workment. which may grant leave and holidays. Attendance and late coming. or badlies. Closing and reopening of sections of the industrial establishment. Suspension or dismissal for misconduct. and liability to search. Means of redress for workmen against unfair treatment or wrongful exactions by the employer or his agents or servants. Shift working. 9. 8. 10. which constitute misconduct. Manner of intimating to workmen periods and hours of work. 6. paydays and wage rates. probationers.g.. 5. whether permanent. and acts or omissions.LABOUR LEGISLATION Matters to be provided in standing Orders under the Act 1. and the notice thereof to be given by employer and workmen. Conditions of procedure in applying for. 7. and temporary stoppages of work and the rights and liabilities of the employer and workmen arising there from. 11.

LABOUR LEGISLATION LESSON – III THE TRADE UNIONS ACT. Thus trade union is born. fewer hours of work. Even though a Trade Union is thus an economic organisation. during the last few decades. such as lo membership. the workers find it difficult to stop such exploitation by the management. a welfare agency or an agent for social change. reasonable amenities and human treatment. Individually. 1926 INTRODUCTION: In Independent India. bad working conditions heavy work load and inhuman treatment of workers by their superiors. One of the objectives of our Five Year Plans is rapid and balanced industrialization. pre-occupation with strikes and litigation. revolutionary body. asking for more wages and less hours of work. The modern industrialization process crates the labour problems in such forms as employment of women and children even for heavy manual work. a sort of an industrial revolution wit the development of big medium and small industrial units both in the public and private sectors. the government has also entered the industrial field in a big way with the development of the public sector. we are naturally attaching considerable importance to the growth of industry. or a militant. workers ask for more wages. If our trade union movement is [137] . long hours of work. so they organize themselves into trade unions and fight the employers directly in the industrial field. unsound finances lack of welfare measures. dominance of outsiders and political interference. it may also serve as a moral institution. Through their collective action. A trade union can perform a variety of roles. Since 1956. We are witnessing. lack of elementary facilities. low wages. Our trade unions still have serious set backs. particularly in the sector of basic or key industries.

Lastly. BIRTH OF THE TRADE UNION LEGISLATION: The need for a trade union law in India was felt because of a legal decision of the Madras High Court in the case of Madras Labour Union led by B. Union leaders were sentenced and the union was broken. which in due course became the Trade Unions Act of 1926. In the absence of trade union law.Wadia and the Buckingham & Carnatic Mills.LABOUR LEGISLATION to be developed on sound lines. healthy and constructive trade union movement in India. The necessity of a law was felt to give freedom of association to workers and provide for their right to voice their grievances and to agitate for their redress through organized action. With this purpose in view a Bill was introduced in 1921 in the Indian legislature. restraining the union from interfering with the business of the Mills. this legitimate activity became conspiracy under the common law and the High Court granted injunction. economic or otherwise. Any group of persons whether workers or employers can unite themselves to protect their interest. charging that the organisation incited the workers. these defects have to removed. Hence the need arises to study of the past and present of the Indian trade union movement. SCHEME OF THE ACT: The procedure for registration enumerated in the following paragraphs are carved out from the provisions of The Trade Unions Act [138] . OBJECT AND SCOPE OF ACT: Article 19(1) (a) and (c) of our Constitution guarantees to every citizen freedom of speech and ex-pression and right to form association to ventilate their views and grievances.P. The company filed a complaint against the union. an intensive and elaborate study of trade union is made and further there is a discussion on the remedial measures to be taken for the proper development of a strong.

and includes any federation of two or more Trade Unions. trade or handicraft. As is evident from the preamble itself that the Act enacted to provide for registration of Trade Unions. whose objects. the Act lays down in a comprehensive manner the procedure for registering a Trade Union. are not confined to one State. Section 2(h) of The Trade Union act. registration of trade union is desired. or (ii) between workmen and workmen or (iii) between employers and employers. or (c) any agreement in consideration of the sale of the goodwill of a business or of instruction in any profession. which are in relation to a Trade Union. whether temporary or permanent. or (b) for imposing restrictive conditions on the conduct of any trade or business. 1926 defines ‗Trade Union‗ thus ―Trade Union‖ means any combination. it should be noted that registration of Trade Union is not mandatory under the Act. In view of a number of immunities granted to a registered trade union from civil and criminal proceedings. However. Any seven or more members of a Trade Union may apply for registration by subscribing their names to the rules of a Trade Union and complying with other [139] .LABOUR LEGISLATION and the Central Trade Union Regulations 1938. formed primarily for the purposes of: (a) regulating the relations (i) between workmen and employer. Provided that this Act shall not affect: (a) any agreement between partners as their own business: (b) any agreement between employer and those employed by him as to such employment.

Before granting registration. The Registrar on registering a Trade Union shall issue a Certificate of registration in Form ―C‖ which shall be conclusive evidence that the Trade Union has been duly registered under the Act. and (iii) the titles. 1938) Every application for registration shall be made to the registrar along with the fee as prescribed under the regulations and it shall be accompanied by a copy of the rules of the Trade Union and a statement of the following particulars: (i) the names. if he is not satisfied with the particulars he may refuse to register the Trade Union and if such information required by him is not supplied to him. the Registrar is empowered to call for further information.LABOUR LEGISLATION requirements in relation to registration under the Act. addresses and occupations of members making the application. names.(Regulation 3 of Central Trade Union Regulations. The application for registration referred to above shall be made in Form A. a general statement of the assets and liabilities of the Trade Union). together along with the application. addresses and occupations of the officers of the Trade Union (if the Trade Union has been in existence for more tan one year before the making of an application. After being satisfied the Registrar shall register the Trade Union by entering in a register to be maintained in Form B the particulars relating to the Trade Union after being satisfied that the Trade Union has complied with all the requirements in regard to registration. there shall be delivered to the Registrar. [140] . The Registrar may refuse to register the Trade Union if the name resembles with the name of an existing Trade Union. ages. (ii) the name of the Trade Union and the address of its Head Office.

6 (f)Trade Union has on its own applied for its withdrawal. the Registrar may withdraw or cancel the Certificate of Registration on the following grounds: (a)Certificate has been obtained by fraud or mistake (b)Trade Union has ceased to exist (c) Trade Union has willfully and after notice from the registrar contravened any provisions of the Act (d)Trade Union has allowed any rule to continue in force which is inconsistent with any provisions of the Act (e)Trade Union has rescinded any rule providing for any matters. which such period as may be prescribed from the date on which the registrar passed the order appeal (a) where the head office of the Trade Union is situated with in the limits of a Presidency town to the High Court.10 of the Act. or (b) where the head office is situated in any other area. Further the Registrar shall before withdrawing or canceling the registration shall give two months notice and it is not necessary if the Trade Union has itself made an application for the same. provision for which is required by Sec.LABOUR LEGISLATION According to Sec. to such Court not inferior to the Court of an Additional or assistant Judge or a principal Civil Court of original [141] . Any person aggrieved by any refusal of the Registrar to register a Trade Union or by the withdrawal or cancellation of a certificate of registration may.

The following Acts shall not apply for the registration of Trade Union (a)The Societies Registration Act (b)The Co-operatives Societies Act ( c )The Companies Act The Act provides for two types of funds viz. administrative expenses. allowances and expenses of office bearers of the Trade Union. as the case may be and the Registrar shall comply with such order Every registered Trade Union shall be a body corporate by the name under which it is registered and shall have perpetual succession and a common seal with power to acquire and hold both moveable and immovable property and to contract and shall by the said name sue and be sued.LABOUR LEGISLATION jurisdiction. The appellate court may dismiss the appeal . or pass an order directing the Registrar to register the union and to issue a certificate of registration under the provisions of the Act or set aside the order of withdrawal or cancellation of the certificate. the prosecution or defence of legal proceedings etc. The Political fund shall be constituted from separate contributions made towards that fund by the members. (i)General Funds and (ii)Funds for political purposes General Fund may be utilized for payment of salaries. as the appropriate Government may appoint in this behalf for that area. Such fund shall be used in furtherance of any of the [142] .

interference with the trade business or employment of some other person or (3)interference with the right of some other person to dispose of his capital or his labour as he wills Further Sec. No member can be compelled to contribute to this fund and for non contribution of money towards political fund..L.C.LABOUR LEGISLATION objects specified below for the promotion of Civil and Political interests of its members like payment for any expenses incurred either directly or indirectly by a candidate or prospective candidate for election. They are namely (1) Immunity from prosecution under Sec.120B I.A. holding of any meeting or the distribution of literature. Disqualification for being office bearers: the following persons cannot be appointed as office bearer or member of the executive [143] .C etc. the maintenance of any person who is an M. (2)Immunity from civil suits for breach of contract.L.P.18 (2) provides that a registered Trade Union shall not be liable in any suit or other legal proceeding in any Civil Court in respect of any tortious act done in furtherance of a trade dispute by an agent of the Trade Union if it is proved that such person acted without the knowledge of or contrary to express instruction given the executive of the Trade Union. M. a member cannot be excluded from the benefits of Trade Union The Trade Unions Act protects the members of the registered Trade Union and the office bearers from certain criminal and civil acts provided such acts are necessary in carrying out the lawful objectives of the Trade Union.

23 a registered Trade Union may with the consent of not less that two-thirds of the total members of its members change its name. [144] . (b) a person who has been convicted by a Court in India of any offences involving moral turpitude and sentenced to imprisonment. Change in the name and structure: Under Sec.LABOUR LEGISLATION (a) a person who had not attained the age of eighteen years. Dissolution of a Trade Union: A notice signed by members and secretary of the Union shall be given to the Registrar within 14 days of its dissolution and if it is in accordance with the rules the Registrar shall dissolve the trade union and it shall have effect from the date of such registration. Amalgamation of Trade Unions: Any two or more registered Trade Unions may become amalgamated together as one Trade Union with or without dissolution or division of funds of such Trade Unions or either or any of them. For this the votes of at least one-half of the members of each or every such Trade Union entitled to vote are recovered and that at least 60 per cent of the votes recorded are in favour of the proposal. unless a period of five years has elapse since his release Composition of office bearers: At least half of the office bearers of registered Trade Union should be persons actually engaged or employed in an industry with which Trade Union is connected Membership rights: Any person who has attained the age of fifteen years may be a member of a registered Trade Union subject to any rules of the Trade Union to the contrary.

more than one union in an industry is encouraged. 3. and ignoring the real needs of the workers. 4. 2. they play a role of only ―take‖ and not ―give‖. Added to this. The intra-union rivalry helps the management and the Government a great deal. The other 70% remains away from the trade unions with the feeling that the 30% fights and gets whatever they genuinely deserve and by this success they will also be benefited. This multiplicity of unions results in pocketing of one or more unions by the management. But the bad legacy of divide and rule left behind by them is followed by this people. Outside leadership: The outside leadership has provided an improper leadership with or care for their personal growth or that of the political party to which they belong. may neither have time nor knowledge to discuss problem faced by the workers of that industry. In other words. both in letter and spirit. An outside leadership leading many trade unions with very little or no knowledge of the industry which he leads. Political Unionism: Most of the unions in our country are run by different political parties and their respective political ideologies are given more importance than the real cause of the workers. The 30% will also be members of different trade unions in the same industry and even this microscopic minority of membership in each union will [145] . Multiplicity of Unions: Whatever good the British had our political bosses and industrialists did not learn. Low membership: Hardly 30% of the workers in any industry become members of trade unions. In case of any punishment for union activities this 70% is safe. As a result of this.LABOUR LEGISLATION VICIOUS CIRLE OF TRADE UNIONISM: 1. each union has different groups within itself and this intra union rivalry also culminates the rival group of workers being punished by the management with the support of the other the rival group.

[146] . Due to unsound finances. Some of the leaders even collect large funds from the employers.. by nature. 3 and 1 to 2. thus making the workers hood-winked. and leave along contributing to the retrenched or victimized worker. DIAGRAM OF THE VICIOUS CIRCLE OF TRADE UNIONS IN INDIA The average trade unionist pay Rs. This also occurs due to outside leadership who has very little time or no time at all to concentrate on such good activities.LABOUR LEGISLATION have several groups.. the finance of the unions is also so low tat they cannot even give regular programmes of gate meeting. dharna.3.per year in India. L 2 per year in the in the United Kingdom and $36 per year in U. Unsound Finance: Man is. 5. Lack of welfare and other activities: Lack of welfare and constructive activities in an industry is mainly due to poor finances of the trade unions and as also due to lack of proper training of the union leaders and cadres. self-centered and wants to share the benefits and never the loss.S. the leadership indulges in making money for his subsistence by unfair practices such as furnishing false information about the industry or asking for donations as and when some demands are taken up. With the low membership as also the non-payment of subscriptions regularly. the proportion being 1:9:58 the percentage of wages paid as trade union fees in these three countries are 0. most of them do not pay regular subscription. 6. wearing of black badges etc. Even out of these 30% of the members.3/. This happens in the trade union field also.A.

Ineffective Collective Bargaining: To persuade a determined. employer to yield to reason is an art requiring exceptional abilities. (2)The politicians and the political parties should not be allowed to enter the trade union field and thus encourage internal leadership. 8. the moment a worker enters the industry he is automatically made a member of the trade union in that industry. Suggestions for improvement of Trade Union Movement: (1) It is better to have leaders from among the workers who can understand the management and to work better and act according to the situation. Such unions should be non political and should be aloof from external leadership. (4)In some foreign countries. This constitutes as the main cause for lack of effective collective bargaining. (3)One industry one union concept should be encouraged. which most of the unions lack. Ineffective trade bargaining leads to litigation: Ineffective trade bargaining is an important step in solving trade disputes and it lies in skill and effective leadership and if these qualities are lacking it may lead to litigation. Thus it will be seen that this is a vicious circle and to come out of this is very difficult with the present set of laws and the manner of functioning of the trade unions in India. They have neither the patience nor the ability to convince the employer. The recovery of the membership fee of the trade union is recovered through the salary bill and [147] . Added to all these.LABOUR LEGISLATION 7. if he has to cal for any methods of agitation. the low membership and unsound finances of the union does not permit the leader to outright refusal of the offers of the employer as he knows this will not stand for a longer duration.

LABOUR LEGISLATION remitted to the union. and the proviso stipulating 10% of membership shall not apply in their case. (9)It would be desirable if the law provides for a ceiling of the total number of unions of which an ‗outsider‗ can be a member of executive bodies. by bringing legislation. and difficult to organize in new high. trade unions may be on the decline in old industries. even if required. financial and other such welfare activities in the need of the hour. This will make every worker to involve actively in trade union instead of present 30% industries. (10)A specific provision may be made to enable workers in the unorganized sector to form trade unions and get them registered even where an employer-employee relationship does not exist or is difficult to establish. The worker should be made to realize that the growth or fall of the nation is linked with the growth and fall of the worker and he must realize that he is also a part of the society. should educate the rank and file. (6)The leaders and the executives in general should be given sufficient training in knowing the various labour laws and other benefits that are due to the workers and educate them about the rights and responsibilities of the workers. (7)The participation of workers in management should be in the real sense and not just for consultation. TRADE UNIONS AND THEIR POSITION: In India. [148] . (8)Only union with central trade union organisation should be allowed to function. Such training of workers. in turn. (5)The unions should extend its members.

L. has centered on personalities and occasionally on caste or regional considerations‖. [149] . The earliest unions were generally craft unions with members from just one craft or trade. 1992) has tried its best to summarise the trade union situation in the country in the early 1990‗s ―‖Indian Unions are very fragmented.LABOUR LEGISLATION But the vast untapped informal sector that accounts for 90 % of the main workers as per the 1991 census holds much promise for the resurgence of the trade union movement. which are the commonest form today in large industry. such as weavers or engine drivers. should it take up more seriously the organizing of the labour force in the informal sector. Much of the recent fragmentation however. The early splits in India Trade Unionism tended to be on ideological grounds – each linked to a particular political party. As industry became more complex and the differentiation within the workforce grew. the craft union began to federate or join with other craft unions to form larger pressure groups in order to gain more power and thus general and industrial unions were born.O. The World Employment Report (I. It is difficult even to say how many trade unions operate at the national level since many are not affiliated to any all India federation. A modern equivalent is the pilot‗s association. In many work places several trade unions compete for the loyalty of the same body of workers and their rivalry is usually bitter and sometimes violent. where they function and their membership. TYPES OF UNIONS: Trade Unions may be of different types depending on their size.

the AFL-CIO and in the U. where political links are close. The social functions are not what are usually meant by social purpose. the most basic function of trade unions is to build up its own organisation and to give weight to its collective actions. There are also central union in bodies or apex organisations which function as the mouth piece of the labour movement. its other functions follow: Economic. including improvement of their civic environment‗. becomes the social function of today. but which act as the apex bodies of politically oriented unions. the primary function of a union is to promote and protect the interests of its members … and education of its members in all aspects of their working life. in general. Thus all types of unions owing allegiance to one political party are affiliated to the central forum of that party and are easily identifiable in India and in other countries like Germany or France. Social purpose may be the object of changing society. legal. In addition federations exist where two or more plant level unions operating at company level or at industry level. the Trade Union Congress (TUC) serves this purpose. once accomplished. But there is a paradox in it. In India there are also central unions or forums.S. or attainment of the financial interests of workers. [150] . as well as political. industry-level unions which operate at the industry level comprising several or many factories or enterprises. The social purpose of yesterday. According to Punekar. which are not registered under the Trade Unions Act. ‗In our opinion. Once this is accomplished.K. In U..LABOUR LEGISLATION The location of the union may determine the level of its operation or functioning. For instance plant or enterprise-level unions which operate at the factory level. welfare functions. The National Commission on Labour (1968) provides a very simple definition of the functions of unions.A.

LABOUR LEGISLATION RECOGNITION OF TRADE UNIONS: Recognition is the process through which management acknowledges and accept a trade union as representative of some or all of the workers in an establishment or industry and with which it is willing to conduct discussions on all issues concerning those workers.I. In Canada and the U.T.N. only one union can be the sole bargaining agent in an undertaking or for a certain category of employees. The Important Central Labour Organisations in India: The major labour organisations are: 1.U.C.U.M. 2.S. It noted that the need for a provision for union recognition has been realized as is evident from the… BIR Act and certain other State Acts (Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan).T. 1)The All India Trade Union Congress: The AITUC has a distinction of being the first national trade union organisation in India. [151] . 3.C.A.H.T.I. In some countries several unions may be recognized in a particular undertaking as in France and India. 3.A.C.I.U. The national Commission on Labour also attached considerable importance to the mater of recognition of unions.S. the amendments incorporated (but not enforced) in the Trade Unions Act and the Code of Discipline.

Thus AITUC became the labour wing of the Communist Party of India.128 comprising of 10. As on 31. 3)Hindu Mazdoor Sabha:With the splitting of congress party and formation of socialist party the need for a separate trade union organisation of the socialist was also felt. 1920. AITUC had 1. 44. Later with the split in the Congress Party and the socialist forming a separate political party the Hindu Mazdoor Sabha was formed next. the congress party formed the Government at the centre and states. it is the largest trade union organisation in the country with a membership of 22.LABOUR LEGISLATION The need to bring the workers under one group to fight against the tyranny and suppression of the employers was felt for a long time. The Hindustan Mazdoor Sevak Sangh which had many congress people in its fold was asked to organize a Central Trade Union Organisation for the party. 36.12.746 as per the figures given by the then central government after verification.1980.444 unions as on 31. Today. 2)Indian National Trade Union Congress: After independence. The unions having sympathy towards the socialist leaders came out [152] .12. The AITUC was totally captured by the communists since most of the National leaders were arrested during the independence struggle.080 unions with a membership of 3. Till the Second World War all Indian Leaders.1980. all the trade unions were amalgamated to come under one central trade union organisation and the Indian National Congress was the prime mover towards this. The congress party felt the dominance of communists over the entire labour force in the country and wanted to have its pocket of influence also. But nobody came forward to do this job. including those of Congress and Communists were encouraging the cause of AITUC. This lead to the formation of All India Trade Union Congress on October 31. Finally.

by making the awards legally binding on the parties and by prohibiting strikes or lock outs during the pendency of conciliation or adjudication proceedings and for two months thereafter. As on 31. 31. During the Wars Rule 81-A of the Defence of India Rules (DIR) was intended to provide speedy remedies for industrial disputes by referring them compulsorily to conciliation or adjudication. it has 409 unions under which it with a membership of 7. 35.031 as on 31. The said rule also put a blanket ban on strikes which did not arise out of genuine trade disputes. LESSON – IV INDUSTRIAL DISPUTES ACT After having gone through two of the industrial legislations like The Trade Unions Act and The Industrial Employment (Standing Orders) Act in the previous two lessons now let us examine the last of the triumvirate legislation namely The Industrial Disputes Act.1980. Rule 81-A was to lapse on 1st October. This was followed by the Industrial Disputes Act. [153] .LABOUR LEGISLATION INTUC and found the Hindu Mazdoor Sabha in December 1947.1980. 1946 but it was also kept alive by issuing an ordinance in the exercise of the government‗s emergency powers. With the termination of World War II.027. This political party also felt to have its own central trade union organisation and with their sympathizer unions coming out of AIUTC formed the CITU in May 970. 4)Centre of Indian Trade Union: With the split of the Communist Party of India due to their respective affiliation towards communism of Russia and China.12. the Communist Party of India (Marxist) came into being.12. It has 1474 unions under its fold with the membership of 1.

(e) to put restrictions on strikes and lockouts in public utility services prevent them during pendency of conciliation or arbitration proceedings and to provide for sufficient notice to the other party. (b) to provide a permanent conciliation machinery for speedy dispute settlement. It ensures progress of industry by bringing about harmony and cordial relationship between the employers and employees. (h) to identify unfair labour practices. The Act was designed to provide a self-contained code to compel the parties to resort to industrial arbitration for the resolution of existing or apprehended disputes.LABOUR LEGISLATION This Act makes provision for the investigation and settlement of industrial disputes and for certain other purposes. (i)to provide for compensation in case of lay-off and retrenchment and (j)to restrict closure of establishments . Apart from the primary objective the other main objectives are:(a) to provide an internal machinery for resolving conflicts. (f) to clarify duties of employers in case of changes in service conditions or requirements. [154] . (c) to provide compulsory arbitration or adjudication in public utility services. (g) to clarify status of collective agreements and their bindings. OBJECTIVES: The primary objective of the Industrial Disputes Act was making provision for investigation and settlement of industrial disputes and for certain other purposes. (d) to reduce delays in dispute settlement.

2 (l) states that ―Lock Out‖ means the temporary closing of a place of employment or the suspension of work or the refusal by an employer to continue to employ any number of persons employed by him. to a workman whose name appears on [155] .349 the Supreme Court gave a wide implication to the meaning of ‗industry‗.D. The triple test is (1)Systematic Activity (2)Cooperation between employer and employees (3)Production and / or Distribution of goods and services calculated to satisfy human wants and wishes.2 (j) of The Industrial Disputes Act ―industry” means any business. Sec.L. Section 2 (q) states that ―Strike‖ means a cessation of work by a body of persons employed in any industry acting in combination or a concerted refusal. In Bangalore Water Supply and Sewerage Board Vs. It laid down a triple test to decide the applicability of the I. refusal or inability of an employer to give employment due to following reasons. Act to them. manufacture or calling of employers and includes any calling service. or a refusal under a common understanding of any number of persons who are or have been so employed to continue to work or to accept employment.2 (k) of The Industrial Disputes Act defines ―Industrial Dispute‖ as any dispute or difference between employers and employers. Sec.L.2(kkk) defines ―Lay Off‖ as the failure. handicraft or industrial occupation or avocation of workmen. employment.Rajappa 1978 I. Sec. or between employers and workmen or between workmen and workmen.LABOUR LEGISLATION IMPORTANT DEFENITIONS: According to Sec.J. which is connected with the employment or non-employment or the terms of the employment or with the conditions of labour of any person. A. trade. undertaking.

0 1.0 0.1 0.6 0.4 15.1 0. or for any other connected reasons Table Percentage Distribution of Disputes from 1991 (New Classification) Causes Wages and Allowan ces Personn el Retrenc hment Lay-off Leave and hours of work Bonus Indiscipl ine Violenc e Interunion rivalry Gherao Nonimpleme ntation of awards/ agreeme nts/law Charter of demand s Workloa 1991 24.5 2.0 1993 26.5 0.5 1992 23. or accumulation of stocks.2 2.8 1.2 0.2 0 3.7 0 4.7 6.8 8.7 16.LABOUR LEGISLATION the muster rolls of his industrial establishment and who has not been retrenched shortage of coal.7 18.3 15.8 0. or natural calamity.7 0.9 1.5 0.3 1.5 0.4 1.1 1.8 1994 30.4 1996 24.6 0.7 0.7 1.1 3.1 3.8 20.4 1.6 2.9 0.3 1.5 18.2 0.1 1.8 [156] 1.0 21.4 7.1 0.2 1.3 0.6 18.1 5.4 3.0 18.4 1.9 18.3 0.0 1995 32.7 .3 8.8 1.4 1.9 18.0 0.8 15.2 0.8 7.9 0.2 17. power or raw materials.3 1.9 15.3 7.3 6.7 0.1 0. or break-down of machinery.4 1.4 4.3 0.0 8.1 4.1 0.5 0.0 0.4 1997 23.1 2.2 1.6 0.8 3.2 1.9 0.

0 1.6 0. The Works Committee will be comprised of the representatives of employers and workmen engaged in the establishment. Ministry of Labour.1 0.1 1.5 3. Government of India.7 1.1 0.8 1.0 10.2 0.1 2.LABOUR LEGISLATION d/workn orms Shortag e of work/su rplus labour Demand s for ameniti es Change of manufa cturing process Violatio n of SO‗s/ rules Others 0.2 11.8 1.4 12. The Act provides the following authorities for investigation and settlement of industrial disputes (1)Works Committee: Section 3 of the Act provides that the appropriate Government may by general or special order require the employer to constitute in the prescribed manner a Works Committee in industrial establishments.1 --0.3 Source: Indian Labour Statistics.8 2. It shall be the duty of the Works Committee to promote measures for securing and preserving amity and good relations betweens the employer and the employee and [157] .0 5.9 4.9 14.1 0.1 --- 0.1 0.6 16. where 100 or more workmen are employed or have been employed on any working day in the preceding 12 months. Various Issues.3 9.1 0.1 0 6.0 4.1 0.8 2.4 2.2 5. and Pocket Book of Labour Statistics.

The percentage of disputes referred to conciliation reaching some solution has never exceeded 50 percent and is generally less. (III) Boards of Conciliation: For promoting the settlement of an industrial dispute. as occasion arises. the government conciliation officer or board are used in a dispute as a means of helping the disputing parties reduce the extent of differences arrive at a mutually acceptable solution. to comment upon matters of their common interest or concern and endeavor to compose any material difference of opinion in respect of such matters. The main object of appointing the Conciliation Officer. It is equated with mediation. A unique and essential characteristic of conciliation is its flexibility of conciliation must allow the observance of different procedures in different circumstances. (II)Conciliation: Conciliation is a process by which the services of a neutral third party. is to create congenial atmosphere with the establishment where workers and employers can reconcile on their disputes through the mediation of the Conciliation Officers. The conciliator cannot substitute his judgment for that of the disputants. A Board shall consist [158] . by the appropriate Government. the appropriate Government may.LABOUR LEGISLATION to that end. A Conciliation Officer may be appointed under the Act by the appropriate government for specified area or for specified industries in a specified area or for one or more specified industries and either permanently or for a limited period. a Board of Conciliation. He may only make suggestions. His task is to reduce the gap in perceptions among the two parties and point out the framework of the law. He cannot act as a judge. constitute by a notification in the Official Gazette. Conciliation has not been a resounding success in solving IR disputes. Thus they help in promoting the settlement of the disputes.

by notification in the Official Gazette constitute a Court of Inquiry into any matter appearing to be connected with or relevant to an industrial dispute.LABOUR LEGISLATION of a Chairman and two or four other members as the appropriate Government thinks fit. The period within which the report is to be submitted is not mandatory and the report may be submitted even beyond the period of six months without affecting the legality of the inquiry. (IV)Court of Inquiry: The appropriate Government may as occasion arises. The Board may also do all such things which may be considered fit by it. the Board shall forward a report to the appropriate Government enlisting therein the steps taken by the Board for ascertaining the facts and circumstances related to the dispute and for bringing about a settlement thereof. one of them shall be appointed as Chairman. In case no settlement is arrived at. including the parties to come for a fair and free settlement and send a report to the appropriate Government together with a memorandum of settlement signed by all parties to the dispute. The Board will also enlist the reasons on account of which in its opinion a settlement could not be arrived at and its recommendations for determining the disputes. It shall be the duty of the Board to endeavor to bring about a settlement of the dispute and for such purpose it shall without delay. It is the duty of such a Court to inquire into the maters referred to it and submit its report to the appropriate Government ordinarily within such period of six months form the commencement of the inquiry. A Court may consist of one independent person or of such number of independent persons as the appropriate Government may think fit and where a Court consists of two or more members. investigate into the dispute and all matters affecting the merit and the right settlement. [159] .

on a reference of any industrial dispute the Tribunal shall hold its proceedings as expeditiously and submit its award to the appropriate Government. When an industrial dispute has been referred to a Labour Court for adjudication. No time period has been laid down for the completion of proceedings but it is expected that such Courts will hold their proceedings without going into the technicalities of a Civil Court. A Tribunal shall consist of one person only to be appointed by the appropriate Government and if the appropriate government thinks fit appoint two persons as assessors to advise the Tribunal in the proceedings before it. if the Central Government alone has been empowered to constitute one or more National Tribunals for the adjudication of industrial disputes which (a) involve questions of national importance or (b) are [160] ..e. (VII)National Tribunals: Under Section 7B. it is the duty of the Labour Court to (1) hold its proceedings expeditiously and (ii) submit its award to the appropriate Government soon after the conclusion of the proceedings. (VI)Tribunals: The appropriate Government may by notification in the Official Gazette constitute one or more industrial tribunals for the adjudication of industrial disputes relating to any matter whether specified in the Second Schedule or the Third Schedule and for performing such other functions as may be assigned to them under this Act.LABOUR LEGISLATION (V)Labour Courts: The appropriate Government is empowered to constitute one or more Labour Courts for adjudication of industrial disputes relating to any matter specified in the second Schedule and for performing such other functions as may be assigned to them under the Act. The duties of the Industrial Tribunal are identical with the duties of Labour Court i.

get an award. Shankerlal Banker. which was ultimately given by the umpire of another board (Madan Mohan Malaviya). the arbitrator of course has to keep in mind the acceptability of the decision to parties. the case may be referred by the [161] . which is legally binding on both the parties and all others involved in the organisation. But the award once made can be imposed. A National Tribunal shall consist of one person only to be appointed by the Central Government.LABOUR LEGISLATION of such a nature that industrial establishments situated in more than one State are likely likely to be interested in or affected by such disputes. In the former the parties may approach a mutually acceptable person and after formalising it under the ID Act. representing workers and three mill owners led by Ambalal Sarabhai. When a matter has been referred to a National Tribunal. In making the award. The parties make their presentation to the arbitrator and not to each other. It is not like conciliation a persuasive proceeding. representing employers and the Collector as umpire was constituted in Ahmedabad. Although the board failed to arrive at a settlement. Arbitration may be voluntary or compulsory. Vallabhai Patel. comprising Gandhi. in the early twenties. (VIII)Arbitration: The first arbitration board. it gave an impetus to the concept of voluntary arbitration. Arbitration is a quasi judicial process where the arbitrator sits in judgment on the proceeding and after coming to a decision makes it known to the parties. If the parties fail to agree on a common person or if conciliation itself fails. it must adjudicate the dispute expeditiously and submit its award to the Central Government.

The State should take an active role in the settlement of disputes by making both conciliation and arbitration compulsory in the event of a failure of negotiations and by reserving to itself the power to refer disputes of adjudication. though not for all time.LABOUR LEGISLATION concerned government for compulsory arbitration or adjudication in a labour court or industrial tribunal. he became an articulate spokesman for the view that voluntary negotiation between the parties was generally preferable to taking a dispute before a tribunal for decisions.V. except for voluntary conciliation or arbitration in extreme cases.Jagajivan Ram as Minister of Labour in 1952. [162] . In spite of arguments pro and against the view of Mr. The parties be left to settle all disputes and differences by negotiation and collective bargaining among themselves without the intervention of the State. This view became known as the ‗Giri‗s Approach‗ and received wide publicity and generated discussions in 1952-53 Mr. The law should put restrictions on the freedom of the parties in the earlier stages of a dispute by making notice of change of conditions and of strikes and lockouts obligatory.Giri one fact remains clear that more than 50 per cent disputes are being settled bilaterally or lapsing. and 3.V.V.Giri framed a set o three questions to labour and management on the most vital issue of whether voluntary methods or compulsory methods should be used to settle disputes.V. He held further that the availability of compulsory adjudication discouraged genuine collective bargaining. or by prohibiting strikes or lockouts for certain periods. with long experience in the railway industry succeeded Mr.Giri.V.V. 2. Views were solicited on three important alternatives 1. a union leader. When Mr. and by making conciliation compulsory.

within the [163] . Further a copy of the arbitration agreement shall be forwarded to appropriate Government and the Conciliation Officer and the appropriate Government shall within one month from the date of the receipt of such copy. and the award of the umpire shall prevail and shall be deemed to be the arbitration award for the purposes of this Act. if the arbitrators are equally divided in their opinion. An arbitration agreement referred to in sub section (1) shall be in such form and shall be signed by the parties thereto in such manner as may be prescribed. Where an industrial dispute has been referred to arbitration and the appropriate Government is satisfied that the persons making the reference represent the majority of each party. the appropriate Government may. To achieve this purpose. the agreement shall provide for the appointment of another person as umpire who shall enter upon the reference.LABOUR LEGISLATION Thus the conciliation and adjudication machinery has never taken care of the majority of disputes. by a written agreement. Where an arbitration agreement provides for a reference of the dispute to an even number of arbitrators. Sec. publish the same in the Official Gazette . Section 10 A makes the following provisions (1)When an industrial dispute exists or is apprehended and the same has not yet been referred for adjudication to a Labour Court. Both systems therefore prevail and it is clear that both serve certain purposes. the employer and the workman may refer the dispute. to arbitration specifying the arbitrator or arbitrators. The presiding officer of a Labour Court or Tribunal or National Tribunal can also be named by the parties as arbitrator.10 A provides for the settlement of industrial disputes by voluntary reference of such dispute to arbitrators. Tribunal or National Tribunal.

the appropriate Government may. the employer and workman who are not parties to the arbitration agreement but are concerned in the dispute shall be given an opportunity of presenting their case before the arbitrator or arbitrators. That means. if a settlement takes place between management and one of the 3 trade unions functioning in the organisation the settlement will be binding on the management and only on the number of the union which signed the settlement. The members of the other two trade unions are not practice to the settlement and therefore been to observe the terms of the settlement. Nothing in the Arbitration Act of 1940 (now The Arbitration and Conciliation Act) shall apply to arbitrations under this section. when a settlement is signed in the course of conciliation proceedings that is under section 12 (3) of the ID Act. issue a notification in such manner as may be prescribed and when any such notification is issued.LABOUR LEGISLATION time referred above. In contract. as the case may be. The main difference between the settlement signed under section 18 (1) and the settlement signed under section 12 (3) are as follows: Significant of 18 (1) settlement Significance of 12 (3) settlement A settlement signed under section 18 (1) of the Industrial Disputes Act will be binding only on the parties to the settlement. The arbitrator or arbitrators shall investigate the dispute and submit to the appropriate Government the arbitration award signed by the arbitrator or arbitrators. Where an industrial dispute has been referred to arbitration and the notification has been issued. the settlement will binding on all [164] . by order. prohibit the continuance of any strike or lock out in connection with such dispute which may be in existence on the date of the reference.

Under Section 10 (3) and Section 10 A (4A). in respect of any of the matters covered by the settlement or award . Similarly as regards the employers of the settlement will be binding on even those who may subsequently buy the company. Strikes and Lock Outs: Strikes and lock Outs are the two weapons in the hands of workers and employers respectively. (1)General prohibition of strikes and lock outs: No workman who is employed in any industrial establishment shall go on strike in breach of contract and no employer of any such workman shall declare a lock out: (a) during the pendency of conciliation proceedings before a Board and seven days after the conclusion of such proceedings (b) during the pendency of proceedings before a Labour Court. The settlement will still have a binding effect on the members of all the unions. even if the union representing some of the workers did not sign it. 1947 does not grant an unrestricted right of strike or lockout.LABOUR LEGISLATION workers. which they can use to press their viewpoints in the process of collective bargaining. Section 22 and 23 make further provisions restricting the commencement of strikes and lockouts. Tribunal or National Tribunal and two months after the conclusion of such proceedings (b)during the pendency of arbitration proceedings before an arbitrator and two months after the conclusion of such proceedings. The Industrial disputes Act. where a notification has been issued under sub section (3A) of Section 10 A or (c) during any period in which a settlement or award is in operation. [165] . the Government is empowered to issue order for prohibiting continuance of strikes or lockouts.

(2) Prohibiton of strikes and lock outs in public utility services: No person employed in a public utility service shall go on strike in breach of contract (a) without giving to the employer notice of strike..e. as hereinafter provided within six weeks before striking i.. or (d) during the pendency of any conciliation proceedings before a conciliation officer and seven days after the conciliation of such proceedings. a period of 14 days must have lapsed from the date of notice to the date of the strike (c) before the expiry of the date of strike specified in any such notice as aforesaid i. or (b) within 14 days of giving of such notice i. Labour Court.e. (2) No employer carrying on any public utility service shall lock out any of his workmen (a) without giving them notice of lock out as hereinafter provided within six weeks before locking out. the ate specified in the notice must have expired on the day of strike.e from the date of the notice to the date of strike a period of six weeks should not have elapsed. Tribunal or National Tribunal or Arbitrator. or (b) within 14 days of giving such notice: or (c) before the expiry of the date of lock out specified in any such notice as aforesaid. or [166] .LABOUR LEGISLATION The purpose of above provisions is to ensure peaceful atmosphere during the pendency of any proceeding before a Conciliation Officer.

(3)A lock out declared in consequence of an illegal strike or strike declared in consequence of an illegal lock out shall not be deemed to be illegal No person shall knowingly expend or apply any money in direct furtherance or support of any illegal strike or lock out. Tribunal or National Tribunal the continuance of such strike or lock out shall not be deemed to be illegal provided that such strike or lock out was not at its commencement in contravention of the provisions of this Act or the continuance thereof was not prohibited under Section 10 (3) or Section 10A (4A). [167] . (i) it is commenced or declared in contravention of Section 22 or Section 23. an arbitrator. (3)Illegal strikes and lock outs: (1) A strike or lock out shall be illegal if.LABOUR LEGISLATION (d) during the pendency of any conciliation proceedings before a Conciliation Officer and 7 days after the conciliation of such proceedings. a Labour Court. to pay off. LAYOFF COMPENSATION: Chapter V A of the Act makes it obligatory for all industrial establishments which (a) are not seasonal or do not work intermittently and (b) employ 50 or more workmen. or (ii) it is continued in contravention of an order made under section 10(3) or Section 10A(4A) (2)Where a strike or lock-out in pursuance of an industrial dispute has already commenced and is in existence at the time of reference of the dispute to a Board. compensation to their workmen at the rate of 50% of the total of basic wages and dearness allowance which would have been payable to them if they had not been laid off.

The compensation payable only for working days and not for weekly holidays which may intervene. He refuses to accept alternative employment in the same establishment or in any other establishment belonging to the same employer located within five miles from the establishment to which he belongs and if his new place of employment does not involve any loss of pay or position or any other special skill.LABOUR LEGISLATION The important conditions which qualify a workman for this compensation are:(1)The workman who is laid off must be on the muster roll of the establishment and he should not be a casual or Badli (substitute) worker (2)The workman has completed not less than one year of continuous service under an employer. The laid off workmen is not entitled to lay off compensation if:1. If the lay off exceeds 45 days in any period of 12 months. no compensation is payable for the days exceeding first 45 days if there is an agreement between the employers and workmen to that effect. or the days on which he has been on leave with wages or the days on which he could not work due to employment injury or the days on which a woman worker has been on maternity leave not exceeding 12 weeks. The days on which a worker has been laid off under agreement. are to be considered as the days on which a worker has really worked. [168] . or has actually worked for 190 days if employed underground (mines) and 240 days in any other case in a period of 12 calendar months preceding the date relevant for making calculation. or as permitted by standing orders. In such cases it will also be lawful for the employers to retrench workmen and set lay off compensation paid to workmen against the amount payable to them for retrenchment.

LABOUR LEGISLATION 2. In the case of establishments employing 100 or more workers on an average per working day for the preceding 12 months. no workman can be laid off by his employer except with the previous permission of the authority specified by the Government. Such an establishment has also to pay compensation even when lay-off is due to strike or slow down on the part of workmen in another part of the establishment. or has actually worked for 190 days if employed underground and 240 days in any other cased in a period of 12 calendar months preceding the date of relevant for making calculations. or whether work performed there is intermittent the decision of the Government thereon is to be final. Explanation: If a question arises whether an establishment is of a seasonal character. For obtaining prior permission the employer has to apply to the specified authority with necessary particulars prescribed under the rules. [169] . he can presume the permission to have been granted. RETRENCHMENT COMPENSATION: No workman who has been in continuous service of not less than one year under an employer. can be retrenched unless He has been given one month‗s notice in writing indicating the reasons for retrenchment. or he has been paid one month‗s wages in lieu of notice. unless such lay-off is due to the shortage of power or due to natural calamity. If the lay off is due to any strike or go slow on the part of the workmen in any other part of the establishment. If he does not present himself for work at the establishment and at the appointed time during normal working hours every day and 3. and if he does not hear from the authority.

Circumstances such as financial difficulties. and prior permission of the Government is obtained for retrenchment to which the notice relates. the notice of retrenchment becomes null and void.LABOUR LEGISLATION He has been paid retrenchment compensation equivalent to 15 days average wage for every completed year of continuous service or any part thereof in excess of six months Notice is served in a prescribed manner to the Government or such authority as notified by the Government in the Official Gazette. including financial losses. The Government has to be communicated its decision within three months from the date of the notice is served. a workman cannot be retrenched unless (i) he is given three months notice in writing. mining and plantation establishments employing 100 or more workmen. or is paid three months wages in lieu of such notice. In the case of factories. If the permission is refused. COMPENSATION ON CLOSURE: Compensation is also payable if an undertaking is closed down. and the employees concerned are considered to have remained in service with all the benefits which they are entitled. or if its ownership is transferred and the transfer involves interruption in the service of the workman. the total amount of compensation payable is not to exceed three months average wages. 1948 [170] . LESSON V FACTORIES ACT. otherwise the permission will be presumed to be granted. if the closure is due to unavoidable circumstances beyond the control of the employer. or accumulation of undisposed stocks or the expiry of the period of the lease or license granted to the undertaking are not to be considered as unavoidable circumstances beyond the control of the employer.

1948 is to ensure adequate safety measures and to promote the health and welfare of the workers employed in factories. and in any part of which a manufacturing process is being carried on with the aid of power or is ordinarily so carried on.LABOUR LEGISLATION OBJECT AND SCOPE OF THE ACT: The main object of the Factories Act. (Section 116) Important Definitions Adult: ―Adult‖ means a person who has completed his eighteenth year of age (Section 2 (a)) Adolescent: ―Adolescent‖ means a person who has completed his fifteenth year of age but has not completed his eighteenth year. annual leave with wages etc. The Act also makes provisions regarding employment of women and young persons (including children and adolescents). or [171] . The Act extends to whole of India including Jammu and Kashmir and covers all manufacturing processes and establishments falling within the definition of ‗factory‗ as defined under Section 2 (m) of the Act. (Section 2 (b)) Child: ―Child‖ means a person who has not completed his fifteenth year of age (Section 2(c)) Factory: ―Factory‖ includes any premises including the precincts thereof(i) Whereon ten or more workers are working or were working on any day of the preceding twelve months. Unless otherwise provided it is also applicable to factories belonging to Central/State Governments.

[172] . or is ordinarily so carried on. and in any part of which a manufacturing process is being carried on without the aid of power. (i) Cleanliness: Section 11 of The Factories Act ensures the cleanliness in the factory. (iii) Ventilation and temperature: Section 13 provides that every factory should make suitable and effective provisions for securing and maintaining (1) adequate ventilation by the circulation of fresh air.. as per rules. Suitable measures have to be taken to keep the level of dust and fumes under control so that they do not affect the health of the workers. or were working on a day of the preceding twelve months. It must be seen that a factory is kept clean and it is free from effluvia arising from any drain. textile or jute etc. which generates lot of dust. privy or other nuisance and various measures have been stipulated in the above said section. It is injurious to the health of workers employed in such manufacturing process. (ii) Disposable of waste and effluents: Every occupier of a factory. and (2) such a temperature as will secure to the workers reasonable conditions of comfort and prevent injury to health (iv) Dust and fume: There are certain manufacturing processes like chemical. shall make effective arrangements for the treatment of wastes and effluents due to the manufacturing process carried on in the factory so as to render them innocuous and for their disposal. fume or other impurities. HEALTH PROVISIONS UNDER THE FACTORIES ACT Chapter III of the Act deals with the following aspects.LABOUR LEGISLATION (ii) whereon twenty or more workers are working.

In certain industries like cotton. For this purpose. This increase or decrease in humidity artificially adversely affects the health of workers and hence certain provisions have been made regarding them.9 cubic metres and of a factory built after the commencement of this Act at least 14. Further if more than two hundred and fifty workers are working in a factory they shall be provided with cooled drinking water during hot weather.2 cubic metres of space for every worker employed therein and for the purposes of this sub-section no account shall be taken of any space which is more than 4.. higher degree of humidity is required for carrying out the manufacturing process. textile. cigarette. (viii) Lighting: Every part of a factory where workers are working or passing there shall be provided and maintained sufficient and suitable lighting. humidity of the air is artificially increased. (vi) Overcrowding: Overcrowding in the work room not only affect the workers in their efficient discharge of duties but their health also.LABOUR LEGISLATION (v) Artificial humidification: Humidity means the presence of moisture in the air. natural or artificial or both. (x) Latrines and urinals: In every factory sufficient latrine and urinal accommodation of prescribed types shall be provided for men and women [173] .2 metres above the level of the floor of the room. Section 16(2) states that there shall be in every workroom of a factory in existence on the date of the commencement of this act at least 9. (ix) Drinking Water: In every factory effective arrangements shall be made to provide and maintain at suitable points conveniently situated for all workers employed therein a sufficient supply of wholesome drinking water. etc.

(iii)Employment of young persons on dangerous machines: No young person shall be required or allowed to work at any machine to which Sec. SAFETY PROVISIONS UNDER THE FACTORIES ACT (i)Fencing of machinery: In every factory every moving part of a prime mover and every flywheel connected to a prime mover shall be securely fenced by safeguards of substantial construction which shall be constantly maintained and kept in position while the parts of machinery they are fencing are in motion or in use. while the machinery is in motion such examination or operation shall be made or carried out by only by a specially trained adult male worker wearing tight fitting clothing. (ii)Work on or near in motion: If an any factory it becomes necessary to examine any part of machinery. if the space over which it runs is a space over which any person is liable to pass.21 applies unless he has been fully instructed as to the dangers arising in connection with the machine and the precautions to be observed. whether in the course of his employment or [174] . (iv) Striking gears and devices for cutting off power: In every factory suitable striking gear or other efficient mechanical appliance shall be provided and maintained and used to move driving belts to and from fast and loose pulleys which form part of the transmission machinery. All such accommodation shall be maintained in a clean and sanitary condition. (v)Self acting machines: No traversing part of a self acting machine in any factory and no material carried thereon shall.LABOUR LEGISLATION separately.

ropes and lifting tackles: Every lifting machine (other than a hoist and lift) and every chain. rope and lifting tackle shall be of good construction. sound material and adequate strength and free from defects and it shall be property maintained and it shall be thoroughly examined once in 12 months by a competent person. unless the feed end of a cotton opener is in a room separated from the delivery end by a partition. be allowed to run on its outward or inward traverse within a distance of forty five centimeters from any fixed structure which is not part of the machine. [175] . (vi)Casing of new machinery: All machinery driven by power and installed in any factory shall be encased or otherwise effectively guarded as to prevent danger. (x) Revolving machinery: In every factory in which the said process of grinding is carried on there shall be permanently affixed to or placed near each machine in use a notice indicating the maximum safe working peripheral speed of every grindstone or abrasive wheel. (ix) Lifts.LABOUR LEGISLATION otherwise. the speed of the shaft or spindle upon which the wheel is mounted and the diameter of the pulley upon such shaft or spindle necessary to secure such safe working peripheral speed. (viii) Hoists and Lifts: Every hoist and lift shall be of good mechanical construction. sound material and adequate strength and it shall be properly maintained and shall be thoroughly examined by a competent person. (vii)Prohibition of employment of women and children near cotton openers: No woman or child shall be employed in any part of a factory for pressing cotton in which a cotton opener is at work. Machines. once in every six months. chains.

vapour or dust is likely to be present to such an extent as to involve risk to persons being overcome thereby.LABOUR LEGISLATION (xi) Pressure Plant: In any factory. openings in floors: In every factory fixed vessel. shall be either securely covered or securely fenced. pit or opening in the ground or in a floor which by reasons of its depth situation construction or contents is or may be a source of danger. pipe flue or other confined space in any factory in which any gas. [176] . sumps. (xvi)Precaution against dangerous fumes. tank or vat. carry or move any load so heavy as to be likely to cause him injury. any plant or machinery or any part thereof is operated at a pressure above atmospheric pressure. steps. gases etc. effective measures shall be taken to ensure that the safe working pressure of such plant or machinery or part is not exceeded. passages and gangways shall be of sound construction and properly maintained and shall be kept free from obstructions and substances likely to cause persons to slip and if necessary handrails may be provided. (xiv)Excessive weights: No person shall be employed in any factory to lift.: No person shall be required or allowed to enter any chamber. (xv)Protection of eyes: If in a factory where the manufacturing process involves risk of injury to the eyes from particles or fragments thrown off in the course of the process or risk to the eyes by reason of exposure to excessive light then effective screen or goggles may be provided to the protection of the workers. (xii) Floors stairs and means of access: In a factory all floors. (xiii) Pits. tank. sump. unless it is provided with a manhole of adequate size or other effective means of egress. pit. fume.

or other confined space unless adequate devices are provided for safety. pit. machinery or plant in a factory is in such a condition that it is dangerous to human life or safety then the occupier or manager or both may by order in writing specify the measures to be taken and if necessary prohibit the use until it has been properly repaired or altered. (xx) Safety of buildings and machinery: If it appears to the Inspector that any building or part of a building or any part of the ways. (xviii)Explosive or inflammable gas: In any factory if the manufacturing process produces dust. he may serve on the occupier or manager or both of the factory an order regarding the remedial measures. (xxi)Maintenance of buildings: If it appears to the Inspector that any building or part of a building is detrimental to the health and welfare of the workers. both internally and externally and to provide and maintain safety measures like equipments for fire extinguishing devices and to have emergency exits.LABOUR LEGISLATION (xvii)Precautions regarding the use of portable electric light: No portable electric light or any other electric appliance of voltage exceeding 24volts shall be permitted of the use inside any chamber. fume or vapour of such character and to such extent as to be likely to explode to ignition all practicable measures shall be taken to prevent any such explosion. pipe. if so required by the State Government by [177] . (xxii) Safety Officers: In every factory wherein one thousand or more workers are ordinarily employed the occupier shall. gas. flue. tank. (xix) Precautions in case of fire: In every factory all practical measures shall be taken to prevent outbreak of fire and its spread.

WELFARE PROVISIONS IN THE FACTORIES ACT (i)Washing Facilities: In every factory adequate facilities for washing shall be provided and maintained for the use of the workers. (v)Canteen: The State Government may make rules requiring that in any specified factory wherein two hundred and fifty workers are ordinarily employed. (vi)Shelters rest rooms and lunch rooms: In every factory wherein more than one hundred and fifty workers are ordinarily employed. a canteen or canteens shall be provided and maintained by the occupier for the use of the workers. adequate and suitable [178] . employ such number of Safety Officers as may be specified on that notification. (iv)First aid appliances: Every factory shall maintain and provide one first aid box with prescribed contents for every 150 workers and it shall be in charge of a responsible person who holds a certificate in first aid treatment. Separately and adequately screened facilities shall be provided for the use of male and female workers. recognized by State Government. (ii)Facilities for storing and drying facility: The State Government shall make rules in respect of a factory or class or description of factories requiring the provision therein of suitable places for keeping clothing not worn during working hours and for the drying of wet clothing. (iii)Facilities for sitting: In every factory suitable arrangements for sitting shall be provided and maintained for all workers obliged to work in a standing position.LABOUR LEGISLATION notification in the official Gazette. in order that they take advantage of any opportunities for rest which may occur in the course of the work.

[179] . (viii)Welfare Officers: In every factory wherein five hundred or more workers are ordinarily employed the occupier shall employ in the factory such number of Welfare Officers as may be prescribed.LABOUR LEGISLATION shelters or rest rooms and a suitable lunch room with provision for drinking water. (vii)Creches: In every factory where more than thirty women are ordinarily employed there shall be provided and maintained a suitable room or rooms for the use of children under the age of six years of such women. compensatory holidays of equal number to the holidays so lost. (ii)Weekly Holidays: No adult worker shall be required or allowed to work in a factory on the first day of the week unless he has or will have a holiday for a whole day on one of the three days immediately before or after the said day. (iv) Intervals for rest: The period of work of adult workers in a factory each day shall be so fixed that no period shall exceed five hours and that no worker shall work for more than five hours before he has an interval for rest of at least half an hour. where workers can eat meals brought by them. (iii)Compensatory Holidays: In case of exempting a factory from the above said provision. WORKING HOURS FOR ADULTS (i)Weekly hours: No adult worker shall be required or allowed to work in a factory for more than forty eight hours in any week. the worker shall be provided within the month.

be entitled to wages at the rate of twice his ordinary rate of wages. he shall. (vi) Prohibition of overlapping shifts: Work shall not be carried in any factory by means of a system of shifts so arranged that more than one relay of workers is engaged. [180] . in respect of overtime work. save on prescribed circumstances. in work of the same kind at the same time. (ix) Notice of period of work for adults: There shall be displayed and correctly maintained in every factory in accordance with the provisions of sub. EMPLOYMENT OF YOUNG PERSONS (i)Prohibition of employment of young children: No child who has not completed his fourteenth year shall be required or allowed to work in any factory. to be available to the Inspector at all times during working hours or when any work is being carried on in the factory. (x) Register of adult workers: The manager of every factory shall maintain a register of adult workers. (viii) Restriction on double employment: No adult worker shall be required or allowed to work in any factory on any day on which he has already been working in any other factory.LABOUR LEGISLATION (v) Spread over: The period of work of an adult worker in a factory shall be so arranged that inclusive of his intervals for rest they shall not spread over more than ten and half hours in a day. showing clearly for every day the periods during which adult workers may be required to work. (vii) Extra wages for overtime: Where a worker works in a factory for more than nine hours in any day or for more than forty eight hours in any week. a notice of periods of work for adults.section (2) of section 108.

(iii)Working Hours for Children: No child shall be employed or permitted to work. ANNUAL LEAVE WITH WAGES A worker in a factory if entitled under any other law or under the terms of any award.LABOUR LEGISLATION (ii)Non adult workers to carry tokens: A child who has completed his fourteenth year or an adolescent shall not be required or allowed to work in any factory unless he is possession of a token.M. No female child shall be required or allowed to work in any factory except between 8 A. is exempted from the under mentioned provisions of The Factories Act. provided for longer annual leave with wages than provided under this Act. in any factory (a) for more than four and half hours in any day (b) during night Further no child shall be required or allowed to work in any factory on any day on which he has already been working in another factory. and 7 P. referring to a certificate of a fitness issued and in the custody of manager.M. (i)Annual leave with wages: Every worker who has worked for a period of 240 days or more in a factory during a calendar year shall be allowed during the [181] . (iv) Register of child workers: The manager of every factory in which children are employed shall maintain a register a child workers available to the Inspector at all times during working hours or when any work is being carried on in a factory.

(iii)Payment in advance in certain case: A worker who has been allowed leave for not less than four days. (ii)Wages during leave period: For the leave allowed to him under the provisions a worker shall be entitled to wages at a rate equal to the daily average wage of his total full time earnings for the days on which he actually worked during the month immediately preceding his leave.LABOUR LEGISLATION subsequent calendar year. in the case of an adult. in the case of a child. [182] . shall. (iv) Mode of recovery of unpaid wages: Any sum due and payable it not paid as stipulated it shall be recoverable as delayed wages under the provisions of The Payment of Wages Act. maternity leave and earned leave shall be taken as days worked for the purposes of computation of working days. before his leave begins be paid the wages due for the period of the leave allowed. exclusive of any overtime and bonus but inclusive of dearness allowance and the cash equivalent of the advantage accruing through the concessional sale to the worker of food grains and other articles. (b) if a child one day for every fifteen days of work performed by him during the previous calendar year. The annual leave shall be computed. exclusive of all holidays whether occurring during or at either end of the period of leave. and five days. The lay off days. leave with wages for a number of days calculated at the rate of(a) if an adult one day for every twenty days of work performed by him during the previous calendar year.

the Government‗s attitude to business and industry is one of partnership to promote the growth of the national economy. denationalization and disinvestment is causing the state to gradually withdrawn from some social and economic sectors. Unless the government‗s attitude towards private business is positive. after the globalization. safety and welfare of workers in factories it is imperative for us to analyse the present situation. limitation enhanced penalty and jurisdiction of Court to entertain proceedings under the Factories Act. Governments are increasingly under pressure to become facilitators rather than regulators and controllers. cognizance. Strengthening of the forces of deregulation. with regard to the various provisions of law and the necessity to recast few of them to improve the industrial relations in India while taking into consideration industrial relation practices in other countries. for political reasons. liberalization and privitisation. In some countries like Japan and Germany. Madrid‗s (1994) analysis of the situation in Argentina provides the much needed caution for the [183] .LABOUR LEGISLATION Further under The Factories Act various provisions (Sections 92 to 106A) have been enacted for providing penalty for offences. LESSON VI CHANGING ROLES OF PRINCIPAL ACTORS IN INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS After having learnt about the history of labour legislation and going through various industrial legislation and the Factories Act. which contains various provisions regarding health. little can be accomplished through changes in other spheres – which will then be no more than cosmetic. the government views private business with suspicion. The government‗s role is changing. In others. Legal reform is under way in many countries and overdue in several others.

underemployment and inflation. of the guiding principles of the ILO‗. As a result. The industrial and labour policy changes in Kerala. Rising employment. the easing of requirements for labour inspection in Rajasthan. fall in living standards. Liberalization and globalization presuppose that the differences in competition within and across national borders will vanish.. the relatively higher incidence of approvals for closure. retrenchments. In Sri Lanka. in Tamilnadu and the cancellation of the registration of a few thousand unions in West Bengal for non-submission of statutory returns to the Registrar of Trade Unions in good time illustrate the changes at the state level. increasing disparity in incomes and growing imbalances in the development of different regions within a state are influencing some governments to adopt policies aimed at wooing domestic and foreign investment but wily-nily nullifying the accumulated social benefits and rights. This is a matter of great concern.LABOUR LEGISLATION state everywhere: The increase in the powers of employers is ‗giving a market authoritarian character to the employment relationship. the change in government escalated expectations about the reversal of such regressive policies which led to about 80 strikes in the last quarter of 1994 in the export processing zone near Colombo airport alone. The central government has also tried to usurp more power form the states through exclusive control over industrial relations issues in [184] . from the purview of certain labour laws and trade union and workers‗ rights. etc. the relevance of separate export-processing zones and 100 percent export-oriented units and special conditions for labour market reforms have been particularly harsh on workers and unions. in fact or in law. Export-oriented production activities and zones where such firms are located are exempt by governments in several developing countries. the principles of labour law have faced a crisis with declining protection afforded to workers and the disregard. such as Bangladesh. In that case.

The scope of inter-firm coordination of economic activities under collective capitalism is larger than under any other type of capitalism. because of alliances among firms…. contract labour in central public sector undertakings and introducing a proposal for a national minimum wage. International pressure through WTO. to America‗s and Germany‗s managerial capitalism in which numerous individuals subscribed to the capital of a firm managed by professional managers. The 1998 ILO Declaration on Fundamental Principles defines and sets in motion the mutual steps for ensuring universal compliance with minimal. elimination of discrimination and promotion of equality.. to Japan‗s collective capitalism in which control of the firm is democratized and in which workers also take on some managerial functions and assume risks. social labeling and consumer labeling will aid the ILO Initiative. [185] . and collective capitalism overtakes managerial capitalism. managerial capitalism overtakes proprietary capitalism. augmenting the managerial resources of the firm… Organizational and human resource efficiencies as well as scale of organization increase along this evolutionary path. Firms under managerial capitalism are larger and more efficient than those under proprietary capitalism. Non-Governmental Organization (NGO) campaigns. core labour standards covering the abolition of child and forced labour.LABOUR LEGISLATION regard to multinational corporations. firms under collective capitalism are larger and more efficient than those under managerial capitalism. Likewise. (I) EMPLOYERS: The comparative history of business organization and human resource utilization suggests a linear and upward evolution of capitalism in which an individual capitalist owned a firm. To sum up.

some domestic companies found that their foreign debt on capital investment multiplied overnight due to devaluation. Market reform policies lead to improved business climate and performance. employers‗ interests vary depending on whether they represent foreign or domestic interests – large or small – export or import oriented businesses.. Fresh capital for long-term capital and working capital needs could only be borrowed in India at much higher interest rates than their competitors from overseas and imported materials and components too became costlier. In Nigeria. Also. the opposite is equally true. distinct form the State.LABOUR LEGISLATION Though in several countries significant sections of employers in the organized private sector have welcomed structural changes. countries in dire need of foreign investment offer incentives that are attractive to foreign investors but considered detrimental to the interests of domestic investors. However. In Central and East European countries no separate employer function was officially recognized till 1989 since everybody was supposedly united in the construction of socialism. when liberalization and globalization measures were initiated in parallel. As a result. Encouragement to multinationals. In India. Privatization of Central and East European economies resulted in the emergence of employers as an interest group. easing of restrictions on expatriate employment and ownership of the means of production and other resources are reminiscent of colonialism. one cement plant incurred substantial foreign debt in the late 1970s in order to finance expansion. etc. they argue that these changes should be achieved through policies that give an impetus to local industry to expand and grow. Also. but after devaluation the local cost of this debt rose five-fold. some domestic entrepreneurs had a 30 to 50 percent strategic cost disadvantage. [186] .

Productivity and gain sharing are maximized when employees put in long years of service and get involved in continuous Kaizen. The changes in the system of government and economic management. The struggle for true partnership in development will not be easy. The challenges before employers‗ organizations through out the world are many. managerial. workplace innovations are largely firm-specific and often carefully guarded as intellectual property. to mass production. roughly co-varying with proprietary. did not exist. The prevailing ideology made no allowance for any possible conflicts of interests. but for the government to divest themselves of some of the tools of power will take time. (II)TRADE UNIONS: Over time the labour movement has changed from craft unionism to industrial unionism to enterprise unionism. with emphasis on pluralism and economic liberalization. ‗one may graft stages of production technology and the labour movement on the Lazonick model of capitalist evolution‗. to lean production. Tiara argues. ‗For lean production. have thrust employers and their organizations into the centre stage of economic development debate and action. To ensure employment security and improve terms of employment. and collective capitalism. The ultimate localization of a union is an [187] . taken for granted in pluralistic societies.LABOUR LEGISLATION Industrial relations. The union then becomes increasingly localized and autonomous. Recognition of this is one thing. Now employers‗ organizations are emerging in these countries as elsewhere. As he argues further. the union is just as much concerned about the conditions of the firm as management. The role of the private sector as an engine of development has gained credibility. Production technology has changed from craft production. Trade unions were anything but independent and were as a rule used to organize and administer social services and run personnel departments in the state enterprises.


autonomous enterprise union. Enterprise unionism is one of the four pillars of the industrial relations system in Japan. The trend towards enterprise unionism is growing in the US too. At one time, bringing together workers across an entire industrial sector was considered essential to take wages out of competition and ensure the equitable distribution of wealth. Now, in several countries enterprise-based unionism is becoming the predominant form of union organization. Of course, enterprise-based unions do not exist in isolation and still are, in many cases, federated across sectors or industries and further, at a different level, into national centres. Union membership is declining in traditional industries in several countries. Union organization is becoming difficult in new industries. In the countries that have changed to democracy and are moving towards the market economy, the newly constituted trade unions are coming up against all manner of constraints, their difficulties aggravated by an excessive fragmentation which is scarcely conducive to the unity of ex-pression and participation so indispensable to these organizations if they aspire to play an effective part in the consolidation of trade union structures and policies and in the genuine participation in their economic and social life. Since the 1980s, as in the US, in Western Europe too unions have been on the defensive. In Japan as well, union density declined from 45.3 percent in 1947 to 24.2 percent in 1993. Shifts in employment patterns and the disinterest of nonunion workers in unionization are the major determinants of decline in union density. The explanations for low or declining union density vary across countries even within Asia. Revolutionary changes in technology are shifting the locus of control away from blue-collar to white-collar workers and managers and the dramatic decline in employment intensity in many sectors of manufacturing is not


only eroding the traditional base of the unions but also destabilizing the traditional trade union structures. The overall rate of unionization will decline, particularly as unions find it hard to become established in the type of small scale firms that are emerging. Organizing the unorganized in the small and tiny sectors will indeed be a major challenge for trade unions in the years ahead. The ongoing internet debate on trade unions in 2000 and some of the recent successes unions have had in countering employer militancy through cyber unionism and internet campaign provide useful pointers to the new challenges and opportunities before trade unions. Frenkel‗s (1993) analysis of the factors affecting trade union characteristics in nine countries in the Asia Pacific region tests several hypotheses and theoretical approaches. It portends little change in countries that follow state corporatist policies (e.g. China and Singapore), moderate change in countries which follow state exclusionary policies (Thailand, Malaysia and Hong Kong) and major changes in countries where state collaborative is nurtured with autonomous market bargained corporatism (New Zealand). The exceptions to his categorization, he notes, are Japan and Australia which, though they both follow state corporatist and state collaborative policies, may see only moderate change. In India, trade unions may be on the decline in old industries, and difficult to organize in new high-tech industries. But the vast untapped informal sector that accounts for 90 per cent of the main workers as per the 1991 census holds much promise for the resurgence of the trade union movement, should it take up more seriously the organizing of the labour force in the informal sector. (III) STATE:



The role of the State is manifested through three main modes – policy formulation, legislation and administration. A fourth role is political intervention, which does not operate independently, but is woven into the other roles. Policy formulation leads to legislation. But legislation itself is enforced through administrative system. The most regular and frequent ex-pression of the administrative role is through the state labour machinery and the labour directorates. Indian labour legislation could be favourably compared with that of most industrialized countries (Gonsalves et al 1995). However one of the drawbacks have been the laxity and discrimination in enforcement of labour legislation. A simple example is in the matter of provident fund. While the law for compulsory employer contributions to retirement was enacted in 1948, the Government hands rests lightly on employers who default for years and years on payments to workers under the Act. Another example is the Contract Labour Act. Even though it was passed in 1970 to prevent exploitation of contract workers, but the government itself is the biggest employer of contract workers in perennial jobs and it cannot thus prevent private employers from taking advantage of the labour market, which is adverse for labour in India. The brighter side of the State intervention in the industrial scene is the starting of public sector enterprises and they assumed the role of model employer after independence, clearly understanding the imperatives of nascent India. Even this is slowly after privatization move have been watered down and has brought fresh controversies. (IV) NEW ACTORS ON THE HORIZON: Traditionally, all aspects relating to industrial relations were considered matters for discussing between organizations of employers and workers with or without the



involvement of the government. But, gradually the consumer and the public have begun to play an increasingly decisive role. Also, where the principal social partners are not addressing the real issues concerning, for instance, child labour, gender inequities, unorganized labour, environment and occupational safety, NGOs and other public interest groups are seeking to step in fall the vacuum effectively. Where trade union leaders are reluctant or indifferent, social groups and public interest groups are taking up these causes. Pressure is building up from all sides for public policy to pay attention to the neglected sectors of society. Information technology and the media are also playing a much greater role in bringing into sharp focus what otherwise may have been suppressed or marginalized. Further banks which have advanced monies to industrialists are also interested in the functioning and policy formulation within the organisation since the return of principal lies in the proper functioning and the earning of profit by these organisations. Unit – III LESSON I INTRODUCTION Wage legislation is an important external factor influencing the determination of employee remuneration. Importance of an ideal remuneration system cannot be over emphasized. There are positive and negative sides of employee remuneration. An effective remuneration system can lead to better performance, increased motivation, reduced turnover, reduced absenteeism increased job satisfaction and good mental health of employees besides attracting talented and skilled people. On


the other hand, a defective or a poor remuneration system may result in poor performance, increased grievances, job dissatisfaction, strikes, high turnover and absenteeism, psychological withdrawal and poor mental health. In the context of open economy, if industries were to compete in the global market, an ideal remuneration system is a must. In view of the above, the wage legislation plays an important part in regulating wages, in giving basic yardsticks for fixing wages, in ensuring that labour is not exploited in paying equal remuneration to men & women for same or similar work, in paying remuneration regularly and in ensuring that management is not paid undeservingly huge remuneration for its work. It would be useful to have a look at each legislation and its significance. THE PAYMENT OF WAGES ACT 1963 Objectives The objective of this Act is to provide for regular payment of wages without exploitation by unscrupulous employers who may make unauthorised deductions from their remuneration. Thus, it protects the employees from non-payment, short payment, irregular payment or payment in kind instead of in cash. Scope and Coverage The Act is a central Act covering the whole country in respect of any factory, industrial or other establishment, like railways, transport service, dock, warf, mine, quarry, oil fields, plantations, workshops, or other establishment producing, adapting or manufacturing any article, establishments engaged in construction, development or maintenance of buildings, roads, bridges or canals, navigation,


supply of water, power generation and transmission, and any establishment notified by the central or state government. Employees entitled The Act is applicable to the employees receiving wages upto Rs.6500/- per month. Important provisions of the Act (1) The term wages (expressed in terms of money) includes not only the daily/weekly/monthly wages/salary but overtime, leave salary, additional remuneration (that includes bonus payable under Bonus Act) but does not include suspension or subsistence allowance, value of house accommodation, cost of supply of light, water or medical attendance, or cost of any other amenity, traveling allowance, gratuity or reimbursement of any special expenses. (Sec.2 of the Act). (2) Every employer or a manager or a person designated by the employer or a contractor for supervision and control is responsible for payment of wages (Section3) (3) The employer or a person designated for supervision & control should fix the wage period (day, week or month) but in no case, the period should exceed one month (section 4) (4) If the number of employees in the establishment is less than 1000, wages must be paid within 7 days of the expiry of the wage period. In other cases, wages should be paid within 10 days (Section 5) (5) On termination of employment, wages should be paid within 2 days of termination.



(6) The employer should not make any unauthorised deductions from wages such as authorized absence from duty or fines imposed without show-cause notice.(Section 7) (6a) The amount of time imposed on an employee should not exceed 3% of the wages payable for that wage period and should be recovered in 90 days from imposition, in one lump. (7) Deductions can be made for absence on ―no work no pay‖ basis, loss incurred on account of the employee amenities, provided, advances/loans taken, tax payable, PF, ESI and insurance. (8) The total deductions made from the wages of a wage period should not exceed: (i) In case of payment to co-operative societies, 75% of the wages and (ii) In other cases, 50% of the wages (section 7) Reporting (9) The employer is required to submit an annual return of wages in Form No.IV for every year by the 15th of Feb of the succeeding year. (10) The employer should maintain the following registers in the prescribed form and preserve them for 3 years after the date of last entry made therein. (a) Register of payment of wages (Section 13 A) (b) Register of fines imposed & realized, (Section 8(8)) (c) Register of deductions for damages or loss and realization thereon; (Section 10 (2) ) Rights of Employees and Employers (11) The employer has a right to appeal against an order directing him to refund a deduction or against penalty imposed under section 15(3) & 15(4) respectively if


the appeal is made within 30 days of the passing of the order and if the payment of wages or compensation exceeds Rs.300/- or if the fine imposed exceeds Rs.1000/(section 17) (12) The employees have the right to claim unpaid or delayed wages, unauthorised deductions from wages or fines imposed, if the application is made within 12 months of due date or dates of such deductions or fines imposed. For sufficient reasons, delayed applications can also be accepted. (section 15) (13) The employees have also a right to appeal against an order withholding wages if the amount exceeds Rs.20/- and against penalty imposed for making a malicious or vexatious claim against an employer (section 17) Penalties (14) For delay in or non payment of wages within the prescribed period, fine from Rs.1500/- to Rs.7500/- can be imposed (Section 20 as amended in 2005) (15) For making an unauthorised deductions or imposing fines in contravention of the Act, fine from 1500/- to Rs.7000/- can be imposed (section 20 as amended in 2005) (16) For failure to fix wage period or make payment of wages on a working day fine upto 3750/- can be imposed. (17) For failure to maintain the register of fines and deductions or failure to display the prescribed notices, fine is upto 3750/- (section 20 as amended in 2005) (18) For failure to nominate or designate a person under section 3 of the Act fine upto Rs.3000/- (section 20 as amended in 2005)



(19) failure to maintain the prescribed returns and records, failure to furnish the required information or furnishing of false information fine from Rs.1500/- to 7000/(20) On repeating the offence mentioned in (19) above, imprisonment from 1 to 6 months and a fine from Rs.3750/- to Rs.22500/- (section 20 as amended in 2005) (21) Failure to pay the wages by the date fixed by the authority, additional fine of Rs.750/- per day of default. Implementation The Act is administered by the State Governments in their respective jurisdiction. The Central government administers in respect of Central Government departments and undertakings. Since the Act ensures payment of wages in a particular form (cash or cheque) at regular intervals without unauthorised deductions, it contributes a great deal in preventing industrial unrest. SUMMARY The payment of wages Act 1963 was passed to regulate payment of wages in respect of those persons employed in the industry, who draw wages below 6500 p.m. It seeks to protect workers against irregularities in payment of wages and unauthorised deductions made by employers. It also ensures that wages are paid in cash or cheque and at regular intervals. It also limits the deductions to 50% or 75% of the wages in a wage period, ensuring that the worker is left with some amount to feed himself. It prescribes punishments for violating the provisions of the Act and also for not maintaining proper records and registers as per the Act.


against women in the matter of employment.LABOUR LEGISLATION THE EQUAL REMUNERATION ACT 1976 INTRODUCTION The Equal Remuneration Act provides for payment of equal remuneration to men and women workers for same work or work of similar nature and for the prevention of discrimination on grounds of sex. IMPORTANT PROVISIONS OF THE ACT Limitations (1) The Act does not apply. (Section 1 (2) and (3)). administered by the Central / State Government in their respective jurisdiction (Section 2 (9) and Section 7). Implementation (2) The Act is a central legislation. (b) Where the difference in wages between men and women is based on a factor other than sex (Section 16). or in the terms and conditions regarding retirement marriage or death of women. the extent to which they can be employed and their hours of work (Section 6). [197] . SCOPE AND COVERAGE The Act extends to the whole of India and applies to all the establishments and employments notified by the Central Government. (a) Where special treatment is given to employement of women under any law or in connection with birth of a child. (3) An Advisory committee (State or Central) is constituted and makes recommendations regarding the establishments where women can be employed.

(7) The employees have a right to complain against the employer for contravention of any of the provisions of the Act.LABOUR LEGISLATION Rights and Obligations (4) The employer should pay equal wages to men and women employees of his establishment for performing same work or work of similar nature and for this purpose the employer should not reduce the wages of any worker (Section 4).10. (Section 5). [198] . training or transfer etc. their rate of remuneration. Penalties (9) Penalty for failure to maintain the prescribed register or other documents or to produce them on demand is imprisonment upto one month or fine upto Rs. The register will show the number of men and women employed. (6) Every employer should maintain an upto date register in relation to each employee in the prescribed form. category and other details (Section 8).000/or both. (5) The employer should not make any discrimination against women while undertaking recruitment of employees for same work or work of similar nature. They have a right to file claim arising out of non payment of equal remuneration which is to be filed in the prescribed form. or in respect of their promotion. They also have a right to appeal against an order of the Authority in respect of a claim or a complaint within 30 days of passing of such an order (Section 7(6)). (8) The employer also has a similar right of appeal against an order of the Authority within 30 days of passing of the order (Section 7 (6)).

20. It is applicable to all the Central Government. (12) Same penalty is prescribed for failure to carry out any direction of the government u/s 6(5) i. The legislation has helped women get their rightful wages and place in establishments. any register or document or information is fine upto Rs. (13) Penalty for failure to produce before an Inspector. passed by the Parliament to prevent discrimination against women in the matter of recruitment and remuneration. LESSON II THE MINIMUM WAGES ACT 1948 INTRODUCTION [199] . SUMMARY The equal remuneration Act 1976 is a Central Government legislation.LABOUR LEGISLATION (10) The same penalty is prescribed for failure to give evidence or information required of him (Section 10).e. Employees have the obligation to make no discrimination in the matter of wages or recruitment under the Act. direction in respect of functioning of the Advisory Committee (Section 10).or imprisonment upto one year on both (Section 10).(Section 10). (11) Penalty for discrimination against women in recruitment or payment of wages is fine upto Rs.500/. The employee has a right to complain against discrimination or against an order of the Authority. State Government establishments through out the country.000/. Inspectors are appointed to verify whether the provisions of the Act are followed or not.. Pernalties are prescribed for contravention of the provisions of the Act.

The legislation covers 46 scheduled employments and totally 260 employments in the country. The act covers every employee including an outworker to whom materials are given out for manufacturing or processing at his own premises. The Act also provides max-daily working hours. 2. The state may fix : [200] . IMPORTANT PROVISIONS OF THE ACT 1. 3. It stipulates payments of wages for sustenance. The variable Dearness Allowance (VDA) is proposed so that the minimum wages are reviewed at least once in two years and amended according to the cost of living index variations. The Act is now being amended to link the same to the cost of living in order to take care of inflation. The Act is a measure to regulate wages in the country in consonance with the cost of living. The state has to review at intervals not exceeding five years the minimum wage rate [sec 3(b)]. The sate need not fix minimum wage rule in respect of such employments which employ less than 1000 employees in the whole state 4. The State can fix minimum wage rate for the whole state or a part of the state or for any specified class or classes of employment in the whole state or part thereof [section 3 (a)]. which is also followed by the State Governments.LABOUR LEGISLATION This is an Act of The Central Government. SCOPE AND COVERAGE The Act extends to the whole of India and applies to all establishments employing one or more persons engaged in any of the scheduled employments. weekly rest day and overtime.

month or other larger period provided. called a guaranteed time rate (iv) a minimum rate to apply in substitution for the minimum rate which would otherwise be applicable in respect of overtime work done (called ―overtime rate‖). (c) and (d). The minimum wage rate fixed may consist of (i) A basic rate and a special allowance at a rate of be adjusted with the variation in the cost of living.e. For the purpose of advising the Central and State Government in the matter of fixation and revision of minimum rates of wages and other matters under this Act [201] . [see 2(a). where wage periods have been fixed under payment of wages Act 1936. 6. different classes of work in the same scheduled employment for adults. hour. day. Or the state notifies its proposals in official Gazette and getting response within two months of such notification from those who will be affected revises the minimum wages by notification in the official Gazette [section 5].LABOUR LEGISLATION (i) A minimum wage rate for time work (ii) A minimum wage rate for piece work (iii) A minimum wage rate for piece rate workers to secure a minimum wage rate on a time work basis. (vi) Minimum wage rate may be fixed by one or more of the wage periods i. (b). The minimum rate in respect of an employment is fixed or revised on the advice of committees or sub committees who hold necessary enquiries. (v) Different wage rates may be fixed for different scheduled employments. 7. adolescents. (ii) A basic rate with or without the cost of living allowance (iii) An all inclusive rate allowing for the basic rate the cost of living allowance and the cash value of the concessions if any. children and apprentices and for different localities. 5. the minimum wages shall be fixed in accordance therewith. IMPLEMENTATION 8.

if the government feels provision should be made to supply essential commodities at convenient rate the government can authorize the same. [202] . Wherever the minimum wages are fixed the employer has to pay overtime for every hour of work or part thereof at the overtime rate fixed under this Act [sec. Minimum wages are paid in cash. RIGHTS AND OBLIGATIONS OF EMPLOYEES 10. in equal number and independent members not exceeding one-third of its total number of members. Wherever in respect of any employment a notification under sec 5 is in force. 14]. the employer has to pay wages not less than the minimum wage fixed by such notification [sec 12]. 11. a day of rest in every period of seven days and provide for payment for work on the rest day at a rate not less than the overtime rate [sec 13]. wherever it has been a custom to pay wages wholly or partly in kind and the government feels necessary to continue the practice the government can authorize the same. However cash value of wages in kind and of concessions in respect of essential supplies is estimated in the prescribed manner for calculation of minimum wages [sec 11]. The chairman is from among the independent members [sec 9].LABOUR LEGISLATION and for coordinating the work of the Advisory Boards the Central Government shall appoint a Central Advisory Board consisting of persons nominated by the central government representing employers and employees in the scheduled employments. MODE OF PAYMENT 9. Similarly. The government may fix the number of hours of work. 12. However.

In case of companies. The appropriate government may appoint an officer with experience as a judge to be the authority to hear and decide all claims arising out of payment of less than the minimum rates of wages [sec 20(1)]. 19.22c]. 16. every person who was in charge of the matter and the company itself shall be deemed to be guilty of the offence in case of violation of the provisions of this Act [sec. 18. An employer who pays wages at the rate less than the minimum rate prescribed or violates the provisions regarding fixation of number of hours of work for normal working day can be punished with imprisonment up to 6 months or fine of Rs. Employers have to maintain registers and records giving particulars of employees. The appropriate government may by notification direct that the provisions of payment of wages Act 1936 will apply to any employment covered under this Act [sec. PENALTIES 17. All such claim applications have to be preferred within 6 months of the date on which the wage became payable [sec 20(3)]. 14.LABOUR LEGISLATION REPORTING 13.500/or both [sec. 22f]. The appropriate government may appoint inspectors to administer this Act [sec 19]. ADJUDICATION 15. [203] .22]. work performed by them and wages paid to them in the prescribed form [sec 18].

26(2A]. The Act empower the government to fix basic rate of wages and a special allowance which is adjusted periodically with the variation in the cost of living. Penalties are prescribed for violation of the previsions of the Act and employees are expected to furnish an annual return in the prescribed form by the 1st of Feb. Employments which employ less than one thousand employees in the whole state are not covered by this Act.LABOUR LEGISLATION 20. SUMMARY The Minimum Wages Act 1948 was passed by the Central Government and all the state governments follow this Act. of the succeeding year. 21. They are also expected to maintain the prescribed registers and records. A Central Advisory Board coordinates the work of the State Advisory Boards and advises the state and central governments in the matters of fixation and revision of minimum rates of wages. The Act does not apply to the wages payable by an employer to a member of his family who is living with him and is dependent on him [sec 26(3)]. The act also provides for the review and revision of minimum wages at intervals not exceeding 5 years. LESSON III WORKMEN’S COMPENSATION ACT 1923 INTRODUCTION [204] . The Act empowers the central and state governments to fix minimum wages in respect of about 260 sweated and unorganized employments specified in Part I and Part II of its schedule. The appropriate government may exempt any employment from the purview of this act for valid reasons [sec.

The main object. The theory behind workmen‗s compensation being ―the cost of product should bear the blood of the workmen‖. arising out of and in the course of employment. (according to this doctrine. The employers would plead that they were not responsible for the negligence on the part of employees or the negligence could not be attributed to them. The Act came into force on the 1st of July 1924. the personal action dies with the death of the workman) With the above objections it was impossible for workmen to get any compensation. according to the preamble of the Act is to provide for the payment of compensation by certain classes of employers to their workmen for injury by accident. [205] . iv) Of end of personal action with death. he would avoid his liability on the grounds : i) Of the doctrine of assumed risk (the doctrine stems from the belief that where there is consent there is no injury or liability) ii) Of the doctrine of common employment. (The doctrine provides that the employer is not liable for injury to a worker if the worker works with several other workers for a common purpose and the injury is caused by some act of omission of some of the persons of his group).LABOUR LEGISLATION The first step towards providing social security to workmen in the country was undertaken with the passing of the Workmen‗s Compensation Act 1923. Prior to the passing of the Workmen‗s Compensation Act 1923. the workman is not entitled to compensation if the injury is caused by his own negligence). the employers used to be liable to pay compensation for injury only if the employer was found guilty of negligence. iii) Of the doctrine of contributory negligence (according of this doctrine. Even in the event of his being found gully of negligence.

After this amendment casual labour also came under the purview of the Act However. Among those significant ones are Railways. Workmen‗s Compensation Act 1923 was enacted. Mines. irrespective of their nature of employment ie whether on casual basis or otherwise. The amendment of 2000 brought all the Workers within the ambit of the Act.LABOUR LEGISLATION Fatal Accidents Act 1855 was passed to overcome the doctrine of assumed risk and the doctrine of end of personal action with death. Oilfields etc. Docks. If personal injury is caused to a workman by accident arising out of and in the course of his employment. employees covered under the Employees State Insurance Act are outside the purview of this Act. Fire-Brigade. Construction Establishment. The employer will not be liable if : (a) any injury is caused that does not result in total or partial disablement for a period exceeding three days [206] . to take care of the doctrine of common employment. his employer is liable to pay compensation in accordance with the provisions of Section 3 of this Act. Other Transport Services. SCOPE AND COVERAGE The Act extends to the whole of India and it applies to all the establishments mentioned in schedule II of the Act. Factories. IMPORTANT PROVISIONS OF THE ACT Employer's Liability 1. 2. Later on the employer‗s Liability Act 1938 was passed to overcome the objections arising out of the doctrine of contributory regligence. for the purpose of employers trade or business. Plantations.

after cessation of such service as an occupational disease peculiar to that employment it will be deemed to be an injury caused due to accident. provided it is proved that the disease has been contracted as an occupational disease particular to that employment. c) If it is proved that a workman having served for the specified period has contracted a disease specified in Part B or Part C of Schedule III. a workman having instituted a claim to compensation in respect of an injury before a commissioner or [207] . all the employers are liable to pay compensation in proportion to be decided by the commissioner [Section 3(2)]. a) If a workman employed for a continuous period of at least 6 months contracts any disease specified in Part A & B of Schedule III. b) If a workman employed for a continuous period as specified by the Central Government Contracts a disease specified in Part C of the Schedule III. 3. under more than one employer. A workman having filed a civil suit against the employer for damages in respect of the injury will not have the right to compensation. 4. or to a rule expressly framed for the purpose of securing the safety of workman or (iii) the willful removal or disregard by the workman of any safety guard or other device which he knew to have been provided for the purpose of securing the safety of workman (Section 3). it will be deemed to be an injury caused to due to accident.LABOUR LEGISLATION (b) in respect of any accident (resulting in injury not leading to death or permanent disablement) which is directly attributed to (i) the workman having been at the time thereof under the influence of drink or drinks or (ii) the willful disobedience of the workman to an order expressly given. d) If a workman contracts a disease while working or having worked for the specified period. Similarly. it will be deemed to be an injury caused due to accident.

it would be such percentage of compensation payable in case of permanent total disablement as is proportionate of the loss of earning capacity as assessed by a qualified medical practitioner. b) The amount of compensation for permanent disablement resulting from the injury is an amount equal to sixty percent of the monthly wages of the injured workman multiplied by the relevant factor or an amount of ninety thousand rupees whichever is more. c) The compensation in respect of partial disablement resulting from the injury specified in Part-II of Schedule I is such percentage of the compensation in case of total disablement as is specified therein as being the percentage of loss of earning capacity. due to an injury. in case of temporary disablement. However. would be a half monthly payment of the sum equivalent to twenty five percent of monthly wages of the workman. cannot file a suit in a Civil Court in respect of damages due to the injury [Section 3(5)]. d) The compensation.LABOUR LEGISLATION having reached an agreement with his employer for compensation for an injury. Such payment will be made for a maximum of 5 years from the date of disablement [Section 4(1) & (2)]. [208] . whether total or partial. a) The amount of compensation for death resulting from the injury will be an amount equal to fifty percent of the monthly wages of the deceused workman multiplied by the relevant factor or an amount of eighty thousand rupees whichever is more [Section 4(a)]. in case of an injury not specified in Schedule I. Amount of Compensation 5.

In case the [209] . he can order payment of a further sum (in addition to interest) not exceeding fifty percent of the amount due by way of penalty. who actually incurred the funeral expenditure [Section 4(4)]. In case the commissioner is of the opinion that there was no justification for the delay. Penalty for Default in Paying 5. one twelfth of the total wages paid during the preceding twelve months.LABOUR LEGISLATION e) If the injury results in death. In case there is no dependent. Method of Calculating Wages 6. the sum is to be paid to the person. towards funeral expenses. the employer will have to deposit a sum of rupees two thousand five hundred with the commissioner for payment of the same to the eldest of the surviving dependents of the workman. after giving a show cause notice [Section 4A]. in addition to the compensation specified above. he is required to make provisional payment to the extent of liability he accepts and such amount is required to be deposited with the commissioner or be paid to the workman without prejudice to the right of the workman to make any further claim [Section 4A(2)]. simple interest on the amount at twelve percent or more but not exceeding the lending rate of any scheduled bank specified by the central government. b) In case the employer does not accept the liability to the extent claimed. c) In case of failure to pay compensation within a month from the due date. a) The compensation has to be paid by the employer as soon as it is due. the commissioner shall direct him to pay in addition. The monthly wages for the purpose of compensation are the monthly wages payable for a month‗s service or if the wages are paid not on the month basis.

in such a manner as directed by the commissioner. The half monthly payment made can be reviewed by the commissioner on the basis of a medical report on the application made by the employer on the workman. In case of half monthly payment the Commissioner. such a sum may be invested. the employer can pay advance of not more than three months‗ wages and the Commissioner will repay that to the employer from the amount deposited [Section 9 (1)].LABOUR LEGISLATION worker has not worked for a continues period of one month. The compensation payable on death to a woman or a legally disabled person is to be deposited with the commissioner. during the last one year. In case of death however. It can be converted into lump sum payment on permanent disablement if it is found that the injury has resulted into permanent disablement [Section 6]. if there is a change in the condition of the workman and the payment can be increased or decreased or ended as found justified. for the benefit of the woman or the disabled person. many on his own or an application order that the payment be made to any [210] . 8. if the person is a woman or a legally disabled person. the monthly wages are the daily wages multiplied by thirty. However. The commissioner will distribute the compensation to the dependents on issuing notice to them to appear before him and after making suitable enquires. 7. When the compensation is payable to one person the money is paid to that person. Half monthly payments can be commuted into lump sum payments by the Commissioner on application by either party and by mutual agreement [Section 7]. Implementation in case of death 9. The appointment will be at the discretion of the Commissioner who can give the entire amount to any one dependent. 10. applied or otherwise dealt with.

LABOUR LEGISLATION dependent or to any other person whom the commissioner thinks best fitted to provide for the welfare of the workman [Section 8 (6) & (7)]. the amount so paid can be recovered from the persons in the manner laid down under Section 31 of this Act [Section 8 (9)]. Note: In Andhra Pradesh. In case of partial disablement the period of notice is counted from the day the workman gives a notice of partial disablement to the employer. 13. A notice of the accident is to be given to the commissioner as soon as practicable after the happening and no claim for compensation can be entertained by the commissioner if it is preferred after two years of the accident or death. the Commissioner is required to pay the balance of compensation (payable under Section 8) into the fund constituted under the Act. impersonation or other improper means. attached or charged to any other person [Section 9]. Rights and Obligations 14. When the commissioner varies his order because the payment of compensation was obtained by fraud. 12. In case of a [211] . when a workman belonged to an establishment to which Andhra Pradesh Labour Welfare Fund Act 1987 applies. No lump sum compensation or half monthly payment can be assigned. he can do so provided an opportunity of show course is given to a person. In case of total disablement caused by a disease. 11. if the revised order is likely to be prejudicial to the interest of the person [Section 8 (8)]. the period of notice should be counted from the first of the days from which the workman had been continuously absent. If the commissioner is satisfied that his order for the distribution is to be varied.

a notice is required to be given about an accident resulting in death or serious injuries. had the knowledge of the accident from any source at or about the time it occurred. ii) For sufficient cause the commissioner may entertain and decide any claim without notice or an application for claim [Section 10 (1)]. A defect or irregularity is not a bar to preferring a claim of compensation under the following circumstances i) In case of death resulting from an accident occurring on the premises of the employer. Where by any law in force. 15. If the employer does not accept liability. Employers of a prescribed class are expected to maintain a notice book in the prescribed form that can be made available to an employee injured on the premises or any person acting on his behalf [Section 10 (3)]. the notice counts from the day the first symptoms were first detected [Section 10]. The Commissioner on receiving information from any other source has the power to obtain details of the accident in the prescribed form from the employer and ask him to deposit the compensation within twenty days of such notice. 18. such notice is to be given to the commissioner [212] . ii) If the employer or any person employed by or responsible to the employer for management of the workman‗s branch. or at any premises where he was working under the control of the employer or under any person employed by the manager and death occurred on the premises or at the place where the accident occurred.LABOUR LEGISLATION workman noticing symptoms of a disease after cessation of employment. the Commissioner after due enquires can ask the dependents to prefer a claim if they wish to for such compensation [Section 10A]. 16. 17.

When a workman gives a notice of an accident. paid to him by the contractor. In cases where the state government rules apply. 19. However this will not apply to the cases where the accident occurs at the work place of the principal or which is under his control [Section 11 (2)]. Failure to submit himself to Medical examination as aforesaid or obstructing the same will make a workman liable for suspensation of such compensation [Section 11 (2)]. In cases of half monthly payment under this Act. the principal who contracts it out is liable to pay compensation as if the workman was employed by him. the commissioner may if he thanks fit. he has to submit himself for medical examination if the employer offers to have him examined free of charge. [213] .LABOUR LEGISLATION within seven days of the accident. 23. 20. 22. the notice is to be sent to the authority designated by the State Government [Section 10B]. In case the work is contracted out and the workman is employed by the contractor. When a workman whose right to compensation is suspended for failure to submit for medical examination dies. However the wages referred to in the Act will be those. the amounts paid and other particulars as demanded by the State Government [Section 16]. 21. also he has to submit himself for medical examination from time to time [Section 11 (1)]. Returns are required to be sent to the authority prescribed by the State Government by the employer in the prescribed form at the prescribed time giving details of the number of injuries in respect of which compensation has been paid by the employer during the previous year. within three days of the accident. direct the payment of compensation to the dependents [Section 11 (4)].


24. Offences and Penalties


Offence Unjustified delay in payment of compensation

2. ii)

Failure to maintain a notice book u/s 10(3) Failure to submit a statement of fatal

Penalty Upto 50% of the amount of compensation in addition to the interest charged for the period of delay. Fine upto Rs.5,000/Fine upto Rs.5,000/-

accidents u/s 10A iii) iv)

Failure to submit an accident report u/s 10B Failure to file an annual return of compensation u/s 16

Fine upto Rs.5,000/Fine upto Rs.5,000/-

Adjudication 25. i) All questions arising in any proceedings under this act in default of agreement be settled by a commissioner. ii) No Civil Court has any jurisdiction to settle, decide or deal with questions which are, by this Act, required to be settled by a Commissioner or to enforce any liability incurred under the Act. Application before a Commissioner i) Application for the settlement of any matter by commissioner is to be made only if the dependents are unable to settle the issue by agreement. ii) Such application is to be submitted along with a fee as may be prescribed giving: a) A concise statement of the circumstances in which the application is made and the relief or order sought. b) In the case of a claim for compensation against an employer, the date of service of notice, of the accident and reason for delay in serving such a notice in case of delay. c) The name and address of the parties and


d) A concise statement of the matters on which agreement has been reached and agreement has not been reached [Section 22]. 27. The Commissioner will have all the powers of a Civil Court under the code of civil procedure and the code of criminal procedure to deal with cases under this Act. 28. The Commissioner should record agreements in respect of lump sum compensation or redemption of half monthly payments or any agreement entered into regarding payment under this Act on receipt of a memorandum from the employer, in a register in the prescribed manner, after seven days after communications of notice to the parties. He may at any time, rectify the register. Where the commissioner is of the view that the agreement has been obtained by fraud or undue influence or by improper means, he may refuse to record it and pass an order to that effect and also order on the payment already made. SUMMARY Workmen‗s compensation Act 1923 is intended to provide workman and/or their dependents some relief in case of accidents arising out of and in the course of employment and resulting in death or permanent / temporary disablement, as well as contracting occupational diseases. It covers almost all types of employments including casual labour employed by a contractor. However, employees covered by Employees State Insurance Act are outside the purview of this Act. The Act provides for payment of compensation of 50% of monthly wages x relevant factor or Rs. 80,000/- whichever is more in case, of death and 60% of monthly wages x relevant factor or Rs. 90,000/- whichever is more in case of permanent, disablement. In case of partial disablement a percentage of the compensation paid for total disablement is granted. In case of


temporary disablement, provision is there for half monthly payments of 25% of the monthly salary till the worker is declared fit. The employer is required to deposit the compensation with the commissioner who has the powers of a Civil Court to deal with matters arising out of this Act. The Commissioner in turn distributes the compensation after due enquiry. The employer is required to give intimation to the Commissioner within 7 days of the accident which results in death or serious bodily injury. He is required to maintain a notice book for the purpose. Employees have to send a notice to the commissioner about the accident. Claim is admitted only on receipt of such a notice. No claim may be entertained if the notice is received after two years of the accident. Employees have a right to apply to the commissioner for review of the half monthly payment in case of temporary disablement on the ground of change in condition of the employee. The employer can refer any dispute as to the liability to pay compensation amount, or duration of compensation, or even the nature or extent of durations to the Commissioner. The employer or the employee has a right to appeal against the order of the commissioner to the high court within 60 days. The legislation has provided a great relief to workers and by its very wide coverage has been instrumental in bringing about industrial peace. THE EMPLOYEES' STATE INSURNACE ACT 1948 INTRODUCTION The objective of this Act is to provide to the workers medical relief and sickness insurance The Act provides for compulsory insurance providing for certain benefits. The employees and the employers both contribute financially. Like the workmen‗s compensation Act 1923, this also provides for compensation to the injured workers or benefits to the dependents of the deceased workers. However in


the case of workmen‗s compensation Act 1923, the compensation is provided by the employer whereas in the case of ESI Act the compensation is provided by the ESI Corporation. SCOPE AND COVERAGE The Act extends to the whole of India and covers all factories including Government factories but excluding seasonal factories, employing 10 or more persons and carrying on a manufacturing process with the aid of power or employing 20 or more persons and carrying on a manufacturing process without the aid of power and such other establishments as the government may specify. Generally establishment such as hotels, cinemas, newspapers etc employing more than 20 employees are covered by the provisions of this Act. The Act cannot be applied voluntarily. Once a factory is covered by the Act, it continues to be covered by the Act even if the number of employees falls below the specified level. Two units of the same manufacturing establishment located at different places wherein the work pertains to one single process are liable to be clubbed together for the purpose of this Act. However, to be covered under this Act, the twenty or ten employees must fall within the definition given in Section 2(9) of this Act (Supreme Court in the case of ESIC Vs M.M. Suri & Associates (1998(5) SC 694)). It also does not cover seasonal factories, factories exempted from the provisions of the Act by the Government, the mines (governed by the Mines Act 1952), Railway running sheds, and factories and establishments under the control of Government whose employees are otherwise in receipt of benefits substantially similar or superior to the benefits provided under the Act. IMPORTANT PROVISIONS OF THE ACT 1. Registration of Factories and Establishments


Every factory or establishment to which this Act applies has to be registered within 15 days of the applicability of the Act with the ESI Corporation. The declaration of registration has to be made in Form 01 and details of the establishment have to be given in an additional sheet to be attached to the form. The concerned Regional office of the ESI Corporation will allot an identifications number to the employer which must be quoted in all correspondence [Section 2A & Regulation 10B]. Corporation, Standing Committee and Medical Benefit Council 2. With effect from 1-10-1948, Employees State Insurance Corporation has been formed for the administration of the ESI Scheme [Section 3]. The ESI Corporate is a body corporate consisting of the following members 3. A Chairman, a Vice Chariman, not more than five members, one person representing each state, one person to represent the Union territories, ten persons representing employees, two persons representing the medical profession, three members of parliament two from Lok sabha and one from Rajya Sabha, elected by the respective Houses, and an Ex-Officio Director General. All members except the members of Parliament are appointed by the Central Government [Section 4]. 4. The term of office of the representatives of the employers, the employees the medical profession and the Parliament is for four years [Section 5]. Standing Committee 5. A standing committee of the ESI Corporation constituted includes: A Chairman, three members of the Corporation, three members of the corporation representing three states (decided by the Central Government from time to time), eight members elected by the corporation. i.e. three members of the Corporation representing employers, three members of the Corporation representing employees, one member


of the corporation representing medical profession, and one member of the corporation, who is a member of Parliament. The Director General of the ESI Corporation is the Ex Officio member of the Standing Committee [Section 8]. 6. The term of office of members of standing committee except the Chairman, the Central and State representatives and the Director General is two years from the notification of his election. A member of the standing committee ceases to be its member if he ceases to be a member of the ESI Corporation [Section 9]. Medical Benefit Council 7. The Medical Benefit Council constituted by the Central Government consist of the Director General of Health Services (ex-offices – he is also the Chairman of the Medical Benefit Council), a Deputy Director General Health Services, the Medical Commissioner of the Corporation, (ex-officio), one member each representing each state (except the union territories), three members representing the employers, three members representing employees, three members out of whom not less than one is a woman representing the medical profession. The term of office of the members is four years [Section 10]. Cessation of Membership 8. (i) A members of the Corporation, or Standing Committee or Benefit Council ceases to be its member if he ceases to represent the employers, employees, or the medial profession. (ii) A member of the Corporation or Standing Committee or the Benefit Council ceases to be a member of the same if he fails to attend three consecutive meetings of the same. (iii) A member of parliament ceases to be a member of the Corporation, or the Standing Committee or the Benefit Council if he ceases to be a member of Parliament [Section 12].



9. The Director General and the Financial Commissioner are appointed by the Central Government. They are whole time officers of the Corporation. They hold office for not more than five years. However an outgoing DG or F.C. is eligible for reappointment. The Corporation can by a resolution passed, vote for the removal of the DG or FC by a two thirds majority in a special meeting called for the purpose [Section 16]. Powers of the standing committee 10. The standing committee administers the affairs of the corporation, may exercise any of the powers of the corporation and perform any of its functions. It submits to the corporation matters for decision specified in the regulations made in this behalf or any other matter at its discretion [Section 18]. 11. The Corporation, the Standing Committee and the Benefit Council meet at regular intervals and follow rules and procedures specified by the Central Government in their regulations [Section 20]. 12. The Corporation, the Standing Committee or the Medical Benefit Council can be superseded by the Central Government by a notification issued in this behalf and after giving a reasonable opportunity to them [Section 21]. Duties of Medical Benefit Council 13. a) The Medical Benefit Council advises the Corporation & the Standing Committee on matters related to the administration of Medical Benefit, the certification for purposes of the grant of benefits and other connected matters. It also investigates complaints against medical practitioners and performs other duties connected with medical treatment and attendance as may be specified [Section 22].


b) The Corporation appoints Regional Boards, Local Committees, and Regional and Local Medical Benefit Councils and delegates them powers as provided in by the regulations [Section 25]. Finance and Audit Employees’ State Insurance Fund 11. a) All contributions paid under this Act and all moneys received on behalf of the Corporation is paid into a fund called ESI Fund, which is held and administered by the Corporation. b) The Corporation also accepts donations grants and gifts from governments, individuals local authority, any body whether incorporated or not. Purpose for which the fund amount is spent 12. The fund amount is expended for the following purposes. (a) Payment of benefits and medical expenses of insurants and their families (where provided) (b) Payment of fees and allowance to members of the Corporation, the Standing Committee, the Medical Benefit Council, the Regional Boards, Local Committees, and Regional and Local Medical Benefit Council. (c) Expenditures in respect of the staff of the Council including salaries and other payments as well as expenditure in respect of offices and other services set up to administer the Act. (d) Establishment and maintenance of hospitals, dispensaries and other institutions and provision of medical and other ancillary services for the benefit of the insured persons and their families (where provided). (e) Payment of cost of medical treatment and attendance provided to the insured and their families (where provided) including the cost of building and equipment (if there is an agreement to that effect) (f) Defraying the cost of auditing the accounts of the


Corporation, and of valuation of the assets and liabilities. (g) Defraying the Cost & Expenses of the Employees‗ Insurance Courts set up. (h) Payment of any sums under any contract, decree order or award. (i) Defraying the cost and other charges of instituting or defending any Civil or Criminal proceedings. (j) Defraying expenditure on measures for the importance of health and welfare of insured persons and for rehabilitation and re-employment of insured persons who have been disabled or injured and (k) Such other expenses as may be authorized by the Corporation with the precious approval of the Central Government. 13. Budget, audited accounts and the annual report of the Corporation should be placed before parliament every year [Section 36]. 14. All employees in factories or establishments to which this Act applies are to be insured [Section 38]. Contributions 15. (a) The employers and the employees are required to contribute 4.75% and 1.75% of the wages payable in the wage period respectively. However if the average daily wage in a wage period is less than Rs.50/- the employees are exempted from payment. (b) It is the duty of the employer to pay his as well as employees‗ contribution on due date. Failure makes him liable to pay simple interest at the rate of 12% p.a. or higher as specified in the regulations (but not more than 15%) till the actual date of payment [Section 39 & 42 read with Rule 52]. 16. The employer is allowed to deduct the employees' contribution from the wages paid to them. He will bear all the expenses of remitting his contribution and the


Reporting [223] . lockout (legal). the wages are divided by factors 6. fortnightly or monthly. 17. 20. Time and Method of Payment of Contribution 18. lay off or any other additional remuneration paid at intervals of less than 2 months. It also excludes any travelling allowance paid including cycle allowance. The immediate employer will have to maintain a register of employees employed by or through him and submit the same to the Principal employer before settlement of any amount payable. but excludes employee‗s contribution to the Provident Fund. 19. Rule 2 (1B) of ESI (Central) Rules 1950.LABOUR LEGISLATION contributions of employees to the Corporation. The contribution recovered would be paid into an ESI account (with a branch of SBI) on or before 21st of each month following the calendar month in which the wages fall due. He is prohibited from recovering his contribution from the wages of the employees [Section 40]. reimbursement of any special expenses and gratuity payable on discharge [Section 2(22)]. employed by or through an immediate employer as well as the employers contribution. 13. and 26 for weekly. Wage includes all payments including payment for authorized leave. fortnightly and monthly wages respectively. For calculating the daily average. which is recovered in the first instant by the principal employer [Section 41]. ESI Fund or Pension. The aggregate amount is rounded off to the next higher rupee [Section 43 & Regulations 29 & 31]. The Principle employer is entitled to receive the contributions paid by him in respect of an employee. weekly. The wage period may be daily.

(c) Periodical Payment for disablement of such dependents of [224] . (1) The insured person (or his dependents as the case may be) is entitled to the following benefits under the Act. or miscarriage if certified by the authorized medical practioner. giving details of wages paid. contributions recovered. number of days worked etc. 1950). such other details about the factory or the establishment in order to enable the Corporation to decide whether it is a factory within the meaning of this Act. (a) Periodical payment in case of sickness if the sickness is certified by a duly appointed medical practitioner. (d) Employers are also expected to maintain an Accident Book and an Inspection Book (Section 44 and ESI (Central) Rules. Any contribution payable under this Act may be recovered as an arrear of Land Revenue Benefits 23. Recovery of contribution 22. confinement premature birth of child. (a) Every principal and immediate employer is required to submit returns in the prescribed form giving details of the persons employed by him and contributions recovered in form 6 and in case such returns are not submitted.LABOUR LEGISLATION 21. in respect of each employee. (b) The employers are expected to maintain a register of employees in form 7. (b) Periodical Payment to an insured woman in case of confinement or miscarriage or sickness arising out of pregnancy. This applies to the contractors also. (c) The register should be preserved and kept open for inspection by the inspectors of the Corporation.

are paid). For the purpose of this Act. duly certified by the authorized medical practitioner. (b) A person who sustains permanent disablement whether total or partial is entitled to periodical payment at such percentage of benefit payable in the case of temporary disablement. (d) Periodical payment to an insured person for disablement if certified by the authorized medical practitioner. 25. (f) Funeral expenses to be paid to the eldest-dependent of the insured person who dies as a result of an employment injury (maximum Rs. Disablement Benefit 24.LABOUR LEGISLATION an insured person who dies as a result of an employment injury. (2) The benefits paid will not exceed the amount prescribed by the central government and the claim is to be made within 3 months of the death of the insured. is entitled to periodic payment (at the rate of 40% more than the standard benefit rate which is Rs. Dependent’s benefit [225] . as is proportionate to the percentage of loss of earning capacity (duly certified) [Section 51]. in the absence of evidence to the contrary also to have arisen out of that employment [Section 51A]. 14 or more depending upon his wages). 2500/. (e) medical treatment for and attendance on insured persons. an accident arising in the course of an insured person's employment shall be presumed. (a) A person who sustains disablement for not less than 3 days. (3) The Corporation may extend the benefits to the family of an insured person on the recommendation of the government [Section 46].

Occupational disease 26. for a continuous period specified by the corporation contracts an occupational disease the contracting of such disease will be deemed to be an injury arising out of and in the course of employment [Section 52-A]. Medical benefit 27.LABOUR LEGISLATION 25. or other institution or by visits to the home or an in-patient in a hospital or other institution. The benefit may be given as an outpatient treatment or attendance in a hospital or dispensary. (a) An insured person or a member of his family (in case the benefit is extended to the family) will be entitled to receive medical benefit if they need medical treatment and attention. An employee (employed in employment specified in Part A of the Third Schedule) contracts any disease specified as an occupational disease under the Act or if an employee employed in employment specified in part B of the third schedule for a continuous period of not less than six months contracts any occupational disease or if an employee employed in employment falling under Part C of the 3rd schedule. (c) An insured person who has attained the age of superannuation and his spouse can receive medical benefit provided he has paid contribution and satisfied such other conditions as specified by the Corporation [Section 56]. (b) A permanently disabled person can receive medical benefit till the age of normal superannuation. Scale of medical benefit [226] . If an insured person dies as a result of an employment injury. dependent‗s benefit is payable to his dependent (at 40% more than the standard benefit rate) [Section 52]. clinic.

hospital. Establishment and Maintenance of Hospitals by the Corporation 30. The person is also not entitled to receive any similar benefits admissible under any other law [Section 60. b) He will not do anything that will retard his recovery. (b) The Corporation also enters into an agreement with the local authority.01.1992.LABOUR LEGISLATION 28. private body or individual in regard to the provision of medical treatment and attendance for insured persons and their families in any area and shares the cost thereof. 29.f. The limit on medical benefit per family unit per annum in respect of all employees was made Rs. Benefits under this act are not attachable. 61 & 62]. General Provisions 31. The insured person and his family shall be entitled to received medical benefit only of such kind and on such scale as may be provided by the State Government or by the Corporation and medical treatment as is provided by the dispensary. clinic or other institution to which he and his family is allotted. dispensaries and medial and surgical services for the benefit of the insured with the approval of the State Government.w. They are also not entitled to claim reimbursement of any expenses incurred in respect of any medical treatment except as may be provided by the regulations [Section 57]. c) He will not [227] . 32. (c) The Corporation may also undertake to provide medical benefit to the insured persons (and their families) of the State instead of the State Government on cost sharing basis [Section 59 & 59A]. 345/. They cannot be commuted by the person receiving them. a) A recipient of sickness benefit has to be under medical treatment at the institution and will have to carryout the instructions given by the medical attendant in charge. (a) The Corporation maintains hospitals. 01.e.

a) Whether the employee is covered by the Act. and shall allow himself to be examined by any duly appointed medical officer [Section 64]. c) Rate of contribution payable by a Principal employer in respect of an employee. a) State Government have constituted ESI courts for the disposal of cases arising out of the ESI Act. He/she is allowed to choose any one of the benefits for a particular period [Section 65]. a) Sickness and maternity benefits. f) Any direction issued by the Corporation on review of any payment of dependent benefit. g) Any matter under dispute between the Principal employer and the corporation or between a principal employer and an immediate employer. c) The State Government may distribute work between the counts where there are two or more courts for the same area [Section 74]. Adjudication of disputes and claims 34. b) sickness and disablement benefit. b) The rate of daily wage or average daily wage for the purpose of the Act. d) Whether a person is or was a principal employer in respect of an employee. 35. An insured person is not allowed to combine benefits for the same period. e) The right of any person to a benefit and to the amount and duration thereof. [228] . 33. b) The Sate Government may appoint the same court for two or more local areas or two or more courts for the same local area. or between a person and the Corporation or between an employee and a principal or immediate employer [Section 75 (1)].LABOUR LEGISLATION leave the area in which the medical treatment is being given without the permission of the medical attendant in charge. c) maternity and disablement benefit. The ESI Courts will adjudicate upon the following disputes and claims.

5000/Imprisonment upto one year or fine upto Rs. a) Claim for recovery of contributions from the principal employer b) Claim by a principal employer to recover contributions from any immediate employer. Only a legal practitioner or an officer of a registered trade union authorized to make an appearance can appear before the ESI Court [Section 79]. An appeal against the ESI Court Order shall lie to the High Court if it involves a substantial question of law. No matter which is in dispute between an employer and the ESI Corporation in respect of any contribution or any other dues shall be admitted unless the employer deposits 50% of the amount due. The ESI Courts shall deal with the following claims. Punishment upto 3 years (minimum 1 year) and fine of Rs. 39. 2 . Offences For making a false statement for claiming or increasing any benefit or payment allowable to him or (b) for avoiding any payment by him a) Failure to pay employees' contribution deducted from the wages Penalties Imprisonment upto 6 months on fine upto Rs. It should be preferred within 60 days [Section 82]. 4000/. 37. c) Claim against a principal employer d) Claim for the recovery of value of amount of the benefits recovered by a person when he is not lawfully entitled thereto. b) Failure to pay contributions c) Deduction of any sum from or reduction of wages of an employee on a/c of employer's contribution [229] . 38. e) any claim for the recovery of any benefit admissible under this Act [Section 75 (2)]. 10.LABOUR LEGISLATION 36.or both [Section 84] . with the court [Section 72(2-B)].or both. Penalties 1 .000/Imprisonments upto 3 years (minimum 6 months) and a fine of Rs. 2000/.

000/- Impressments upto 2 years and a five of Rs. The scheme applies to factories that employ a minimum of ten workers where manufacturing activity is carried out with the aid of power and the factories with a minimum of twenty workers which do not use power for manufacturing. Rules or Regulations 3 On every subsequent offence committed after .000/- SUMMARY The Employees State Insurance Act 1948 is a landmark in the history of social security in India. It covers labour employed directly including the clinical staff whose salary in the aggregate does not exceed Rs.7500/. On every subsequent offence committed after conviction for the same offence being any offence other than 2(a) & 2(b) Same as above Same as above Same as above Same as above Same as above Imprisonment upto 5 years (minimum 2 years) and a fine of Rs.25. an autonomous body consisting of [230] . The scheme does not cover seasonal factories and mines.5.The scheme is administered by the ESI Corporation. f) Failure to submit any return or submission of false return g) Obstruction of any inspector in allowing him to discharge his duties h) Contravention of any other provisions of the Act. conviction for the same offence being so mentioned at 2(a) or 2 (b) 4 . maternity and accident insurance.p. The Act is an attempt to introduce an integrated system of health. not covered by the scheme.LABOUR LEGISLATION d) Reduction of the wages or any privilege or benefits admissible to an employee in violation of Section 72 e) Dismissal or discharge of an employee in violation of Section 73. The scheme also provides for unemployment insurance during illness and medical facilities to industrial workers.m. Apprentices are however. The Act extends to the whole of India including the State of Jammu and Kashmir.

4/. The ESI Corporation has established a chain of hospitals to provide for the medical facilities. Benefit is provided for upto 91 days and maternity benefit for 12 weeks.500/The scheme provides for medical care through dispensaries.5 per week for the highest level. Dependents (widow & children) receive pension. dentures and spectacles are provided either free or at a nominal cost. The scheme operates on contribution basis.75% of the wages with a maximum of Rs. State Governments contribute 7/8th of the expenses incurred on workers‗ family and 3/4th of that incurred on workers. medical profession and members of parliament.per week. Employees State Insurance fund has been set up in which all contribution have to be deposited. Contracting an occupational disease is also termed as an accident and the workers are entitled to benefits as a consequence of that sickness. In order to qualify for the benefit. hospitals. The employers pay 4. 2. Disablement benefit (partial or total) entitles the insured person to receive cash benefit. 7. around Rs. (d) Disability. employers. Artificial limbs. The Act provides stringent punishment for breach of provisions regarding contribution and wrong recovery of employer's contribution from workers wages. The employees pay 1. (c) Maternity. The scheme covers the following benefits: (a) Medical cover. employees. (e) Dependent benefits (to widows and children of the deceased) (f) In case of death an outright grant of funeral expenses of Rs.LABOUR LEGISLATION representatives of the Central and State Governments. etc. (b) Sickness. workers should have contributed to the scheme for a minimum period of 12 weeks. Similarly punishments have been prescribed for failure to submit returns or for [231] .75% of the wages.

Schedule 1 gives the establishments which are covered under this Act. Contract labour is included but casual labour is excluded. ESI Courts have been set up by the State Governments to try ESI cases. Initially the Act applied to only industries manufacturing cement. The Central [232] . Now it extends to every establishment which is a factory engaged in any industry in which twenty or more persons are employed. paper and textiles.LABOUR LEGISLATION submitting false returns and for obstructing an inspector in allowing him to discharge his duty. They have a very clear territorial division. THE EMPLOYEES’ PROVIDENT FUND AND MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS ACT 1952 INTRODUCTION The object of this Act. The Central Government has powers to notify establishment to which this Act is applicable for counting the number of employees. which came into force from November 1952 is to provide for the institution of provident funds and family pension and deposit linked insurance scheme for employees in factories and other establishments. cigarettes. It extends to the whole of India except the State of Jammu and Kashmir. SCOPE AND COVERAGE The Act extends to the whole of India except the State of Jammu & Kashmir and covers factories which employs twenty or more persons. electrical. iron & steel. mechanical and general engineering products. Apprentices also do not count as employees under this Act. The appeal against their order lies with the High Court.

for financing the scheme as well as the family pension scheme and deposit linked insurance scheme [Section 5]. 2. EXEMPTIONS a) Cooperative Societies. Central Board [233] . b) Newly set up establishments for a period of 3 years. A fund has been established which vests in and is administered by the Central Board duly constituted. The appropriate Government is empowered to exempt any establishment is which the Act applies if the rules of provident fund and other provident fund benefits are not less favourable compared to those under this Act. c) Any State or Central Government establishment having its own scheme of provident fund or pension [Section 16]. The Government grants exemption after consultation with the Central Board. Under the Act the Central Government has framed a scheme called ―The Employees‗ Provident Fund Scheme‖ for the establishment of provident funds for employees and has notified the class of establishments to which the scheme shall apply. whether situated in the same place or different places [Section 2A).LABOUR LEGISLATION Government can notify any establishment to be covered under this Act by giving two months‗ notice. IMPORTANT PROVISIONS Implementation 1. Establishments to include all departments and branches. employing less than 50 persons and working without the aid of power.

vi) Ten persons representing employees appointed by the Central Government after consultations with the concerned organizations [Section 5A). To administer the scheme. i) A Chairman and a Vice Chairman (to be appointed by the Government) ii) The Central Provident Fund Commissioner (am ex-officio member) iii) Not more than 5 persons appointed by the Central Government from amongst its officials iv) Not more than 15 persons representing Governments of such state as specified by the Central Government & appointed by the Central Government v) Ten persons represent employers appointed by the Central Government after consultations with concerned organizations. the Central Government has constituted Central Board consisting of the following persons as members of the board. The Executive Committee 7. The Central Board administers the Fund in accordance with the Provident Fund Scheme. The Central Government has constituted an Executive Committee to assist the Central Board in its functions of administering the three schemes [Section 5AA(1)]. The Central Board performs its function as laid down in the three schemes [Section 5-A]. 6. place and procedure of meeting is determined in the scheme [Section 5A].LABOUR LEGISLATION 3. [234] . 4. 5. The terms and conditions of appointment of members of the Central Board and the time. The Employees‗ Pension Scheme and The Deposit Linked Insurance Scheme [Section 5-A].

Employment Provident Fund Scheme [235] . THE SCHEMES I. ii) Two persons from amongst the five government officials on the Central Board. as provided in the scheme. The Central Board and the State Board. appointed by the Central Government. vi) The Central Provident Fund Commissioner (ex-officio) 9. ii)It performs such duties and exercises such powers as the Central Government assigns. State Board 10. i) A Chairman from amongst the members of the Central Board. iii) The terms and conditions of appointment of members of the State Boards. The terms and conditions of appointment and the time. after consultations with the state. place and procedure of the meeting of the executive committee will be as given in the scheme [Section 5AA (2)]. i) The Central Government constitutes the ―State Board‖ for the state. v) Three persons from amongst the ten members of the Central Board representing employees in establishments covered under the Act. The following persons are the members of the Executive Committee. iv) Three persons from amongst the ten members of the Central Board representing the employers. iii) Three persons from amongst fifteen representatives of state on the Central Board.LABOUR LEGISLATION 8. being Boards of Trustees are a body corporate and are independent legal entities [Section 5-C]. and the time & place of meeting as well as the procedure is as determined in the scheme [Section 5-B]. 11.

The term retaining allowance means an allowance payable during the time the factory is not working for retaining the services of the employee [Section 6 and explanations thereon]. 16. The Central Government by notification has increased this to 12% in respect of certain establishments. (in case of establishments employing not more than 20 persons or a sick industrial establishment or establishments in the Jute. Encashment of leave must be included in the basic wages.f.LABOUR LEGISLATION 12. Emplyee’s Pension Scheme 1995 (The employees family pension scheme was merged with this scheme w.11. The dearness allowance shall include the cash value of the food concession allowed to the employee. the following sums are paid : i) Employer‗s contribution under Section 6. dearness allowance and retaining allowance if any. of the concerned employee. The employee should contribute more. 13. retiring pension or permanent total disablement pension to the employees of any establishment or class of establishments to which this Act applies. 15. The Central Government has framed a scheme called ―The Employees‗ Pension Scheme‖ for the purpose of providing for : a) Superannuation pension. It provides for contribution from the employer to the Provident Fund amounting to 10% of the basic wages dearness allowance and retaining allowance if any. as may be specified. beedi [236] . A Fund called ―Pension Fund‖ has been established into which. b) Widows' or widowers' pension.e. II.1995) 14. in respect of every employee covered by the Pension Scheme. children‗s pension or orphan pension payable to the beneficiaries of such employees [Section 6-A(1)]. such sum not exceeding 8 1/3 % of the basic wages.

The Pension Fund vests in and is administered by the Central Board [Section 6A(4)]. The pension scheme provides for all the matters mentioned in schedule III [Section 6-A(5)]. iii) The net assets of the employees‗ family pension fund as on date of the establishment of the Pension Fund. As a result of the Amendment of 1976.16% of the pay of the employee. Employees’ Deposit. The objective was to provide life insurance benefits to the employees of any establishment or class of establishments to which the Act applies. according to the scheme) [Section 6-A(2)]. 17.Linked Insurance Scheme 18. On establishment of the Pension Fund. the ―Family Pension Scheme has ceased to operate and all assets of the ceased scheme stood transferred to the fund (similarly the liabilities). ii) Such sums as are payable by the employers of exempted establishments. a separate fund Deposit Linked Insurance Fund called ―Insurance Fund‖ has been created in which contributions towards Deposit Linked Insurance Scheme are deposited. 16. The scheme was introduced in 1976 by the Amendment Act of 1976. dearness allowance and retaining allowance. iv) The Central Government‗s contribution (The Central Government contributes 1. The Amendment Act 1976 was renamed as ―The Employees Provident Funds and Miscellaneous Provisions Act 1952‖ [Section 6-C]. The beneficiaries under the family pension scheme will continue to draw the benefits not less than the benefits they were entitled to under the old scheme [Section 6-A(3)]. 15. coir or gaurgum industry 10% of the basic wage. [237] . 19. In all other cases it is 12%.LABOUR LEGISLATION brick. III.

not exceeding one.7. requiring the discovery and production of documents. receiving evidence on affidavit and issuing commissions for examining the witnesses [Section 7-A]. apart from the cost of any benefits provided under the scheme [Section 6-C(4)]. (a) No appeal by the employer shall be entertained by a Tribunal unless he has deposited with it 75% of the amount due from him as determined by the Central Provident Fund Commissioner or his Officers.LABOUR LEGISLATION The employer is to contribute not more than 1% of aggregate of wages dearness allowance and retaining allowance (if any) [Section 6-C(2)]. 23. The Central Provident Fund Commissioner or the designated officers under him have the power to decide the applicability of this Act (The Employees Provident Fund & Miscellaneous Provision Act 1952) as amended from time to time and to determine the amount due from any employer. (b) The Tribunal has the power to waive or reduce the amount [Section 7-0]. 21. can be reviewed suo-moto or on application by the officer who passed the order [Section 7-B]. 20. [238] . 22. The order passed by the Central Provident Fund Commissioner or any of his authorized officers.1997 to exercise the powers and discharge the functions of the tribunal conferred on it by the Act (Section 7D) 24. The Central Government has constituted the Employees‗ Provident Funds Appellate Tribunal with effect from 1. He may conduct necessary enquiry for the purpose and has the power of a court under the Code of Civil Procedure for trying a suit in respect of enforcing attendance. In addition the employer has to pay into the Insurance Fund such further sums of money.fourth of the contribution to the fund as mentioned (in Section 6C(2)) above towards administrative expenses of the Insurance scheme.

from the date it is due till the date of payment [Section 7-Q]. Section 14 of the Act provides for the penalties in respect of various offences in regard to the schemes. In case an employer is declared as insolvent the amount due from him towards contribution to the fund shall be the first charge on his assets and will be paid in priority to all other debts [Section 11]. They are as follows. 10. 27. 2.(Minimum imprisonment for one year). The amount standing at the credit of any member in the Fund cannot be attached.LABOUR LEGISLATION Rights and Obligations 25. Imprisonment upto one year or a fine upto Rs. The employer is liable to pay interest at the rate of 12% p. 5000/. 26.000/. Making any false statement or misrepresentation to avoid any payment under the schemes.000/. Offence 1.or both (Minimum [239] . 28. Default in payment in respect of inspection charges or administrative charges towards provident fund Default in payment of employees‗ contribution Penalty Imprisonment upto one year and fine of Rs. 29. Default in payment of contribution or administrative charges towards Deposit Imprisonment upto 3 years and a fine of Rs. Penalties 30. 5. assigned or changed under any decree or order of any Court [Section 10(1)]. Recovery of any debt incurred by a member before his death cannot be made from the amount paid to his nominee from the fund [Section 10-(2)]. 4.or both Imprisonment upto 3 years 3. The Act provides for the modes of recovery of the amount due and the Recovery Officer has to recover the amount accordingly. on the amount due from him.a.

It extends to the whole of India except the State of Jammu & Kashmir. Any subsequent offence Imprisonment upto 5 years (minimum 2 committed after previous years) and fine upto 25000/conviction 31. 4000/. for establishment of Provident Funds for the employees. any of the provisions of the schemes Contravention of or Imprisonment upto 6 months (minimum default in complying with 1 month) and fine upto Rs. They were the Employee‗s Provident Fund Scheme.LABOUR LEGISLATION 5. firms. its director. In case of offences by companies. 31st 1960. 7. this number was reduced to 20. Its objective was to provide social security for employees in factories and other establishments Originally the Act covered factories and establishments employing fifty or more employees but with effect from Dec. partner or principal officer who is responsible for the conduct of its business shall be deemed to be guilty of such offence and punished accordingly [Section 14A] SUMMARY The Employees‗ Provident Fund Act 1952 came into force from Nov. The Central Government had three schemes under which the Act is implemented. 5000/any of the conditions subject to which exemption was grant u/s 17. 1957.or both. Offence Penalty Linked Insurance Fund imprisonment of 6 months) Contravention of or Imprisonment upto one year and fine default in complying upto Rs. the Employees‗ Family Pension Scheme 1971 for providing family pension and life assurance benefit and the Employees‗ [240] . 1952. 6. body corporate or association of individuals. and it provided for institution of Provident Fund Family Pension Fund and Deposit Linked Insurance Fund. with.

funds called Provident Fund. The provident Fund Commissioner has the powers of a court under the Civil Procedure Code and appeal lies with the High Court. Enhanced Punishments are prescribed for repeated offences concerning contributions. The other two schemes continue to operate. the employees and the Central Government are made. the employers and the employees. Punishments have been prescribed for non contribution. the State Boards have been constituted for carrying out the duties assigned by the Central Government. Pension Fund & Insurance Fund have been constituted into which the contributions from the employers. The amount at credit of an employee under these schemes are free from attachment. The rate of contribution has been fixed under each scheme for the contribution. With effect from Nov. the State Government. Under the Central Board. Under the schemes. The schemes are administered by the Central Board consisting of a Chairman and representatives of the Central Government. LESSON IV MATERNITY BENEFIT ACT 1961 OBJECTIVES [241] .LABOUR LEGISLATION Deposit Linked Insurance Scheme 1976. delay in contribution and other violations of the provision of the Act. for providing Life Insurance Benefit to the employees. 1995. the Family Pension Scheme 1971 has been merged into the Employees Pension Scheme 1995.

1st November 1963. acrobatic and other performances.f.e. SALIENT PROVISIONS Prohibition of Employment Under Section 4 of this Act an employer is prohibited from employing a woman for six weeks after delivery or miscarriage or medical termination of pregnancy. Similarly a woman is prohibited from working in any establishment during the period.LABOUR LEGISLATION The objective of this Act is to regulate the employment of women in certain establishments for certain period before and after child birth and to provide for maternity benefit and certain other benefits. nothing contained in this Act applies to those establishments to which the provisions of ESI Act 1948 apply. Such discharge or dismissal will not deprive her of maternity benefits unless the dismissal or discharge is an account of gross misconduct. It applies to all the establishments being a factory. mine or plantation including those belonging to government as well as those wherein employees exhibit equestrian. [242] . Discharge during absence due to Pregnancy It is unlawful for her employer to discharge or dismiss her if she remains absent during the above periods. It applies to whole of India and came into force w. Further save as provided in Section 5A & 5B of the Act. Further no employer should require a pregnant woman to do an ardous work which is likely to adversely affect her pregnancy or foetus during the period of one month immediately preceding six weeks before the expected date of delivery.

Miscarriage or Medical Termination of Pregnancy [243] . Notice to be given of Maternity A woman who is pregnant is required to give notice to her employer in the prescribed form stating that maternity benefit may be paid to her before the expected date of delivery. If she does not avail of leave prior to the day of delivery. dearness and house rent allowance. Amount of Benefit The benefit is payable at the daily average wages consisting of basic wages. the benefit is payable (a) upto the date of her death in case she dies without delivering the child. (b) upto the date of her child's death if the child also dies during the period and (c) for the entire period if the woman dies after delivering the child.LABOUR LEGISLATION Maternity Benefit A woman employee is entitled to maternity leave for a period of 12 weeks. six weeks prior to the delivery (including the day of delivery) and six weeks after the day of delivery. On receipt of notice the employer will pay her the maternity benefit on receipt of proof of pregnancy for the period prior to the date of delivery. she is entitled to maternity leave for 12 weeks following the day of delivery (including the day of delivery). In case of death of a woman during the benefit period. that she will remain absent for 6 weeks before the expected date of delivery and she will not work in any establishment during the period of 6 weeks. The benefit for the subsequent period should be paid within 48 hours of receipt of proof of delivery. incentive bonus and money value of concessional supply of food grains and other articles.

premature birth of a child. for a period of 6 weeks from the date of such miscarriage or MTP. medical termination of pregnancy or tubectomy operation on production of proof prescribed is entitled to additional leave with wages at the rate of maternity benefit for a period of one month.LABOUR LEGISLATION In case of miscarriage or MTP. Nursing Breaks A woman who returns to duty after delivery is allowed two breaks of prescribed duration for nursing the child. miscarriage. in addition to the normal work breaks. Leave for Tubectomy A woman is granted maternity benefit of two weeks from the date of tubectomy in production of prescribed proof (Section 9A). Leave for Illness A woman suffering from side ness arising out of pregnancy. delivery. Forfeiture of Maternity Benefit If a woman on maternity leave works in any other establishment for a period during the maternity leave then her claim to maternity benefit for that period is forfeited. a woman is entitled to the benefit on production of proof. No Deduction of Wages There should be no deductions of wages from a woman entitled to maternity benefits only on account of less arduous work during the period prior to delivery or nursing breaks after she returns to duty after delivery. PENALTIES [244] .

Bonus is a payment made to maintain industrial harmony and to motivate the workers to do their best to keep the industry performing well. (1) Offences (a) Failure to pay maternity benefit as provided for under the Act Penalties Imprisonment upto 1 year (Minimum 3 months) and fine upto (2) (3) Rs.2000/) Failure to produce any register Imprisonment upto one year or or document before the fine upto Rs.5000/.2000/-) (b) Dismissal or discharge of a woman Imprisonment upto 1 year employee in contravention of the Act (Minimum 3 months) and fine upto Rs.5000/.(Min.LABOUR LEGISLATION The following penalties are proposed for the offences committed under this Act: S.(Min.or both THE PAYMENT OF BONUS ACT 1965 INTRODUCTION In a society like ours where there has been a tradition of celebrating festivals with much fan-fare.5000/.5000/. payment of bonus on the eve of such festivals makes a greater impact on the workers who get some extra money to defray the extra expenses on account of the festival. Hence the practice of payment of bonus on the eve of major festivals.or both inspector or obstructing the inspector Contravention of any other Imprisonment upto one year or provisions of the Act fine upto Rs.No. [245] . Payment of bonus is justified on the ground of sharing the profits of the employer. Rs. Bonus is also paid to make available to every employee a living wage which is more often higher than the actual wage. Rs.

The maximum bonus to be paid is 20%. SCOPE AND COVERAGE The Act is a Central legislation which extends to the whole of India and is applicable to every factory (as definded under the factories Act 1948) and to every other establishment wherein 20 or more workmen are employed on any day during an accounting year. An establishment to which this Act applies shall continue to be governed by this Act even if the number of persons employeed falls below twenty (Section 1B). it has failed to achieve the purpose. to every factory and every other establishment in which twenty or more persons are employed on any day during an accounting year (Section 1). Computations of Gross Profits and Available Surplus [246] . Part time employees are also included in the number of employees for bonus purpose (Section 10) IMPORTANT PROVISIONS Coverage 1. however. 3.LABOUR LEGISLATION Under the Act. The appropriate government can extend the provisions of this Act to establishments (including a factory ) which employs less than twenty but more than ten persons by notifying it in the official Gazette and by giving two months‗ notice (Section 1[3]). every eligible employee is entitled to a minimum bonus of 8.33% of the salary or wages. The Central / State Government can. 2. The Act extends to the whole of India. extend its provisions to establishments employing less than 20 persons but not less than 10. Though intended to improve industrial relations in India.

(b) A charitable institution to which the provision of Section 32 of the IT act are not applicable and where whole or part of the income is exempt from tax. (c) Where the employer is an individual or an HUF. 5) The Act provides for calculation of direct tax payable by the employer at the rates applicable to the income of the employer. is to be treated as a company in which the public are substantially interested within the meaning of the IT Act. that rebate will not be taken into account while calculating the tax. the tax is to be calculated as if the income from the establishment is his only income. 4) Gross profits of establishments which is used in calculation of bonus. (ii) No arrears of depreciation are taken into account.LABOUR LEGISLATION 3a. (i) Any loss carried forward is not taken into account. is to be calculated in the manner precribed in the first schedule in respect of a Banking company or that prescribed in the second schedule in respect of other establishments (Section 4). (a) In calculating the direct tax payable. The available suplus in respect of any accounting year will be the gross profit less the sums deductible under section 6 (Section 5). (iii) No examption under section 84 of the IT Act and no deduction under subsection (1) of Section 101 of IT Act is to be taken into account. [247] . (d) Where the income of the employer includes profits or gains on account of export out of India and a rebate is allowed.

and engaged in any kind of work skilled or unskilled is entitled to be paid bonus by the employer provided he has worked in the establishment for not less than thirty working days in that year.LABOUR LEGISLATION (e) Similarly no account of any rebate (other than development rebate. Every employee receiving salary or wages upto Rs. Eligibility for bonus 8. investment allowance or development allowance) or credit or relief or deduction in the payment of direct tax allowed under any extant law or under any relevant Finance Act for the development of Industry will be taken into account while calculating the direct tax (Section 7). [248] . (d) Such further sums as are specified in respect of the employer in the Third Schedule (Section 6).m. The Act provides for calculation of available surplus as the gross profit for the year less the sums deductible under Section 6 of the Act provided from 1968 onwards the available surplus will be the aggregate of the gross profit less the sums deductible u/s 6 and the difference between the direct tax in respect of the gross profits in respect of the previous year and the direct tax in respect of the gross profit less the bonus paid (or liable to be paid) in a respect of the previous year ( Section 5). 7. 6. The following sums are deductible from the gross profits as prior charges: (a) Depreciation admissible under sub Section (1) of Section 32 of the IT Act (b) Development rebate or investment allowance or development allowance which the employer is entitled to deduct from his income (c) Any direct tax the employer is liable to pay for the accounting year.3500 p.

will be carried forward for being set on and added to the allocable surplus of the subsequent year. (a) If for any year the allocable surplus exceeds the amount of maximum bonus payable. riotous or violent behaviour. for being set off.60% whichever is higher (Section 10). upto the 4th accounting year. theft. he is to be paid 8. is not qualified to receive bonus (Section 9). (a) Every employer is bound to pay to every employee from the year 1979 onwards.whichever is higher. Quantum of bonus 10.33% or Rs. the employer is bound to pay to every employee higher bonus subject to a maximum of 20% of the salary or wages (Section 11). 9. (iv) An apprentice is not eligible for bonus (Section 1B and Section 8). An employe who is dismissed from service for fraud.33% of the salary or wages or Rs. 12. a minimum bonus of 8. the excess amount (subject to the limit of 20% of the salary or wages). the deficiency is carried forward in the same manner as the excess. (b) Simliarly if for any year the allocable surplus falls short of the amount of minimum bonus payable. in the succeeding year and so on upto and inclusive of the 4th year in the manner illustrated in the 4th schedule (Section 15). (ii) A part-time screeper is eligible for bonus. misappropriation or subotage.LABOUR LEGISLATION (i) A probationer is eligible for bonus. [249] . 11. (b) Where the employee is below the age of fifteen.100/. (iii) A daily wager is eligible for bonus. Where the allocable surplus 60% or 67% of the available surplus – (Section 2(4)) exceeds the amount of minimum bonus payable to the employees (from the year 1979 onwards).

LABOUR LEGISLATION 13. or is an leave with salary or wages. as if he/she has worked on those days (Section 14). without applying the provisions regardign set off and set on. the period of absence will count towards bonus. the employees of such establishments are entitled to be paid bonus under this Act in accordance with the following provisions: (a) In the first five years. the set off or set on will be applied in respect of fifth. (ii) For the seventh accounting year. 15. sixth and seventh year.(Section 12). In case of newly set up establishment. bonus will be paid in respect of only the year in which the employer derives profit.2500/. the provision of set off and set on will be applied in the following manner. Employees whose salary or wages exceed Rs. [250] . (c) From the eighth accounting year. before or after the commencement of this Act.will be paid bonus calculated under this Act. or under any other law applicable to the establishment. the set off or set on will be applied as illustrated in the fourth schedule. or is absent due to temporary disablement caused by accident arising out of and in the course of his/her employment or the employee has been on maternity leave with salary or wages. may be applied in respect of the fifth and sixth accounting year. (b) In the 6th and 7th year. If a worker is laid off under an agreement or as permitted by standing order under the Industrial Employment (Standing Orders) Act 1946 or under the Industrial Disputes Act 1947. (i) Set off or set on as the case may be. as if the salary were only Rs.2500/. 14.

18) (i) Bonus is to be paid in cash within eight months from the close of the accounting year. or service or both is not less than 20% of the gross income of the establishment for the year (Section 20). then the same practice will be continued in respect of the newly set up branches or undertakings (Section 16).LABOUR LEGISLATION (d) The provision regarding. 17) Amount to be recovered from the employee on account of misconduct causing loss can be adjusted against bonus payable for that year only (Section 18). Deductions from bonus and time limit for payment 16) An interim interition bonus or a part of the bonus paid on some customery occasion or before the date on which bonus is payable is adjusted against the total bonus payable for the year (Section 18). the newly set up departments or undertakings may also apply to new departments or undertakings set up by the existing establishments and if bonus was earlier paid on the basis of consolidated profits of all branches. provided further that the government or the Authority specified by government can extend the period upto two years (Section 19). (ii) In case of dispute regarding payment of bonus. it is to be paid within a month from the date in which the award becomes enforceable or the settlement comes into operation. Recovery from the employer [251] . The provisions regarding bonus are applicable to a public sector unit provided the public sector unit sells or renders any service in competition with a private sector establishment and the income from such a sale. 19.

Any dispute regarding bonus payable.LABOUR LEGISLATION 20. between the employee and the employer becomes an industrial dispute and is settled by application of the concerned Act or Law in force (Section 22). the said authority may direct the company to furnish the same (Section 33). (i) Under the proceedings relating to bonus. nothing can compel a banking company to furnish any information which the banking company is not [252] . However. it may take steps as deemed fit to verify the accuracy. Presumption about accuracy of accounts 22. the balance sheet and profit and loss account duly audited by a qualified auditor (designated under the Companies Act) are presumed to be accurate and the company is not required to prove the accuracy. 21. (Section 21). permit obtaining any information necessary for verifying the amount of bonus due under the Act. If any bonus amount due to an employee is not paid to him by the employer. (ii) However. however. 23. In case of a bonus dispute relating to a banking company the authority will not permit questioning of the correctness of the duly audited accounts of the banking company. It may. the employee (or his assignee or heir in case of death) can make an application within one year to the government which in turn can direct the collector to recover the amount as arrears of land revenue. if the authority (an arbitrator or a tribunal) is satisfied that the particulars in the balance sheet or the profit and loss account are not accurate. (iii) If the complaining party in the dispute wants a clarification about any item in the balance sheet or the profit and loss account.

26.. the deductions of interim bonus made and that of financial loss made. Offences by Companies [253] . 25. 24. In case he fails to get it done. The same penalty is prescribed for non compliance with the directions or requisition issued under this Act (Section 28). (c) A register showing the details of the amount of bonus due to each of the employees. (b) A register showing the set on and the set off of the allocable surplus. The penalty for contravening the provisions of this Act or the rules made there under is imprisonment upto six months or fine upto one thousand rupees or both. Penalties 27. (a) A register showing computation of the allocable surplus. In the dispute between the employer (not being a company or a corporation) and the employee regarding bonus. if the accounts are found to have not been audited by qualified auditors the authority may direct the employee to get the accounts audited by qualified auditors within a specified time. The appropriate government may appoint inspectors for administering the Act (Section 27). in form A. Every employer will prepare and maintain the following registers ie.LABOUR LEGISLATION compelled to furnish under the provisions of Section 34A of the Banking Regulation Act 1949 (Section 24). the authority may get it done without prejudice to the provisions of penalty (Section 28) under the Act (Section 25). from the bonus payment due in form C. Every employer has to send a return in form D to the inspector so us to reach him within 30 days after the expiry of the time limit specified in Section 19 for payment of bonus. in form B.

32.LABOUR LEGISLATION 28. 30. (a) The appropriate government can exempt an establishment from the purview of this Act for valid reasons (Section 36). In case of companies contravening the provisions of the Act or not complying with the direction or requisitions. etc. Where an agreement or settlement has been reached for payment of an annual bonus linked with production or commencement of the Act. No suit. then the employees will be entitled to receive bonus under such agreement or settlement but such agreement or settlement will not deprive them of the right to receive the minimum bonus under this Act and such employees will not be entitled to receive bonus in excess of 20% of the salary or wages (Section 31A). RBI. the company as well as the person in change of the company shall be liable to be proceeded against unless such person in change can prove that the offence was committed without his knowledge or he exercised due deligence to prevent the commission of the offence (Section 29). The Act does not apply to certain classes of employees including State / Central government employees. LIC. General 29. 33. Local bodies. What they receive is only ex-gratia payment. prosecution or legal action can be taken against the government or any officer of the government acting in good faith in pursuance of this Act. [254] . 31. Offences under the Act are non-cognizable offences (Section 30). UTI. (b) The prescribed authority for granting permission for change of accounting year in respect of a central government establishment is the Chief Labour Commissioner (central) (c) In respect of other establishments it will be the labour commissioner of the state in which the establishment is situated.

1972. refixing the minimum at 8.33% of the wages) obligatory whether the establishment made profit or not. bonus acquired the character of a right on the part of workers because the Act makes payment of minimum bonus(8. 1977 and 1980. Bihar Electricity Board. To calculate gross profit two formulae one for banking companies and the other for other companies are used as given in the first and second schedule. (Eg. It however. so that the surplus is shared by workers to some extent. However. providing for bargaining and with the approval of the appropriate government.33% of salary / wages. Indian Railways). 1975. It extends to the whole country and to every establishments where 20 or more workmen are employed on any day during an accounting year with powers to the Central / State governments to extend it to the establishment employing less number (but more than 10) on a day.LABOUR LEGISLATION SUMMARY The objective of the payment of Bonus Act 1965 is to provide for the payment of bonus to the employees of certain establishments. retained the maximum at 20%. to impose statutory liability upon the employers to pay bonus. there are very few instances in the country with productivity linked bonus.33% to 20% . Bonus is calculated on the basis of available surplus which is on the basis of gross profit. as pointed out in the National tripartite [255] . With the enactment of the Act. Though bonus was sought to be linked to production by this amendment. The 1977 amendment emphasised linking bonus with increasing production / productivity and once again declared bonus as a deferred wage. Another aspect. in this the difficulty is to identify measures of productivity which can be applicable to all industries. The Act has been amended in 1969. Employees in establishment mentioned in Section 32 where also to be paid bonus as deferred wages between 8.

oilfield. 1972. Defence Ministry production units and other departments. It was amended five times since enactment. it does not extend to the State of Jammu & Kashmir. held in March 1980 is that productivity depends upon many factors other than workers' contribution. It also applies to shops and establishments as defined by the States. Bonus started in India as an ex-gralia payment (during the Second World War) and it has reached a stage that it is recognised as a matter of right of the employees In mid 1983. The Payment of Gratuity Act 1972 a long awaited and progressive social measure. The Act applies to every factory. plantation port and railway company. THE PAYMENT OF GRATUITY ACT 1972 INTRODUCTION Gratuity is a payment intended to help the workmen after their retirement whether the retirement is a result of superannuation or of same physical disability.LABOUR LEGISLATION Seminar on Bonus. was passed in Aug. the central government extended coverage of the Bonus Act to a wide variety of its own white collared employees such as The Post and Telegraphs Department. as a result of the interpretation of the term ―Worker‖ by the Supreme Court. particularly in the Education and Research Sectors. the last being in 1998 (11 of 1998). SCOPE AND COVERAGE The Act extends to the whole of India. mine. It is earned by an employee as a reward for long and meritorious service. It came into force on the 16th of Sept. However in respect of plantations or ports. 1972. in which 10 or more persons are employed or were employed on any one day of the [256] .

In case of piece rate workers. clubs. and to all Trusts and Societies registered under the Societies Registration Act 1860. It also may be applied to such other establishments where 10 or more persons are or were employed on any day during the last twelve months by the Central Government. the average daily wage drawn is calculated on the basis of remuneration received during the last three months preceding the termination divided by the number of working days during those three months. EMPLOYEES ENTITLED Employees with five years' continuous service on his superannuation.LABOUR LEGISLATION preceding twelve months. Chamber of Commerce and Industry associations. The Central Government has made the Act applicable to all the Educational Institutions. retirement or resignation or on his death or disablement due to accident or disease. (2)]. Federation of Chambers of Commerce and Industry. year of continuous service or part thereof in excess of six months. SALIENTS FEATURES Rate of Gratuity 1. In case of death or disablement continuous service can be less then five years prior to his death or disablement [Section 4 (1)]. and Municipal Boards which employ more than 10 persons. For every completed. gratuity at the rate of fifteen days wages last drawn is to be paid. [257] . employing 10 or more employees. The Central Government has made the Act applicable to motor transport undertakings. local bodies and Solicitors‗ offices. by a notifications in this behalf [Section 1 (1).

gratuity rate is seven days' wages for each season. The gratuity of an employee is wholly or partially forfeited if the services of such employee have been terminated due to riotous or violent behavior or disorderly conduct or moral turpitude provided such offence is committed in the course of his employment.50. willful omission or negligence causing any loss or damage to the employer. Every employer (except the Central & State Government) should obtain an insurance cover for the liability for payment towards the gratuity from the LIC or any other prescribed insurer [Section 4A]. The employer who has already established an approved gratuity fund in respect of his employees is exempted from taking insurance provided he continues with the fund [Section 4A(21)]. 6. the rate of gratuity is equal to the monthly rate x 15/26 [Section 4(2)]. In case of monthly rated employee.LABOUR LEGISLATION In case of seasonal employment. The amount of gratuity paid should not exceed Rs. 8. Compulsory Insurance 7. An employee whose services have been terminated for any act.3. [258] .e. before disablement (normal wage rate for 15 days) and after disablement (reduced wage rate for 15 days) [Section 4(4)]. 4. forfeits his gratuity to the extent of the loss or damage [Section 4(6)].000/3. In case of reduction of wages due to disablement the rate of gratuity will be different for the two periods i. 5. Any employee however can receive better terms of gratuity under an award or an agreement [Section 4(5)]. 2.

if he subsequently acquires a family. If the employees of an establishment are in receipt of better pensionary benefits the appropriate government may exempt such establishment from the operation of this Act [Section 5 (1) & (2)]. In case of non payment or delayed payment of amount due on account of insurance to the insurer or the approved fund. Nomination 13.LABOUR LEGISLATION 9. The rules provide for the composition of a Board of Trustees of the approved and gratuity fund and for the recovery by the controlling authority of the amount of gratuity payable to an employee from the insurer or the Board of Trustees of the approved gratuity fund [Section 4A(4)]. Every employer has to get his establishment registered with the controlling authority for the purpose of this Act. He can distribute the benefit amongst more than one nominee. then the nomination of anyone who is not a member of his family is void. Each employee on completion of one year service should make nomination in respect of his gratuity claim. No registration will be granted unless insurance cover has been obtained for each employee [Section 4A(3)]. the employer is liable to pay the same to the controlling authority with interest for delayed payment [Section 4A(5)]. Exemption 12. The appropriate government frames rules for effective implementation of this Act. 10. if an employee has a family at the time of making a nomination. Interest for Delayed Payment 11. such nominations of a nonmember of his family becomes invalid and a fresh nomination is required to be [259] . However. However.

For conduct of such inquiry the controlling authority has the power of a court under code of Civil Procedure. He should arrange to pay the same within 30 days from the date in which it becomes payable. The employer determines the gratuity payable on receipt of application by the claimant or as soon as it becomes due and given a notice to the person to whom it is payable and also to the controlling authority specifying the amount of gratuity so determined. Nominations are required to be kept in safe custody by the employer [Section 6]. Penalties 16. decides the issue and order enhanced amount to be paid by the employer or pay the amount already deposited with him as the case may be. Offence Penalties [260] . For delay he should pay simple interest for the period of delay [Section 7]. Appeal against the orders of the controlling authority lies with the government or any authority nominated by the government in this behalf. The claimant can raise the issue with the controlling authority. the employer should deposit the amount with the controlling authority. The appeal is to be preferred within 60 days [Section 7]. Determination of the amount of gratuity 14. The controlling authority after due inquiry and after giving reasonable opportunity to all the parties. The nomination can be modified after giving a written notice to the employer. In case of dispute regarding the amount of gratuity payment. Following penalties have been laid down in the Act for Offences mentioned.LABOUR LEGISLATION made. 15.

Failure to make payment by way of premium for compulsory insurance u/s 4A(1) or by way of contribution to the approved fund Making a false statement or false representation to avoid any payment under the Act or both Contravention or noncompliance of any provision of the Act or the rules Non-payment of any gratuity payable under the act Fine upto Rs. No gratuity payable under this Act can be attached by any court order [Section 13].(minimum Rs. SUMMARY The payment of gratuity Act 1972 is yet another landmark in the history of progressive social security measure in India. Gratuity is paid at the time of retirement or in case of death before superannuation or in case of permanent disablement.000/.000/.and Rs.000/-) or both Imprisonment upto two years (minimum 6 months) or fine upto Rs. For every year or part thereof in excess of six [261] .(minimum Rs.LABOUR LEGISLATION 1.20.10. 3.10.20. Gratuity is a reward for long and mentorious service and under this Act all persons employed in establishments in which 10 persons or more are employed (or were employed on anyone day during the last three months are covered.for each day during which the offence continues Imprisonment upto 6 months or fine upto Rs. 2.1000/.000/.000/. The amount of gratuity is calculated an the basis of number of years of service.10. 4. 17.000/Imprisonment upto one year (minimum 3 months) or fine upto Rs.10.or both).

3. Nothing has been brought on record that the employee was [262] . Connection between accident and employment A deceased employee while travelling by public transport to his place of work met with a fatal accident. Employees who have rendered five years of continuous service are eligible for the benefit of gratuity. The maximum gratuity payable is Rs. They have powers of civil courts in settling the disputes arising out of this Act. 15 days‗ wages are paid as gratuity. The establishments falling under the purview of this Act are required to be registered themselves with the controlling authority. LESSON V LANDMARK CASES Experiences from Implementation of these Wage & Welfare Acts Workmen's Compensation Act: 1923 1. Stringent punishments have been laid down in the Act for violation and repeated violation of the Act.50.000/Employers (except the State or Central Government) are expected to buy an insurance policy with the LIC for payment of gratuity to every worker. Controlling authorities of the appropriate government administer the Act. The units which have their own gratuity policy and fund and the benefits from which are no less than those from this Act are exempted from the purview of this Act.LABOUR LEGISLATION months. One of the conditions of registration is that for each person employed for one year the establishment should have a policy from the LIC for payment of gratuity. However such gratuity funds must be administered by a Board of Trustees.

1995 LLR 63 (Mad): 1995. The court held that no causal connection between accident and employment could be established. Vs S. Death during the course of employment If the deceased employee met with his death while he was going to his place of work and the death has arisen during the course of employment. 1987 (I) LLN 353. Principle of waive or acquiescence Even if the claimant has made a claim of lesser amount than due. L.LABOUR LEGISLATION obliged to travel in any particular manner under the terms of the employment nor he was travelling in the official transport. 319. then the employer is liable for compensation. N 634: Mohd Koya Vs Balan. Hence the claimant is not entitled to any compensation. 1998. TNCS Corporation Ltd.Poomalai. since the principle of waive or acquiescence has no application to such type of cases. his right to claim or the power of the commissioner to enhance the compensation is neither waved nor curtailed.L. 4. 2. Balavandra Patra Vs Chief Engineer Orissa. State Bank of India Vs Vijay Laxmi. 1987 (I) LL. Refusal by Commissioner to record memorandum of agreement Where it appears to the commissioner that an agreement as to the payment of lumpsum whether by way of redemption of a half-monthly payment or [263] . 1LLJ HC MDS (378) 3.R.

AIR 1962 Guj. and an such. He may pass such order including an order as to any sum already paid under the agreement. Ltd. as he thinks just in the circumstances.Hazarat and Co. or an agreement as to the amount of compensation to a workman or to a person under a legal disability ought not to be registered because of inadequacy of the sum of amount or by reason of the agreement having been obtained by fraud or undue influence or other improper means.LABOUR LEGISLATION otherwise.A. or not cannot be treated as deductions. namely. Jurisdiction of the Wage Court The wage court is not at all competent to determine whether variable D. Denial of wages though on duty [264] . French Motor Car Co. the wage court has no jurisdiction to entertain the claim. 1962 II LLJ 187. Workers Union Vs French Motor Car Co Ltd. 1990 LLR 366.A. 262. of deductions and fine not authorised under sections 7 and 3 and of delay in payment of wages beyond the wage period fixed under section 4 and the time of payment laid down in the section. 2.. the commissioner may refuse to record the memorandum of the agreement. Amarshi Jeram Vs M/s. The jurisdiction of the Wages Court is to entertain application only in two items of cases. THE PAYMENT OF WAGES ACT 1936 1. 1947. under the agreement is payable to any workmen this being a subject matter for the court constituted under Industrial Disputes Act. The question whether the employees are entitled to get variable D.

An employer can deduct the wages under section 7 (2) (b) of the Act for absence from duty. Where the company was closed without any proper notice to the work ness and the workmen claimed wages for the period they were kept out of employment. (1990) LLR 366). Vs. In the case in hand as the absence of the employee‗s was not voluntary in as much as they were not allowed to resume their work without signing the guarantee bond no deduction can be made under the Act. (1981) I Lab ln 371. Banjaravala Tea Estate Vs District Judge. Labour Court (1990) 60 FLR 81 (Raj) 3. 1981 Lab IC 370. Absence from duty by an employee must be on his own volition and it cannot cover his absence when he is forced by circumstances created by the employer from carrying out his duty. section 25 FFF of the Industrial Disputes Act was not applicable and the claim amounted to wages and not compensation and the authority under the payment of Wages Act had jurisdiction to determine the same.LABOUR LEGISLATION The workman cannot be denied the wages when he reports himself on duty but the work is not taken from him by the employer. Kothari (Madras) Ltd Vs Second Addl District Judge-cum Appellate. J. 5.Authority (1990) 76 FJR 209 (AP). French Motor car co Ltd. If the absence from duty is due to coercision and the workman is not a consenting party. (42) FLR 165.A. Deduction of Wages 4. then the management has no power to deduct wages. [265] .D. (French Motor car company Ltd workers Union Vs.

Bar of disqualification for bonus imposed under section 9 is a clear and unequivocal bar and if the wording of the provisions also is carefully gone through. The Payment of Bonus Act 1965 Part time employees 1. Bank of India Vs.under section 1(3) (b). Kelawala. It is well-settled that "go-slow" is a serious misconduct being a connect and a more damaging breach of the contract of employment. T. (1976) 38 FLR 268 (All) Direct Taxes 2.S. Ltd.LABOUR LEGISLATION GO SLOW 6.20 or more . A part time employee is also an employee for the purpose of calculating the number of employees . Texttool Co. Disqualification for bonus 4. 1975 LLR Bom 1339 3. All direct taxes for the time being in force have to be deducted from the gross profits as prior charges in order to ascertain the "available surplus" for purpose of bonus. Bonus paid to trainees (not apprentices) is admissible deduction under the Income Tax Act. Vs Income Tax Officer. (1990) LLR 313 (SC). (1984) 9 ITD 820 (Mad). a distinction cannot be drawn between the bonus payable subsequent to the order of termination or prior to the order of termination and the bar is applicable to the [266] . Tribunal.

LLR 222 (Raj). KLJ Plastics Ltd. on facts is sustainable in law. awarding of bonus to workman. RPC officers' Association Vs RPC . Vs P. Baidyanath Bhavan Mazdoor Union Vs Baidyanath Ayuvedic Bhavan Ltd.O. 1984 Lab IC 148. Hyderabad. 1990. Vs Mukund Kamgar Union. Bonus can be forfeited under section 9 only with reference to accounting year in which the employee committed fraud. festival bonus or the like does not absolve the management from their liability to pay statutory bonus. Adjustment of Customary or interim bonus against bonus payable under the Act Claim of annual bonus was rooted in custom but qualified by negotiations / settlement held to be customary in nature and not statutory based only on settlement linked with productivity or profits. The Minimum Wages Act 1948 Eligibility for minimum wages 1. 2nd Addl. A piece-rated worker is also entitled to receive minimum wages irrespective of his output: [267] . Ex-gratia bonus is not a bonus within the meaning of section 10 of the Act.' Maximum Bonus 6. Hence. Himalaya Drug Co. Labour Court III. Payment of any customary bonus such as attendance bonus. (1986) 52 FLR 704. 2003 (II) LLJ 410 (Bom) 7. 2002(3) LLJ 619 Bom 5. Vs. Mukund Ltd. Labour Court.LABOUR LEGISLATION bonus as such payable under the Act. theft etc.

Bangalore Vs State of Karnataka. 1986.LABOUR LEGISLATION Bandhua Mukti Morcha Vs Union of India (1984) SCC (L&S) 389. The language of section 4 does not lend itself to such an interpretation. Linge Gawda Detective and Security Chamber (P) Ltd. 1998 LLR 77 Minimum Rate of Wages 3. Karnataka Film Chamber of Commerce. Section 4 is a definite indication that basic wage is an integral part of the minimum wage. Hence. A detective agency is not covered under the provisions of this Act. no relief could be granted either against the contractor or the principal employer. 2.. VS Authority under minimum Wages Act. Kant 2183. LLR 1986. Claim to Minimum Wages 4. A compromise or a settlement between the employer and employee resulting in the employee relinquishing or reducing claim with regard to wages under the [268] . the employer is liable to pay the minimum wages but when the same employees engaged by the detective agency are on private duty. There is no logic that when the employees engaged through the detective agency worked in an engineering industry. It is not correct to say that a minimum wage under section 4(1) necessarily should consist of basic wage and dearness allowance. On the plain terms of section 4(1) it is clear that the payment of dearness allowance would arise only if the basic wage fixed for a category of workmen fell short of the minimum wage which the state government has to fix taking into consideration the needs of the workers' family consisting of three consumption units. Lab IC 1890. they are not entitled to such minimum wages.

though situated [269] . Home worker is very much a person working in the establishment within the meaning of section 2(e). 423 (Ker) (DB) 3. Any workman engaged for work on temporary basis according to the availability of work is not an "employee" within the meaning of section 2(e): K. the authority acts in quasi judicial capacity and ipso facto should ensure that no prejudice is caused to the employer by failure to follow the rules of natural justice. Malayalam Ltd. 2001 LLR 567 (Cal). FLR. The teacher cannot be said to be an employee within the meaning of the Act and conferring the benefits of the Act to a teacher is illegal. Guntur. While making the enquiry into the claim petition under section 20 of the Act. 1987-2 APLJ (HC) 137. Mumbai Vs Sudha Vasudeo Desai. 2001 LLR 627. Chamber. The Payment of Gratuity Act 1972 Employee 1. 2. as his right under the Act is a definite Claim. Since the place where be rolled the beedis. B. Lab IC 756. Nagpur Vs Presiding Officer. Labour Court III 1984. Yadav stores. 5. 6. the Bombay High Court held and declared that the definition of employee in section 2(e) includes and covers in its campus class of teacher employed in a school. Velukutty Achary Vs Harissons . Seth Soorajmal Jalan Balika Vidyalaya (Secondary School) Vs The Controlling Authority. But in case of General Education Academy. Guntur Region.Ramadas Vs The Authority under Minimum Wages Act. (1993) 66. 1987 Lab IC 1493.LABOUR LEGISLATION Minimum Wages Act shall be null and void..

M/s. Interest is admissible only if a certificate for recovery of dues as a public demand has been issued' Charan Singh Vs Birla Textiles. Bagi Beedi Factory Vs Appellate Authority 1998. Hence the claim of these employees for total amount of Rs. Home maker is an employee of the establishment. (1988) 57 FLR 425 (All). cannot be disqualified to receive the amount of his gratuity. 7. S. 60 FLRG (Summary) (MP) 6. 3. Sunderson (Minerals) Ltd. Quantum of Gratuity 4. Nagar Palika Vs Controlling Authority. Shitla Sharan Srivastava Vs Government of India 2001 LLR 898 (SC). LLR 23.N. The Fifth Pay Commission Recommendations are applicable to Central Government Employees only and not applicable to the respondent Bank. If gratuity is not paid. 1966. Vs Appellate Authority-cum-Deputy Labour Commissioner (1990). THE EMPLOYEES PROVIDENT FUND AND MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS ACT 1952 Nomination [270] . it must be paid with compound interest at the rate prescribed under section 8 of the Act. An employee who is given the benefit of probation under section 3 of the Probation of Offenders Act 1958. (1988) 57 FLR 536 (SC).LABOUR LEGISLATION away from the Beedi factory was neverthless a part of the establishment within the meaning of section 2(b) of the Beedi and Cigar Workers (Conditions of Employment) Act. Hence. 5. calculating till the date of payment.50 lakh dismissed.

When exemption was granted under section 17. It has to be held. Vs Regional Provident Fund Commissioner. Indian Seamless Metal Tubes Ltd. 1993 LLR 987. that the levy of damages was not just exercise of the powers.LABOUR LEGISLATION 1. therefore. H. Tunkur Vs Regional Provident Fund Commissioner.P.. there was no reason why it should not have been granted with retrospective effect. Exemption 1. Pune Vs Union of INdia. Karnataka. 1996. Till any decision is taken on the application. Nozer Gustad Commissariat Vs Central Bank of India. Agro Industries Corporation Ltd. But it is not possible to lay down one test of all cases: Wipro Ltd.. To determine whether different units of an employer institute one establishment on separate establishments various tests with have to be applied. 1995 LLR 773 (Bom). A nominee has no title whatsoever in respect of the provident fund amount lying to the credit of deceased merely by virtue of his nomination and the provident fund amount belongs to the petitioner minor and forms part of estate of the deceased.. LLJ 120 (Karn HC) THE EMPLOYEES STATE INSURANCE ACT 1948 Employees [271] . the employer is bound to comply with the provisions of the Act and cannot take shelter behind the fact that he had made an application seeking exemption from the operation of the Act. Establishment 3. of the Act. 1993 LLR 757. 2.

2LLJ 27 (Kar) 2. The employees cannot dismiss. HMT Ltd. Vs `Employees' State Insurance Corporation AIR 2000 SC 1190 Contribution 4. The payment was made quarterly and was not `wages' under the Act as it did not fall under the first part of section 2(22) or under third part thereof. unless he risks being hauled up for contempt of court. [272] . discharge or reduce or otherwise punish the employee during the period an employee is in receipt of sickness benefits or maternity benefits. Dismissal 6. Members of a cooperative society are "employees' Kunnathud Chalakudy Sankethika society Ltd. such failure on the part of the employer in making payments in time cannot be called a failure within the meaning of clause (a) of subsection (5) so as to call for levying of interest. Vs Employees State Insurance Corporation (1998) 92 FJR 454 (Kar) 5. (2003) 2 LLJ 447 (Mod). Similar judgment (as in 4 above) given in Fenner (India) Ltd. If such failure is on account of circumstances beyond his control or if the circumstances make it impossible for the employer to make contributions even if be wanted to do so. Whirlpool of India Ltd. Casual Employee" employed by intermediate employer is an "employee". Vs Employees State Insurance Corporation (1989).LABOUR LEGISLATION 1. Section 39(5) (a) applies where the employer fails to make contributions. Employees State Insurance Corporation Vs Suresh Trading Company (1989) 59 FLR 157 (Ker) 3. Vs Joint Regional Director Employees State Insurance Corporation.

(1981) 2 SCC 155. A settlement arrived at between the management and the employees cannot be a valid ground for effecting discrimination in payment of remuneration between male and female employees performing the same work or work of a similar nature.. Labour Court. Employees State Insurance Corporation Vs Bharat Motors. 2nd Addl. Sri Ganganagar. Girijambal Vs Government of Andhra Pradesh. Section 16 clearly authorizes restrictions regarding remuneration to be paid by the employer if a declaration under it is made by the appropriate government Air India Vs Nagesh Meerza (1981) 4 SCC 335. LABOUR LAWS IN INDIA AND THEIR RELEVANCE IN POST WTO SCENARIO [273] . The benefit conferred on females under the Act is not absolute and unconditional. C. Mackinnon Mackenzie and Co Vs Audrey D'Costa (1987) 2 SCC 469 2. 2001 LLR 49 (Raj HC) EQUAL REMUNERATION ACT 1976 Over riding effect of the Act 1. Regional Director and not the ESI Inspector is empowered to determine the contributions by giving opportunity to the employer.LABOUR LEGISLATION Management of Guest Keen Williams Ltd. Vs Presiding Officers. The principle of equal pay for equal work is not applicable is professional services. 3. (1992) 1 CLR 433 (Kar) 7.

The Social justice content was not much. The Employers' liability Act 1938 and the Industrial Employment (Standing Orders) Act 1946.LABOUR LEGISLATION Pre-Independence Scenario India is a vast and populous country and for over thousand years it was under foreign rule. the democratic India adopted the socialistic patterns of society and in that context. The labour and Welfare laws enacted during the British period were primarily aimed at ensuring industrial peace. Increasing pressure from the workers who had joined the Trade Union Movement was responsible for the enactment of such laws as: The workmen's Compensation Act 1923. The workers wanted an increasing share of the profits made by the owner. the socialist movement and the Russian revolution enabled the workers realize that they have certain rights and the owners have certain obligations towards them. immediately after India became free the following Acts were passed by Parliament. more emphasis came to be laid on Welfare and Distribution. Hence. The freedom movement. The objective was to ensure that factories keep running and earning profits for the owners. [274] . the most of the population was poor and nearly 50% of the people were bring below the poverty line. The Trade Union Act 1926 The Payment of Wages Act 1936. Post Independence Scenario After India became free. Therefore.

who were looking for an opportunity to do something for their mother country. [275] . Shri Lal Bhadur Shastri gave a call of self reliance as far as food production was concerned. (4) The Dock Workers (Regulation of Employment) Act 1948.LABOUR LEGISLATION 1) The Industrial Disputes Act 1947. (6) The Industries (Development and Regulation) Act 1951. In the year 1996. However. the country still had the problem of foreign exchange since exports were not able to come upto the level of imports (the situation is still not very much better). through its Five Year Plans. India for the first time opened up its economy to the world and the regime of tariff barriers was decided to be given up and one by one all businesses were being opened to the world. The fifties. The green revolution made India self sufficient in food. (2) Minimum Wages Act 1948 (3) The Employees State Insurance Act 1948. There was agricultural revolution after the late Prime Minister. (7) the Employees' Provident Fund and Miscellaneous Provisions Act 1952. the NRIs. seventies and eighties saw India going through the economic development process. (5) The Mines Act 1952. The WTO regime to which India has opted has enabled foreign companies to tap the vast consumer market and the Indian companies to go out and compete in the world. 1) The first was the advent of computers. sixties. 2) The second was the advent of new entrepreneurs. RECENT DEVELOPMENTS Three developments between 1988 and the present day helped India survive and succeed partially in this period.

the more the time spent on litigation by the entrepreneurs. 1) The more the number of legislations. after 1996. 2) They increase the costs in business 3) They affect the productivity of workers since the workers are always concerned with their rights. 6) The more complicated the legislation. 5) The laws act as a disincentive to expansion of business and the entrepreneurs are not able to take advantage of economies of scale. businesses can survive if they are able to compete in the world. Immediately.LABOUR LEGISLATION 3) And the third was a large number of human resources that India had developed in the meanwhile and were able to go out and remit part of their earnings to their mother country. However. since the open economy works on capitalism. the more is the exploitation of workers by their leaders and exploitation of the entrepreneurs by the administering machinery. Role of Labour Legislation The labour laws affect businesses in the following ways. 4) If the laws are very much in favour of workers. several small scale units and medium scale units which were not efficient and competitive vanished The business in India had to think about ways and means to be competitive in the present world. [276] . they act as a demotivating force on the entrepreneur who does not want any labour trouble during the initial stages of business.

3) Too much clerical work in maintaining records and registers should not be involved in implementation.T. the need in the Post W. it is felt that the labour laws and the Welfare laws need to be simplified in the following way: 1) The laws need to be made short and concise 2) There need not be clarification in the legislation an each and every possibility. 6) As far as possible. 4) Too much of calculations need not be involved in calculating the quantum of benefits. If there is no profit. every establishment be asked to maintain one basic record of the employees and implementation of all the laws should be on the basis of information in that basic record. However.O. [277] . They are also oriented towards increasing the distribution of profits among the workers. scenario is of amending the laws so that they become an instrument of increasing productivity and profitability of the enterprise. LABOUR REFORMS In the context of what has been said in the preceding paras and also in the context of the judgments cited in the previous section in respect of the major legislation discussed in the previous lessons in Chapter I and II.LABOUR LEGISLATION Labour and Welfare Laws in India are framed keeping in mind the poor worker who needs to be given protection against exploitation by the owners. 5) It is always better to specify the amounts or scales instead of specifying percentage of some other variable. there is no distribution of profit.

as far as possible. the total amount of bonus equal to 8. as the payable as case may be. 2. ANNEXURE THE FOURTH SCHEDULE PAYMENT OF BONUS ACT 1965 [Section 15 and 16] In this Schedule. It should be rather severe on those who are shirkers.33 per cent of the annual salary or wages payable to all the employees is assumed to be Rs.04. 1.50.000. That breeds indiscipline. of available bonus surplus allocable as bonus Set on or set off of the year carried forward Total set on or set off carried forward [278] . Amount equal to sixty percent Amount or sixty-seven percent.LABOUR LEGISLATION 7) Varied interpretation of the terms used or the sections in the law should be stopped by clarifying the same by amendment of the concerned rules. 9) The legislation should not be too liberal towards workers. the maximum bonus to which all the employees are entitled to be paid (twenty per cent of the annual salary or wages of all the employees) would be Rs. 10) The adjudication of cases be speedy. Accordingly. 8) New legislation is required to motivate the workers to make their enterprise more competitive. indisciplined and contribute negatively to the productivity of the enterprise.167.

25.000* Nil Rs Nil Set on Set off 69.167 6. 1.000 6.167# Nil Set on 69. 2.10.1. 1.000 from year-2) 2.50.000 1.000 2.000 set on from year –2 lapses. 8. 10.04.LABOUR LEGISLATION Rs.10.000* (inclusive of 1.000 Set on 1.000* (inclusive of 30.000 2.000 Rs. 1.167# (inclusive of 35.000* Rs.10.000 1.000 1.50.000 from year-2) 2.666 from year-9) Nil * Maximum amount admissible.000 (2) (4) (2) (4) (8) Set off 94.000 Set on 1.167# 2.000* (inclusive of 1.501 (8) (9) (9) 10 . Nil Set on 2.000 Set on 35.50.10. [279] .15.000 Set on 2.50. 3. Nil (due to loss) 9.25.000 from year-6) 1.000* Set on 2.20.000 (of year) (2) (2) Set off 69.167 94. 1.04. ## The Balance of Rs.000* Nil Set on 60. 3.167 Set off 52. 2.000 60.000 Set on Nil** 1.167# (after setting off 69.000 from year-6) 1.000* 2. # Minimum amount admissible. 1.000 from year –4 and from year-8 and 41.000 (2) (4) (6) (6) 7.20.50.

While some of these changes may have been proactive in nature. Despite the fact that wages in Japan and other economically prosperous Asian countries are no longer cheap. aggravated by a slow pace of economic and industrial reforms.LABOUR LEGISLATION Unit .IV EMPLOYEE LEGISLATION IN THE EMERGING ECONOMY INTRODUCTION During the recent past. It has been widely argued that India‗s role in the world market has never quite taken off due to her inability to meet standards of quality. cost and productivity. HUMAN CAPITAL INTRODUCTION The term Human Capital Formation refers to the ―process of acquiring and increasing the number of persons who have the skills. sales promotion and distribution are recognized as contributing factors to the competitive advantage. labor cost has declined in the developed nations. economies across the world have experienced structural changes of different dimensions. market positioning. customer orientation. largely through their improved export performance. today quality and flexibility along with labor and technology play an important role in measuring productivity. Although competitiveness was always based on productivity. delivery schedules. These limitations are attributed to obsolete technology and increasing labor costs. New elements like product design. these countries play a dominant role in the global market. many others have been reactive. India ceased to enjoy the advantage of cheap labor. education and experience which are critical for the economic and the political development of a nation‖ It is [280] . although the absolute wages in India are still among the lowest. In fact. quality.

engineering. [281] . skill. management and a host of other fields. During the course of economic development a nation has to absorb new technology and develop the productive apparatus may be imported in the early phase of development. An improvement in the mental capability. HUMAN CAPITAL FORMATION IN INDIA The process of human capital formation implies the development of abilities and skills of people of an underdeveloped country. therefore. The process of human capital formation is. and physical capacity of the people constitutes an increase in human capital because this enables the human factor to produce more.LABOUR LEGISLATION associated with the investment in man and his development as a creative and productive resources Schultz. but to make use of the machines and equipment in an efficient manner. human capital defines people as a capital asset which yields a stream of economic benefits over their working life. as important as that of physical capital formation. medicine. Definition: As an economic concept. y secondary and higher level. it is necessary that an underdeveloped country should train its labor force in technology. has given the following suggestions for developing human resources facilities and services which include all expenditures that affect the life expectancy and the vigor and vitality of the people.

6). it may be reasonable to conclude whether resources going into human resource development are increasing during the process of economic development. very little amount of investment had gone into 90 million such persons. consumer goods and trained labor for the purpose of developing skill may substantially reduce the internal supplies of inputs for the formation of real capital‖. Table 1 indicates that taking the population(excluding the age group 0. it should step up the rate of investment in physical capital and secondly. Secondly. 15% had. 52% were literates. human resource development becomes competitive to physical resource development in so far as it imposes a demand on the scarce resources available for growth. Out of this. Professor B. those with education of [282] . materials. only primary school education.1 per cent were literates without educational level. In other words. The problem of human capital formation in India can be studied from two points of view.7% had middle school education. 13.LABOUR LEGISLATION An underdeveloped country like India has to do two things to accelerate the rate of development.e. Stock of Human Capital in India An idea of the stock human capital can be had from a study of the educational profile of the population. Of the rest. from this the growth rate of human capital formation between these two points of time can be calculated. investment in education can be studied as a percentage of national income and from a time series data. Thus. human capital can be considered as a stock and as an estimate of the stock at two points of time can be made. The educated manpower (i. it should also increase the rate of investment in human capital. Firstly.Dutta has given a clear expression to this competitive nature of demand by stating that ―the use of a large amount of equipment. 10. Firstly.

4 million). during 1991-2000 period.000 of population. India has been able to train a very large pool of scientific and technical manpower in the world. Rates of Return to Educational Costs(1960) [283] . There is no doubt that starting from a very low base.2 million). unemployment and ability factor. P. It is this sector and distribution within this sector that is crucial for development. Layard and M. Japan (20. The growth of the stock of scientific and technical personnel during the last three decades is given in table 14.G. Mark Blaug.Woodhall in their study ‗Causes of Educated Unemployment in India‗ calculated social and private rates of return were adjusted for wastage.1 per cent of the population. Returns on Human Capital Various studies have been made in recent years about the rate of return of education in India.5 million).7 million) and USA (3. The growth rate of scientific manpower during the decade 1950-60 was of the order of 10.e.6 per cent per annum. India ranks fifth in absolute numbers with its pool of 1. Though the Government claims that India enjoys third position in the stock of scientific and technical manpower in the world.8 million after USSR (25. but as per the data compiled by UNESCO. the growth rate decelerated to 5. Thereafter.LABOUR LEGISLATION matriculation level and above) accounted for only 13. the period in which India emphasized the development of heavy and basic industries as a part of its strategy of industrialization. India stands third from the bottom with only 2.5 per cent during 1960-70 i.1) TABLE 1. In terms of this index. China(4. But a more appropriate index of comparison is the number of scientific personnel per 1.R.(Refer Table No.63 per thousand of population.

7 20.4 16.1 7. Adds to productive capacity. and [284] . it is important to ensure that the domestic human capital is capable enough to receive it. it improves upon the existing indigenous technologies through.5 Key Role in Development The formation of human capital plays a very important part in furthering the growth of an economy.0 10.LABOUR LEGISLATION Educational Category Primary over Illiterate Middle over Primary Matric over Middle First Degree over Matric Engineering over Matric Crude Social 20.4 9.5 14.6 Private 24.0 18.2 17.8 Adjusted Private 16. Through the use of his/her knowledge and skill. that education at this level had resulted in as much as 79 per cent increase in the output and wages of a laborer. Increase output : The production goes up as the knowledge and skilled worker makes a better use of the other resources at his disposal.2 (Per cent of cost) Social 13. In the first place. Since foreign direct equity capital brings with it advanced technologies.3 21. these technologies can also be much modernized with little extra cost of physical inputs. An important way it does so is by upgrading the technological scenario of a country.4 14.1 12. absorb it.4 8. This it does in various ways. Economist Strumilin estimated.7 12.7 16. Human capital contributes a lot in raising the capacity of a country to produce in a number of ways. for example. learning by doing. for the erstwhile Soviet Union.7 13.3 10.

LABOUR LEGISLATION maintain it so as to make the best of it. rises with the formation of human capital. Old and tradition-bound attitudes and behavior. Tool for economic change: The knowledgeable. If the domestic human capital is up to the mark. Increase in the women‗s participation in work adds to the family‗s income. [285] . according to Hla Myint. Human Development Index (HDI). People start making rational choices in respect of places and jobs. This promotes mobility of the workers. stand in the way of quick development of under. are swept away. These three components. The fall in the birth-rate immediately raises the per capita income of the family. This happens because of several reasons. Attitudes of the people no longer remain traditional and custom-bound. Apart from the up gradation of technologies. of which the HDI is a composite attainment. This can best be explained in terms of the improvements in the three components of the UN. accumulation of human capital transforms the very lives of the people. Improves Quality of Life : Apart from making people productive and creative. which is taken as a measure of welfare. as culled from the experiences of the newly industrialized countries since the 1960s. which. skilled and physically fit people are a powerful instrument of change in the society. and life expectancy. in use since 1990. much can be added to the capacity and quality of production. They start living and enjoying higher incomes and more satisfying life. geographically and professionally. developed countries. that the rate of physical capital accumulation is an increasing function of the level of human capital. Rise in per capita income: The per capita income. It is now a well-established fact. human capital can help growth by adding to the physical stock of capital of country.

The accumulation of human capital. One. so that educational attainments give to an individual a satisfying and a productive life. The improvement in the life expectancy takes place principally in three counts. however. encompasses education in several fields and at higher levels. While being a literate and having attended school for a certain number of years are important for human beings. Two. This in turn adds to the quality of life. the health facilities reduce/eliminate epidemics or such like mass killing diseases. In terms of the HDI. Increase life expectancy: Formation of human capital raises life expectancy or longevity of the people. Together these three factors contribute to an improvement in life expectancy. a social indicator.e. children below one year) and child mortality (i. also go up with the accumulation of human capital. the adult literacy combined with the mean years of schooling (which together bear upon knowledge and skill-formation) goes up. children below 5 years).e. this is only the minimum needed for acquiring knowledge for communicating and participating in the life of the community. Three. There is a reduction in the rate of infant mortality (i. At the same time these facilities enable people to live a healthy and long life. Higher educational attainments: The educational attainments of the people.LABOUR LEGISLATION The productivity of labor improves because the labor is able to understand his/her work and continuously makes improvements in his/her work. the availability of nutritive food also contributes to the reduction in death-rate and rise in the healthful living. HRM – THE GLOBAL AND INDIAN SCENARIO INTRODUCTION [286] . the mortality rate improves. This encompasses both a long life as also a healthy life.

EVOLUTION OF HRM The concept of HRM emerged in the mid 1980s against the background of the works of famous writers on management. and drive. -helping develop the key competencies which enable individuals to perform current or future jobs.‖ Under Morita. like Pascale and Athos(1981) and Peters and Waterman (1982). The American Society for Training & Development (ASTD) has developed a Human Resource Wheel in 1983 (Fig. Peter Brabeck also pointed out that every single person in the organization should ask himself or herself – is there anything I can do to add a little more value to our company? This clearly shows how importantly people are treated in this organization. selection. ―there is no ‗magic‗ in the success of Japanese companies in general and Sony in particular. who produced lists of the attributes that they claimed characterized successful companies.LABOUR LEGISLATION Akio Morita. Performance appraisal. productivity and readiness for change. [287] .1) highlighting different functions of HRM leading to quality of work life. the founder of Sony Corporation. Indeed. The secret of their success is simply the way they treat their employees. World‗s leading food company Nestle‗s CEO. it is they who are its permanent associates and it is they who serve the organization with their work. the whole process of recruitment. creativity. and rewards at Sony was built on the premise that employees were the most valuable part of the company. once said. training and development.and intra-personal relationships and helping groups initiate and manage change. . talent.

consistency. ersonnel research and information systems: Assuring a personnel information base. personal problem-solving. Development-Developing high quality employees.. with jobs and career paths. Appraisal – Performance management 3.LABOUR LEGISLATION be organized and integrated across organization units and in individual jobs. One of the first overt statements of the HRM concept was made by the Michigan School (Fomburn et al. Rewards-It must rewards short as well as long-term achievements. [288] . They explained the human resource cycle that consists of four generic processes or functions. 1984). These are: 1. 4. philosophies. Selection-Matching available human resources to jobs 2.

Figure 2 explains that the HRM policy should evolve taking into consideration stakeholder interest and situational factors. Fomburn et al. The Havard School suggested that HRM has two characteristics features: (a) line managers accept more responsibility for ensuring the alignment of competitive strategy and personnel policies. The Harvard model has integrated the history and practice of HRM. by ensuring that senior managers give HR issues as much importance as they give to other functions. (b) the personnel function has the mission of setting policies that govern how personnel activities are developed and implemented in ways that make them more mutually re-enforcing.LABOUR LEGISLATION They suggest that the HR function should be linked to the line organization by providing the business with good databases. each guided by its own practices and traditions. Without either a central philosophy or a strategic vision-which can be provided by the general managers-HRM is likely to remain a set of independent activities. particularly emphasizing HRM as a general management function rather than personnel function only. This ultimately will lead to long-term Harvard Analytical Framework for HRM [289] . This framework is based on the believe that the problems of historical personal management can only be solved when general managers develop a view point of how they wish to see employees involved in and developed by the enterprise and of what HRM policies and practices may achieve those goals. (1984) The Harvard Framework The Harvard Framework of HRM was developed by beer et al (1984). congruence and cost effectiveness. Source: The Human Resource Cycle. which will lead to HRM outcomes like commitment.

mutual influence. mutual respects. 1989a. The theory propounds that policies of mutuality will elicit commitment which in turn will yield both economic performance and greater human development. (1984).mutual goals. The hard approach to HRM emphasizes the quantitative. organizational effectiveness and societal well-being which in turn will impact the stakeholder interest and situational factors and also the HRM policy choices. calculative and business strategic aspects of managing the head count resource in as ‗rational‗ [290] . Beer et al. -refers to all aspects of managerial behavior that bear directly on the quality of goods and services. 1991) has taken the Harvard model and developed it further by defining four policy goals which he believes can be used as testable propositions: -the ability of the organization to integrate HRM issues into its strategic plans. 1989b. Walton (1985) has further expanded the concept of HRM stating that the new HRM model is composed of policies that promote mutuality. Story (1989) has distinguished between hard and soft version of human resource management. Consequences like individual well-being. – behavioral commitment to pursue the agreed goals and attitudinal commitment reflected in a strong identification with the enterprise. -functional flexibility and the existence of an adaptable organization structure with the capacity to manage innovation.LABOUR LEGISLATION Source: The Harvard Framework for HRM. mutual rewards and mutual responsibility. David Guest(1987.

foster a willingness in employees to act flexibly in the interest of the organization in its pursuit for excellence. with managers now donning the role of enabler. emphasizing communication. HRM has been defined as a strategic and coherent [291] . empower and facilitator. performance and so on). adaptability and high quality (of skills.LABOUR LEGISLATION a way as is done for any other economic factor. as a consequence. HR specialists. Keith Sisson (1990) suggests that there are four main features increasingly associated with HRM: business planning more generally. Karen Legge (1989) has defined the HRM theme that human resource policies should be integrated with strategic business planning and used to reinforce an appropriate(or change an inappropriate) organizational culture. It involves treating employees as valued assets. whereas the soft model of HRM traces its roots to the human relations school. relations and from collectivism to individualism. that human resources are valuable and a source of competitive advantage that they may be tabbed most effectively by mutually consistent policies that promote commitment and which. a source of competitive advantage through their commitment. motivation and leadership. The overall purpose of HRM is to ensure that the organization is able to achieve success through people. on commitment and exercise of initiative.

The Royal Commission of Labor in India (1931) under the chairmanship of J. various malpractices in the recruitment of workers and payment of wages were prevalent which caused a colossal loss in production due to industrial disputes.LABOUR LEGISLATION approach to the management of an organization‗s most valued assets – the people working there who individually and collectively contribute to the achievement of its goals(Armstrong. among the most critical tasks of a manager are the selection. 1948. The role of a personnel manager was more of a custodian of personnel policy implementation and compliance to different acts of the Factories Law. Though the development of personnel management in UK and USA was largely voluntary. these two professional bodies merged together and formed the National Institute of Personnel Management (NIPM). a labor welfare officer was identified as personnel manger created by legislation under Section 49 of the Factories Act. another milestone was achieved by renaming of American Society for Personnel Administration (ASPA) as Society for Human Resource Management (SHRM).H. whitely recommended the abolition of the ‗Jobbler System‗ and the appointment of labor officers in industrial enterprises to perform the recruitment function as well as to look after the welfare of the employees. which will best help the organization meet its [292] . In the year 1990. a new approach. Thus.the Human Resource Management-has emerged which focuses more on development aspects of human resource with a pragmatic and flexible approach. 1999). in India it emerged because of the governmental interventions and compulsions. training and development of human resource. Over the years. headquartered at Kolkata. In the beginning of the 20th century. After independence. Indian Institute of Personnel Management (IIPM) at Kolkata and the National Institute of Labor Management(NILM) at Mumbai. Two professional bodies were formed namely. In 1980s.

while others crumble rather quickly under external pressures. ‗Change Agents‗ and the like are being increasingly encountered. while the latter are often caught in their own whirlpool of past glories. and training people to fulfill its need for well-trained and experienced staff. motivate and coordinate the human resources of an organization. The former type of organizations are generally dynamic bodies with tremendous learning abilities which enable them to adapt and cope with environmental challenges. defusing complex situations and achieving organizational goals. an organization often make sizeable investments in their human resources by way of recruiting. The human resources of an organization represent its largest investment. environmental changes and challenges. government report shows that approximately 73 per cent of national income is used to compensate its employees.LABOUR LEGISLATION goals. thereby finding it extremely difficult to shift their focus. hiring. In addition to wages and salaries. styles and practices. Human resource management encompasses those activities designed to provide. Without competent people at the managerial level-and indeed at all levels – organizations will either pursue inappropriate goals or find it difficult to achieve the desired goals. Just like a man is known by the company he keeps. It is now an accepted fact that any organization can [293] . Human dynamics play a pivotal role in surmounting obstacles. ‗Managing Organizational Change‗. RELEVANCE OF HRM HRM is more relevant in today‗s context due to the following compulsions: Change management: Today. In fact. It is because of this reason that some organizations succeed in spite of major obstacles. an organization is known by the people it is comprised of. learn new ways from others or introspect. heritage and old-habits. terms such as ‗Learning Organizations‗.

LABOUR LEGISLATION survive in today‗s socio-economic environment only if it is proactive to environmental changes. In the organizational context. One can make use of informal interviews and questionnaires. particularly. grievances. Transparency in organizational functioning. and role models played by superiors strongly influence employee commitment. It is equally important to take note of the interests of the individual. and voluntary separations. Subordinates must be encouraged to participate in the process of decision making. It is often said. It is much easier to train him in tasks closer to his inherent liking. necessary to create an environment in which all members can contribute to the limits of their ability. Advances in information technology too are forcing organizations to change their very way of thinking. Competence. Commitment levels can be assessed in a number of ways. ―Give a man job that he excels at and he would not have to work‖. those they have helped in setting. Commitment. but surely we can enhance competence of individuals for specific tasks through well-designed training programmes. employees‗ perception of various HRM policies. People want to contribute to meaningful goals. HUMAN RESOURCE FUNCTIONS [294] . Another aspect of human behavior is the employee‗s willingness to work and the desire to constantly improve his performance. continually broadening their self-direction and selfcontrol as this would not only lead to direct improvement in operating efficiently but would also ensure their grooming for higher responsibilities. it may not be always feasible to allocate tasks to individuals at which each one excels. channels of communication. It is. The extent to which the employees are committed to their work and organization has a significant bearing on an organization‗s performance. statistics on absenteeism. Motivation. however.

LABOUR LEGISLATION Human resource functions refer to tasks performed in an organization to provide for and coordinate human resources.both in terms of number of employees and skills. programmes THE INDIAN SCENARIO AND HRM [295] . selecting personnel to dill specific jobs within an organization. jobs within an organization. programmes. Human resource functions are concerned with a variety of activities that significantly influence almost all areas of an organization and aim at: and other government obligations. achieve its objectives.

are we prepared for the ensuring challenge? Hierarchy. authority. At the same time. there was a strong belief that employees were recruited not to question ‗why‗ but only ‗to do-and-die‗. technological change. increasing demands by corporate stakeholders. In a work environment. and a complex psychological environment. In the 60s. empathetic perceptions. We are now visualizing the possibility of a global village. social-comparison processes. Indian managers and behavioral scientists accepted and introduced such theories. But. experts observed that there were some strategic challenges of current times such as accelerating rates of change in all aspects of businessincreasing competition. Also. feelings. globalization of business. people do not like being treated as puppetsblamed. belittled or bossed. models and concepts as theory X/Y/Z. workers started demanding whatever they expected from the employers over and above their salaries. changing work culture. managerial grid. empowerment. unstable market owing to economic conditions. managers feel they only should [296] . status. productivity depended on people. job enrichment. But in the Indian context. responsibility. impressions and the affective components have influenced people more than anything else. people realized that beyond a point. terms like manpower. Sharing the global thinking. On the other hand. it became more and more acceptable to manage personnel as studies revealed that productivity of the workers could be improved if they were organized for the work. emotions.LABOUR LEGISLATION In the 50s. ‗Personnel‗ came to be called ‗human resources‗. Porter-Lawler model. participative management. twofactor theory of motivation. And in late 70s. quality of work life. socio-technical system. staff and personnel came to be used and instead of controlling the employees. total quality management and Kaizen. contingency model. transition from industrial to information society. and accountability are structural concepts. resource constraints.

The Indian organizations are experiencing some transitions and changes. hampering the environment conducive to human resource management. On the other hand. The idea that boss is always right still persists. initiative. The workforce of the 50s and 60s have retired. competence. In order to achieve an effective HRM strategy. However. reliability. we have to integrate HRM with HRD. there is a growing need to understand and manage this transition. and give a direction to this change process. accessibility. The middle-level is now at the top with the hangover of all possible middle-class values. A good HRM environment ensures harmony between the boss and the subordinates. The boss-subordinate relationship creates stressful situations. The HRM strategies in India in the 21st century has to focus on better individual-organization interface and greater emphasis on organizational effectiveness than on personal success. sense of empowerment. due to the unprecedented advancement in information technology. the boss expects that his subordinates should have a commitment to job. The new generation of MBAs are pouring into industrial organizations. integrity. wider vision. and credibility. HRM basically refers to a balanced interaction between these two sets of expectations. support and patronizing tendencies.LABOUR LEGISLATION ‗think‗ and let workers ‗do‗. The subordinates expect that the boss should have integrity. selfdiscipline and a good sense of accountability and job involvement. commitment. guidance and leadership qualities. loyalty to the organization. Moreover. and organization development(OD). a healthy corporate philosophy ensuring uniform policies at all levels of an organization is necessary for good HRM. higher performance skill. IR. ========================================================= [297] .

The Contract Labor (Regulations and Abolition) Act. seasonal or irregular work. Railway and Electricity they can joint as a members in a union and can voice out their Fundamental right.g) Agricultural labor.) 18 years There is a age limit for retirement Can get bonus Employment Proof is available Can enjoy all allowances as per government norms They can get all benefit Fully secured Only limited numbers Unorganized labor Inconstant & irregular place Wages or daily wages Cannot join in any union Have no rights to question their employees No negotiation to them as a labor No age limit No retirement for the Unorganized labor No bonus to them No proof or employment No allowances to them No benefit for them No security No limit CONTRACT LABOR Contract Labor: Contract labor is generally employed for casual. 1970 seeks to [298] . They do not have the rights as a organized labor. load man. Differences between Organized Labor and Unorganized Labor Nature of difference Place of work Consideration / Compensation Membership Rights Recognition Age Retirement Bonus & Pension Proof Allowances Benefit as per Act Security of job Numbers Organized labor Constant & Regular Place Salary Can joint in a Union Have fundamental rights to question their management They are recognized as a labor Organized labor should complete the age (i.LABOUR LEGISLATION ORGANIZED AND UNORGANIZED LABOR LEGISLATION Organized labor: Organized labors are the workers in a company.e. Building maker. Transport. (e. Artisans. if it is not given to them by the management. Unorganized labor: They are the workers in any small concern they wished to be in.

To overcome this difficulty and at the same time to ensure the protection labor. contract labor has been prohibited for certain specified operations in coal. limestone. and to every contractor who employs not less than 20 workers. social security. Section 10 of the existing Act envisages prohibition of contract labor in work/process/operation if the conditions set therein like perennial nature of job etc. The Act applies to every establishment which employs 20 or more workmen. The Act is implemented both by the Centre and States. the Union Finance Minister observed that rigidities inherent in the existing legislation regarding Contract labor inhibit growth in employment in many service activities. and in buildings owned or occupied by establishments under the Central Government. five years). Section 10 enables the contract labor engaged in prohibited hobs to become direct employees of the principal employer. In his Budget (2001-2002) speech. etc. The labor contract specifies what the two parties have agreed upon regarding issues such as wages. benefits. are fulfilled. welfare. more recently. and working [299] . The Labor Contract A labor contract is a formal agreement between a union and management that specifies the conditions of employment and the union-management relationship over a mutually agreed upon period of time (typically two or three years but. iron ore. This proposal raised a lot of opposition. safety.LABOUR LEGISLATION abolish the contract labor system in perennial operations and regulates it where the system cannot be abolished. dolomite and manganese mines. it is proposed to bring an amendment to facilitate outsourcing activities in terms of their health. It would also provide for larger compensation based on last drawn wages as retrenchment compensation for every year of service. In the Central sphere.

wages. and other terms and conditions of employment. The process involved in reaching this agreement is a complex and difficult job requiring a willingness from both sides to reconcile their differences and compromise their interests. This process is also bound to certain ―good-faith‖ guidelines that must be upheld by both parties.33 ―Mandatory‖ issues for [300] .. or any question arising there under. and other conditions of employment. Good-faith bargaining does not mean that either party is required to agree to a final proposal or to make concessions. such obligation does not compel either party to agree to a proposal or required the making of a concession‖32. Thus. Good-faith bargaining is characterized by the following events: oses of negotiating the contract are scheduled and conducted with the union at reasonable times and places.LABOUR LEGISLATION conditions. The National Labor Relations Board further defines the ―duty to bargain‖ as covering bargaining on all matters concerning rates of pay. and the execution of a written contract incorporating any agreement reached if requested by either party.. … or the negotiation of an agreement. hours of employment. The Taft-Hartley Act of 1947 (section 8d) states: ―to bargain collectively is [to recognize] … the mutual obligation of the employer and representative of the employees to meet at reasonable times and confer in good faith with respect to wages.. hours. the law requires that the employer negotiate with the union once the union has been recognized as the employee‗s representative.

seniority. These might include changes in benefits for retired employees. dismissal pay. and union input into prices of the firm‗s products. including union security (i. layoff and recall procedures.. benefits. paid holidays. employee stock ownership plans (ESOPs). Wage-related issues.. hours of work. and quality-of-work life (QWL) programs. wage differentials. and two-tier wage systems. wage adjustments. incentive pay. however. health insurance plans. overtime. neither party is obligated to discuss them or include them in the labor contract. These include such issues as pension plans. performance bonds for unions or management. and job security. Issues in Collective Bargaining The major issues discussed in collective bargaining fall under the following four categories:34 1. 3. and supplementary unemployment benefits(SUB). These include such topics as how basic wage rates are determined.e. ―Permissive‖ or ―nonmandatory‖ issues have no direct relationship to wages.LABOUR LEGISLATION bargaining include wages. or working conditions.e. Institutional issues. employees. cost-of-living adjustments (COLAs). Supplementary economic benefits. These consist of the rights and duties of employers. check-off procedures (i. Permissive issues can be introduced into the discussion by either party. safety. [301] . grievances procedures. overtime rates. hours. reporting pay. union membership as a condition of employment). 2. paid vacations.. and unions. when the employer collects dues by deduction from employee‗s paychecks).

elder care.g.35 In addition. employee discipline and discharge procedures. Preparation also includes gathering data on economic conditions. They also have been involved in promoting health and safety protections for their members. In recent years.LABOUR LEGISLATION 4. While the last two categories contain important issues. Administrative issues. job security. comparative industry and occupational wage rates and fringe benefits).36 Conducting Labor Contract Negotiations Preparing for Negotiations Because of the complexity of the issues and the broad range of topics discussed during negotiating sessions. the unions have adapted to a variety of work place changes and have played an important role in defining public policies. a substantial amount of preparation time is required. and training. To prepare for negotiations. studying consumer price indices. the wage and benefit issues are the ones that receive the greatest amount of attention at the bargaining table. however.. employee health and safety. They also have been involved in promoting health and paternity leaves. Work rules. These include such issues as seniority. technological changes. For example. domestic partnership benefits. and looking at projections regarding the short-term and long-term [302] . issues of job security have become increasingly important as bargaining items. and paternity leaves. they have been active in negotiating family-friendly contract provisions such as child care. Preparation includes reviewing and diagnosing the mistakes and weaknesses for previous negotiations and gathering information on recent contract settlements in the local area and industry wide (e. one must have a planning strategy. determining costof-living trends. Negotiating teams typically begin data gathering for the next negotiation session immediately after a contract is signed.

Management is likely to come armed with data regarding grievances and arbitration. who heads the team. a compensation specialist. layoffs. and a chief labor relations specialist. Often unions and large corporations have research departments that collect necessary data for negotiations. and overtime data are almost always of interest to both sides. and one or more specialists from the national union staff. and wage payments. Such a plan is useful to the negotiators because it helps them to identify the relative importance of each issue in the proposal. overtime worked. During the preparation phase of contract negotiations.LABOUR LEGISLATION financial outlook. Applicability The Act is applicable to: (a) Every establishment in which 20 or more workmen are employed or were employed on any day of the preceding twelve months as contract labor. The union‗s negotiating team generally consists of local union officials. employers develop a written plan covering its bargaining strategy. union stewards. and (b) Every contractor who employs or who employed on any day of the preceding twelve months 20 or more workmen. shift work data. Management‗s negotiating team usually consists of one or more production or operations managers. Both the union and management send their negotiating teams to the bargaining table. The plan takes into account what the employer considers the union‗s goals to be and the degree to which it is willing to concede on various issues. as analysis of grievances. disciplinary actions. individual performance measures. a benefit specialist. promotions. Internal to the firm. cost and duration of breaks. a labor lawyer. data such as minimum and maximum pay by job classification. [303] . transfers.

A workman shall be deemed to be employed as ―Contract labor‖ in. with or without the knowledge of the principal employer [section 1(b)]. means a person who undertakes to produce a given result for the establishment. Definitions The term appropriate government means: (i) In relation to an establishment in respect of which the appropriate government under the Industrial Disputes Act. is the Central Government. other than a mere supply of goods or articles of manufacture to such establishment. The work is deemed to be of an intermittent nature: (i) If it is of a seasonal character and is performed for not more than 60 days in a year. or in connection with the work of. It is not applicable to establishments performing work only of an intermittent or casual nature [section1(5)].LABOUR LEGISLATION The Act empowers the Central and State Governments to apply its provisions to any establishment or contractor employing less than twenty workmen [section 1(4)]. [304] . in relation to an establishment. if it was performed for not more than 120 days in the preceding twelve months [Section1(5)]. an establishment when he is hired in or in connection with such work by or through a contractor. 1947. A ―contractor‖. or (ii) In other cases. through contract labor or who supplies contract labor for any work of the establishment and includes a subcontractor[Section 2(c)]. (ii) In relation to any other establishment the government of the State in which that other establishment is situate [Section1 (a)].

(c) Whether it is of a perennial nature.LABOUR LEGISLATION Advisory Boards The Central Government and the State Governments are required to set up central and state tripartite advisory boards representing various interests for advising the Central and State Governments on matters arising our of the administration of the Act. as may be entrusted to them under the Act (Section 3-5). (b) Whether the work is incidental to or necessary for the business of the establishment. as the case may be. whether it is of sufficient duration. may constitute such committees and for such purposes as it may think fit (Section 6). (e) Whether it is sufficient to employ a considerable number of whole-time workmen (Section 10). especially the function of advising the government on the question of prohibition of contract labor in any establishment. and to carry out such other functions. Registration [305] . The Central Board or the State Board. Prohibition of Contract Labor The Central Government or a State Government may prohibit any establishment from employing contract labor for performing any work after considering: (a) Whether the conditions of work and benefits provided for contract labor in the establishment are satisfactory. (d) Whether it is done ordinarily through regular workmen. that is to say.

If the application is complete in all respects. The Registering Officer may revoke the registration of any establishment if he is satisfied: (i) That the registration has been obtained by misrepresentation or suppression of any material fact. or (ii) That the registration has become useless or ineffective for any other reason (Section 8). The principal employer of an establishment who has not obtained the required registration under section 7. accompanied by prescribed fees. to the Registering Officer for the registration of the establishment under the Act.LABOUR LEGISLATION Every principal employer of an establishment to which the Act applies must get his establishment registered under the Act for the purpose of employing contract labor. is prohibited from employing any contract labor in his establishment (Section 9). If the Act is applicable. Licensing Every contractor to whom the Act applies must obtain a license under the Act for the purpose of undertaking or executing any work through contract labor. or whose registration has been revoked under Section 8. [306] . the Registering Officer will register the establishment and issue a certificate or registration in the prescribed form to the principal employer (Section 7). the principal employer of the establishment has to make an application in the prescribed form. The Act provides for the appointment of licensing officers for granting of licenses (Section 11).

Such appeal must be filed within 30 days from the date of communication of the order(Section 15). Welfare of Contract Labor A contractor is required to provide: [307] . or (ii) That the holder of the license has failed to comply with the conditions specified therein. after making necessary investigation. may issue a license in the prescribed form containing the conditions subject to which it is granted. The Licensing Officer.LABOUR LEGISLATION If a contractor to whom the Act is applicable does not have a license under the Act. Any person aggrieved by the order of the Registering Officer or the Licensing Officer may prefer an appeal to the Appellate Officer. The license will be valid for the period specified therein and will have to be renewed from time to time (Section 13). or (iii) That the holder of the license has contravened any provision of the Act or rules made there under(Section 14). he is prohibited from undertaking or executing any work through contract labor(Section 12). for the grant of a license under the Act. The Licensing Officer may revoke or suspend a license or forfeit the security deposit if he is satisfied: (i) That the license has been obtained by misrepresentation or suppression of any material fact. A contractor to whom the Act is applicable has to make an application in the prescribed form accompanied by the necessary fees and security deposit to the Licensing Officer.

LABOUR LEGISLATION (i) A canteen in every establishment employing 100 or more workers (Section 16). Registers and Notices [308] . Under the Act. If the contract labor is allowed to utilize the canteen. a sufficient number of latrines and urinals of prescribed types and washing facilities (Section 18). Records. (iv) First-aid box equipped with the prescribed contents readily accessible during all working hours (Section 19). there is no need for the contractor to provide separately the above facilities. it is the responsibility of the principal employer to pay the unpaid wages of contract labor in case the contractor fails to pay the same or makes short payment (Section 21). The Act imposes a liability on the principal employer to provide the above amenities to the contract labor employed in his establishment if the contractor fails to do so (Section 20). (iii) A sufficient supply of wholesome drinking water. shall be made by the contractor in accordance with the provisions of the Payment of Wages Act. rest rooms. Payment of Wages The payment of wages and deductions if any. latrines and urinals provided by the principal employer to his direct workmen. (ii) Rest rooms or other suitable alternative accommodation where contract labor is required to halt at night in connection with the work of an establishment (Section 17). The employer is required to nominate an authorized representative to be present at the time of the disbursement of wages and also to certify the amounts paid as wages by the contractor.

The contractor is required to send half-yearly returns to the licensing authority not later than 31st July and 31st January every year. The principal employer of a registered establishment is required to send to the Registering Officer concerned an annual return in the prescribed form. in accordance with the rules framed under the Act. registers such as : (i) Muster Roll. (C) Every contractor is required to maintain in respect of the employees employed by him. [309] .. and the rates of wages paid to contract labor. Obligations of Principal Employer (1) Register the establishment as principal employer. and (vii) Wage Slips. (iv) Register of Advances. the nature of work performed by contract labor. (B) Every contractor to maintain in respect of each registered establishment where he employs contract labor a register in form XIII. (ii) Register of Wages. (v) Register of Fines. In short. the forms registers and notices prescribed for the purpose are: (a) Principal employer to maintain register of contractor in form XII. The returns should reach the licensing officer not later than the 15th February following the end of the year to which it related.LABOUR LEGISLATION It is the duty of every principal employer and every contractor to maintain records giving particulars of contract labor employed. (iii) Register of Deductions. It is also the duty of the contractor to exhibit in the premises of the establishment notices containing particulars about the hours of work. nature of duty. (iv) Register of Overtime. etc. in accordance with the rules framed under the Act (Section 29).

(10) Frame recruitment rules and regulations for the contract labor regarding their minimum. [310] . maximum age. 1979. weight and medical fitness. (8) Submit yearly return to the registering authority by 15th February of the subsequent year. 1970 and (b) Inter-State Migrant Workmen (Regulation of Employment and Conditions of Service) Act. (3) Ensure that the contractor is licensed under: (a) Contract Labor (Regulation and Abolition) Act. height. over and above whatever has been mentioned in the Form I. the principal employer will be held answerable. (6) Ensure due compliance of payment of statutory wages and certify the payments of contract labor engaged by the contractors.LABOUR LEGISLATION (2) Get the certificate of registration amended by intimating to the registering authority within 15 days of engaging any new contractor/s. (4) Intimate to the registering authority of commencement/completion of work by the contractor within 15 days from the commencement/completion of work by the contractor. (7) Ensure due compliance of all labor laws applicable to contract labor. (9) Comply with the statutory requirements in case the contractor fails to do so. (11) Ensure that the agreement with the contractor is not a sham contract. For any violation of statutory requirements by the contractor. (5) Maintain a register of contractors with respect to each establishment.

(8) Fix wage period and pay wages to workers in the presence of the representative of the principal employer. (9) Comply with the provisions of the Inter-State Migrant Workmen Act. (4) Renew the license every 12 months and an application for renewal for license should be made 30 days prior to the expiry of license. (3) Inform the licensing officer regarding commencement/completion of work within 15 days. (2) Inform the licensing officer regarding any change in the number of workmen or nature of work of contract labor. (7) Issue a service certificate to the workman whose services have been terminated. Obligations of Contractor (1) Obtain a license if employing 20 or more contract labor on any day during the preceding 12 months.LABOUR LEGISLATION (12) Look after the genuine grievances of contract labor. Be humane. [311] . (6) Ensure that the worker carries his employment card with him during the working hours. (10) Comply with the Payment of Wages Act and the Minimum Wages Act. (5) Issued employment card to each worker on the first day of the employment of worker. (11) Comply with the provisions of the Employees‗ Provident Funds and Miscellaneous Provisions Act.

safety and welfare under different statutes. (17) Display abstract of the Acts and Rules in English. working conditions. 1. Hindi. he would be punished with imprisonment upto 3 months. and in the language spoken by the majority of workers. (16) Maintain all records and registers. Offences and Penalties The Act stipulates various offences and punishments: (a) If any person obstructs an inspector or willfully refuses to produce any document demanded by him. or contravenes any condition of a licensee granted under the Act. If [312] . (13) Follow the rules and regulations regarding hours of work. or fine upto Rs. he would be punished with imprisonment upto 3 months. (18) Submit returns to the Government.500 or both. (14) Obtain identity cards for the workers indicating (a) name of establishment (b) name of employee (c) age (d) sex (e) date of entry in service (f) designation/nature of work and (g) department.LABOUR LEGISLATION (12) Provide services and amenities to workmen as laid down under the Contract Labor (Regulation and Abolition) Act/Factories Act. restricting or regulating the employment of contract labor. or fine upto Rs. (15) Maintain attendance-cum-wage register and mark the attendance of the workers at the gate regularly. or with both.000. (b) If any person contravenes any provision of the Act or of any rules made there under prohibiting.

000. (d) Seize of take copies of any register. (c) Require any person or workman to give information on work or payment for work. or with fine upto Rs. contract or service or standing orders are less favorable than those of the Contract Labor Act. (b) Examine any workman employed in such premises or place. [313] . record or notices. record or wages or notices (Section 28). the fine would be upto Rs. The Act permits the government in the case of an emergency to exempt any class of establishments or any class of contractors from the application of all or some of the provisions of the Act or the rules there under for a specified period and subject to specified conditions and restrictions (Section 31). the former will prevail over the latter (Section 30). agreement. (c) If any person contravenes any other provision of the Act or of the rules made there under. he would be punished with imprisonment upto 3 months. or with both (Sections 22.LABOUR LEGISLATION such contravention is continued after conviction.23 and 24). Powers of Inspectors An inspector appointed under the Act has power to: (a) Enter any premises or place where contract labor is employed for the purpose of examining any register.1.100 per day. But if such provisions are more favorable than those of the Contract Labor Act. they will be superseded by the provisions of the Contract Labor Act. Miscellaneous If the provisions of any law.

The unorganized sector includes the majority of agricultural and rural workers (estimated at about 185 million). fisheries and Canteen What emerges from the statute law and the judicial decisions is as follows: 1. urban informal sector workers. known as the Contract Labor (Regulations and Abolition) Central Rules. EXPERIENCES IN ORGANISING THE UNORGANISED LABOR The majority of the work force in South Asia is working in the unorganized sectors. 1971. The canteen run in pursuant to the latter obligation does not become a part of the establishment. or against any member of the Central Board or the State Board.LABOUR LEGISLATION No suit.5 million). The Obligation to provide a canteen has to be distinguished from the obligation to provide facilities to run canteen. the canteen becomes a part of the establishment and. the Central Government has framed rules. The appropriate government may make rules for carrying out the purposes of this Act (Section 35). for anything which is done in good faith or intended to be done in pursuance of this Act or any rule or order made there under (Section 32). construction workers (about 8. the workers employed in such canteen are the employees of the management. prosecution or other legal proceedings shall lie against any Registering Officer. Accordingly. home-based workers. 2. Licensing Officer or any other government servant. Where under the provisions of the Factories Act. It is statutorily obligatory on the employer to provide and maintain a canteen for the use of his employees. therefore. [314] .

is a question of fact to be determined on the facts and circumstances in each case. Where to provide canteen services has become a part of the service conditions of the employees. Reduction in public expenditure on health services. with a promise of lenient labor laws. without regard to the worker‗s employment and income interests. child care. transport and other social services. 2. In order to cut fiscal deficits. Export Promotion Zones/Free Trade Zones (EPZ/FTZs) and encouragement to foreign capital. the canteen becomes a part of the establishment and the workers in such canteen become the employees of the management. Whether the provision for canteen service has become a part of the service condition or not. 4. contract/casual workers. sector. etc. education. forest workers. [315] . if not an outright ―shut eye‖ on labor standards in the country. Privatization of the economy and growth of ―Labor-Law Free‖ unorganized manufacturing activities in a bid to promote flexibility and competitiveness. Foreign investors from some industrialized countries are reported to have demanded such freedom from existing labor laws. workers in small and medium manufacturing units. Real plan outlay for women and child development has also been coming down over the years. governments have actually been spending less than the budgeted amount on all heads under social infrastructure. Proposed Exit Policy for industries which will mean greater in retrenchment of workers and closures of industrial units.LABOUR LEGISLATION 3. services. workers in export promotion zones and export-oriented units. Some of the policies that will directly make life harder for workers (especially in the unorganized sectors) are: 1. 3.

among others. the mining for mineral ores. etc. Impact of Technological Change in the Coastal and Inland Fisheries Sector Impact of technological change in modernization of processes such as trawler fishing and joint ventures for exporting marine resources are not only causing environmental damage.LABOUR LEGISLATION 5. In a number of places in India the local people are opposing development projects as they do not perceive any benefit coming to them from projects as they do not perceive any benefit coming to them from these projects which are appropriating local resources and causing displacement. education and medicare that will suffer. farming for exports. forestry. deforestation for timber. it will be the women and girl children whose nutrition levels. Combined with reduction in food subsidies and dilution of public distribution systems the impact on food consumption levels is going to be adverse. large irrigation and a power projects. leading to declining purchasing powers of wage and salary earners. but also threatening the livelihood of the traditional fisher folk. Price decontrol and hike in administered prices are already fuelling inflation. Clearly. This may spell disaster – both for the local people as well as the environment. Impact on Forest Workers. Economic development. Tribals. paper and other forest produce. the belts of the population below the poverty line will be tightened even further and within the families. are causing enough problems for indigenous population groups. As it is. especially displacing the work done by women under traditional fishing [316] . seems to have a way of marginalizing indigenous people. power generation and tourism. Horticulture and Plantation Workers New economic policies seek to encourage privatization in mining. unless supportive public policies are evolved. paradoxically.

Many women have narrated harrowing tales of working conditions in these factories. insecticides and chemical fertilizers are expected to be introduced. forest produce gathering. agricultural and horticultural work handling and working with pesticides.LABOUR LEGISLATION systems. With the globalization of the economy and arrival of MNCs in areas like chemicals and allied industry. are driven to seek employment in processing units such as the prawn peeling units of Gujarat and Karnataka. Women from coastal Kerala and Tamil Nadu in India. net making. Areas that are particularly vulnerable include net making. distribution and marketing activities. etc. fish processing. home-based work(mostly petty production for the low income groups consumption) is being contracted out to women in urban [317] . An increasing amount of piece-rate. tobacco processing. lack of information about hazards and the desperation for jobs. new pesticides. rural-based activities like rice husking and pounding. weaving. oil pressing. the new technologies and liberalization process will also hasten the shift of Women‗s work to factory premises and increased mechanization as is happening in agricultural operations and fisheries sector. distribution. new chemicals and pesticides will pose serious hazards to the health of these workers. Women form a sizeable proportion of workers in plantations. driven by grinding poverty and the near total absence of jobs in their native places. Changes are already evident in women-dominated. and marketing. In plantations women‗s employment is being threatened by the introduction of machines for the plucking work. historically the leaf plucking operations in plantations. Women workers have dominated. Unless special attention is paid to women‗s‗ employment issues. fish storage. Given the illiteracy.

The reluctance of the governments to extend legislative protection to workers in the unorganized sector (such as in agriculture.. Provision of social security such as provident fund. forests. Revision and Implementation of minimum wages above poverty line. medical care. 2. casual labor is on the rise. limited resources of trade unions and absence of the rights of association and collective bargaining in practice. Regulation of employment conditions. be noted that the efforts to organize the unorganized have been few and have not proved enough. in the name of privatization.LABOUR LEGISLATION informal sectors where wages are low and working hours very long and often include child labor. and 6. etc. setting up of welfare funds. sub-contracting of work and employment of unorganized contract.. Right to organize and collective bargaining. however. In the organized sector. 3. In the interest of a strong trade union movement. employment and anti-poverty schemes. 5. too. Abolition of contract labor system and regularization of contract labor. Efforts and Interventions of the CTUOs in the Unorganized Sectors The efforts to organize the workers in the unorganized sector are being made both by the CTUOs. independent organizations and joint forum organizations. The issues taken up by these workers organizations and CTUOs have been mainly: 1. etc. organized sector trade unions must reach our [318] . 4. Access to Government‗s welfare. It may. fisheries. has also made trade unions task difficult. given the size of the unorganized sector.

rural workers organization (No. In particular. irrespective of the nature of employment and the number of employees. 87). right to collective bargaining (No. The Central Trade Unions will have to play a leading and innovative role in assisting upcoming organizations from the unorganized sector and in getting the state to recognize and provide an effective legislative protection of the rights of these workers. The trade union movement must put into operation a strategy and a work plan to integrate women into the fold of the union and involve them in the decision making process. home work(No.141). While it is true that workers‗ representatives sit on the PF Trust Board. this Board does not have any power to determine the Investment pattern of the funds. Need for Exercising Control Over Deployment of Workers Funds Workers‗ funds such as Employees Provident Fund (EPF) and Pension Funds are probably the single largest funds in the country.LABOUR LEGISLATION (both in person and through financial aid) to organize the unorganized. This will help in raising the level of minimum labor standards. [319] .98).102 & 157). they are more or less completely unorganized and unrepresented in the trade unions as are most gender-specific issues. The Employers must be encouraged to observe some of the core ILO conventions and labor standards. The history of management of provident funds shows that workers‗ money is usually a source of cheap finance for the government/ banks without it necessarily being used to give more benefits to workers. Workers must have a say in the investment of workers‗ funds including provident and pension funds. At the moment.177) and social security (Nos. the CTUOs need to press for Implementation of ILO Conventions on freedom of association and protection of right to organize (No. Women workers are the future of the trade unions.

in both public and private sector. labor should be treated as an equal partner in the economy and industry and both labor and management should seek rapprochement through cooperation. rather than as a means for the management to exercise their prerogatives and sense of authority over the workers. [320] . it is essential that right to company information (and right to information in general) be given to w\workers and their trade unions. Employment in Hazardous and polluted industries. The present system of functioning is shrouded in far too much unnecessary and undesirable secrecy which breeds undesirable tendencies. REVIEW OF JUDGEMENTS IN SELECT CASES Let us now review and discuss the judgments pronounced in seven select cases. The future does not really lie in continuing hostile. If the economic reforms are to succeed and benefit society at large. While collective bargaining will have to be the main plank of democratic industrial relations. productivity and rewards for workers. trade union should see consultative mechanisms/cooperation schemes/ participative management as a means for increasing workers‗ influence over the decision-making processes and enrichment of job content so as to lead to higher production. then there is a need for transformation in labor-management relations. antagonistic relations rather. Markets work best when information is freely and easily available.LABOUR LEGISLATION Worker’s Participation and the Right to Information To prevent mismanagement of industry/resources. The concept of labormanagement cooperation should be seen as a means of improving employees‗ morale and involvement in the workplace. I.

the Supreme Court has Factories Act. etc. In another decision on aqua-culture farming. payable by the concerned employers. The judgement defined employers‗ liabilities/obligations and workers‗ rights concerning the regulation of hazardous processes under the Factories Act.LABOUR LEGISLATION Case: M. on 11 December 1996. should be paid compensation in terms of Section 25 F(b) and additional compensation over and above this. In many such cases. 1948 Bhopal tragedy concerning the gas leak at the Union Carbide factory. including the Supreme Court decisions on the Delhi’s hazard ous/heavy industries’ relocation case. In several other cases. (This order was subsequently modified on 31 December1996) The government was asked to facilitate the allotment of alternative sites. the workers affected are to be treated as being under active employment between the dates of the closure and restarting.Mehta vs. In several other states too courts have ordered the closure/ relocation of thousands of hazardous and polluting industries. [321] . union of India 1987 and subsequent cases. The Supreme Court ordered the closure or shifting/ relocation of 168 industries from Delhi by 30 November 1996. 1948. The retrenched workers. the winding – up/ destruction of aqua-culture farms operating within 500 meters of the high tide line of coastal states and awarded six years wages as compensation to the affected workmen. An ILO Convention has given workers the right to leave the workplace if they consider it potentially unsafe. if any. It envisages alternative employment with no adverse change in terms and conditions. the Supreme Court ordered.C . The relief provided has not reached the affected persons till date (December 2000). the judgment lists the rights and benefits of workers employed in these units.

Contract Labor Case: Air India vs United Labor Union and Others(Supreme court of India. the Supreme Court upheld the judgement of the Bombay High Court. therefore. In this case. During 1996-98. [322] . can be retrenched. The judgement in question held the view that the principal employer is under statutory obligation to absorb contract labor. as regular employees from the day on which the contract labor system in the establishment.LABOUR LEGISLATION II. as per the legal provisions under the Industrial Disputes Act on the principle of last come. get abolished. cleaning. The supreme Court of India observed that there is no express provision in the Act for the absorption of employees whose contract labor system had been abolished. there were several such judgement involving several thousand workers in canteen. loading and unloading operations etc. Yet. if any.. dusting and watching the building and absorb the workers affected on its abolition as regular employees. The date of engagement of such labor will be the criteria to determine their seniority. first go‗ subject to reappointment as and when vacancies arise. security. mostly in public enterprises owned and managed by the state. Employers consider it essential to have a contract labor system to be able to maintain flexibility and enhance competitiveness in the context of globalization. 1970. 6 December 1996) If work is considered perennial as per the provisions of the contract labor (Regulation and Abolition) Act. Air India was. Excess workforce. cleaning. it was not the intention of the legislation to be oblivious to the interests of the affected workers. contract labor should be.prohibited and abolished. for the work which they were doing. asked to abolish the contract labor system for sweeping. who are affected by such abolition.

C . Typically the contract laborer is less educated and skilled.Mehta vs. safety record.LABOUR LEGISLATION They do not pay attention to the neglect of human resources and the social dimensions of contract labor. 10 December 1996) This public interest litigation highlights the magnitude of the problem of child labor in India. overworked. training. Child Labor Case. more prone to accidents and highly vulnerable to exploitation? Are there alternatives to the prohibition/ abolition of contract labor? These and other issues require further consideration. experience. M. if any does the distinction between ‗contract of‗ and ‗contract for labor ‗ make in considering the issue of continuance or abolition/ prohibition of contract labor? Does the contract labor system manifest a failed human resource/ industrial relations system in that the contract labor. State to create a child labor rehabilitation cum-welfare fund [323] . under trained. etc. relative to regular labor. underpaid and more prone to accidents than the regular/ full – time employee. Overworked and underpaid. They do not explain the rationale for the duality in recruitment standards in terms of education/ skill background. of regular. less trained. In a landmark judgement the Supreme Court ordered the elimination of child labor and listed the obligations of the state and employer thus : (state to provide) compulsory education of children affected by the judgement and (employer to provide and state to ensure) alternative employment for adult members of the family whose child is in employment in a factory or a mine or in other hazardous work. is often less educated. III. How is the exploitation of contract labor to be minimized or mitigated? What difference. State of Tamil Nadu and Others(Supreme Court of India. full-time workers and contract laborers. in lieu of child.

trade unions and other interest groups in society in dealing with child labor. the Supreme Court issue directions. but not those of the parents.00. (3) Preventive steps to be taken by employers or persons in charge of the workplace. Employment to adult member and payment of deposit in the name of the child would cease if the child were not sent for education. In the absence of a law and based on the contents of international conventions and norms.25. 1986. formulating guidelines and norms which would be binding and enforceable in law until suitable legislation is enacted.000 respectively for each child employed in contravention of the provisions of the child Labor (Prohibition & Regulation) Act. (2) Definition of sexual harassment.LABOUR LEGISLATION and employer and state to deposit a sum of Rs.000 and Rs.20. The supreme Court directives cover the following aspects. [324] . in the course of its judgments. The parent/guardian of the concerned child would be paid monthly interest of the deposit of Rs. Sexual Harassment at Workplace Case: Visakha & Others vs. This judgement lists the obligations of the state and the employer. whether in the public or private sector.5. (1) Duty of the employer or other responsible persons in workplaces and other institutions. State of Rajasthan (Supreme Court of India. concerning the fundamental rights of working women with particular reference to the evil of sexual harassment of women at workplaces. 13 August 1997) The Supreme Court upheld the writ petition as a class action by certain social activists and NGOs. IV.

(6) Establishing a compliant mechanism. an NGO. 1986 seeking action against both Air India and the erring group of members of its staff for disrupting a large number of flights due to a sudden strike resorted to by members of the Indian Flight Engineers‗ Association. The directions also deal with third-party harassment. outside the company premises. [325] . etc. filled a case under the consumer Protection Act. Illegal Strikes Case 1: Common cause vs. Consumer Dispute Over Sudden. union of India and Others (National Consumer Disputes Redressal Commission. workers‗ initiative and the need for raising awareness. Even though there is no contract between the consumers and the Indian Flight Engineers‗ Association. should the Court have also held that the accused be treated as guilty until he/ she is proven innocent? Would it then have opened the floodgate for frivolous complaints. the consumer Protection Act holds the service providers (including staff and trade union) responsible for the hardship and loss to passengers. New Delhi. Given the problems in proving harassment.LABOUR LEGISLATION (4)Action under criminal proceedings. for instance )? Whether and how is the proportionality of the offence and the punishment to be decided? V. Section 18 of the Trade Union Act is not a bar to the filling of complaints against trade union under the consumer Protection Act. Is the definition of harassment too wide as to have implication for office romance? How are the harassers and harassed to be tackled during/ after the investigations? What are the obligation of the employers in the case of third-party harassment (of employees by customers. complaints committee. The judgement is welcome. (5) Provision for disciplinary action. 9 May 1996) Common cause.

in future on the part of the employees of any organization rendering service to the public for consideration or any association or union of such employees. no proceedings under the Consumer Protection Act can be instituted against the employees or their Associations/ Unions. In several other consumer cases. the trade union has been held liable and asked to pay damages.Henceforth whenever a strike notice is served by any section of employees or their Trade Union … and the strike appears to be imminent. 1986 along with the management of the said organization even though there was no privity of contract between the person hiring / availing the service (consumer) and the concerned employee.LABOUR LEGISLATION This verdict of the commission stressed that persons employed on salary in an organization which is rendering a service for a consideration are equally accountable under the provisions of the Consumer Protection Act. the disruption in service is the consequence of a strike or agitation legally launched in conformity with the provisions of the law governing industrial and labor relations the employees or their unions. …. While the commission did not inflict any punishment on the airline or the association and no compensation was awarded to the petitioner in this case. the Airlines shall insert a publication in all the leading newspapers of the country informing the public about the possibility of there being a strike so that the consumers may not be [326] . If however . we will be dealing with the matter in a very strict manner and will have no hesitation to award proper compensation to the consumer who are thereby affected and aggrieved.we also think it necessary to administer a strong word of caution that in case similar instances of disruption of services by illegal strikes or agitations come to the notice of this Commission. the following observations were in the judgement: ….

etc. 1997) The petition seeks the relief of a declaration that the calling for and the holding of what has come to be known as ‗bundh‗ is unconstitutional and is hence illegal. In exercising their jurisdiction. Palicha and Another vs. [327] . harassed or even threatened with dire consequences.). etc. if any.LABOUR LEGISLATION taken by surprise by the strike so that the consumers may not be taken by surprise by the strike but may be enabled to make such alternative arrangements as are possible so as to mitigate the hardship that is otherwise bound to be caused to them Consumer courts have jurisdiction over breach of commercial contracts. can lead to violence and violates Article 21 of the Constitution of India in that there is deprivation of personal liberty and even a threat to life. The petitioners consider that the bundhentails an exhortation to violence and physically restraining or preventing others who are citizens of the country from doing/ attending to their work. It caused disruption to civic life (through stoppage of transportation. 1986 made by an employee-consumer? Can the standing offers prevent the employer from making employees file complaints as consumers? Case2: Bharat Kumar K. attacked. forced closure of shape/ establishments. are the implications for employment relations if the consumer courts entertain complaints under the consumer Protection Act. consumer courts seem to hold employment contracts subordinate to commercial contracts if the former are created to fulfill the commercial contracts in question. State of Kerala and Other (Kerala High court. Any citizen who does not participate in the bundh is (often) physically prevented. in order to pay the compensation under awards by the consumer redressal form? What. Do the provisions/ judgements under the consumer Protection Act abridge/ impinge on section 18 of the Trade Unions Act/ Can the fund.

LABOUR LEGISLATION The question is framed thus: It may be true that political parties and organizers have a right to call for non. the Supreme Court held that . The fact that the citizens of this country have freedom of speech. The exercise of those freedoms will come to an end as soon as the right of someone else to hold his property intervenes. including the law enforcement agencies. We direct the state and it officials. it is undoubted. The Kerala High Court held that This court has sufficient jurisdiction to declare that the calling of a ‗bundh‗ and the holding of it is unconstitutional especially since. organization or political party and the enforcing of that call by it is illegal and unconstitutional. We think that these aspects justify our intervention under Article 226 of the Constitution. [328] . the question is whether the right of the political party extends the right of violating the right of another citizen. Such a limitation is inherent in the exercise of those rights. In an earlier case (Railway Board vs Niranjan Singh. to do all that is necessary to give effect to this‗. that the holding of ‗bundhs‗ are not in the interests of the Nation by leading to national loss of production… the State can‗t shirk its responsibility of taking steps to recoup and of recouping the loss from the sponsors and organizers of such bundhs.cooperation or a general strike as a form of protest what they believe to be either an erroneous policy or exploitation. freedom to assemble peacefully and freedom to form associations or unions does not mean that they can exercise of those freedoms in whatever place they please. But when exercise of such a right infracts the fundamental right of another citizen who is equality entitled to exercise his right. The Court finally held that ‗the calling for a bundh by any association.1996).

LABOUR LEGISLATION The exercise of one‗s right should not clash with others‗ rights. There seem to be inherent restrictions to the rights of workers‗ and employers‗ in employment/industrial relations. when appealed. was admitted by a division bench of the Bombay High Court on 22 June 1998 which stayed the operative part of the judgement. (b) once the approval is taken under the Income Tax Act the scheme of VRS may necessarily result in a decrease in the existing strength of workers. Hence VRS would be covered by item 11of the IV Schedule of the Industrial Disputes Act. the courts have ordered police protection for willing workers/customers. In several court cases. Notice of change required for introducing voluntary Retirement Scheme2 Case: KEC International Ltd. Justice Rebello held that : (a) the preamble of the notice for the VRS by the petitioner mentions that there was a need for the company to continuously upgrade the quality of products. (c) those workmen who have accepted VRS but have en cashed the compensation [329] . Vs Kamani Employees Union & Other (Bombay High Court. Hence item 10 of Schedule IV of the industrial Disputes Act can be attracted.I. subject to the material that comes on record finally. This judgement. Therefore. VI. prima facie it must result in the reduction of posts. the right to protest by agitating workers is questioned if the striking/ agitating workers‗ rights clash with the rights of willing workers and customers who want their work to be carried on without interruption or intimidation. 17 April 1998) Justice F. In some instances. Rebello of the Bombay High Court Held that the income tax approved voluntary retirement scheme (VRS) results in the reduction of posts and hence attracts Section 9-A read with Item 11 of the IVth Schedule of the Industrial Disputes Act.

1947. If this principle is accepted . Similarly. usually. standing orders or contracts of employment govern the law of employer. the other aspects dealing with the case require examination. The merits of the case should not depend on whether the VRS scheme is with or without income tax exemption. Service Contracts and Stranding Orders Case: Uptron India Ltd vs Shammi Bhan & Other (Supreme Court.LABOUR LEGISLATION cheque have been distinguished from workmen who have accepted VRS but have not en cashed the compensation cheque. Any VRS scheme should be based on the principle that it is for organizational restructuring and only those whose jobs have become redundant should be given the opportunity to apply. there would be a need for work reorganization based. It should not have made any difference depending on whether or not they have en cashed it. then when employees leave under the VRS scheme. Thus it will affect the work content/ norms of the remaining workers and attract the provision of notice of change under the Industrial Disputes Act. the complaint of violation of section 9-A of the Industrial Disputes Act is maintainable.employee relationship. VII. In the latter category. In the above case. the supreme Court considered that clause 17(g) of the certified standing orders of the company providing that ‗the services of a workman are liable to automatic termination if he overstays on leave without permission for more than seven days‗ was bad and violative of the principles of natural justice as ‗it does not purport to provide an [330] . While this part of the judgement is founded on logic. 1998) Primarily service rules and regulations. the employees‗ right should cease once they receive the compensation cheque for voluntary separation in response to their own request. on the principle of work simplification.

justice is justice buried.‗ It is difficult to get judgements.sided contracts. The courts can do little if the affected party does not complain because of the change in circumstances as was seen in the Raptokas Bret case. the Supreme Court held that the termination of a service of a workman. the judgement of the single judge bench was stayed by a two judge bench and later. It is even more difficult to get them implemented or complied with. In several earlier judgements. taking advantage of the unfavorable labor market conditions. We are thus witnessing not only judicial activism and judicial [331] . both the union and the employer reached an out of court settlement. the company was able to implement VRS without issuing a notice of change. After the decisions of the Kerala High Court and the Supreme Court. several political parties have continued to give calls for hartals and bundhs in complete disregard of the said judgements. The judicial system does not have the apparatus to enforce its verdicts and take action when they are not complied with. ‗ If justice delayed is justice denied.LABOUR LEGISLATION opportunity of hearing to the employee whose services are treated to have come to an end automatically‗. have rightly been decided in favor of the affected employees in many cases. QUOVADIS? Judicial processes are subject to axiomatic and vexations delays. As a result. Courts can deliver judgements and take the concerned party to task for contempt of court if it comes to their notice that its judgements have not been respected. under a specific clause in the standing orders. for the overstaying of leave period without prior explanation amounted to ‗retrenchment‗ under Section 2(00) of the Industrial Disputes Act. One. As Upendra Baxi once remarked. Even in the kamani case on VRS.

office and market place – is making many skill obsolete. This may involve improvement in work method or skills. That is why we find nowadays almost all technical details of a job by reading written out in the instruction manuals. [332] . To reduce supervision. First. To train the employee to increase his quality and quality of output. Second. To train the employee in the company culture pattern. in recent years. 5. fewer and fewer skills are now regarded ‗inborn‗ that cannot be taught. the accelerated rate of technological change-in the plants. 6. To train the bright but dronish employee in the formation of his goals. 2. Are we heading for judicial anarchy? Quo vaids? TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT Two trends have contributed. Workers have to be new tasks. 4.LABOUR LEGISLATION indiscipline. 3. It is hoped that one can learn almost all aspects of a job by reading. Development of effective work habits and method of work should contribute toward a reduction in the accident rate. To train the employee for promotion to higher jobs. less supervision and wastage of material. wastage and accidents. but also judicial ineptness. Objectives of Training The major objectives of training are as follow: 1. To train the employee toward better job adjustment and high morale. This may involve instructions in initiative and drive. to more attention being given to training.

Development is the result of internal motivation. Training is the act of increasing the knowledge and skill of an employee for doing a particular job. The term is mostly used in the context of executives only. training is an organizational function. (iv) Training is mostly a preparation to an individual‗s present needs. Development is meant for executives. Development is a continuous process. It is concerned with imparting specific jobrelated skill to the employee. The aim of training to develop some specific skill in an individual. To put it differently training is mostly the result of some outside motivation. Development is a preparation to meet his future needs. (iii) The initiative for training comes from management. Following are some important distance between training and development: (i) Training is meant for operatives. Responsibility for Training and Development In HRD. On the other hand. it [333] . it must be embraced by all managers as part of their responsibility For training to be highly effective. It can thus be seen as a reactive process. (ii) Training is a one-shot affair. It is thus largely a proactive process. its aim being to improve the overall personality of an individual. For training to be highly effective.LABOUR LEGISLATION Distance between Training and Development The term ‗training‗ and ‗development‗ are closely related but their meanings have important distinctions. The aim of development is to develop the total personality of the individual. the term ‗development‗ has a broader connotation. The initiative for development comes from the individual himself. not just something that is done HRD department alone.

(c) The employee should be aware of his shortcomings. and .manage the training facilities. . (d) The employee should have feedback mechanism for assessing his own growth in relation to his shortcomings.LABOUR LEGISLATION must be embraced by all managers as part of their responsibility. . by his action and his action and beliefs. (e) The employee should enjoy the developmental process. [334] .provide HRD instruments and mechanisms. -sell the idea of training as a vital force in the develop an atmosphere conducive to sound manpower development. HRD department cannot do the whole job or even the main job. analysis and evaluation of the organization‗s training needs and current development programme. Place of Training in Company Management. It can no doubt. But the decision train and the condition required for development must come from the line manager because it is he who continually shapes the behavior of his people all day and every daywhether consciously or unconsciously. .carry out continuous study.recommend sound policed for training and development. These condition are as follows: (a) The employee should perceive that his acquiring new competencies will help him in fulfilling his psychological needs (b) The employee should perceive opportunities for acquiring such capabilities.

the value of training is diminished. They will not support training activities. Link between Training Outcomes and Organizational Needs. underlines the importance of continuous training in these words. but by constant training and education you ability. They must be shown how. In order to determine the training needs of an organization the HRD manager should seek information on the following points: (a) whether training is needed ? (b) where training is needed ? (c) which training is needed ? [335] .LABOUR LEGISLATION All HRD-oriented organizations regard training as a continuous activity. If they do not perceive the linkage. training value increases. These organizations believe that training is a permanent relationship which exist between the superiors and the subordinates so that every super in the organization (and not only their manager) is responsible for training which always goes on – day in and day out – as some learning inevitable takes place when workers watch their superiors doing a job or behaving in a particular manner. When training aims at goals that are not directly related to strategic objectives. To the extent that training goals are compatible with and responsible to strategic needs. The relationship of intended training goal outcomes to organizational goal is critical to the success of training. ―You may not promise your worker life-time employment. Determine of Training Needs. It is also essential that the link between training outside and business goals is perceived by key participants in the training process. where and why new learning will be used on the job to influence the critical aspects of business. Jack Welch. who is General Electric‗s Chief since 1981.

.excessive fatigue.standards of work performance not being met. Various source from which evidence of training needs may be gathered are as follows: 1.frequent need for equipment reports.LABOUR LEGISLATION whether training is needed ? Early hints that training is necessary probably result from problem such as: .too many low rating on employee evaluation reports. Merit rating 3.accidents.many people using different method to do the same job. Morale surveys 7. . Tests [336] . struggling with the job. Questionnaire to trainers or to supervisions(See Appendices 1 and 2 given at the end ) 6. fumbling. .bottlenecks and deadlines not being met. .high rate of transfer and turnover. . . Suggestion system 4. . Group discussions 5. Informal observations 2.

Interviews with union officials. etc. SAMPLE CHECK-LIST FOR SUPREVISORS SEE PDF PG 324 (b) Where training is needed? After determine the needs for training the manager should determine where within organization training emphasis can and should be placed. The following is a sample check-list for determining supervisor‗s training needs. This involves determining what knowledge. 9. Employee counseling. (ii) Objectives. and (iv) Cultural milieu. It provide for indication by a ―Yes‖ or ―No‖ check whether or not each check-list statement has been observed by the employee whose training needs are being determined. turnover. This involves a detailed analysis of the factors: (i) Structure of the organization. [337] . One common method for recording observation is the checklist of training needs. (iii) Human resource and future plants. grievances. Analysis of reports relations to costs. 11. In many organization the determine of training needs is predominantly done through observations.LABOUR LEGISLATION 8. selection or exit interviews 10. (c) which training is needed ? The last question to be the personnel manage is about the type of training needed.

His need for human skills. The conceptual skill refers to the an employee to take a broad and farsighted view of the organization and its future. Selection of trainees. and his ability to assess the environment and takes place in it. (ii) Skill and training required to perform a job at the required standard. and to built team work at all levels. etc. however. The three major skills which the employees of any organization need to successfully discharge their duties are: the conceptual skill. The relative need of an employee for conceptual skill increases and for technical skill decreases as he moves to higher levels in the organizational hierarchy. Conceptual skill deals with ideas. The technical skill is the employee‗s understanding of the nature of the job he has to perform. his creative and innovative ability. It refer to his knowledge and proficiency in any people. the attitude towards safely. This the human relations skill and the technical skill. Although it is true that in selecting persons for training a company generally gives primary consideration to its own benefits and secondary [338] . technical skill with things and human skill with people. authority. his ability to analyze the force working in situation. his ability to do abstract thinking. remains consistently the same at all levels. and (iii) Attitudinal predispositions-for instance. To know how much each type of skill needs to be developed the manager do a detailed analysis of the following factors: (i) Components of a job.LABOUR LEGISLATION skills or attitudes each individual employee should develop to be able to perform his task in an effective way.

Is functioning as an independent cost-profit center. One of the benefits of this cost-profit center approach has been that it has made ITC‘s divisions more careful and responsible in determining their training needs [339] . it how to deal with people. yet the standard used for selecting training programme participants should be carefully devised and communicated widely throughout the organization.‖ (iii) ―If there is one thing I know.‖ (iv) ―we run a business. Among the common phrases through which these feeling of resistance of are expressed are following: (i) ―you cannot change human nature. Since 1978 the Manpower Development Group of ITC Ltd.‖ Manpower Development at ITC Ltd. Training opportunities should not be passed out as a reward for a good behavior or for long service or to get relief for some time from a trouble-making employee.‖ (ii) ―I know myself better than anyone else ever will. not a nursery. Training a person who has no ability and willingness to learn to learn is like sending an ass to college. Fairness in applying standards is become high status prestige programmes which challenges the best person in the organization to make the grade. This exposure gives it first-hand experience of other organization system which may prove beneficial to ITC.LABOUR LEGISLATION consideration to the benefits accruing to the individual. MDG now not only does training and development work for its own people but also undertaken outside consultancy. This means that all the work which the MDG does for the divisions and companies of the ITC Group is charged at market rates and they have the choice of using MDG‘s service or going to external agencies (like the IIMs or the Administrative Staff College).

to increase employees‗ job performance. Whenever an individual is sponsored for training he should be told categorically the reasons for sponsoring him and the expectations of the organization from him after returns from the programme. Each beneficiary has his own requirements and perception of what is good training.e. managers typical themselves and external customers (i. The worker in this method learns to master the operations involved on the actual job situation under the situation under the supervision of his immediate boss. Some important advantage of this type of training is as follows: [340] . Training Methods for Operatives. They want the training venue to be more pleasant than the job venue and expect training workplace to benefit them personally.LABOUR LEGISLATION and in selecting division people for various development programmes because now to pay for the manpower development programmes offered by MDG.. such a being learning. (1) On-the job Training. Thus. Trainees want the training to be of high quality which can be easily transferred to the job. The most important type of training is On-the-job training. as the employee sponsored are more concerned about the reason for being sponsored than actually getting involved and benefiting from training. What is good Training? The three typical beneficiaries of a training programme are the managers are the. the end user of the company‗s product or service). the senior manager and supervision want training to be low in cost. with MDG levying a cancellation charge of 100% for less than 15 day‘s notice on persons dropping out on account of personal problems. to improve or compensation. Most companies do not inform the employee why they been sponsored. people have become more disciplined and the dropout rate has come down from 30% initially to 5%.

(b) How to instruct. How much skill does the instructor expect the worker to have and by what to have by what date‖.put him at ease.Get him interested in learning the job. List importance steps.State the job and find out what he know about. This includes four steps as under: (i) Have a timetable. (iii) Have everything ready-the right equipment. say. [341] . eliminates the possible problem of transfer of leaning A training method of carrying on-the-job training which has been found to be great value is known as a the Training Within Industry (TWI) or the ―capsule method‖. materials and supplies. a week or two. . either physically or psychologically and . and (iv)Have the workplace properly arranged as the worker will be expected to keep it. . (iv) It is highly economical. (v) It is not located in an artificial situation.LABOUR LEGISLATION (i) It can be learned in a relative short period of time. prepare the worker . The method was devised in the United States during the Second World War when a large number of people had to be trained in a short period. This include the following fore steps: step 1.therefore. (ii) Break down the job. It involves the following steps: (a) Preparation of the instructor. (ii) No elaborate programme is necessary as far as subject content is concerned (iii) There is no line-staff conflict because the worker‗s own supervision is the instructor.

(3) Simulators and training aids. Simulators are used to provide trainees with physical equipment that resembles to some degree are used when it is [342] .Check frequently. present the operation . Try out performance . . . . .Stress each Key Point. Follow – up . .Place in correct position.Have him explain key point to you as he does the job again. Step 4. art.Taper off extra coaching and close follow-up. These course are usually voluntary and participants usually take them on their own time. but no more than he can master.LABOUR LEGISLATION . Step 3. Step 2. completely.Instruct clearly. and patiently.Tell.Have him do the job-correct error. (2) General education programmes. science. .Put him on his own. such as courses as courses in economics. and illustrate one important step at a time. and so on. Encourage questions. Many companies go beyond training employees for specific job skill by offering programmes of general education content. Designate to whom he goes for help. show. The company‗s rationale for such programmes is that such programmes will benefit the company in intangible ways through a change in employee‗s attitudes.Continue unit you know He knows.

procedure. in demonstrating surgical techniques. The change in the individual must take place in those crucial areas which can be considered as output variables – 1) Knowledge change. for example. For an individual this means a change through a process of planned learning. and facilities‖. etc Films and television are particularly appropriate in those situations where individuals cannot be made to assemble. 2) Attitude change. Such techniques are more economic than several other techniques since they can be used over and again. The success of development effort depends upon the following inputs: [343] . 3) Behavior change. charts. 4) Performance change and 5) End operational results. MANAGEMENT DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME Executive development is an attempt to improve an individual‗s managerial effectiveness through a planned and deliberate process of learning. As Malcolm says.LABOUR LEGISLATION impracticable for some reason to use the actual equipment (such as possible injury to the trainees or others) or when the cost of the actual equipment excessive. The advent of electronic data processing system has opened the door to learn through system simulation which frequently incorporates probability concepts. ―System simulation has the most useful property of permitting the researcher and management to experiment with and test policy.2 Training aids may include films and television. black-boards. and organization changes in much the same way as the aeronautical engineer tests his design ideas in the laboratory or in the ‗wind tunnel‗. Thus we might of System simulation as a sort of ‗management wind tunnel‗ which is used to pretest many suggested changes and eliminate much needless ‗experimentation‗ with the ‗real‗ people. machines.

His personal traits are also analyzed so that a value judgment may be made of his potential for advancement. The performance of a management individual is compared with the standard expected of him. intellectual and emotional qualities. except when they experience a critical shortage of specialized highlevel talent. Appraisal of present management talents: This is done with a view to determine qualitatively the type of personnel that is available within an organization itself. Ascertaining development needs: It calls for organizational planning and forecast of the needs for present and future growth. one for each individual. In the latter case. keeping in view the difference in their attitudes and behaviors and in their physical. The weak and [344] . This enables the organization to have a list of executives available for training for higher positions. Management manpower inventory: It is prepared for the purpose of getting complete information about each management individual‗s bio-data and educational qualifications. This information is generally maintained on cards. executives are hired from outside. The essential components of a management development programme may be discussed under the following heads.LABOUR LEGISLATION 1) Trainee‗s personal characteristics. the results of tests and performance appraisal. such as his intelligence and motivation to learn and 2) His actual learning effort. Most companies train their own executives. Planning of individual development programmes: It is undertaken to meet the needs of different individuals.

about 30. time and motion study. Establishment of training and development programmes: This job is done by the personnel department. Therefore India requiresi) Techno-managers in such sectors as engineering and steel. Of these. coal. About 3. 1. Personnel in these industries need training not only in the [345] . tailor-made programmes are framed and launched.000 untrained managers are added every year to the managerial population.000 get their master‗s degree in management and about 2. there is a wide gap in many sectors of the Indian company. Such courses may be in the field of human relations. decision making and courses in professional institutions depending on the organizational needs. the total will exceed 5.000 to 1. fertilizer. oil and cement industries. Thus.000 managers are added to the managerial pool of the country every year.40.00. Need for Management Development in India At present in India there is a population of 1.000. there is a certain imbalance in the spread of management education. Programme evaluation: The evaluation of training has been defined as an attempt to obtain information (feed-back) on the effects of a training programme and to assess the value of training in the light of that information.00. Of the existing number.LABOUR LEGISLATION strong points of an individual are known from his performance appraisal reports and on the basis of these. If the managerial personnel‗s of other sectors are added to this figure. A comprehensive programme is prepared containing concentrated brief courses. Besides.000 managers in the manufacturing sector.000 executives attend training programme.

power distribution. All concerned must. This is seldom possible when the superior has a negatively critical point of view. Finally. fisheries. insurance. The process of development must be generated among those who are affected by it. a belief that people can and will do better. v) Public administration is a vast section which needs management attention because this segment has a direct relevance to economic and social activity. ii) Management resources mobilization towards professionalizing such public utilities as water supply. medical services and education have been left untouched by the management movement. at all levels. and civic offices organized to render public services including municipal services. The ―managerialisation‖ of these services needs immediate attention. co-operation. housing. forestry and marketing. a genuine faith in development is necessary. for agriculture and industry are dependent on the efficient functioning of these utilities. Managerial know-how also needs to be brought to bear on production processes at the farm level with a view to increase efficiency in the tertiary sector in rural areas. with an open heart and mind.LABOUR LEGISLATION functional areas of management but also need to acquire a thorough knowledge of the sector. transport and communications. irrigation. iii) Govt. mass media. iv) Managerial principles and techniques need to be introduced in other areas of national economy – managerial services for agriculture and rural development. be willing to welcome and accept changes. police. Basic Requisites for the success of management Development Programmes [346] .

iii) Every manager must accept direct responsibility for developing managers under his control on the job and a high priority should be given to his task iv) Management development must be geared to the needs of the company and the individual. For this purpose a senior officer should be placed in charge to initiate and implement the management development programme. coverage and objective of the [347] . v) A policy of promotion from within is a necessary incentive for managers to develop in an organization. vi) Management development starts with the selection of the right persons for managerial ranks. It is essential to ensure that good material is really fed into the programme at the entry levels. The management development programme should be based on a definite strategy which should spell out the type. vii) There should be a realistic time table in accordance with the needs of a company. It takes place on the job and involves both the employee and his boss. ii) Management development is essentially a ‗line job‗.LABOUR LEGISLATION The basic requisites for the success of management development programmes are as follows: i) The top management should accept responsibility for getting the policy of development executed. This time-table should take into account the needs for the managerial personnel over a sufficiently long period and the resources which are available at present and required in future.

lectures are the worst. however. 1. Selection of Training and Development method. It should be noted. Increasing trainees‗ problem-solving skill. lectures are the worst. In 1972 three researchers—Carroll. This is because they do not know why some senior executives are more effective than others or what does a successful manager know better than his less successful colleagues. 2. Acquisition of knowledge: programmed instruction is the best.lower level supervisor and goal the way upto the top management. It is far more difficult to define the objectives at the managerial level than at the bluecollar level. Case method is the best. that this is not easy.LABOUR LEGISLATION programme. Paine and Ivancevivh – asked 200 training directors of large American companies to rate the relative effectiveness of different training methods in meeting the following objectives. Experts will agree on the form and content of training to be given to a machinist or electrician but they will differ widely in case of a junior executive. Changing trainees‗ attitudes: Sensitivity training is the best. 3. [348] . The multi-tier supervisory and management development programme should start from the . television lectures are the worst. The choice of a particular training method should depend upon the objective of training. The best and the worst method as revealed by this research are given against each objective. Selection of an appropriate method depends upon the following six factors: (i) Training objective.

if traditionally the matter has been presented through lectures. For instance. Increasing trainees‗ acceptance of the training method. perhaps audio-visual methods can be used. 5. 1.LABOUR LEGISLATION 4. 2. supervisors or managers? We have seen above how the training needs of employees at different levels in the organizational hierarchy differ in the degree to which emphasis is placed on various training inputs. Availability of competent trainers. Availability of finance. Level of trainees in the organization‘s hierarchy: whether the participants are shop floor workers. television lectures are the worst 6. 4. Programmed instruction is the best. Availability of time. television lectures are the worst. Method‘s ability to hold and arouse the interest of trainees during the training period. This difference makes certain techniques better for one class of employees than for the other. A trainer has to consider alternative methods of presenting training material to participants also from the point of vies of their ability to stimulate interest and facilitate retention of the matter. Trainees‗ retention of knowledge. Increasing trainees‗ interpersonal skills: Sensitivity training is the best. 2. Conference (discussion) is the best. People remember things that they ― see and hear‗ much longer than they do information received through talks or reading alone. [349] . 3. television lectures are then worst.

therefore. etc. building expectations of prospective participants from training. the general attitudes and approaches [350] . (ii) Evaluation of training input. developing criteria of who should be sent for training. (iii) Evaluation of training process. (i) Evaluation of contextual factors: Training effectiveness depends not only on what happens during training. but also on what happen before the actual training and what happens after the training has formally ended. This involves the evaluation of training curriculum and its sequencing. the relationship between participants and trainers.LABOUR LEGISLATION EVALUATION OF TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT Training as a service intended to achieve quality results requires continuous evaluation to achieve continuous improvement. Evaluation should pervade the training process. The climate of the training organization. and (iv) Evaluation of training outcomes. be done of both the pre training and post-training work. Post training work includes helping the concerned managers to plan to utilize the participants‗ training. helping people to volunteer for training. and provide the needed support to them. Evaluation should. how many at a time and in what sequence. (iii) Evaluation of the training process. The four main dimensions of evaluation are: (i) Evaluation of contextual factors. (ii) Evaluation of training inputs. building linkages between the training section and the line departments and so on. Pre –training work includes proper identification of training needs.

LABOUR LEGISLATION of the trainers. What he liked least and any other comments he might have about the programme. Measuring the carry. Reaction Evaluation Opinion surveys of participants or of people who have seen the participants in action are reaction evaluations. (iv) Evaluation of training outcomes. good personnel managers do make an effort to systematically appraise the benefits and result of their programmes. How Evaluation is done? Most training evaluation methods seem to fall into one of the following two categories: (a) reaction evaluation.. however. payoffs from training are intangible and rather slow to become apparent. are some of the important elements of the training process which also need to be evaluated. [351] . Benefits of a training programme are not always obvious and they are not readily measurable. This. and (b) outcome evaluation. is a complex technical and professional task. A central problem is the absence of objective criteria and specific definitions of relevant variables by which to measure the effectiveness either of specific programme or of results in terms of general employee development or changes in employee behavior. a questionnaire is given to the participant at the end of the programme which asks him to rate of his personal perceptions what he liked best. There are several variations of this method: (i) Generally. training methods.home value of a training programme in terms of what has been achieved and how much is the main task of evaluation. etc. Nevertheless.

information-0recall tests or problem-solving exercises can be [352] . immediate. Outcome evaluation may be done at three levels. Since such samplings are not scientifically designed. intermediate and ultimate. Outcome Evaluation Reaction evaluations do not take one very far. (iv) Sometimes a management representative may drop around during a coffee break and by putting questions to one or two participants. One advantage of this method is that it provides the manager of the training programme. The theory here is that opinions given immediately at the conclusion of the course cannot possibly have the objectivity which is desired in the appraisal of the programme. Similarly.. Skill learning can be measured by performance testes(such as operating a machine). (v) sometimes the participants may be asked to send their opinions by mail on reaching their organizations. (See appendix 4 given at the end) (iii) Participants are required to give daily ratings for each segment of the programme. The main object of evaluation is in fact served by outcome evaluation. informally collect information about the success of the training programme. Immediate. skills and attitudes) of trainees soon after they have finished training. One advantage of this method is that it provides the manager of the training programme an immediate feedback which he can use for the adjustment and improvement of the following day‗s programme. This form of evaluation measures improvement in the learning (knowledge.LABOUR LEGISLATION (ii) Sometimes scalar ratings are also given against every question and the trainee is required to check off the degree of satisfaction which he found in each answer. the results may not be always accurate.

There are 3 basic techniques followed under this method. quality control etc. The training group is then given the training. while the control group is not (the group continues to perform the job [353] .. Controlled experimentation requires the use of two groups of employees. Intermediate. simulation. may throw light on the trainees‗ progress in attitudinal learning. Devices such as attitude scale. indexes of productivity. role-playing.LABOUR LEGISLATION used to gauge knowledge. grievances. The assumption here is that if positive transfer of learning has taken place from the training to the job situation it should be reflected in the trainee‗s improved behavior. The third technique does not provide any basis for knowing how much improvement actually occurred during training. This form of evaluation measures changes in the ultimate results achieved by training. labor turnover. and (iii) after the training study. Performance is measured of both the groups before training is Shortened.‖ training‖ group and a ―control‖ group. absenteeism. The second technique does not provide the basis for knowing how much improvement would have does not provide the basis for knowing how much improvement would have occurred without training. Of these. namely. critical incident cases etc. For this purpose. (ii) ―before-and –after‖ comparison. the first technique(controlled experimentation) is considered as the most scientific one that really provides a solid basis for evaluation in the training. this form of evaluation measures changes in the behavior of trainees when they have returned to their jobs. studies of organizational climate and human resources accounting are taken as the ultimate results achieved by trainees. These are: (i) controlled experimentation. Ultimate. accidents.


without training). After the first group is trained, performance of both the groups is again measured. A subsequent comparison is then made of the improvement in both groups to determine if the training group improves significantly more than the control group. The second method involves the use of single training group with performance being measured before and after the training. The third method also involves a single training group but with performance being measured after the training (but not before).If evaluation in any form is to be effective, it must be done in accordance with the following proven principles: 1. Evaluation must be planned. What is to b evaluated, when, by what means. And by whom must be determined in advance. 2. Evaluation must be objective. It should not be a mere eyewash—an attempt by the trainer to vindicate the programme instead of to verify it. 3. Evaluation must be verifiable,. Results can be confirmed by the same or different means. 4. Evaluation must be co—operative. It must involve all who are a part of or affected by the training and development programme. It is not a contest between the evaluator and the subject of evaluation. 5. Evaluation must be continuous. 6. Evaluation must be specific, i.e., it should tell about specific strengths and weaknesses and should not make vague generalizations. 7. Evaluation must be quantitative. 8. Evaluation must be feasible. It must be administratively manageable.



9. Evaluation must be cost effective, i.e., the results must be commensurate with the cost incurred. EMPLOYEE PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL Performance appraisals a systematic evaluation of present and potential capabilities of personnel and employees by their superiors, superior‗s superior or a professional from outside. It is a process of estimating or judging the value, excellent qualities or status of a person or thing. It is a process of collecting, analyzing, and evaluating data relative to job behavior and results of individuals. The appraisal system is organized on the principle of goals and management by objectives. Management decisions on performance utilize several integrated inputs: goals and plans, job evaluation, performance evaluation, and individual history. It connotes a two-dimensional concept – at one end of the continuum lies the goals set by the authority, and at the other end, the performance achieved by the individual or any given group. Objectives of Performance Appraisal The broad objectives of performance appraisal are: 1. To help the employee to overcome his weaknesses and improve his strengths so as to enable him to achieve the desired performance. 2. To generate adequate feedback and guidance from the immediate superior to an employee working under him 3. To contribute to the growth and development of an employee through helping him in realistic goal setting.



4. To provide inputs to system of rewards (comprising salary increments, transfers, promotions, demotions or terminations) and salary administration 5. To help in creating a desirable culture and tradition in the organization 6. To help the organization to identify employees for the purpose of motivating, training and developing them 7. To generate significant, relevant, free, and valid information about employees. In brief, the main purposes of performance appraisal are: past performance;

In short, the performance appraisal of an organization provides systematic judgments to backup wage and salary administration; suggests needed changes in one‗s behavior, attitudes, skills, or job knowledge; and uses it as a base for coaching and counseling the individual by his superior. Appraising employee performance is, thus, useful for compensation, placement, and training and development purposes. Uses of Performance Appraisal Some of the common uses of appraisals include:


performances measure.

employee strengths and weaknesses.

weaknesses. n organizations through the interchange of dialogue between supervisors and subordinates.

data bank on appraisal for rendering assistance in personnel decisions. It is generally accepted that performance appraisals serve one or more of the following purposes: 1. To bring about better operational or business results 2. To meet an individual‗s development needs 3. To provide information useful for manpower planning by identifying men with a potential for advancement and men with abilities not currently being used 4. To provide a basis for compensation action. The appraisal systems do not operate in isolation; they generate data that can contribute to other HRM systems – for example to succession planning and manpower planning. In brief, the various uses of performance appraisal can be classified into two broad categories. One category concerns the obtaining of evaluation data on employees for decision-making for various personnel actions such as pay increases, promotions, transfers, discharges, and for selection test validation. The other main


use is for employee development including performance improvement training, coaching and counseling. Planning the Appraisal A meaningful performance appraisal is a two-way process that benefits both the employee and the manager. For employees. Appraisal is the time to find out how their manager thinks they are performing in the job. For a manager, a formal appraisal interview is a good time to find out how employees think they are performing on the job. The planning appraisal strategy has to be done: Before the appraisal: 1. Establish key task areas and performance goals. 2. Set performance goals for each key task area. 3. Get the facts. 4. Schedule each appraisal interview well in advance. During the appraisal: 1. Encourage two-way communication. 2. Discuss and agree on performance goals for the future. 3. Think about how you can help the employee to achieve more at work. 4. Record notes of the interview. 5. End the interview on an upbeat note. After the appraisal:


1. Prepare a formal record of the interview. 2. Monitor performance. Approaches to Performance Appraisal George Odiorne has identified four basic approaches to performance appraisal. Personality- based systems: In such systems the appraisal form consists of a list of personality traits that presumably are significant in the jobs of the individuals being appraised. Such traits as initiative, drive, intelligence, ingenuity, creativity, loyalty and trustworthiness appear on most such lists. Generalized descriptive systems: Similar to personality- based systems, they differ in the type of descriptive term used. Often they include qualities or actions of presumably good managers: ―organizes, plans, controls, motivates, delegates, communicates, makes things happen,‖ and so on. Such a system, like the personality-based system, might be useful if meticulous care were taken to define the meaning of each term in respect to actual results. Behavioral descriptive systems: Such systems feature detailed job analysis and job descriptions, including specific statements of the actual behaviors required from successful employees. Result-centered systems: These appraisal systems (sometimes called workcentered or job – centered systems) are directly job related. They require that manager and subordinates sit down at the start of each work evaluation period and determine the work to be done in all areas of responsibility and functions, and the specific standards of performance to be used in each area.



When introducing performance appraisal a job description in the form of a questionnaire has to be preferred. A typical questionnaire addressed to an individual would cover the following points: ?

items processed, numbers of people managed, number of customers?

there any other ways in which it would be possible to measure the effectiveness with which you carry out your job?

Components of Performance Appraisal The components that should be used in a performance appraisal system flow directly from the specific objectives of appraisal. The following components are being used in a number of Indian organizations: 1. Key performance Areas (KPAs)/Key Result Areas (KRAs) 2. Task/targets/objectives; attributes/qualities/traits 3. Self appraisal


4. Performance analysis 5. performance ratings 6. Performance review, discussion or counseling 7. Identification of training/development needs 8. Ratings/assessment by appraiser 9. Assessment/review by reviewing authority 10. Potential appraisal. Types of Performance Appraisal There are two types of performance appraisal systems which are commonly used in organizations: (i) Close ended appraisal system, and (ii) open ended appraisal system. In the close ended appraisal system, commonly used in government organizations and public enterprises, a confidential report is submitted on the performance of the employee. Only where an adverse assessment is made against an individual, the concerned individual is informed about his/her inherent strengths and weaknesses and , therefore, is not given an opportunity to respond to the assessment made on him/her. The employees are, therefore, in a constant dilemma as to how their performance is viewed by the management In the open ended appraisal system, unlike in the close ended system, the performance of the individual is discussed with him, and he is ranked in a five or ten point rating scale. The company uses the tool primarily for rewarding a good performer or for other considerations like promotions. The main weakness of this


system is that all the employees are ranked in a particular scale, and whereas the good performers are rewarded, there is no concerted effort to motivate the average performers in performing better. Another weakness of the grading system is that the appraisal may turn out to be more subjective in nature due to insufficient data maintained on the individual. This system also leads to unnecessary and invidious comparisons made on different individuals performing similar jobs. Performance appraisal can be a closed affair, where the appraisees do not get any chance to know or see how they have been evaluated; or it can be completely open, where the appraisees have the opportunity of discussing with their superiors during the evaluation exercise. Rating Scale with Points(SEE PDF FILE PG 347) In this case, each item appraised will carry with it a certain number of points. The range of points used may be the same or different for every trait or factor appraised. Concerns and Issues in Appraisal 1. Identifying job responsibilities and duties and performance dimensions, standards and goals. 2. Prioritizing and weighing performance dimensions and performance goals. 3. Determining appropriate methods for appraising performance. 4. Developing suitable appraisal instruments and scoring devices. 5. Establishing procedures that enhance fair and just appraisals of all employees. 6. Providing performance feedback to all employees.


Designing. Relating observed and identified performance to the rewards provided by organization.LABOUR LEGISLATION 7. Granting employees opportunities for appeal whenever and wherever such action is appropriate. 10. monitoring and auditing processes to ensure proper operation of the system and to identify areas of weakness. 8. sal system smoothly? Steps in the Appraisal Programme Pigors and Myers suggest several steps to develop and administer the programme effectively: 1. The personnel department may attempt to obtain as much as possible the agreement of line management in respect of the needs and objective of the programme. 9. A choice has to be made among different kinds of appraisal methods judiciously. [363] . Training of employees in all phases of the appraisal system The basic issues addressed by performance appraisal are.

5. [364] . the discussion should be in the form of a progress review and every opportunity should be given to the subordinate to express himself. if he feels that the appraisal has been biased and that it should be otherwise. 7. The personnel department has to examine the plans of other organizations as well as the relevant literature in the field to formulate the most suitable plan for the appraisal programme. 3. indicate difficulties. if it exists in the company. 6. There should be an arrangement for periodic discussion of the appraisal by the superior with each of the subordinates where attempts may be made to stress good points.LABOUR LEGISLATION 2. weights and points to be given to each factor. Care may be taken to acquire line and staff co-ordination and mutual checking of appraisals with a view to achieving intro and inter-departmental consistency and uniformity. in this context. Attempts should be made to obtain the co-operation of supervisors in devising the appraisal form and discuss with them the different factors to be incorporated. Attempt is to be made to provide intensive training to all the supervisors with a view to obtaining unbiased and uniform appraisal of their subordinates. The personnel or industrial relations manager tends to explain the purpose and nature of the programme to all the superiors and subordinates to be involved and affected by it. Explicitly. Care should be taken to take into confidence the representatives of the union. and description or instructions to be indicated on the form. 4. and encourage improved performance.

This method is very simple to understand and easy to apply. newer – rating method. it is possible to identify areas in which the individual requires further development.LABOUR LEGISLATION 8. if followed carefully. descriptive phrases are given in the form to guide the rater while evaluating the rate. There should be provision for challenge and review of appraisals. 9. the supervisor‗s superior and one or two more officers of the company who are familiar with the rate. In some cases. On the basis of ratings on specific factors. such as . The rating is assigned by putting a tick mark horizontally. and result-oriented appraisal. dependability. delegation. The [365] . Frequently. job knowledge. and leadership. judgment. attempts may be made to recommend for salary increases or promotion. organizing ability. Although ratings by the committee bring several viewpoints together and overcome the superior‗s bias. Methods of Performance Appraisal Strauss and Sayles have classified performance appraisal into three groups: traditional performance rating. if these decisions seem plausible in the light of appraisals. if any. A brief description of each is as follows: (a) Traditional Performance Rating: Traditional rating involves a completion of a form by the immediate supervisor of the individual who is being evaluated. dealing with people. if the employees or their union representatives are dissatisfied with the personnel decisions which the management has taken on the basis of these appraisals. The conventional rating scale form incorporates several factors. As soon as the appraisal has been duly discussed. attempts are made to accomplish the rating by a committee consisting of the immediate supervisor. creativity. they are highly time-consuming. are likely to help the superiors to evaluate their subordinates effectively. These steps.

there is a chance of the occurrence of a halo effect. and the impact of an individual‗s job. may obtain equally high ratings on other factors such as initiative and helpfulness while factually he deserves lower ratings on these factors. Such rating is highly subjective in the absence of objective standards. he is likely to receive nearly similar ratings on the other factors as well. ―good‖ and so on. there is a tendency on the part of the raters to assign high ratings to individuals holding high-paid jobs. Accordingly. the halo effect may occur where the rating on one factor is influenced by the rating on another factor. different standards or judgments among the raters. there may be divergent perceptions and accordingly. Accordingly. The halo effect refers to a tendency of the rater to rate several factors in terms of a general impression which he has on the individuals. For example. The basic criticism of the traditional performance rating relates to its emphasis on personality traits instead of job performance. (b) Newer Rating Methods: Because of several inadequacies in the traditional rating scale. who is rate ―very good‖ on his knowledge of the job. excessive leniency or strictness. differing perceptions. attempts have been made to devise new procedures which are less [366] . The merit-rating scales are frequently criticized from the standpoints of clarity in standards. Third. a fitter. Fourth. the halo effect. Sixth. the halo effect may occur where the rating of a general impression which he has on the individuals. First. Second. If an individual is rated above the average on one factor. there is a divergence of opinion among raters as to what is meant by such standards as ―unsatisfactory‖.LABOUR LEGISLATION ratings on specific factors can be summated to obtain a composite performance score. the raters may be susceptible to excessive leniency or strictness error. the central tendency.

These methods are discussed below: (i) The Rank-order Procedure: It is effective where ten or a lesser number of individuals are to be evaluated. (iv) The Forced Choice Technique: It forces the rater to select from series of several statements or traits. Among these are included rank order. The final ranking is determined by the number of individuals for evaluation is large. each individual is assigned such ranks as first. each individual is compared with every other individual. the one which best fits the individual and one which least fits. Since the appraiser does not know the score value of statements. and each of these statements is assigned a score.e. (iii) The forced Distribution Procedure: It is a form of comparative evaluation in which as evaluator rates subordinates according to a specified distribution. forced choice. second. paired comparison. this technique becomes cumbersome and difficult when a large number of employees are to be evaluated in the organization. Here judgments are made on a relative basis. This procedure can be used for numerous traits if required by evaluating the individuals separately on each trait. The appraiser is required to put a tick-mark against the name of the individual whom he considers better on the trait in question. critical incident and field review.LABOUR LEGISLATION susceptible to the above weaknesses. the ranking is made separately for each trait. a person is assessed relative to his performance in the group he works. If the evaluation process involves several traits. forced distribution. The forced distribution method is primarily used to eliminate rating errors such as leniency and central tendency. Although this method is simple to understand and easy to apply.. third and so on. this method prevents the rater from [367] . (ii) Paired-comparison system: Under this. i. According to this procedure.

tend to build up a record of each subordinate with debit on the minus side and credit on the plus side. (c) Result-Oriented Appraisal: The result-oriented appraisals are based on the concrete performance targets which are usually established by superior and subordinates jointly. (v) The Critical Incident Method: This technique of performance appraisal was developed by Flanagan and Burns. This procedure has been known as Management by Objectives (MBO). Under this procedure. Moreover. attempts are made to devise for each job a list of critical job requirements. The merit of this procedure is that all evaluations are based on objective evidence instead of subjective rating. usually someone from the corporate office or from the employee‗s own personnel department. Field reviews are also useful when comparable information is needed from employees in the different units or locations. the appraiser is unable to introduce personal bias into the evaluation process because he does not know which of the statement is indicative of effective performance. and interviews with the employee. and sometimes with the employee‗s superior. (vi) The Field Review: It is an appraisal by someone outside the employee‗s own department. However.LABOUR LEGISLATION deliberately checking only the most favorable trait. [368] . Field review as an appraisal method is used primarily in making promotion decisions at the managerial level. The superior enlist the incident as they happen and in the process. it is a costly technique and also difficult for many raters to understand. Superiors are trained to be on the lookout for critical incidents on the part of the subordinates in accomplishing the job requirements. This enhances the overall objectively of this procedure. The field review process involves review of employee records.

Frequent individual performance reviews [369] . George S.‖ Much of the initial impetus for MBO was provided by Peter Drucker (1954) and by Douglas McGregor (1960). Dr. The setting of individual objectives in relation to organizational goals 3. define each individual‗s major areas of responsibility in terms of the results expected of him. Carroll and Tosi (1973). note its following characteristics: 1. MBO in essence involves the setting out clearly defined goals of an employee in agreement with his superior. A periodic review of performance as it relates to organizational goals 4. is: ―Management by objectives is a process whereby the superior and subordinate managers of an organization jointly identify its common goals. George S. and use these measures as guides for operating the unit and assessing the contribution of each of its members. The establishment of organizational goals 2. Effective goal-setting and planning by top management 5.LABOUR LEGISLATION MBO: The definition of MBO. Dr. Mutual goal-setting 7. Drucker first described MBO in 1954 in the Practice of Management. McGregor argues that by establishing performance goals for employees after reaching agreement with superiors. in an extensive account of MBO. the problems of appraisal of performance are minimized. as expressed by its foremost proponent. Organizational commitment 6. as expressed by its foremost proponent. Drucker pointed to the importance of managers having clear objective that support the purposes of those in higher positions in the organization.O The definition of MBO.Odiorne.

Superior and subordinate get together and jointly agree upon the list of the principal duties and areas of responsibility of the individual‗s job. The key features of management by objectives are as under: 1. 5. 4. The subordinate sets his own short-term performance goals or targets in cooperation with his superior. There are four main steps in MBO: 1. He tries. Some freedom in developing means of achieving objectives. 3. Measure the results. [370] . to help the subordinate achieve the agreed upon goals. the superior and subordinate net together to evaluate progress towards the agreed-upon goals . Compare actual goals achieved with expected results. The process focuses upon results accomplished and not upon personal traits. Review. Define the job. 7. new or modified goals are set for the ensuring period. on a day-to-day basis. He counsels and coaches. 2. as decided upon. They agree upon criteria for measuring and evaluating performance. In the appraisal process. 2. Define expected results (set objectives). From time-to-time. with the subordinates.LABOUR LEGISLATION 8. The superior plays a supportive tool. the superior plays less of the role of a judge and more of the role of one who helps the subordinate attain the organization goals or targets. 3. Here specify in measurable terms what the person is expected to achieve. 6. his or her key responsibilities and duties. At those meetings.

8. Fosters increased competence. Supplies a basis for more equitable salary determination. Improves superior-subordinates relationships through a dialogue that takes place regularly. 4. Clarifies the job to be done and defines expectations of job accomplishment. especially incentive bonuses. Stimulates self-motivation. Provides a way for measuring objectively the performance of subordinates. 2. 7. Its objective are often difficult to establish. Hold periodic performance review meetings with subordinates to discuss and evaluate the latter‗s progress in achieving expected results. since it : 1. 6. 3. [371] . MBO has certain potential problems. Provide feedback. MBO has many benefits. such as: 1. 5. 10. 2. Serves as a device for integration of many management functions. Develops factual data for promotion criteria. Co-ordinates individual performance with company goals. 9. personal growth. appraise. It often lacks the support and commitment of top management. Aids in an effective overall planning system.LABOUR LEGISLATION 4. self-discipline and self-control. and opportunity for career development.

their boss. 360 Degree : The 360 degree feedback process and the balance score card are the new initiatives being increasingly utilized by organizations to gauge performance. Thus. their own subordinates. the feedback comes from all around them. 360 degrees. and so on. It may lead to excessive time consuming. Over the years. [372] . 4. Traditionally. a new approach has been enunciated by the western management gurus which is known as 360 degree appraisal – a performance management in which employees receive performance feedback on a variety of dimensions by an assortment of individuals with whom the person interacts. even friends and spouses. Many American companies are now using this 360 degree feedback. The 360 degree feedback refers to the practice of using multiple raters often including selfratings in the assessment of individuals. Semco Brazil.. key result areas. Companies that practice 360 degree appraisals include Motorola. British Petroleum. the performance appraisal has assumed several added dimensions. Central Televisions.LABOUR LEGISLATION 3. and internal and external customers. British Airways. Organizations are increasingly taking recourse to newer initiatives for tracking performance and measuring it against predetermined objectives. Its implementation can create excessive paperwork if it is not closely monitored. namely. It is also a move towards participation and openness. human resource professionals. their colleagues and peers. It helps foster interdependent partnership and develops teambased organizations. in most performance evaluations a supervisor evaluates the performance of subordinate. it concentrates too much on the short-run at the expense of long-range planning. The list can grow to include vendors and consultants. However. suppliers and business associates. 5.

which enables organizations to clarify vision and strategy before initiating action. Rather. Rober Kaplan and David Nortan and has been successfully adopted by numerous companies worldwide. Of course. Balance Score Card : The Balance Score Card (BSC) creates a template for measurement of organizational performance as well as individual performance. BSC was introduced in 1992 by Dr. This form of performance evaluation can be very beneficial to managers because it typically gives them a much wider range of performance-related feedback than a traditional evaluation. [373] . It is also a monitoring system that integrates all employees at all levels in all departments towards a common goal. to benefit from 360 degree feedback system must be carefully managed so that its focus remains on constructive rather than destructive criticism. Another key factor for its success is avoiding punishment for bad results. BSC translates strategy into performance measures and targets. rather than focusing narrowly on objective performance. assessment participants must be positively encouraged to improve.LABOUR LEGISLATION One important factor for the success of a 360 degree performance assessment is to ensure that the right people are selected to provide the feedback. It is a measurement based management system. 360 degree often focuses on such things as interpersonal relations and style. such as sales increase or productivity gains. It helps cascade corporate level measures to lower level so that the employees can see what they must do well to improve organizational effectiveness and helps focus the entire organizations on what must be done to create breakthrough performance. That is. Both critics and supporters of the individual should be selected. thus making it operational and highly effective.

the assessee himself. The superior is no longer a critic but a guide to improve subordinate‗s performance. Appraisers can be trained with a view to improving their ability to evaluate subordinates and discuss evaluations with them effectively. Performance Appraisal Assessment The quality of an appraiser is much more crucial than the appraisal methods. it is not a panacea for all the ills of an organization. and the assessee. This procedure provides a framework within which individuals are highly motivated to improve themselves. knowledge of results leads to improved performance. a higher level manager.s subordinates. The following questions can provide an assessment of performance appraisal system: serve? [374] .LABOUR LEGISLATION The result-oriented appraisal relates to a future which can be improved rather than the past over which one has no control. This method should not be introduced as a crash programme in organizational settings. The subordinates have definite targets and receive feedback as to where they stand. Training of appraisers has been largely stressed as a measure to improve performance appraisals. The assessment can be accomplished by an individual or by a combination of the immediate superior. a personnel officer. other managers acquainted with the assessee‗s work. Rather. It is desirable to make the immediate superior a party to the appraisal programme. However. It stresses forward planning which helps in overcoming problems beforehand. sufficient groundwork should be accomplished before launching the result-oriented appraisal programme. Thus.


minimize errors and ensure consistency?


developmental components separated?


The following questions serve as guidelines for assessing the end-product of performance appraisal: 1. Did the appraisal session motivate the subordinate? 2. Did the appraisal build a better relationship between the superior and the subordinate? 3. Did the subordinate come out with a clear idea of where he or she stands? 4. Did the superior arrive at a fairer assessment of the subordinate? 5. Did the superior learn something new about the subordinates? 6. Did the subordinate learn something new about the superior and pressures he or she faces? 7. Does the subordinate have a clear idea of what corrective actions to take to improve his/her own performance?


Performance Appraisal Guidelines

province. But it should not be used punitively and unjustly.

one geared to making pay decisions and the other designed to yield information about employee development. en decided upon, apply it for several years; in other words don‗t tinker with the system annually.

communicating on performance; day-to-day informal contacts must do the bulk of the job.

has been a repetition of negative employee behavior. Strategies to Improve Performance Companies can do many things to improve employee performance. More specific and frequently used strategies include the –



The positive reinforcement system lets employees know well they are meeting specific goals and rewards improvements with praise and recognition. In the sense that no money is involved, it is a unique incentive system. Like all incentive systems, a basic premise of positive reinforcement is that behavior can be understood and modified by its consequences. Some organizations improve performance through the use of positive discipline or non-punitive discipline. Employee assistance programmes are designed specifically to assist employees with chronic personal problems that hinder their job performance and attendance. Such programmes are often used with employees who are alcoholics or who have severe domestic problems. Counseling is an inescapable and necessary part of appraisal. It has to do with a personal relationship, and interaction between two people one of whom is wiser or more experienced than the other. The main steps in appraising and counseling subordinates are as follows: 1. Schedule periodic appraisals standards jointly with subordinates. 2. Establish performance appraisal standards jointly with subordinates. 3. Prepare for each appraisal and counseling session, select an appropriate place, provide enough time, and review records. 4. Make appraisal sessions co-operative. The subordinate must be encouraged to appraise his own performance and share his ideas and feelings with the appraiser. 5. Establish and maintain rapport with the subordinate by words, actions, and attitude. 6. Jointly explore alternative solutions and the consequences of selecting each one.



7. Help the subordinate to come to a self-determined solution to the problem or deficiency. 8. Terminate the session gracefully. 9. Complete records of the session and decisions for future reference. 10. Carry out the decisions and actions. 11. Follow up and evaluate results. Many situations that arise at work demand effective counseling skills. Counseling is an important communication based activity. Counseling skills include listening, understanding, initiating effective communication, and evaluating solutions. Effective counseling skills are aimed at: 1. Bringing about some constructive change in the subordinate‗s behavior. 2. Locating the root cause of subordinate‗s problem. 3. Reducing frustration by allowing subordinates to express their attitudes and feeling about their jobs. 4. Stimulating problem-solving for the purpose of finding solutions to the subordinate‗s problems and achieve excellence in his performance. Effective counseling demands effective communication, active listening, and transactional analysis. In addition, some specific counseling guidelines include: 1. Avoid making your subordinates defensive; recognize that defensive behavior is normal.



2. Never attack a person‗s defense; try to concentrate on the act itself (inadequate sales, decreasing profits and so on) rather than on the subordinate. 3. Postpone action; sometimes, the best thing to do is nothing at all. 4. Be an active listener; be sure you understand not only the words, but, more importantly, the feelings and attitudes underlying them. 5. Try not to criticize; criticism often just evokes defensive behavior. 6. Try to counsel often, on a daily basis, rather than once or twice a year; give feedback. 7. Use critical incidents. No one likes being told with vague generalities that his performance is not up to the mark. Try to be especially specific about the behavior you consider unsatisfactory. 8. Agree on standards of improvement. Best results are always achieved when the superior and subordinates set specific goals to be achieved. 9. Get your subordinates to talk. Unit – V LESSON – 5.1 QUALITY OF WORK LIFE AND CORPORATE GOVERNANCE LEARNING OF QUALITY OF WORKLIFE AND CORPORATE GOVERNANCE QWL means different things to different people. J. Richard and J. Loy define QWL as ―the degree to which members of a work organization are able to satisfy important personnel needs through their experience in the organization.


Quality of work life improvements are defined as any activity which takes place at every level of an organization, which seeks greater organizational effectiveness through the enhancement of human dignity and growth … a process through which the stockholders in the organization management, unions and employees --- learn how to work together better to determine for themselves what actions, changes and improvements desirable and workable in order to achieve the twin and simultaneous goals of an improved quality of life at work for all members of the organization and greater effectiveness for both the company and the unions. Richard E, Walton explains quality of worklife in terms of eight broad conditions of employment that constitute desirable quality of worklife (QWL) . He proposed the same criteria for measuring QWL. Those conditions criteria include : i) Adequate and Fair Compensation: There are different opinions about the adequate compensation. The committee on Fair Wages defined fair wage as: …. The wage which is above the minimum wage but below the living age‖. ii) Safe and Healthy Working Conditions: Most of the organizations provide safe and healthy working conditions due to humanitarian requirements and/or legal requirements. In fact these conditions are a matter of enlightened self interest. iii) Opportunity to use and Develop Human Capacities: Contrary to the traditional assumptions, QWL is improved …. ―to the extent that the worker can exercise more control his or her work, and the degree to which the job embraces an entire meaningful task‖ …. But not a part of it. Further QWL provides for opportunities like autonomy in work and participation in planning in order to use human capabilities. iv) Opportunity for Career Growth: Opportunities for promotions are limited in case of all categories of employees either due to educational barriers or due to


limited openings at the higher level. QWL provides future opportunity for continued growth and security by expanding one‗s capabilities, knowledge and qualifications. v) Social Integration in the Work Force: Social integration in the work force can be established by creating freedom from prejudice, supporting primary work groups, a sense of community and inter-personnel openness, legalitarianism and upward mobility. vi) Constitutionalism in the Work Organisation: QWL provides constitutional protection to the employees only to the level of desirability as it hampers workers. It happens because the management‗s action is challenged in every action and bureaucratic procedures need to be followed at that level. Constitutional protection is provided to employees on such matters as privacy, free speech, equity and due process. vii) Work and Quality of Life : QWL provides for the balanced relationship among work, non-woprk and family aspects of life. In otherwords family life and social life should not be strained by working hours including overtime, work during inconvenient hours, business travel, transfers, vacations etc., viii) Social Relevance of Work: QWL is concerned about the establishment of social relevance to work in a socially beneficial manner. The workers selfesteem would be high if his work is useful to the society and the vice versa is also true. SPECIFIC ISSUES IN QWL Klott Mundick and Schuster suggested 11 major QWL issues. They are: i. Pay and Stability of Employment: Good pay stil dominates most of the other factors in employee satisfaction. Various alternative means for providing wages


should be developed in view of increase in cost of living index, increase in levels and rates of income tax and profession tax. Stability to a greater extent can be provided by enhancing the facilities for human resource development. ii. Occupational Stress: Stress is a condition of strain on one‗s emotions, thought process and physical condition, Stress is determined by the nature of work, working conditions, working hours, pause in the work schedule, worker‗s abilities and nature and match with the job requirements. Stress is caused due to irritability, hyperexcitation or depression, unstable behaviour, fatique, stuttering, trembling psychomatic pains, heavy smoking and drug abuse. Stress adversely affects employee‗s productivity. The P/HR manager, in order to minimize the stress, has to identify, prevent and tackle the problem. He may arrange the treatment of the problem with the health unit of the company. iii. Organisational health Programmes: Organisational health programmes aim at educating employees about health problems, means of maintaining and improving of health etc., These programmes cover drinking and smoking cessation, hypertension control, other forms of cardiovascular risk reduction, family planning etc. Effective implementation of these programmes result in reduction in absenteeism, hospitalization, disability, excessive job turnover and premature death. This programme should also cover relaxation, physical exercise, diet control etc. iv. Alternative Work Schedules: Alternative work schedules including work at home, flexible working hours, staggered hours, reduced work week, part-time employment which may be introduced for the convenience and comfort of the workers as the work schedule which offers the individual the leisure time, flexible hours of work is preferred.


v. Participative Management and Control of Work: Trade unions and workers believe that workers‗ participation in management and decision-making improves QWL. Workers also feel that they have control over their work, use their skills and make a real contribution to the job if they are allowed to participate in creative and decision making process. vi. Recognition: Recognising the employee as a human being rather than as a labourer increases the QWL Participative management, awarding the rewarding systems, congratulating the employees for their achievement, job enrichment, offering prestigious designations to the jobs, providing well furnished and decent work places, offering membership in clubs or association, providing vehicles, offereing vacation trips are some means to recognize the employees. vii. Congenial Worker – Supervisor Relations: Harmonious supervisor-worker relations gives the worker a sense of social association, belongingness, achievement of work results etc., This in turn leads to better QWL. viii. Grievance Procedure: Workers have a sense of fair treatment when the company gives them the opportunity to ventilate their grievances and represent their case succinctly rather than settling the problems arbitrarily. ix. Adequacy of Resources: Resources should match with stated objectives, otherwise, employees will not be able to attain the objectives. This results in employee dissatisfaction and lower QWL. x. Seniority and Merit in Promotions: Seniority is generally taken as the basis for promotion in case of operating employees. Merit is considered as the basis for advancement for managerial people whereas seniority cum-merit is preferred for promotion of ministerial employees. The promotional policies and activities should be fair and just in order to ensure higher QWL.

temporary. SEBI – the ombudsman of the capital market. 7. 5. Competition Act 2002 in place of MRTP Act. employment on permanent basis gives them security and leads to higher order QWL. On the other hand. The advent of the Depository system – The Depositories Act. 1996. [384] . 3. Changes in Securities laws 6. corporate laws.LABOUR LEGISLATION xi. economic laws and trade related regulations have responded to the rapid changes in the business environment and have acted as a catalyst for facilitation of stakeholders interests. A corporate entity is answerable and accountable to different stakeholders. The following are the highlights of the emerging dimensions in the legal environment of business: 1. Gearing the Companies Act. these legislations have been imported or amended several times to find proper solutions to the problems faced by the stackholders. The emerging dimensions of business laws. 1956 to meet the new challenges. 4. New Dimensions of intellectual property laws. Changes in the Law relating to Foreign Exchange. Employment on Permanent basis: Employment of workers on casual. Before and after independence. Quality of worklife aims at the promotion of diversified interests in the organization. 8. a number of legislations have been enacted to safe guard the interest of those parties. Corporate Governance – The new mantra of corporate management 2. probationary basis gives them a sense of insecurity.

Emerging Laws relating to infrastructure development. Cyber Laws – The IT Revolution and E-Governance. The various aspects of this issue crept into India relatively recently after the report of the Cadbury Committee in the UK in 1992. which aims to improve the company‗s image. 13. effectiveness. efficiency. 10. CORPORATE GOVERNANCE – THE NEW MATRA OF CORPORATE MANAGEMENT The meteoric fall in the fortunes of several glant corporates in US and UK like Enron. Polypeck and also a series of scams in financial sector of other developed and underdeveloped countries including India brought in its wake need for a renewed thrust on good corporate governance. Prevention of Money Laundering.LABOUR LEGISLATION 9. In India. and social responsibility. which evoked considerable interest from Indian companies. which some companioes voluntarily adopted. integiry and accountability of the management with an increasingly greater focus on investor protection and public interest. Worldcom. It is a set of standards. Changes in the Tax Laws – Introduction of VAT 12. The concept of corporate governance primarily hinges on complete transparency. Environmental Protection – the legal issues. till recently relatively little attention was paid to the processes by which companies were governed. The issue has come into prominence more recently with the report of the Shri Kumar Mangalam [385] . 1. Maxwell. Corporate governance can be considered as the system by which companies are directed and controlled. 11. In 1998. the Confederation of Indian Industries (CII) thereafter published a Desirable Code of Corporate Governance.

The Institute of Chartered Accountants of India issued certain mandatory accounting standards. 1956 was amended extensively by the Companies (Amendment) Act 2000. [386] . do not only take stock of the implementation of the earlier report on Corporate Governance but to revisit the entire proposition. In August 2002. non-executive / independent directors. SEBI has appointed a committee headed by N R Narayana Murthy. the Department of Company affairs under the Ministry of Finance and Company Affairs appointed the High level Naresh Chandra Committee to examine various corporate governance issues: The Naresh Chandra Committee report was submitted in December 2002. Clause 49 of the listing agreement which implements the corporate governance rules requires the listed companies to focus their attention on the following : mum number of executive. based on Kumar Mangalam Birla Report asked the Stock Exchanges to amend the listing agreements between them and ―the entities whose securities are listed with them. the Chairman of Infosys.LABOUR LEGISLATION Birla Committee (2000) set up by SEBI to suggest changes in the listing agreement to promote corporate governance. The Companies Act. Again in 2002. SEBI. The Narayan Murthy Committee on Corporate Governance submitted its final report on 8th February 2003.

2000. Corporates are being subjected to the stress of changes. 2001. 1996. GEARING THE COMPANIES ACT. Thus. by using the market as a disciplining factor and self regulation. Compliance can only be the first step in the right direction. A. we must not stop at mere compliance with statutory code of corporate governance. in the wake of liberalization. in fact metamorphosis. The prime mover for this high level of company law reforms process has been the changing corporate lanscape and internationalization of business. 1999. globalising markets and emerging international competition. More than a dozen major legislative initiatives have been introduced in Indian Company Law. 1956 TO MEET THE NEW CHALLENGES Changes in Company Law – in 1996. With the initiation of market-oriented policies in July 1991. standards and best practices.LABOUR LEGISLATION In the context of implementation of corporate governance requirements. 2002 The company law in India has undergone a phase of transition over the last two decades. the Government has expedited the process to modify the company law in the line with policy objectives and to harmonise it with the international developments. this is no guarantee of quality of corporate governance inside the boardrooms. has by far got the most support internationally. The Companies (Amendment) Act. by institutional activism. 2. Lastly. proper implementation of the codes of corporate governance will need a judicious mix of all the above approaches. self regulation coupled with accountability and transparency. [387] .

cannot make inter corporate loans/ investments and or provide guarantees (Sections 370 and 372).LABOUR LEGISLATION beralised the procedure of amending the objects clause.2000 which aims at introducing essential elements of corporate governance in the functioning of corporates through introduction of measures like Director's Responsibility Statement. which have defaulted in repayment of deposits.12. Companies can now amend the object clause of their Memorandum of Association by passing a special resolution. 2000 was passed on 13. Companies cannot accept deposits from public if they are in default in repayment of any deposit and interest thereon (Section 58A). It made the following changes: -back of securities introduced und C. Companies. B. 1999. The Companies (Amendment) Act. The highlights of the Amendment Act are: -up capital requirement for Private and Public Company. [388] . ing the public deposits. 2000 Companies (Amendment) Act. The Companies (Amendment) Act. No need to get confirmation of Company Law Board.

s at a time. Part lXA as introduced [389] . declaration of dividend. prospectus introduced D. 2002 and Companies (SecondAmendment) Act. Obtaining of Compliance Certificate from a Company Secretary in whole-time practice by Companies having paid-up share capital of Rs. Two important amendment Acts were passed in the year 2002. -up capital of not less than Rs. 2002 introduced a new class of companies called "Producer Companies". 2002.5 crores. Companies (Amendment) Act.10 lakhs or more and which are not required to employ a whole-time secretary.LABOUR LEGISLATION holders by the Central Government. The salient features of these amendments are as follows: Producer Companies: The Companies (Amendment) Act.

In the mean while the Madras High Court [ R. The setting up of NCT is a. on optional basis. Gandhi v. Professionals having expert working knowledge of Company Law. among other things. A quasi-judicial body composed of experts in corporate law. However the Tribunals are yet to be set up. Accounting. 2002 provides for the transfer of powers of Company Law Board. Union of India (2004) 120 Comp Cas 510 (Mad)] has struck down the constitutional validity of the NCLT and Appellate Tribunal. 2. National Company Law Tribunal. manufacture and sale of primary produce as well as allied matters. production.right move due to the following reasons: 1. 5. Relieving courts of mounting litigation.LABOUR LEGISLATION enable incorporation of cooperatives as companies and conversion of existing cooperative into companies. 4. etc. Finance. A voiding multiplicity of litigation. eligible to appear. National Company Law Tribunal: The Companies (Second Amendment) Act. BIFR and winding up powers of High Court to a single authority viz. Simpler and faster procedures and less formality than courts. 3. Avoiding confusion of jurisdiction and distribution of powers. [390] . Unique elements of cooperative business are accommodated within a regulatory framework similar to that of companies. The objects of a producer company have been defined to include. Faster disposal of cases. 6. Taxation. this will benefit clients and expose all to competition. This has created a state of uncertainty. processing. 7.

containing important provisions in the arena of independence of auditors. The following broad approach has been adopted while drafting the concept paper: i. organizations and professionals and sought to introduce an amendment to the Amendment Bill. 2003 & Concept paper on Company Law. To bring the Corporate Law in consonance with the changes that has occurred in the economic development. in place of existing 781 sections and 15 schedules. independent directors with a view to improve the corporate governance practices in the corporate sector. To delete the redundant provisions and to regroup the scattered provisions relating to specific subjects. 2003. To condense. The previous two attempts at making a comprehensive review of the existing law by introducing Companies Amendment Bill 1993 and 1997 failed as the assent of the Parliament could not be received. Department examined the concerns expressed and the suggestions made by the industry associations. iii. iv.LABOUR LEGISLATION E. To delink the procedural aspects from the substantive law. To give an overview of the form of the re-codified Companies Bill containing only 289 sections and a few schedules. Companies Bill. simplify and rationalize the provisions of company law. relationship of auditors with the management of the company. which would consolidate the existing provisions of the law. v. 2004. ii. In the meanwhile. a decision was taken by the Government for preparation of a concept paper containing a model codified company law. [391] . The Ministry introduced the Companies (Amendment) Bill.

Chapter I . 2002 in place of MRTP Act This Act passed by Parliament has received the President's Assent on January 13.2003. etc. for the establishment of a commission to prevent practices having adverse effect on competition. constitution of the Offices of the Registry of Companies and other miscellaneous provisions. ii. Chapter VIII-IX deal with Accounts and Audit iii. Chapter XIX deals with other registerable entities viii. 3. a separate clause of companies ix. Chapter X-XII deal with management of the company iv. Chapter XX deals with Producer Companies. The chapters deal with the following: i.LABOUR LEGISLATION The concept paper as presented in the website contains XXV chapters. Competition Act. to promote the interests of consumers and to ensure freedom of trade carried on by other participants in [392] .Vll deals with formation of company and other organizational matters. amalgamation. Chapter XXI to XXV deal with foreign companies. vi. This Act provides inter alia. Chapter XVI-XVIII deal with winding up the company vii. Chapter XIV~XV relates to reorganization of companies by merger. Chapter XIII contains powers of Central Government to carry out inspections and investigation of companies v.

and [393] . dominance per se is not bad. The Act has been passed keeping in view the economic development in India. in pursuit of globalization. sub-brokers. the competition laws. It is being increasingly felt that the MRTP Act has become obsolete in certain respects in the light of international economic development. SEBI . Under the Competition Law. Combinations are regulated and they are not prohibited. abuse of dominant position and regulation of combinations. removing controls and resorted to liberalization of economic and corporate laws. but the abuse of dominance is considered bad. The concept of 'group' has been given up as being un-workable. There is no compulsory registration of Agreements. custodian of securities. One of the distinguishing features is that the Competition Act is based on post reforms scenario. 1992 to: (a) register and regulate the working of the stock brokers. There has also been a marked shift from curbing monopolies to promoting competition. underwriters. (b) register and regulate the working of the depositories. trustee of trust deeds. merchant bankers. bankers to an issue. India has. or any other intermediary associated with the securities market as SEBI may specify by notification. which are anti-competitive. share transfer agents. credit rating agencies. responded by opening up its economy. depository participants. There is thus a marked shift in the Companies Act in favour of prohibition of anticompetitive agreements. more particularly. portfolio managers. investment advisors and such other intermediaries associated with the securities market.LABOUR LEGISLATION markets in India and for matters connected therewith or incidental thereto.The Ombudsman of the capital market SEBI has specific responsibility under the SEBl Act. foreign institutional investors. 4. registrars to an issue.

and (d) Self-regulation SEBI has issued a compendium containing consolidated Guidelines. It also consolidates the Issue related RMB General Instructions (Gr) Series Circulars and other guidelines relating to preferential issues. lock-in-period and promoter's contribution as part of the consolidation exercise. collective investment schemes. 2002. including power of investigation into transactions in securities and any intermediary or any person associated with the securities market in relation to the violation of the provisions of SEBI Act and the rules/regulations made there . 2000 has replaced the original Guidelines issued in June 1992 and subsequent clarification thereon.under.2000. book-building etc. SEBI is using four sets of tools to regulate the above mentioned securities market intermediaries: (a) Registration (b) Monitoring the Compliance (c) Enforcement. insider trading and substantial acquisition or control has been added to the SEBI Act. conferring additional powers and authorities on SEBI. The SEB! Act has been amended comprehensively by the SEBI (Amendment) Act. including mutual funds. instructions relating to issue of capital effective from January 27.LABOUR LEGISLATION (c) register and regulate the working of the venture capital funds. [394] . The compendium titled SEB! (Disclosure and Investor Protection) Guidelines. Advertisement. A New Chapter VI A dealing with prohibition of manipulative and deceptive devices. Circulars. Certain changes have been made in the guidelines relating to entry norms.

LABOUR LEGISLATION During the last two years. b. SEBI (Central Database of Market Participants) Regulations. 1997 . Securities Contracts (Regulation) Act. SEBI has announced inter alia. the [395] .Modified Formats of Letter of offer. SEBI SEBI (Self Regulatory organizations). 2003. 1996 and various regulations and guidelines issued by Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBl) under the SEBI Act. (issued of sweat equity) Regulations. c. Establishment of stock exchanges without prior approval of . 5. 2004. regulate the conduct of the market participants and ensure investors protection. By providing for the prior approval. SEBI (Ombudsman) Regulations. The Regulations framed by the SEBI are intended to fine tune the legal framework for issue of securities. 2003. These transactions were sought to be regulated through a system of control over the establishment of stock exchanges and their management including the members. Changes in Securities Laws Presently. 2002. the following Regulations: a. 1956 SCRA was enacted in 1956 with a view to regulate the transactions in securities and to check speculative transaction in the securities. e. Depositories Act. d. 1992 including listing agreement of the Stock Exchanges.the Government was prohibited. SEBI. the legislative framework dealing with securities markets comprises of Securities Contracts (Regulation) Act. 1956. SEBI (Substantial Acquisition of shares and take over) Regulations.

This came into being by virtue of the Securities Laws (Amendment) Act 1995 which inserted Chapter VI B in the SEBI Act 1992.LABOUR LEGISLATION Government sought to have effective control on transactions in securities and also inculcate certain degree of discipline and regulation on such transactions. Demutualisation also involves separation of ownership from management in the case of brokers. The Bill also provides for transfer of duties and functions of the clearing house to a clearing corporation. As Lok Sabha has been dissolved. [396] . 2003 aims at corporastation on and demutualisation of stock exchanges. inter alia. This requires. the Bill will have to be reintroduced in the 14th Lok Sabha. To achieve this purpose. Heavy penalties have been envisioned in the Bill ranging from one lakh of rupees for each day during which the default continues or one crore of rupees whichever is less. This Act was amended in 1999 expanding the scope of the definition of 'Securities' to include derivatives of securities and instruments of collective investments schemes and also to empower the Central Government to delegate its power to RBI. the Bill has proposed structural transformation of the stock exchanges from mutual organizational form to demutualisation form. the representation of the brokers on the Board of Stock Exchanges is either not permitted at all or kept to the minimum. This chapter has since then undergone important Amendments in 1999 and 2002. The Securities Laws (Amendment) Bill.

NBFC etc. broker. Some of the most important decisions of SAT have been Sterlite Industries (India) Ltd v.The Depositories Act. The most single important development in the Indian Capital Market in the last decade is the emergence of the Depositories System. SEBI. SEBI. A depository participant (DP) acts as an agent of a depository. I crore. 6. SEBI and Videocon v. 1996 The system of depositories have revolutionized stock markets. SAT has been an eye opener for reform of the SEBI Act for equipping SEBI with the power to tackle crafty and intelligent market players who have the potential to cause scams and fiascos. A depository is a company where securities of investors are held in electronic accounts. having a net worth of Rs. BPL v. Just as the banks holds money. typical bureaucratic approach to judicial matters needing quick resolution and finally lack of clarity in respect of further appeals against the orders passed by the Ministry. The advent of the Depository System . It is required to be registered with SEBI. in the same way a depository holds securities. Custodian. An investor who wants to avail the services of a depository must open an account with a depository [397] . However. experience proved that the said appellate authority suffered from inherent defects like considerable delays in the process of hearing appeals due to pre-occupation of its members. Previously appeals against Orders passed by SEBI were being filed to the Ministry of Finance. A DP could be a public financial institution. must have a net worth of 100 crores and must obtain a certificate of commencement of business from SEB!. A depository in India.LABOUR LEGISLATION The objective of SAT is expeditious disposal of matters concerning securities markets. lack of judicial expertise. bank.

The investor has to enter into an agreement with the DP after which he is issued a client I D number. The Stock Holding Corporation of India Ltd. Securities Contracts (Regulation) Act. However. 1956. (d) Any loss or damage caused to the participant will be indemnified by the depository. Some of the important features of depositories regulations are: (a) The depository is a registered owner of the share while the shareholder is the beneficial owner retaining all the economic and voting rights arising out of share ownership. The Depositories Act.LABOUR LEGISLATION participant. 1996. the Act allows only securities of companies to be dealt in depository mode. provides for the regulation for depositories.The Indian Stamp Act. 1899. (c) Transfers pertaining to sale and purchase will be effected automatically. was the first depository participant registered with SEBI. . there is no need to pay stamp duty. The number of DPs operational till June 2002 was around 212 with 1649 service centers across the country. SEBI (Depositories and Participants) Regulations. functioning and dealing in securities. (b) Shares in the depository will be fungible. [398] . 1996. The other Acts which were amended to implement the depositories system are: . provides for a legal framework for the establishment. (e) If trade are routed through depository.Securities and Exchange Board of India act.

Trade and Merchandise Marks Act. 1958. Copyright Act 1957 and Designs Act 1911. 2000 8.e. Many drastic penal provisions. Changes in the Law relating to Foreign Exchange Foreign Exchange Management Act (FEMA) 1999 has been enacted as part of liberalization process initiated by Government of India. 7. 1961. 1988. New dimensions of Intellectual Property Laws The law relating to intellectual property in India is contained in Patents Act.Benami Transaction (Prohibition) Act. However. 1891.Banker's Book Evidence Act. and [399] . (ii) facilitate external trade and payments.from conservation to facilitation and from control to regulation. The object of FEMA is (i) to consolidate and amend the law relating to foreign exchange. in view of advances in technology and to meet the obligations under TRIPs agreement.Income-tax Act. The Act is implemented w. The approach of FEMA is radically different from-FERA .f. 2000. in FERA have been removed in FEMA. 1st June. 1970. 1999 -out Design Act.LABOUR LEGISLATION . . Government of India has enacted/ introduced following new legislations in the field of intellectual Property: The Copyright (Amendment) Act. .

all current account transactions are free. The practical aspects are covered in rules made by Central Government and regulations made by RBI. it authorizes 'Authorised Persons' to deal in foreign exchange as per directions issued by RBI. FEMA envisages that RBI will have a controlling role in management of foreign exchange. Section 46 of FEMA authorizes Central Government to make rules and section 47 authorizes RBI to make regulations to carry out the provisions of the Act. These directions are issued through AP (DlR) circulars. FEMA does not treat violation of FEMA provisions as criminal offence. Overall scheme of FEMA . Central Government can impose reasonable instructions by issuing rules. adjudication and appeals. These are issued under delegated authority given under provisions of FEMA and hence are legally binding.Basically. Unlike the FERA. However. Central Government has issued 6 Rules and RBI has issued 21 Regulations for various purposes. FEMA also makes provisions for enforcement. 12 notifications have been issued by Central Government / RBI.LABOUR LEGISLATION (iii) to promote the orderly development and maintenance of foreign exchange markets in India. the burden of proof under FEMA will be on the enforcement agency and not on the implicated. RBI is empowered to issue directions to such 'Authorized Persons' u/s II. Unlike FERA FEMA is a Civil Law. penalties. FEMA makes provisions in respect of dealings in foreign exchange. Offences under FEMA are compoundable by paying penalty. Besides these. Capital Account Transactions are permitted to the extent specified by RBI by issuing regulations (section 6). Broadly. (section 3 of FEMA). FEMA contains only basic legal framework. (section 10 of FEMA). [400] . Since RBI cannot directly handled foreign exchange transactions.

The object of this Bill is to prevent laundering of proceeds of drug crimes and other connected activities and confiscation of proceeds derived from such offences. by the parent law under which the crime falls. heinous a crime one may consider money laundering to be. 1999 (the Bill) proposes to tackle laundering of proceeds of crime and not the crime itself. It. Prevention of Money Laundering Money Laundering poses a serious threat not only to the financial systems of countries but also to their integrity and sovereignty.LABOUR LEGISLATION 9. 10. confiscation of proceeds of crime. Some of the provisions of this Bill need to be examined. drug trafficking and gun running etc. Cyber Laws . becomes pertinent to make. such arbitrary and draconian powers. setting up of agencies and mechanisms for coordinating measures for combating money laundering. inter alia for preventing money laundering and connected activities. which is expected to be taken care. The process of Money Laundering involves cleansing of money earned through illegal activities like extortion. Layering and laundering. therefore. There was thus an urgent need for enactment or a comprehensive legislation. the conversion of iIlgotten money into lawfully earned money or in more popular terms to convert. The Prevention of Money Laundering Bill. the 'black' money into 'white'. The tainted money is projected as clean money through intricate processes of placement. as quickly as possible. However. The urge to launder the gains of crime is inherent in the crime since not only enjoyment of tainted money is a risky business: its very existence also facilitates the detection of crime.The IT Revolution and E-Governance [401] .

Changes in the Tax Laws -Introduction of VAT Allover the world. With a view to facilitate Electronic Governance. moderate. 2000 is a major break through towards placing India firmly in the cyber space. It provides for legal recognition of electronic records and digital signatures. to enable the conclusion of contracts and the creation of rights and obligations through the electronic medium. which is simple.LABOUR LEGISLATION Enactment of the Information Technology Act. The enactment of the Information Technology Act is an important step in the march towards e-commerce. the Act provides for the use and acceptance of electronic records and digital signatures in the Government offices and its agencies. India being one of the very few countries in the world to legislate on this amorphous law. reducing litigation and thus [402] . This Act. the thrust Is to establish a tax structure. Consequential amendments have also been proposed in the Indian Penal Code and the Indian Evidence Act to provide for necessary changes in the various provisions which deal with offences relating to documents and papers based transactions. rational and easy to administer and comply with. A lot of changes have been made in the recent years to simplify and rationalise the tax laws with a view to making them readily comprehensible to taxpayers. amongst other things provides legal recognition for transactions carried out by means of electronic data interchange and other means of electronic communication. The Act also provides for a regulatory regime to supervise the Certifying Authorities Issuing Digital Signature Certificates and to create civil and criminal liabilities for contravention of the provisions of the Act with a view to prevent possible misuse arising out of transactions and other dealings concluded over the electronic medium. 11.

LABOUR LEGISLATION subserving the interest of the national economy. after committing to the World Trade Organization (WTO) regime. distributor or wholesaler. The introduction of V AT is both an opportunity and challenge to streamline and rationalize the indirect taxes. is implemented by the Sales Tax Department. VAT Is prevalent in over 120 countries.The proposed introduction of Value Added Tax (VAT) from 1. The Government of India has. It will facilitate single market in India. at each stage of production and distribution chain. V AT is essentially a form of sales tax. decided to modernize and streamline its indirect taxation. a uniform tax structure will present India a single market to the manufacturer within as well as outside the country. There will be deductions for taxes paid earlier in the chain. However.4. It is expected to facilitate the States and Union Territories to transit successfully from the erstwhile sales tax system to a modem domestic tax system. much will depend on how efficiently and effectively the VAT regime. There is a focus on improving the administration of tax laws and expediting the assessment. It is a multi-point and multi-stage tax. It has taken India eight long years to create the momentum in favour of change from an origin-based sales tax to destination-based VAT. Above all. [403] . sales tax is levied at a single point. appellate and other proceedings under these laws. VAT will result in greater tax compliance and preventing cascading effect of taxes when output as well as inputs are taxes. levied only on the value addition to a product. Once installed.2005 is a historic reform of the domestic trade tax system. The wisdom lies in implementing VAT without loss of time when tax revenue is under pressure. At present. for achieving the proclaimed objectives. VAT . in the light of the experience of other WTO member countries. either at the hands of producer.

Telecom . several were ad hoc and temporary. Emerging Laws relating to infrastructure Development Infrastructure is the backbone of any nation and . ports. Indeed. In the recent years there has been a paradigm shift towards private participation in infrastructure services. 12.The telecom sector was witnessed several developments over the years. 1 lac crore which is a record in itself.the infrastructure sector covers a wide spectrum of services like roads. The draft of the Convergence Bill. the Government has taken several measures to make it broad based and currently it covers around 70 services. Income lax: The Income Tax Laws have also undergone a lot of changes. Consequently. The [404] . power. Though the levy of service tax is of recent origin. etc. Nevertheless. the Government has put In place legal and policy framework. The focus Is on simplification and curbing tax evasion. not all smooth and permanent.LABOUR LEGISLATION Excise and Customs: The history of reforms in central excise and customs duties is a chequered history. It has been a journey of changes. In 200304 the direct tax collections exceeded Rs. was made available to the public. Service Tax: The service sector has come to occupy a very important position in the nation's economy and over the years its potential to contribute to the revenue of the Union are being exploited fully. conducive to private participation in the infrastructure sector. which had been announced last year. since Its Inception in 1994. The tax rates have been rationalized and lowered as a result there is a spurt in revenue collection. telecom. The customs laws have been harmonized as per the WTO's requirements. railways. excise structure has almost stabilized now. The bill proposed setting up of the Communications Commission responsible for regulating both telecom and broadcasting sectors. The concept of fewer rates and minimum number of exemptions has acquired much greater acceptability than never before.

The new Electricity Act. 2003 . amongst other things. Operate and Transfer (BOT) road project finalized.LABOUR LEGISLATION telecom department was converted into a company Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited w.Model Concession Agreement for Build. forward looking legislation. to [405] .the Government endeavored to develop the sector through piecemeal legislations but failed to achieve aspirations of the lawmakers.f.the Indian Electricity. 1. which has come into force since mid June 2003 is a comprehensive. which were governing the electricity industry prior to new enactment. bypasses and spot improvements to taken up through the private sector or in collaboration with private sector. A comprehensive legislation would encourage the investment provided all aspects are properly taken care of.e. which seeks. were . Super national highways. The legislations.Major Ports Trusts Act amended to enable major ports to enter into joint ventures with minor ports.10. 2003 (the ―Act"). The Electricity Act. This resulted in a move towards the enactment of the Electricity Act. a comprehensive legislation became indispensable to catalyze the growth in this sector. 2003. Since the requirement of funds in power sector is enormous.In Pursuit of Power . 1910 (IE Act). 1998 (ERC Act).2000. Guidelines for private sector participation in transmission sector announced. The Electricity Act 2003 passed and Electricity Regulatory Commissions constituted. Ports . Power . Guidelines for Chartering of Foreign Flag Vessels issued. Restructuring of SEBs encouraged and fiscal benefits announced for new transmission and distribution systems. 1948 (―Supply Act‖) and the Electricity Regulatory Commission Act. National Policy on Hydro Development announced.Mega Power Project Policy and concessions announced. Major Ports launch massive programme of modernization. the Electricity (Supply) Act.Uptil 2003 . Roads .

The Act is seen as being a catalyst for bringing about much needed reforms in the power trading. Other peculiar problems like population. as in other developing countries. promote competition. In order to achieve the objectives of the electricity industry into generation. 13. transmission. water. enabling the optimal utilization of the energy resources of the country. illiteracy and unemployed obviously also pose questions regarding provisions of food. rationalize tariff and constitute Regulatory Commission. The Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act was enacted in 1974 and the Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act was passed by the Union of India in 1981. It introduces the concept of nondiscriminatory open access to transmission and distribution networks.LABOUR LEGISLATION adopt measures conducive to the development of the power sector. distribution and trading. The Act aims to bring forth significant changes in the industry structure by moving from a single buyer market to a multi buyer multi seller system. However. some recent developments indicate that the [406] . Environmental Protection . shelter and sanitation. The basic objective of he Act is to promote competition between the players and provide choice to all consumers.2 – LABOUR LEGISLATION IN THE CHANGING SCENARIO The protection of the interests of labour was long held as one of the important responsibilities of the state. the environmental problems are not confined to side effects of industrialization but reflect the inadequacy of resources to provide infrastructural facilities to prevent industrial pollution. essentially to give effect to the decisions taken at the International Conference on Human Environment at Stockholm in 1972 declaring Man's fundamental right to live in a pollution free atmosphere LESSON 5. This further mandates the unbundling of the SEBs.the legal issues In India.

LABOUR LEGISLATION Government should intervene to prevent the legitimate rights of consumers. which is described as the Magna Carta of the Indian worker. a living wage. ameliorates the moral and material conditions. the relics of all of which are still to be found in many backward countries. LABOUR LEGISLATION IN INDIA Labour legislation embodies all those measures 'that extend statutory recognition to the interests of labour. agricultural. of the working classes. Article 43. Like slave labour in ancient times. and social and cultural opportunities. as indicated by the rising number and variety of labour acts. to all workers. [407] . serf labour in medieval times and indentured labour in transitional periods. This rapid development of labour legislation is an integral part of the modern social organization. and employers from being denied by the militant might of organized labour. inter alia. conditions of work ensuring adecent standard of life. industrial or otherwise. There are about 150 Central and State laws in-force today. From a simple restraint on child labour in 1881. and labour legislation is the institution through which the State protects the interest. by suitable legislation or economic organization or in any other way. the general public. Labour legislation is regarded as ―a most dynamic institution. Article 42 requires the state to make provision for securing just and humane conditions of work and for maternity relief. work. labour legislation in India has become an important agency of the state for the regulation of working and living conditions of workers. But many a time there is a tendency to ignore the latter aspect. full enjoyment of leisure. to secure. The Constitution of India directs the state to provide work to every citizen who is willing and able to work. free labour is the direct result of growing industrialism and democracy. imposes upon the state the obligation.

Unless protected by the State. the more important of which are as follows: abour is very weak because of their poor economic status. increase the bargaining power of labour. ich lead to strikes and lock-outs. etc. Critical Assessment of Labour Laws The Volume of labour legislation in a country depends upon various factors. A large number of labour laws have been enacted in India during the last five decades showing that there is an [408] . establishments Legislation is necessary to protect labour against these risks. the state of public consciousness on labour matters. the broad economic and social policies pursued by the Government for developing resources. under hazardous conditions and at odd hours. diseases contracted by them during employment. the strength of trade union movement. such as its Constitution.LABOUR LEGISLATION Need for Labour Legislation Need for labour legislation in a country like India arises out of different circumstances. labour has always been a subject of exploitation at the hands of capitaIist-employers.

ill-lighted. there has been no uniformity in labour laws. The places where these industries are run are generally ill-ventialated. For example. brought within the purview of the labour laws. as yet. Federal. Similarly. led to duplication of effort in certain areas whereas in other areas wide gaps have been observed. in the unorganized sector of the economy. Working conditions are extremely unsatisfactory and they are called sweated trades. for a comprehensive social insurance plan. giving room for disparity in legislation. There is no rule regarding hours of attendance. viz. which we have already discussed in an earlier chapter Labour is a subject that has been put on three lists in the Constitution.LABOUR LEGISLATION increasing awareness and consciousness about interests of labour in the country. agricultural labour also suffers from a series of maladjustments and a number of problems. It is necessary that labour in the unorganised sector is protected through suitable legislation.. nothing has been done all these years to provide security to labour against employment and underemployment. However. etc. [409] . there is no provision. still much remains to be done in this area. most of . congested and dirty. Likewise. Like the labour in " the unorganised sector. housing which is an important need in all industrial areas has still not been brought on the statute book. work is monotonous and irksome. There is no security of lob. State and Concurrent. As a result.

Unless the inflexible labour laws are repealed.wide powers conferred on the executive branch of the State to intervene in Industrial relations and other subjects. . ibunals and concillators from the state apparatus. as has been done in China the success of the privatisation programmes cannot be ensured. A recent study on the subject suggests the following as 'an agenda for reforms' enforcement mechanism of the implementation mechanism by rights groups at national and international levels. simplicity as a social value.imperialist framework of industrial relations law.outdated.LABOUR LEGISLATION relations. Second National Commission on Labour [410] . . non-democratic. the outdated labour legislation need a drastic change in the new economic environment.the determination of disputes by the third parties. and hence suffer from following three inherent weaknesses: . Obviously. minimum labour standards and developing some basic postulates of sound labour relations.

2002. In the terms of reference there was a clear shift to market from labour. 1999. agent. Its principal terms of reference included the following: sector. ressal committee for organizations employing 20 or more persons. preferably under the Prime Minister‗s chairmanship. [411] . take into consideration the minimum level of labour protection and welfare measures and the basic institutional framework for ensuring the same.The Commission submitted its report on June 29. Major Recommendations -off retrenchment. legislation for ensuring a minimum level of protection to the workers in the unorganized sector. -power National Social Security Authority.LABOUR LEGISLATION The second national commission on Labour was set up on October 15.

may be discussed under three heads: 1. Struggle for national emancipation and the adoption of Indian Constitution in 1950. and 3. The factors which are specific to India. Colonial Rule The conditions of life and labour in the early periods of industrialization in India were extremely rigorous – hours of work were excessive. and the industrial labour [412] . in addition to those mentioned above.LABOUR LEGISLATION workers to ensure generations and protection of jobs. Forces influencing social and labour legislation in India The foregoing gives a broad outline of the general forces shaping the course of labour and social legislation worldwide. Maternity Benefit The maternity benefit legislation has been framed and administered by State Governments. Old and arachaic basis of the Indian Social system. But the legislationsuffers from certain defects also. It has also led to a tendency among some employers not to employ married women and ever discharge them on first signs of pregnancy. -scale evasion. The maternity benefit act has been of great vaslue to factory women workers in securing adequate rest and financial assistance. Influence of colonial rule 2.

The British colonial rule in this country was primarily interested in protecting the interests of the British capital invested in the Indian industries and not so much in protecting the workers. 1926 was enacted in response to the demands of the Indian trade union movement supported by its nationalist leaders. It is well known that the early factory and labour legislation in India. It is well-known that the beliefs. and came to be closely identified with the interests of the workers and peasants. resulted from the need for protecting the interests of the foreign industrialists and investors. laws had to be passed to protect them from excessive exploitation. breeding injustice and social [413] . customs and social practices. The older the society.LABOUR LEGISLATION drawn from the rural areas was severely exploited. where life and work became extremely intolerable. In the tea plantations of Assam and Bengal. Struggle for National Emancipation The struggle for national independence picked up socialist and communist influence generated by the Russian Revolution. originating in the social needs of a particular time. Old and Archaic Basis of the Indian Social System The old and archaic Indian social structure and practices have deeply influenced social legislation in India. The Indian Trade Unions Act. the more widespread are such practices. workers started deserting their place of work for their village homes. The organized industrial workers demanded improvement in their working conditions and consequently. become outdated and ineffective if allowed to continue even after they have outrun their use. The records of the debates in the Indian legislative assembly show how the nationalist members made tireless efforts to get protective labour legislations enacted. Industrial workers were organized into trade unions and the peasants were encouraged to form their own organizations.

Fundamental rights are justiceable. economic and political. shatter social harmony and lead to moral degradation be banished as quickly as possible. A modern welfare state which aims at creating a just social order has to act against such practices. The directive principles though not justiceable. race. trade or business. These are mainly incorporated in the fundamental rights and directive principles of state policy. on these grounds. be subject to any disability. National integration demands that such beliefs and practices that cause social conflict. place of birth or any of them. No citizen shall. [414] . restriction or condition with regard to access. caste. sex. (b) Right to Freedom: All citizens shall have the right to freedom of speech and expression and to form association or unions and to practice any profession or to carry on any occupation. a social order in which social. Indian Constitution and Social and Labour Legislatin The Indian Constitution contains important provisions which have a direct bearing on the course of social and labour legislation in the country. shall inform all institutions of national life. Fundamental rights (a) Right to equality: the state shall not discriminate against any citizen on grounds only of religion. liability. are fundamental in governance of the country and it is the duty of the state to apply these principles in making laws. These principles lay down that the state should strive to promote welfare of people by securing and protecting as effectively as it may.LABOUR LEGISLATION evils.

(C) that the health and strength of workers. shall inform all institutions of the national life. and the tender age of children arc not abused arid that citizens arc not forced by economic necessity to enter avocations unsuited to their age or strength. and (d) that children are given opportunities and facilities to develop in a healthy manner and in conditions of freedom and dignity and that childhood and youth are protected against exploitation and against moral and material abandonment. in particular direct its policy towards securing: (a) that the citizens men and women. equally have the right to an adequate means of livelihood. old age.LABOUR LEGISLATION (c ) Right against exploitation Traffic in human beings and beggar and other similar forms of forced labour are prohibited and any contravention of this provision shall be an offence punishable in accordance with law. (ii) The state shall. Directive Principles of State Policy The Directive Principles of State Policy are not enforceable by any court. men and women. sickness and disablement. make effective provision for securing the right to work. [415] . economic and political. within the limits of its economic capacity and development. and in other cases of undeserved want. (b) that there is equal pay for equal work for both men and women. to education and to public assistance in cases of unemployment. (iii) The state shall. but they are fundamental in the governance of the country and it is the duty of the state to apply them in making laws. The principles having a bearing on social and labour legislation are as follows: (i) The state shall strive to promote the welfare of the people by securing and protecting as effectively as it may a social order in which justice—social.

[Art. in particular. in particular. the state shall endeavour to bring about prohibition of the consumption except for medicinal purposes of intoxicating drinks and of drugs which are injurious to health. within a period of ten years from the commencement of this Constitution. industrial or otherwise.LABOUR LEGISLATION (iv) The state shall make provision for securing just and humane conditions of work and for maternity relief. [416] . establishments or other organisations engaged in any industry. (v) The state shall endeavour to secure by suitable legislation or economic organisation or in any other way. for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years. of the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes. but there are some others which are related more to social issues. and. (ii) The state shall promote with special care the educational and economic interests of the weaker sections of the people. These are as follows: (i) The state shall endeavour to provide. The above principles have a bearing on both labour and social legislation. to secure the participation of workers in the management of undertakings. (iii) The state shall regard the raising of the level of nutrition and the standard of living of its people and the improvement of public health as among its primary duties and. to all workers-agricultural. by suitable legislation or in any other way. and shall protect them from social injustice and all forms of exploitation. [ArtA5]. [ArtA2]. a living wage. work. conditions of work ensuring a decent standard of life and full enjoyment of leisure and social and cultural opportunities (vi) The state shall take steps.43AJ.

provident funds. employment and unemployment (iii) welfare of labour including conditions of work. Both parliament and legislature of a state have the power to make laws with respect to any of the matters enumerated in the 'Concurrent list. (v) Airways. (vi) Posts and Telegraphs (vii) Banking (viii) Insurance (ix) Industries controlled by the union government. namely.LABOUR LEGISLATION Distribution of Legislative Powers Article 246 and Seventh Schedule of the Constitution deal with distribution of legislative powers between central and state legislatures. employers liability. (ii) Railway. invalidity and old age pensions and maternity benefits (iv) factories. (xii) Industrial disputes concerning union employees (xiii) Inter-state migration and (xiv) Union pension. (xi) Regulation of labour and safety in a mines and oilfields. Parliament has the exclusive power to make laws with respect to any of the matters enumerated in the Union List. (iii) Shipping and Navigation. (x) Oilfields. 'Concurrent List'. The labour and social problems in the industries enumerated in this list naturally become subjects of enactment of laws by Parliament (b) The Concurrent List : the relevant subjects in this include (i) Trade unjions. blilers and electricity (v) vocational [417] . 'Union List'. workmen‗s compensation. In certain cases. (ii) social security and social insurance. The Seventh Schedule contains three lists for the purpose. The Union List: The subjects enumerated in the union list having a direct relevance to labour and social legislation include (i) Participation in international conferences. (iv) Ports. and 'State List'. industrial and labour disputes. The legislature of a state has the power to make laws with respect to any of the matters enumerated in the State list. Parliament can also make laws on a subject enumerated in the state list. associations and other bodies and implementing of decisions.

(ii) relief of the disabled and unemployable and (iii) Betting and gambling (iv) state pensions. and demanded enactment of laws to mitigate their hardships. infants and minors. in particular industries against the hazards of industrial process. adoption. (vii) vagrancy. reformatories. joint family and partition. No law made by the parliament is deemed invalid on the ground that it would have extra-territorial operation. were not in a position to raise an effective voice against their hardships and sufferings. social reformers and even few enlightened employers raised voice against the pitiable conditions of workers.LABOUR LEGISLATION and technical training of labor (vi) marriage and divorce. particularly children and women. The workers lacking organized strength. However. Borstal institutions. Principle of Protection The principles of protection suggests enactment of labour legislation to protect those workers who are not able to protect their interests on their own and also workers. a few philnthropes. Principle of Social Justice The principle of social justice implies establishment of equality in social relationships. The laws made by parliament may relate tot eh whole or any part of the territory of India and those made by the legislature of a state to the whole or any part of the state. nomadic and migratory tribes (viii) population control and family planning (ix) relief and rehabilitations and (x) charities and charitable institutions. © The State List: The more subjects include (i) prisons. History is replete with examples where certain groups of society or labour [418] . It aims at removing discrimination suffered by particular groups of labour.

in matters relating to wages and other terms and conditions of employment have continued till date. Although an element of humanitarianism is involved in this principle. The disabilities and discrimination suffered by slaves. mines acts and plantation labour acts. Principle of Welfare: Although the protective and social security laws have the effect of promoting labour welfare. with a view to providing certain welfare amenities to the workers. serfs. the laws enacted on this principle also aim at safeguarding the interests of the society against the adverse consequences of collusion or combination between them. bonded labour and others. Some of the protective labor alws such as the factories acts. As the relationships between the two groups have repercussions on the society. and often to their family members also. Discrimination against women workers when compared to their men counterpart. on the other. is well known. establishment of industrial peace and ensuring stable and satisfied work-force. also contain separate welfare provisions. special labour welfare or labour welfare fund laws have also been enacted. Principle of Regulation The principle of regulation generally seeks to regulate the relationships between the employers and their associations on the one hand. to improve the living conditions of workers and their family members.LABOUR LEGISLATION have been subjected to various sorts of disabilities as compared to other groups or workers in general. it has wider implications for promoting labour efficiency. and workers and their organizations. indentured and migrant labor. [419] . The main purpose behind the enactment of labour laws on this principle is to ensure the provision of certain basic amenities to workers at their place of work and also.

the pioneer in initiating a comprehensive social security plan mentioned five giants in the path of social progress namely. `want‗. [420] . but in view of its special connotation. Improvement of physical working conditions. peace. Lord William Beveridge. restrictions on strikes and lock-outs. it is desirable to keep it under a separate category. but also to their family members. `squalor‗ and `idleness‗. Principle of Economic Development Labour laws have also been enacted keeping in view the need for economic and industrial development of particular countries. In industrial societies. old age and death and others. formation of forums of workers‗ participation in management. `sickness‗.LABOUR LEGISLATION Principle of Social Security Generally speaking. certification of collective agreements and regulation of hours of work have direct or indirect bearing on the pace and extent of economic development. provision of machineries for settlement of industrial disputes. These areas are covered under different pieces of labour laws. income insecurity resulting from various contingencies of life such as disablement. The problem has become more acute in view of phenomenal growth of the permanent class of wage-earners. has become a serious problem. provision of social security benefits and welfare facilities. establishment of industrial. adopted by international organizations like ILO. the principle of social security may be considered to be a part of the principle of welfare. During such contingencies the income of the earners either stops altogether or is reduced substantially or becomes intermittent causing hardships not only to the earners. Principle of International Obligation This principle postulates enactment of labour laws with a view to giving effect to the provision of resolutions. `ignorance‗. prohibition of unfair labour practices.

1961. 1948. Laws laying down the minimum labour standards in the areas of hours of work. for the sake of convenience. 1986. the countries ratifying the resolutions or agreements are under the obligation to enforce them. the Payment of Wages Act. employment of children and women. safety. transport. the Child Labour (prohibition and Regulation) Act. 1948. mines. 1970. labour legislation can be classified under the following main categories. and Contract Labour regulation and Abolition) Act. In general. the Plantation Labour Act. Types of Labour Legislation The principles of labour legislation also give an idea of the various types of labour legislation.LABOUR LEGISLATION UN and similar other bodies. the Minimum wages Act. Shops and Establishments Acts passed by various states. in factories. However. the Mines Act. 1951. Protective Labour Legislation Under this category. also come under this category. in this category: Legislations laying down the method and manner of wage payment as well as minimum wages. 1952. The examples of Indian labour laws falling under this category are: the Factories Act. Other establishments are included. and so on. plantations. the rights and obligations of the [421] . shops and. are those legislations whose primary purpose is to protect minimum labour standards and improve working conditions. I936. Such laws also regulate the relationship between the workers and their trade unions. the Motor Transport Workers Act. Regulative Legislation Under this category fall those laws whose main objective is to regulate the relations between employers and employees and to provide for methods and manner of settling industrial disputes.

1952. all labour laws can be said to promoting the welfare of the workers and improving their living conditions. Though. In India. the Coal Mines Provident Fund and Miscellaneous Provisions Act. the important laws falling under this category are: the Workmen‗s Compensation Act. 1926. as well as their mutual relationships. 1947 and the Industrial Employment (Standing Orders) Act . 1946. A study of these laws [422] . the laws coming under this category have the specific aim of providing for improvements in living conditions of workers. their primary and original goal has been to protect the workers. The examples are : Mica Mines Labour Welfare Fund Act. 1976 and the welfare fund laws enacted by some of the states. the Industrial Disputes Act. Though such legislations may cover other classes of citizens also. Welfare Legislation Legislations falling under this category aim at promoting the general welfare of the workers and improve their living conditions. 1923. the Employees‗ Provident Funds and Miscellaenous Act. they also carry the term ―welfare‖ in their titles. the Central Maternity benefit Act.LABOUR LEGISLATION organizations of employers and workers. 1948. and though many of the protective labour laws also contain chapters on labour welfare. the Payment of Gratuity Act. Beedi Workers Welfare Fund Act. 1972. Iron Ore Mines Manganese Ore Mines and Chrome Ore Mines Labour Welfare Fund Act. Social Security Legislation The third category of labour legislation covers those labour laws which intend to provide to the workmen social security benefits during certain contingencies of life. 1948. 1961. the Employees‗ State Insurance Act. in a sense. Indian examples of such laws are: The Trade Unions Act. In India. 1946. 1976.

medical.V. educational and recreational facilities for the workers and also. Laws Relating to Specific Industries (i) Factories and workshops (ii) Mines and Minerals (iii) Plantations (iv) Transport. it is apt that all these laws be categorized under the head ―welfare legislation‖. (vi) Contract labour (vii) Construction works (viii) Working journalists [423] . to their family members covered under these laws and therefore. Giri Classified the labour legislation in India under the following broad heads: I.LABOUR LEGISLATION shows how all of them provide for the creation of a fund which is spent on improving the general welfare of workers including housing. (d) Inland water transport (e) Motor Transport (f) Air transport. namely (a) Railway (b) Seaman (c) Ports and docks. (v) Shops and Commercial establishments. Classification of Labour Legislation V. Laws Relating to Weaker Sections (i) Children (ii) Women II.

employment on dangerous machines and the like. regulate the minimum age of employment. To ensure the physical fitness of children. etc. the Plantation Labour Act.(b) Maternity benefits.. etc. (d) Provident Fund and Bonus schemes (iv) Bonus (v) Forced labour IV. The Factories Act. prescribe the maximum hours of work allowed to be assigned to children. and (ii) Industrial relations Laws Relating to Weaker Sections The important legislative provisions with a bearing on the employment of children relate to minimum age of employment. (c) Retrenchment benefits. the Factories Act provides that children up to the age of 18 will be employed on the production of a health certificate which will be valid for one year only. health certification. 1948. The Factories Act. the Mines Act. the Shops and Establishments Act of various States. Laws Retating to (i) Trade Unions. working hours. the Mines Act. Laws Relating to Specific Matters (i) Wages (ii) Indebtedness (iii) Social Security-(a) Workmen's compensation. the Employment of Children Act 1938. 1951. the Shops and Establishments Acts. [424] . the Plantation Labour Act. 1952.LABOUR LEGISLATION III..

provision for separate toilet facilities.LABOUR LEGISLATION The legislative provisions for the protection and welfare of women workers are largely inspired by the ILO Conventions on: (i) Maternity Protection. Laws Relating to Specific Industries Factories and Workshops: The Factories Act. etc.. 1958. The other legislative measure for women relate to certain restriction on the lifting of weight. (iii) Underground Work. Maternity benefits are provided under the Employees' State Insurance Act and the Maternity Benefit Act. creches. and (v) Discrimination (Employment and Occupation). with a view to reducing the friction [425] . etc. It regulates the conditions of the employment of young persons and females. holiday and leave. defines the rights and obligations of the employer and the workers in respect of recruitment. disciplinary action. and to prevent the employers from taking advantage of their weak bargaining power. discharge. the actual wording of the enactments in India in which the protection is written draws heavily on the Indian experience. which provides for the licensing. However. to ensure for them better conditions of work. and provides for safe and healthy working conditions inside the factories. 1948. is meant to protect the interests of workmen. 1961. (iv) Equal Remuneration. employment in hazardous occupations. registration and inspection of factories. 1946. The Industrial Employment (Standing) Orders Act. 1935.1919. rest rooms. (ii) Night Work. 1951. 1919.

railways. docks and plantations) employing 100 or more workers. railways.. such as the Indian Railways Act. power stations. limb or safety. the Indian Merchant Shipping Act. The Act. provides for compulsory registration of plantations. rubber and cinchona plantations. coffee. The Coal Mines (Conservation and Safety) Act. etc. regulates the conditions of work of plantation workers and provides for their welfare. 1961. 1930. The Act provides for the framing of standing orders in all industrial establishments (including factories. the Dock Workers (Regulation of Employment) Act. 1947. 1948. The Act. Other important laws in the field of mines and minerals are the Iron Ore Mines Labour Welfare Cess Act. Transport: The working and service conditions of the employees of different transports are regulated by various laws. workshops. Plantations: The Plantation Labour Act. 1952. 1973. amended in 1981. Mines and Minerals: According to the definition of the term "mine" under the Indian Mines (Amendment) Act n cast workings. the Indian Dock Labourers Act. 1934. connected with mining operations and near or in the mining area. 1984. slidings. tramways. Marking of Heavy [426] . and Coal Mines Provident Fund and Bonus Schemes Act. or any premises.1951. mines. which applies to tea. conveyors. Coal Mines Labour Fund Act. authorises the Central Government to take such measures as it deems proper or necessary for the maintenance of safety in coal mines or for the conservation of coal.LABOUR LEGISLATION between management and workers in industrial undertakings. The Mines Act prohibits the employment of persons in a mine when its owner fails to comply with the notice of the Mines Inspectorate for remedying any matter connected with a mine which is dangerous to human life. may be applied by State Governments to other plantations also. aerial ropeways.

the Employees State Insurance Act. 1939. and other places of public amusement. commercial establishments (including insurance and banking firms). the actres. hours of work. and Motor Transport Workers Act. rest intervals. and to every contractor who employs not less than 20 workers. 1923. and in buildings owned or occupied by establishments under the Central Government The Act applies to every establishment which employs 20 or more workmen. 1948 . spread over. Construction Labour: To a limited extent. 1970. and Standing Instructions relating to casual labour applicable to the employing agencies apply to construction labour as well. limestone. The Contract Labour (Regulations and Abolition Act.LABOUR LEGISLATION Packages Act. In the Central sphere contract labour has been prohibited for certain specified operations in coal. iron ore. the Workmen's Compensation Act. the Contract Labour (Abolition and Regulation) Act. cinemas. Shops and Commercial Establishments: State Acts on shops and establishments broadly cover wage earners employed in shops. dolomite and manganese mines. 1961. Contract Labour: Contract labour is generally employed for casual. been noticed that these legislative enactments and standing orders do not cover safety at work and social security. It has however. The Acts contain provisions related 10 opening and closing hours. restaurants. Motor Vehicles Act. overtime rates and weekly holidays. The Act is implemented both by the Centre and States. seeks to abolish the contract labour system in perennial operations and regulates it where the system cannot be abolished. [427] .1948. 1970. the Minimum Wages Act. seasonal or irregular work. 1951.

the provisions of the Industrial Disputes Act with certain modifications have been applied to working journalists. which include employment in any women. has in effect accorded recognition to this view. dal mill. Sometimes it represented the desire of the employer to share with his workers the suplus generated by common endeavour and enterprise. and the Minimum Wages Act. oil mill as well as employment under any local authority. [428] . bonus was regarded as an ex-gratia payment made by the employer to his workers to provide a stimulus for extra effort by them in the production process. later. carpet-making or shawlweaving establishment. 1955. 1965. The Payment of Wages Act ensures that industrial workers receive payment of their wages at regular intervals and that no unauthorised deductions are made from their wages. Laws Relating to specific Matters Wages: The two important enactments for wages are the Payment of Wages Act. 19-36. 1948. regulates the conditions of service of working journalists and other persons employed in newspaper establishments. Bonus: In the past. flour mill. However. By a specific provision of this Act. rice min. .LABOUR LEGISLATION Working Journalists: The Working Journalists and Other Newspaper Employees (Conditions of Service) and Miscellaneous Provision~ Act. by imposing a statutory liability upon the employer to pay bonus LO the employees. bonus began to be looked upon as a "deferred wage" and the Payment of Bonus Act. The Minimum Wages Act empowers the appropriate Government to fix the minimum rate of wages payable to workers employed in an scheduled employments.

1926. 1947. The various matters connected with industrial disputes are dealt with by the Industrial Disputes Act. The main objects are: To secure industrial peace by preventing and settling disputes and to ameliorate the conditions of workmen in industry. It provides for the appointment of various concili1tions authorities. Members of bonafide registered trade unions have been granted protection against various civil and criminal liabilities which they are likely to incur in promoting and safeguarding their legitimate interests. More information is provided in the chapter on Trade Unions. and to every other establishment in which 20 or more persons are employed on any day during an accounting year. The [429] . The Act specifies all those cases when a strike or a lock-out shall be illegal and lays down the conditions necessary for the validity of lay-off and retrenchment of workers. 2. Bonded Labour: The bonded labour system has been abolished all over the country by the Bonded Labour System Abolition Act.500 per month. It specifies the objects on which a trade union may spend its general funds and provides for the constitution of a separate fund' for political purposes. Laws Relating to Trade Unions and Industrial Relations The law relating to the registration of trade unions and certain other matters is contained in the Trade Unions Act.LABOUR LEGISLATION The Payment of Bonus Act applies to every factory as defined in the Factories Act. Under the Act. The Act lays down the procedure for the registration of trade unions and defines very clearly their rights and liabilities. every bonded labourer stands freed and discharged from any obligation to render any bonded labour. Bonus is payable to employees drawing upto Rs. 1976.

Bonus Act 1965 III Regulation of workers organizations : Trade union Act 1926 IV Regulation of social security : [430] . Payment of wages Act 1931 2. administrators. the procedure of conciliation for the validity of settlements and awards have also been laid down by the Act. team leaders. development. compensation. executives. training. see the chapter on Industrial Relations. programmers. These personnel consist of engineers. software developers. The recruitment. LESSION 5. integration.3 LABOUR LEGISLATION IN KNOWLEDGE BASED ORGANISATIONS NEED FOR LABOUR LEGISLATION: The information and communication Technology has brought lakhs of people in the bond of employment relationship. A glance on actual labour legislation in India proves that the following labour legislation are applicable to these personnel: I Regulation of working conditions: Factories Act 1948 II Regulation of compensation : 1. consultants and out sourcers. minimum wages Act 1948 3. maintenance of relations and provision of employment and social security attract the need for labour legislation.LABOUR LEGISLATION rights and powers of those authorities. selection. For details.

Maternity Benefit Act 1961 V Regulation of Industrial relations: 1. 1. Industrial Employment (standing order Act) 1946 REGULATION 0F WORKING CONDITIONS: The Factories Act. is to secure of health. It extends to the whole of India. Section 116 provides that. leave and other benefits for workers employed in factories. unless otherwise provided. welfare. In other words. proper working hours. with a view to removing a number of defects. Employees provident Fund Act 1952 4. this Act also applies to factories belonging to the Central or any State Government.LABOUR LEGISLATION 1. the Act is enacted primarily with the object to regulate the conditions of work in manufacturing establishments coming within the definition of the term ‗factory‗ as used in the Act. Object of the Act The object of this Act. 1948. 1949. safety. the Act of 1948 not only consolidates but also amends the law regulating labour in Factories. it was enacted. Employees state insurance Act 1948 3. revealed in the working of the Act of 1934. Workmen‗s compensation Act 1923 2. Payment of Grauity Act 1972 5. [431] . came into force on 1st April. Industrial Disputes Act 1947 2.

. pumps. floor.LABOUR LEGISLATION 2.. references to time of day. hoists and lifts lifting machines. extent and commencement of the Act . employment of young persons on dangerous machines. revolving machinery. etc. etc. precaution in case of fire. artificial humidification. self-acting machines. protection of eyes. precaution against dangerous fumes. means of access. It includes matters such as fencing of machinery. explosive or inflammable dust. and notice by occupier (sections 1 to 7). work on or near machinery in motion. safety of buildings and machinery. General Scheme of the Act The Act is divided into 11 Chapters and contains one Schedule. over-crowding. gas. approval of licensing and registration of factories. (Sections 21 to 41). precaution against dangerous fumes. their powers certifying Surgeons (Sections 8 to 10). viz. Ventilation. excessive weights. Chapter I deals with ‗Preliminary Information‗ like the title. pits. power to require specification of defective parts or tests of stability. prohibition of employment of women and children near cotton-openers. drinking water. Inspectors.. Chapter IV deals with the ‗safety of workers‗ in factory. dust and fume. explosive or inflammable dust. lighting. maintenance of buildings. stairs. power to declare different departments to the separate factories or two or more factories to be single factory. disposal of wastes and effluents. pressure plants. lartrines and urinals and spittoons (Sections 11 to 20). gas. striking gear and devices for cutting off power. and safety officers. etc.. etc. Chapter III deals with the ‗health of the workers‗ with reference to such matters as cleanliness. Chapter II deals with the ‗Inspecting Staff‗. [432] .

Chapter VI deals with ‗working hours of adults‗ and contains Sections 51 to 66. daily hours. welfare officers. etc. mode of recovery of unpaid wages. spread over. working hours for children. notice of certain accidents. intervals for rest. [433] . (Sections 51 to 66). notice of certain diseases. wages during leave period. register of child workers. etc (Sections 78-84). prohibition or overlapping shifts. shelters. power to require medical examinations. and restrictions on the disclosure of information (Sections 107 to 120). dangerous operations. restriction on double employment. Chapter VII provides for various restrictions/limitations on employment of young persons and deals with other matters like certificate of fitness. (Sections 85 to 91A). etc. working hours for children. etc. power to direct enquiry into cases of accident or disease. display and service of notices. first – aid appliances. crèches. facilities for storing and drying clothing. night shift. It covers issues like weekly hours. weekly holidays. compensatory holidays.LABOUR LEGISLATION Chapter V relates to ‗welfare of workers‗ and provides for washing facilities. facilities for sitting. Chapter IX deals with special provisions relating to power to apply the Act to certain premises. returns. etc. publication of rules. and lunch-rooms. (Sections 42 to 50). Chapter X deals with ‗ supplemental issues‗ like appeals. Chapter VIII deals with ‗annual leave and wages‗ and includes annual leave with wages. obligations of workers. protection to persons acting under the Act. power to exempt public institutions. payment in advance in certain cases. rest-rooms. wages for extra work. (Sections 67 to 77). notice of periods of work for adults workers. canteens.

REGULATION OF WAGES. The State Government is empowered to extend the application of [434] . The Act seeks to remedy the evils in wage payment: (a) ensuring regularity of payment: (b) ensuring payment in legal tender. (2) Scope and Applicability of the Act (Section 1) The Act is applicable to the whole of India and to persons employed in industry/factory. 1962. (dissatisfied) restricting employers. (c) preventing arbitrary deductions. any railway or by a person fulfilling a contract with a Railway administration. 1936. It came into force from 28th March. It was amended twice in 1937. 1967. 1937. right to impose fines. and (iv) the payment was usually irregular and sometimes there was non-payment altogether. (iii) a large number of arbitrary deductions were made out of the wages paid to the workers. 1940. Legislation Relating to Factories. such as (i) the employers determined the mode and manner of wage payment as they liked.SALARY AND BONUS: THE PAYMENT OF WAGES ACT (1) Objective of the Act Prior to the enactment of this Act. and (e) providing remedy to the workers. (ii) even when paid in cash. 1964. wages were paid in illegal tender and in the from of depreciated currency. the employees/workers suffered many evils the ands of the employers. 1982 with a view to make it more comprehensive. Consequently the Payment of Wages Act was passed on 23rd Apirl. 1957.LABOUR LEGISLATION It also includes one Schedule which gives the List of Notifiable Diseases. 1976. These grave evils attracted the attention of Royal Commission on Labour which recommended for a suitable legislation to check these evils.

the following persons are also responsible for the payment of wages: (a) a person named as a manager in a factory: (b) in industrial establishments. Time for Wages Payment (Section 5) [435] . the person nominated by the railway administration in this behalf for the local area concerned. the liability of the principal employer is restricted to the payment of wages. and (c) upon railways. The workers employed therein are not employee of management. Its is not applicable to those employees getting one thousand six hundred rupees or more per month.LABOUR LEGISLATION the whole or part of the Act to payment of wages to any class of persons employed in any industrial establishment. Such period shall not exceed one month. It was held that the responsibility to provide and maintain a canteen under Factories Act does not make management as the owner of the canteen for all purpose. the person who is responsible to the employer for the supervision and control of establishment. by virtue of Contract Labour Act 1970. According to the Section 1(6) of the Act. Pappachan4. if they are not paid by the Contractor. However. V. Fixation of Wage Period (Section 4) The person responsible for the payment of wages shall fix the wage periods in respect of which wages shall be payable. to a contractor. Responsibility for Payment of Wages (Section -3) Every employer is responsible for the payment of wages to persons employed by him. In case of persons employed. In Cominco Binani Link Ltd. the appellant company was maintaining a canteen for its employees.. It entrusted the task of running the canteen. by issue of three months‗ notice of its intention to do so: and a notification of the extension in the Official Gazette.

(2) Where the employment of any person is terminated by or on behalf of the employer. the wages earned by him shall be paid before the expiry of the second working day from the respondents day on which his employment is terminated.LABOUR LEGISLATION Following rules have been laid down regarding the time of payment of wages. However the Payment of Wages Act (Amended) 1976 provides that the employer. Mode of Payment of wages (Section-6) The Act requires that all wages shall be paid in current coin or currency notes or in both. (3) All payments must be paid on a working day. Authorised Deduction from Wage Section 7 to 13 of the Act deal with permissible and non-permissible deductions which can be made from the wages of the worker. (1) (a) In a railway. the balance of wages found due on completion of the final taonnage account of the ship or wages loaded or unloaded. after obtaining a written authorization of the employee. wharf or a mine. Provided that in the case of persons who are employed on a dock. after the last day of the wage period. [436] . can pay his wages either by cheque or by crediting his wages in bank account. wages must be paid before the expiry of the seventh day after the last day of the wage period in respect of which the wages are payable. (b) In all other cases. jetty. wages must be paid before the expiry of the tenth day. factory or industrial establishment in which less than one thousand persons are employed. shall be paid before the expiry of the seventh day of such completion. shall be paid before the expiry of the ship or wagons loaded or unloaded.

A deduction shall not be made until the employed person has been given an opportunity of showing cause against the deduction. The wages of an employed person shall be paid to him without deductions of any kind except those which are authorized by or under this Act. (c) Deductions for Damager or Loss: Deductions from wages are permitted for damage or loss of goods expressly entrusted to the employed person for custody.LABOUR LEGISLATION Meaning of Authorized Deductions As per Section -7(i) any loss of wages resulting from the imposition of the penalties of following nature are termed as authorized deductions:(i) the with/holding of increment or promotion including the stoppage of increment at an efficiency bar. All deductions and realisation thereof must be recorded in a register. (d) Deductions for Recovery of Advances and Overpayment of Wages: [437] . he following deductions are permitted: (a) Fines: Deductions by way of the fine from the wages of an employed person shall be made only in accordance with the provisions of the Act. Every payment made by an employed person t his employer or agent is deemed to be a deduction. or for loss of money which he is required to account. or (iii) suspension. A deduction shall not exceed the amount of damage or loss caused to the employer. (ii) the demotion to a lower post time scale or to a lower stage in scale. where such loss is directly attributable to his neglect of default.

after resignation of the employee adjusted the loan amount due from the employee side. The labour court ordered the employer to do so. It was held that after resignation employee ceases to be in the employment and therefore the resignation will be governed by the contract Act.Madurai and others an employee resigned from service.The employer.L. (f) Orders of court: In any deduction is directed by the court(e. shall be made from the first payment of wages in respect of a complete wage – period. Therefore employer is at no fault in adjusting due from employee. The employer refused to do so the union made an application to the labour court requesting the court to order the employer to accept their request. (g) Provident Fund: [438] . a representative union requested the employer to collect levies from the employee and remit the same to it. in execution of a decree against the employed person)it must be done.Abhyankar.N. (e) Deductions for Income-tax payable by the Employed Person: Deductions can be made for income-tax payable by an employed person. he took a house building loan .V. In Municipal Corporation V. and (b) recovery of advances of wage not already earned shall be subject to rules made by the State Government. but no recovery shall be made of such advances given for traveling expenses. When the employee appeal against the decision of employer.LABOUR LEGISLATION Deductions are permitted for recovery of advances or for adjustments of over payment of wages: (a) Recovery of advance of money given before the employment began.g..Labour Court. In Manager. While in service.Rajapalayan Mills Ltd.

(j) Acceptance of Counterfeit base coin: Deductions for recovery of losses sustained by a railway administration on account of acceptance by the employed person of counterfeit or base coins or multilated of forged currency notes. (k) Deductions for Recovery of Losses on Account of Failure to Invoice or to Collect: Deductions for recovery of losses sustained by a railway administration on account of the failure of the employed person to invoice. to collect or to account for the appropriate charges due to that administration whether in respect of fares. To bills. [439] . (i) Deductions for House Accommodation: Deductions made for house accommodation supplied by the employer or by the government or any housing board set up under any law in force.LABOUR LEGISLATION deduction may be made of the contributions payable by the employed person to the provident fund. (l) Deductions for Incorrect Rebates or Refunds: Deductions for recovery of losses sustained by a railway administration on account of any rebates or refunds incorrectly granted by the employed person where such loss in directly attributable to his neglect or default. wharfage or carnage or in respect of sale of food in catering establishment or in respect of sale of commodities in grain shops or otherwise. (h) Deductions for payment to Co-operative Societies and Insurance Schemes: Deductions may be made for payments to co-operative societies or to a scheme of insurance maintained. demurrage. freight.

where such damage or loss is not directly attributable to his neglect or default. Examples are: (1) When an employer deducts from the wages of an employed person any amount of damage to. [440] . or loss of goods expressly entrusted to him for custody or for loss of money for which he is required to account. (4) Deductions made for payment of any premium to life Insurance policy without the written authorization of the employed person. for contribution to the National Defence Fund or any Defence Savings Scheme. or (ii) the president or secretary of the registered trade union of which the employed person is a member. (2) Deductions made with the authorization of the person employed for payment of any premium as his life insurance policy.LABOUR LEGISLATION (m) Other Deductions: (1) Deductions made with the written authorization of : (i) the employed person. Such deduction would constitute illegal deductions. or for being deposited in the Post Office Savings Bank. (3) Deductions made from the wages of person employed for recovery of losses sustained by railway administration on account of any rebates or refunds incorrectly granted by the employed person where such loss is not directly attributable to the neglect or default of an employed person. (2) Where deductions are made from the wages of the person employed for tools or raw materials supplied to him required for the purpose of employment. Illegal Deductions Any deductions other than those authorized under Section 7 to 13 of the Act would constitute illegal deductions. or for the purchase of the securities of the Government of India.

1961. 1948.LABOUR LEGISLATION (5) Where deductions wholly or partly made for payment to co-operative societies exceed 75% of the wages and in any other case exceed 50% of the wages. and by the State Governments for other employments covered by the Schedule of the Act.1990 and 1993. medical requirements and amenities. This minimum wages must provide not merely for the bare subsistence life but also for the preservation of the efficiency of the worker. THE MINIMUM WAGES ACT. and carried on by or under the authority of the Central Government. It extends to the whole of India. oil field or major port. (A) Applicability of the Act The Act is called the Minimum Wages Act. Under it .1957. In other words. and was amended in 1954. by a railway administration or in relation to a mine.1982. 1948. the objects is to prevent exploitation of the workers and for this purpose it aims at fixation of minimum rates of wages which the employer must pay. 1948 Objective of the Act The object of the Act is to secure the welfare of the workers in a competitive market by providing for a minimum rates of wages in certain employments.1983. and so it must provide for some measure of education. It came into force from 15th March.1987. the Central Government is empowered to fix minimum wages for employments detailed in Schedule I of the Act. such excess deduction would constitute illegal deduction. The capacity of the employer to pay is not a consideration in fixing wages. or any corporation established by a Central Act. [441] . The appropriate government is empowered to extend the act to any category of employment.

that same has been reiterated at the 36th Session of Labour Minister‗s conference in May 1987. Further the appropriate government can revise or review the minimum rates of wages at such intervals as it deems fit but not exceeding five years. employed in a scheduled employment is pending before an industrial tribunal or national tribunal under the I. (iv) over – time work done by employees. However the Lobour Minister‗s conference in July 1980 recommended that the revision of minimum wages should be made within two year or on a rise of 50 points in the consumer price index whichever is earlier. (iii) employees employed on piece-work for the purpose of such employees a minimum rate of wages on a time-work basis known as a ―guaranteed time-rate‖.LABOUR LEGISLATION Fixation and Revision of Minimum Rates of Wages (Section3) The act empowers the appropriate government to fix the minimum wages for the employments specified in the I and II parts of the schedule of the act. Act. known as ―over –time rate‖. 1947.D. But the appropriate government in respect of employment specified in the part II of the schedule can fix such rates for a part of state or any specified class or classes of such employment in the whole of State or part thereof. Under sub-Section (2) the minimum rates of wages may be fixed by the government for : (i) a minimum rate of wage for time work known as ―minimum time wage‖. (ii) a piece rate of wage for piece work known as ―minimum piece rate‖. [442] . The minimum rates of wages shall not be applicable in the following cases: (i) where in respect of an industrial dispute relating to the rate of wages payable to employees.

Such notifications. the cost of living allowance and the cash value of the concessions. the appropriate government shall either: (a) appoint as many committees and sub-committees as it considers necessary to hold enquiries and advise it in respect of such fixation or revision. shall come into force on the expiry of three months from the date of issue. or (b) by notification in the Official Gazette publish its proposals for the information of persons likely to be affected thereby and specify a date not less than two months from the date of the notification. if any. on which the proposals will be taken into considerations. After considering the advice of the said committee or the representations. (ii) a basic rate of wages with or without a cost living allowance and the cash value of the respondents concessions in respect of essential commodities supplied at concessional rates. [443] . the appropriate government will by notification in the Gazette fix revise the minimum rates of wages. as the case may be.LABOUR LEGISLATION Minimum Rates of Wages (Section 4) The minimum rate of wages fixed or revised may consist of the following :(i) a basic rate of wages to be adjusted in accordance with the variations in the cost of living index number (known as ― cost of living allowance‖). Procedure of Fixation and Revision of Minimum Rates of Wages (Section 5) In fixing minimum rates of wages in respect of any scheduled employment for the first time under this Act or in revising minimum rates of wages so fixed. or (iii) an all-inclusive rate allowing for the basic rate. unless otherwise provided.

17 the power of the government to prescribe minimum rates of wages or to revise them does not include power to vary other terms of contract. In a scheduled employment where minimum rate of wages have been fixed. the appropriate government may: (a) fix the number of hours which shall constitute a normal working day inclusive of one or more specified intervals. or to any specified class of employees and for payment of remuneration in respect of such days of rest. Therefore the sub Section (1) does not violate Article 14 of the Constitution16 the fixation of minimum wages is contingent on prevailing economic conditions. The number of hours which shall constitute a normal working day shall be nine hours in the case of adults and four and half hours in the case of children. nature of work to be performed and the conditions under which the work is to be carried out. the cost of living. Where notification is issued by the government authorizing the employer to deduct the sum mentioned in the notification gives only an option to the employer and does not impose an obligation on him.LABOUR LEGISLATION The power conferred upon the appropriate government under Section5(1) is neither arbitrary nor unguided. (b) provide for a day of rest in every period of seven days which shall be allowed to all employees. Wages for Over-time (Section14) [444] . and (c) provide for payment for work on a day of rest at a rate not less than the overtime rate. the rest day shall ordinarily be Sunday but the employer can fix any other day of the week as rest day for an employee.18 Fixing Hours of Work (Section 13) In regard to any scheduled employment minimum rates of wages in respect of which have been fixed under the Act.

An employee entitled to one-time must be one who is getting wages as prescribed by the act. It is not an ex-gratia payment but the Statutory right of the employee. he shall be entitled to over-time wages.A. It is usually intended as a stimulus but may also express a desire on the part of the employer to share with the employees the fruits of their joint enterprise. THE PAYMENT OF BONUS ACT 1965 The ‗Bonus‗ implies something paid as a gesture of goodwill. The over-time wages shall be hair so worked in excess at the rate fixed under this act. In Y.Mamarde V. A question arose whether the phrase ―double the ordinary rate‖ means double the remuneration which the worker is getting or double rate of minimum wages fixed for him.Authority under minimum wages20 Act. out of the profits earned by the employers. It was held by the court that the minimum wages for the over-time means the wages the worker is actually getting and one fixed under the minimum wages.LABOUR LEGISLATION Where an employee in any scheduled employment works for more than prescribed hours of work. The Encyclopaedia Britannica has defined Bonus as ―an award in cash or its equivalent by an employer to an employee. The formula stated that: ―The surplus distributed to the workers should be determined by debiting against gross profit the following prior charge: (i) provision for depreciation (ii) reserve [445] . The formula given by labour Appellate tribunal1 known as full Bench formula has revolutionized the concept of bonus in the country. for accomplishment other than that paid for by regular wages. such accomplishment being considered desirable and perhaps implied. This formula evolved certain principles for bonus payment in it‗s a award on the disput in the textile industry. though not required by the contract of employment.‖ Thus the bonus is payment made to the employees. over and above the remuneration that they get..

1980. (iv) contribution of labour of the profits of industry. It enumerated that the following factors be taken into account while deciding the quantum of bonus: (i) the extent of available surplus. and (vii) the financial stability of the employer.1977.1978. the payment of Bonus Act was enacted. (vi) the needs of the industry itself for expansion. [446] .‖ Later on Supreme Court too endorsed the full bench formula (L. (v) the needs of shareholders and the necessity of attracting capital to industry.1975. the commission was asked to consider the question of payment of bonus based on profit to the employees by the employer. (ii) the gap between the wages received and the minimum living wage. and (iv) return on the working capital of a lower rate than return on paid up capital. 1964 the government implemented the recommendations of the commission with certain changes.LABOUR LEGISLATION for rehabilitation (iii) return of 6% on the paid up share capital. The main objectives of the act are as under: (a) to impose statutory obligation on the employer of every establishment defined in act to pay bonus to all eligible employees working in the establishments. The Bonus Act is the outcome of the recommendation made by the tripartite commission which was set up by the Government of India way back in 1961.1976. The act was amended in 1968. On September 2. What was available after deduction was called ―available surplus‖ and the workmen were to be given a reasonable share of it by way of bonus for the year.1985 and 1995. 1965.T FORMULA).1969.A. The concept of bonus. Subsequently it was accepted by the parliament and accordingly in the year 1965. Accordingly the payment of Bonus Ordinance 1965 was promulgated on May 26. (iii) the extent of welfare work undertaken by the employers. based on this formula developed there after as an implied term of contract of service.

. the word Indian was deleted in the respondents amended Act of 1964. 1926 was passed in 1926 under the title of the Indian Trade Unions Act and was brought into operation from 1st June. However all banks are covered under the act. which came into force from 1st April.B. of India and departmentally managed undertakings. However subsequent reduction of strength in the number of employees would not make it inapplicable to an establishment.I. The appropriate government by notification in the official gazette can make the provisions of the act applicable to any class of establishments specified therein.. 1927. including factories. by notification in the Official Gazette by the Central Government. subsequently.T.C. 1926 The present Trade Unions Act. (c) to provide for payment of minimum and maximum bonus and linking the payment of bonus with the scheme of ―set off‖ and ―set on ― and (d) to provide machinery for enforcement of bonus. Sub-section(3) of the section 1 provides that the Act shall be applicable to these establishments employing 20 or more workers employed on any day during an accounting year.1960 and 1962. then the act cannot be enforced. 1965.LABOUR LEGISLATION (b) to outline the principles of payment of bonus according to prescribed formula. The Act was amend in 1047. However in case of factories if the number of employees fall below ten. (A) Scope and Application The act extends to whole of India. a [447] . L. It is also not applicable to non profit making institutions like R. The act does not apply to public enterprises except those operating in completion with similar other private undertakings. THE TRADE UNIONS ACT.

(ii) There is at present no machinery for resolution of trade union disputes arising from inter-union and intra-union rivalries. (A) Objects of the Act The Act was enacted with the object of providing for the registration of trade unions and verification of the membership of trade unions registered so that they may acquire a legal and corporate status. the Act attempts to define the law relating to the registered trade unions. for the registration of trade unions. and (c) fixing the rights and liabilities of registered trade unions. The amendments to the Act in 1982 have been made with a view to achieve the following objectives: (i) To reduce multiplicity of unions. Therefore. it is called the Trade Unions (Amendment) Act. makes provisions for. whichever is less. (b) laying down the obligations of a registered trade union. (a) conditions governing the registration of trade unions. In certain respects. the existing provision of enabling any seven workmen to form a trade union has been changed by providing for a minimum qualifying membership of 10% of workmen (subject to a minimum of ten) employed in an industry or an establishment where the trade union is proposed to function. ―trade union dispute‖ has [448] .LABOUR LEGISLATION comprehensive Trade Unions(Amendment) Act was passed in 1982. 1982. The Act. capable of enjoying the rights and discharging liabilities like a natural person. it is treated as an artificial person in the eyes of law. or 100 workmen. As soon as a trade union is registered. apart from the necessary provisions for administration and penalties.

Now this limit is to be enhanced to 75% so as to promote the development of internal leadership. The Act applies not only to the unions of workers but also to the associations of employers. The word ―except the State of Jammu & Kashmir‖ has been omitted by the amended Act of 1970 with effect from 1st September. would be eligible for re-registration only after the expiry of a period of 6 months from the date of cancellation of registration. shall be persons actually engaged or employed in an industry with which the trade union is connected. The provision has also made that a trade union whose certificate of registration has been cancelled. (B) Applicability of the Act The Act extends to the whole of India. 50% of the office-bearers in the executive of a registered trade union. (v) To empower the Registrar of Trade Unions to verify the membership of registered trade unions and connected matters and report. the matter to the State and the Central Governments.LABOUR LEGISLATION been defined afresh to make provision for resolving such disputes through voluntary arbitration. (iii) The Act of 1026 did not prescribe any time limit for registration of trade unions. (iv) Under the existing provisions of the Act. Now. a provision has been made for a period of 60 days for the registration of trade unions by the Registrar. after all the formalities have been completed by the trade unions. subject to certain conditions being fulfilled by the trade union. [449] . or by empowering the appropriate government and the parties to the dispute to refer it to the Registrar of Trade Unions for adjudication. 1971.

mode of registration (Sec.4).3). power to call for further particulars and alteration of name (Sec.13). (c) General Scheme of the Act The Act is divided into 33 sections and contains 5 chapters. For the purpose of this Act. The respective Registrars of Trade Unions are appointed both by the Central and the State Governments. and the non-applicability of certain Acts to the registered trade unions (Sec. 1912.10).6). the Central Government handles the cases of only those unions whose objectives are not confined to one state. viz. provisions to be contained in the rules of a trade union (Sec. issue of certificate of registration (Sec. (ii) the Co-operative Societies Act..14). Chapter II discusses the various aspects of registration of trade unions. submission of application for registration (Sec. so as to obviate delays in the disposal of applications for registration of trade unions. as it thinks fit.5). making of appeals (Sec. who may exercise the respondents powers and functions of the Registrars. 1860. 1 and 2). [450] . Chapter I deals with the title. All other types unions are the concern of State Governments. the registration of any such union under any such Act is null and void. extent and commencement of the Act.9).8). cancellation of registration (Sec. appointment of Registrars (Sec. (i) the Societies Registration Act. but it is administered and enforced mostly by the State Governments. situation of the registered trade unions (Sec.LABOUR LEGISLATION Certain Acts do not apply to a registered trade union. namely. They can also appoint additional or Deputy Registrars. 1956. and (iii) The Companies Act. The Act is a Central legislation.11). along with important definitions (Secs.7). registration (Sec.

18). dissolution of trade unions (Sec.16). 28). 25). prior to 1923 it was almost an impossibility on the part of an injured workman to recover damage of compensation for any injury sustained by him in the ordinary course of his employment. and filing of returns by trade unions (Sec. 1923 The beginning of social security in India was effected with the passing of the Workmen‗s Compensation Act in 1923. 21A). change of name of trade unions (Sec. REGULATION OF SOCIAL SECURITY: THE WORKMEN’S COMPENSATION ACT. enforceability of agreements (Sec. supplying false information regarding trade unions (Sec.17). 24). 30). effects of change of name and amalgamation (Sec. Chapter IV deals with power to make regulations (Sec. criminal conspiracy in trade unions (Sec. i. Chapter V deals with the consequence of failure to submit Returns (Sec.19). 21). immunity from civil suit (Sec. there were rare occasions when the employer was liable for the same under the common law for his own personal negligence. 23).LABOUR LEGISLATION Chapter III describes the rights and liabilities of registered trade unions. 31).disqualification of office-bearers of trade unions. Of course. and publication of regulations (Sec. and cognizance of offences (Sec. 29). The [451] . 32). amalgamation of trade unions (Sec. notice of change of name or amalgamation of trade unions (Sec. proportion of officers to be connected with the industry (Sec. (Sec. it deals with the objects for which general funds may be spent (Sec. 33). 27). right of inspecting books of trade unions (Sec..15). 22). 26).e. the constitution of a separate fund for political purposes (Sec.

in rare cases. 1924. subsequently. cinemas. and employees covered under the provisions of [452] . the government made proposals for the grant of compensation and circulated them for opinion. and other hazardous occupations and employments specified in Schedule II to the Act. mines. the Workmen‗s Compensation Act was passed in March 1923 and was put into force on July 1. plantations. circus. catching or training of wild elephants. the state governments are empowered to extend the scope of the Act to any class of persons whose occupations are considered hazardous after giving three months‗ notice in the official gazette. loading and unloading work on a ship. 1885. maintenance and repairs of roads and bridges. however. there were a number of amendments in the Workmen‗s Compensation Act. electricity generation. otherwise than in a clerical capacity. claim damages under the Indian Fatal Accidents Act. if the accident was due to the wrongful act. construction. does not apply to members serving in the Armed Forces of Indian Union. In 1921. factories. The Act. in railways.LABOUR LEGISLATION dependants of a deceased workman could. The scheme of the Acts is not to compensate the workman in lieu of wages but to pay compensation for the injury caused. mechanically propelled vehicles. neglect or fault of the person who caused the death. Applicability The Act extends to the whole of India and applies to any person who is employed. Object of the Act The object of the Act is to impose an obligation upon employers to pay compensation to workers for accidents arising out of and in the course of employment. Under SubSection (3) of Section 2 of the Act. The proposals received general support and as a result.

a person should be employed. he should be employed for the purposes of the employer‗s trade or business.LABOUR LEGISLATION the Employees‗ State Insurance Act. In Schedule I to the Act. if he does not present himself for medical examination when required or if he fails to take proper medical treatment which aggravates injury or disease. (ii) permanent partial disablement. 50. A workman is also not entitled for compensation. his employment should not be of a casual nature. thirdly. as disablement and dependants‗ benefit is available under this Act. In order to be a ―workman‖ within the meaning of Section 2(1)(n) of the Workmen‗s Compensation Act. The rate of compensation in case of death is an amount equal to 50 per cent of the monthly wages of the deceased workman multiplied by the relevant factor or an amount of Rs. the percentage loss of earning capacity or disablement caused by different types of injuries has been listed. and (iii) temporary disablement. if the injury is caused when the workman was under the influence of drink or drugs or willfully disobeyed a clear order or violated a rule expressly framed for the purpose of securing the safety of workmen or willfully removed or disregarded a safety device. However. 1948. the capacity in which he works should be one set out in the list in Schedule II of the Act. Where permanent total disablement [453] . In case it is not fatal. Payment of Compensation The compensation has to be paid by the employer to a workman for any personal injury caused by an accident arising out of and in the course of his employment (Section 3). the employer will not be liable to pay compensation for any kind of disablement (exceptdeath) which does not continue for more than three days. an employment injury may cause any injury resulting in (i) permanent total disablement. secondly. firstly.000 whichever is more. and lastly.

In others cases. Deduction can be made from any lump sum or half-monthly payments to which the workman is entitled the amount of any payment or [454] . In the case of an injury not specified in Schedule I. the compensation will be payable half-monthly during the disablement or during a period of five years whichever period is shorter. a half-monthly payment of the sum equivalent to 25 per cent of monthly wages of the workman has to be paid. Where more injuries than one are caused by the same accident. 60. compensation is payable from the date of disablement. such percentage of the compensation payable in the case of permanent total disablement as is proportionate to the loss of earning capacity (as assessed by the qualified medical practitioner) permanently caused by the injury. if specified in part II of the Schedule I. In case of temporary disablement. In cases where the disablement is 28 days or more. the compensation will be an amount equal to 60 per cent of the monthly wages of the injured workman multiplied by the relevant factor or an amount of Rs. There after. The percentage loss of earning capacity depends on the loss of limbs and varies from 1 percent to 90 per cent. Halfmonthly payment as compensation will be payable on the 16th day from the date of disablement. the same is payable after the expiry of a waiting period of 3 days. Where the monthly wages of a workman exceed two thousand rupees. his monthly wages for the above purposes will be deemed to be two thousand rupees only. such percentage of the compensation which would have been payable in the case of permanent total disablement as is specified therein as being the percentage of the loss of earning capacity caused by that injury. There is also a provision for commutation of half-monthly payments to a lump sum amount by agreement between the parties or by an application by either party to the Commissioner if the payments continue for not less than six months. the amount of compensation payable if permanent total disablement had resulted from the injuries.000.LABOUR LEGISLATION results from the injury. whichever is more. Where permanent partial disablement results from the injury.

Where the employer disclaims the liability for compensation to the extent claimed. In such cases. and (ii) those who must prove that they are dependants. a minor illegitimate son. a minor child of a predeceased daughter where no parent of the child is alive or a [455] . as the case may be.LABOUR LEGISLATION allowance which the workman has received from the employer by way of compensation during the period of disablement prior to the receipt of such lump sum or of the first half-monthly payment. an unmarried legitimate daughter or a widowed mother. he has to make provisional payment based on the extent of liability which he accepts. number of injuries and other particulars. inform the dependants that it is open to them to prefer a claim and may give such other information as he thinks fit. an unmarried illegitimate daughter or a daughter legitimate or illegitimate if married and a minor or if widowed and a married brother or unmarried sister or widowed sister if a minor. a minor child of a predeceased son. The first group includes a widow. For purpose of the Act dependants have been grouped into two classes (i) those who are considered dependants without any proof. 100 from the amount of compensation in order to indemnify the person to file annual return giving details of the compensation paid. It is provided that all cases of fatal accidents should be brought to the notice of the Commissioner for Workmen‗s Compensation and in case the employer admits the liability the amount of compensation payable should be deposited with him. a minor legitimate son. a widowed daughter-in-law. Advances by the employers against compensation are permitted to the extent of an amount equal to three months‗ wages. the Commissioner may after such enquiry as he thinks fit. The amount deposited with the Commissioner for Workmen‗s Compensation is payable to the dependants of the workmen. The Commissioner is also empowered to deduct an amount not exceeding Rs. and such payment must be deposited with the Commissioner or to be paid to the workman as the case may be.

silicosis. asbestosis. A contract or agreement whereby the workman relinquishes his right of compensation from the employer. poisoning by lead. If the workman contracts any occupational disease peculiar to that employment. an additional sum not exceeding 50 per cent of such amount may be recovered from the employer by way of penalty. for the personal injury arising out of and in the course of employment. The compensation payable to the workman or to his dependants cannot be assigned. bagassosis. that would be deemed to be an injury by accident arising out of and in the course of his employment for purposes of his Act. In the opinion of the Commissioner if there is no justification for the delay. In case of occupational diseases.LABOUR LEGISLATION paternal grandparent if no parent of the workman is alive. the workman concerned or his dependants can claim the same by filling an application before the Commissioner for Workmen‗s compensation. anthrax. If an employer is in default in paying the compensation within one month from the date it fell due. telegraphist‗s cramp. the compensation will be payable only if the workman has been in the service of the employer for more than six months. The amount of compensation is to be apportioned among the dependants of the deceased workman or any of them in such proportion as the Commissioner thinks fit. phosphorous or mercury. In case the compensation is not paid by the employer. is null and void to the extent to which such contract or agreement purports to remove or reduces the liability of the payment of compensation. The claim has to be filed within a [456] . the Commissioner may direct for recovery of not only the amount of the arrears but also a simple interest at the rate of six per cent annum on the amount due. and so on. attached or charged. Some of the occupational diseases listed in Schedule III to the Act are.

Doctrine of Notional Extension The Supreme Court explained the doctrine of notional extension of employment thus: ‖As a rule.LABOUR LEGISLATION period of two years of the occurrence of accident or death. The Act is administered by these state governments who are required to appoint Commissioners for Workmen‗s Compensation. however. the journey to and from the place of employment being excluded. that this is subject to the theory of notional extension of the employers‗ premises so as to include an area which the workman passes and repasses in going to and in leaving the actual place of work. There may [457] . The functions of the Commissioner include (i) settlement of disputed claims. The application which is filed beyond the period limitation can also be entertained. It is now well-settled. Employers are required to notify the appropriate authorities the number orf accidents and the amount of compensation paid. and (iii) revision of periodical payments. the employment of a workman does not commence until he has reached the place of employment and does not continue when he has left the place of employment. The period of limitation for an appeal under Section 30 will be sixty days. if sufficient cause exists. (ii) disposal of cases of injuries involving death. An appeal with a lie to the High Court against certain orders of the commissioner if a substantial question of law is involved. Unless such a certificate accompanies the memorandum of appeal. An appeal by an employer against an award of compensation is incompetent unless the memorandum of appeal is accompanied by a certificate that the employer has deposited the amount of such compensation. The commissioner has also been empowered to impose penalty on employers who fail to pay compensation due under the Act the injured worker within one month from the date it fell due. cannot be regarded as having been validly instituted.

E. But the courts have agreed that the employment does not necessarily end when the ―down tool‖ signal is given or when the workman leaves the actual workshop where he is working.Raja and Others : A.B.‖ A driver is given the facility in his capacity as a driver to travel in any bus belonging to the undertaking in the interest of service.R. The question when does an employment begin and when does it cease.S. the entire fleet of buses forming the service would be the ―premises. An employment may end or may begin not only when the employee begins to work or leaves his tools but also when he used the means of ingress and egress to and from the place of employment. The scope of such extension must necessarily depend on the circumstances of a given case.C.v. the premises of the employer which gives ingress or egress to the factory is a limited one.T). The facts and circumstances of each case will have to be examined very carefully in order to determine whether the accident arose out of and in the course of employment of a workman. (B. [458] . Agnes: 1963 ii llj 615 s.c).Undertaking. in the case a city transport service. Hence. Though the doctrine of reasonable or national extension of employment developed in the context of specific workshops.‖ (Saurashtra SaltMfg.T. 881). Mrs. depends upon the facts of each case.S. 1958 S. factories or harbours. Bombay v. by analogy. There is a notional extension at both the entry and exit by time and space. While in a case of a factory.V. equally applies to such a bus service (B.I. any accident that happens to him is an accident in the course of his employment. keeping in view at all times this theory of notional extension.E. The doctrine necessarily will have to be adopted to meet its peculiar requirements. a driver when going home from the depot or coming to the depot uses the bus.LABOUR LEGISLATION be some reasonable extension in both time and place and a workman may be regarded as in the course of his employment even though he had not reached or had left his employer‗s premises. Co.

Doctrine of Contributory Negligence Under the doctrine of contributory negligence. This doctrine. V. In Sundaresa Mudaliar v. Ltd.‖ The expression ‗added peril‗ means a peril voluntarily superinduced on what ―arose out of this employment to which the workman was neither required nor had authority to expose himself. therefore.‖ This is a pithy formula which can always be employed as the crucial test in the facts of a case which are in the debatable region when a workman meets with an accident while he is apparently performing his duties as a workmam and which may yet not be incidental thereto. in which case the accident cannot be regarded as having occurred in which case the accident cannot be regarded as having occurred in course of the employment so as to entitle the workman to any compensation. comes into play only when the workman is at the time of meeting the accident performing his duty. Such a defence has been given no footing. he cannot hold his master liable for the risks arising therefrom. the employer may raise the defence that the accident occurred purely due to employee satisfied negligence on his own part.LABOUR LEGISLATION Doctrine of Added Peril The doctrine of added peril has been dealt with in the case of Bhurangya Coal Co. The main purpose being to safeguard the workers and not to deprive them of their rightful claim under the Act as otherwise every employer would escape the claim by raising the defence of contributory negligence. In this case the principle of added peril was analysed by the Patna High Court as under: ―The principle of added peril contemplates that if a workman while doing his master‗s work undertakes to do something which he is not ordinarily called upon to do and which involves extra danger. Muthammal (1956-II LLJ 52) [459] .Sahebjan Mian and Another (1957-II LLJ 522).

not machines. The Act was amended from time to time. because most negligences are practically accidents in the nature of what is called the act of God. THE EMPLOYEES’ STATE INSURANCE ACT. the doctrine of contributory negligence as a good defence in common law has been abrogated in so far as the Workmen‗s Compensation Act is concerned. is a pioneering measure in the field of social insurance in our country. maternity. The Employees‗ State Insurance Act came into force from 19th April. and to make provisions for certain other matters in relation thereto. only employer‗s contribution will be payable at 4.LABOUR LEGISLATION the Madras High Court held that the doctrine of contributory negligence has no place under the Act. employment injury. viz. when the applicability of Conventions adopted by the International Labour Conference was considered by the Government of India. The reasons are said to be tow fold. The question of formulating a suitable social insurance scheme came up for consideration from time to time from 1927 onwards. The Scheme under the Act aims at providing for certain cash benefits to employees in the case of sickness. and (b) that this was made an excuse for avoiding all liability. 1948 The Employees‗ State Insurance Act. because first of all mere negligence or carelessness would not be regarded as a willful disobedience and second. They are subject to human imperfections. and medical facilities in kind. (a) that compensation is not a remedy for negligence of the employer but it is rather in the nature of an insurance of the workman against certain risks of accident. 1948.75 [460] . Employees whose average daily wage is below Rs. Men who are employed to work in factories and elsewhere are human beings.15 are exempted from payment of employee‗s contribution. The subject of health insurance for industrial workers was first discussed in 1927 by the Indian Legislature.. 1948.

The State Governments contribute a minimum of 12. 13. a week or a day by 26. In respect of a piece-rated employee. half a day being counted as a full day for the purpose.15 or above. If an employee‗s average daily wage during any wage period works out to Rs. the Union Health Minister as its vice-chairman and representatives of state governments. The Act has laid down the purposes for which the fund may be expended. employees‗ and the medical profession nominated by the central government.LABOUR LEGISLATION per cent in respect of such employees. 6 or 1 respectively as the case may be. All contributions paid under the Act are to be deposited into a fund called the Employees‗ State Insurance Fund. The Corporation generates its own resources and neither receives nor it need any subsidy. The accounts of the Corporation are to be audited by auditors appointed by the central government. To determine whether a person is exempt from the employee‗s contribution. Source of Finance The main sources of finance are the contributions from employers and employees and one-eighth share from the state governments towards the respondents cost of medical care. consisting of the Minister of Labour at the centre as its chairman. the average daily wage of a time-rated employee will be calculated by dividing total amount of wages payable had the person worked for the entire wage period which may be a month. the average daily wage will be the total wages actually earned during the complete wage period divided by the number of days in full or part actually worked. a fortnight.5% of the total expenditure on medical care in their respective states. Administration The administration of the Scheme is entrusted to a corporate body. employers. The affairs of the [461] . contributions will be recoverable from him from the wages for that wage period.

Maharashtra and some centres in Punjab and in Ahmedabad in Gujarat). Each regional office is under the charge of a Regional Director. Regional offices maintain all records in respect of insured persons and administer local offices. Benefits The benefits provided under the scheme are: (1) Sickness and Extended Sickness Benefits. The ESIC has set up a network of regional and local offices all over the country for implementation of the Scheme. The corporation has about 17 regional offices. There is also a Medical Benefit Council to advice the Corporation on matters connected with the provision of medical care. At the regional level.LABOUR LEGISLATION Corporation are directly administered by a Standing Committee constituted from amongst its members. and (6) Medical Benefits.S.S. There were altogether 122 E. All the benefits are paid in cash except medical which is given in kind. The in-patient treatment is afforded through a number of E. (4) Dependants‗ Benefits (5) Funeral Benefits. He is mainly concerned with the formulation of policy.I. dispensaries. [462] .S. 1995. regional boards have been constituted have been formed which function as advisory bodies. Outdoor medical care is rendered through a network of full time E. Hospitals and 42 E.I. Annexes as on 31st March.I. co-ordination and liaison with central and state governments. and through clinics of Insurance Medical Practitioners (West Bengal. (2) Maternity Benefits. over-all supervision.I. (3) Disablement Benefits. hospitals/annexes and through reservation of beds in hospitals. 4 sub-regional offices and 813 local offices all over the country for administration of the Scheme.S. The chief executive officer of the Corporation is its Director-General who is also an exofficio member of the Corporation and its Standing Committee.

This is practically equal to [463] . Sickness benefit is not paid for an initial waiting period of 2 days unless the insured person falls sick again and is certified sick within 15 days of the last spell in which sickness benefit was paid. mental diseases. An insured woman is entitled to maternity benefit at double the standard benefit rate. paraplegia. This is paid in addition to the usual sickness benefit. and so on is eligible for extended sickness benefit at the rate of 40 percent more than the sickness benefit rate rounded to the next higher multiple of 5 paise. The Director General has been empowered to enhance the duration of extended sickness benefit beyond of present limit of 400 days (91 days of sickness benefit plus 309 days of extended sickness benefit) to a maximum period of two year in deserving cases duly certified by a medical board. and other specified long-term disease is entitled to average daily wage for a further period of 124/309 days provided he has been in continuous employment for a period of 2 years or more in a factory or establishment to which the benefit provisions of the Act apply. mental and malignant diseases. homiplegia. leprosy. and insured person is entitled subject to contributory conditions to receive sickness cash benefits at the standard benefit rate for a period of 91 days in any two consecutive benefit periods. (2) Maternity Benefits: For entitlement to maternity benefit the insured woman should have contributed for 80 days in the immediately preceding two consecutive contribution periods corresponding to the respondents benefit period in which the confinement occurs or is expected to occur. An insured person suffering from any special long-term ailments like tuberculosis. An insured person in paid cash assistance at practically full wage rates for 7 days for vasectomy and 14 days for tubectomy operations.LABOUR LEGISLATION (1) Sickness and Extended Sickness Benefits: For sickness occurring during any period. cancer. After exhausting the sickness benefit upto 91 days an insured person suffering from tuberculosis.

Where the insured woman dies during her confinement or during the period of 6 weeks immediately following her confinement for which she is entitled to maternity benefit and leaves behind. the insured person will be given life pension at full rate. repair or replacement of the artificial limbs. in either case. i. excluding the day of accident.LABOUR LEGISLATION full wages for a period of 12 weeks of which not more than 6 weeks shall precede the expected date of miscarriage. for the days up to and including the day of death of the child. provided that the temporary disablement has lasted for not less than 3 days. confinement. he will receive free medical treatment and temporary disablement benefit in cash which is about 70 per cent of the wages as long as the temporary disablement lasts. At the option of the beneficiary the permanent disablement pension can be commuted to a lump sum payment. about 70 per cent of his wages. Beginning from 1. Failing such a nominee. In case of sickness arising out of pregnancy.e. premature birth of child or miscarriage.1.. the child. (3) Disablement Benefits: If a member suffers an injury in course of his employment. rehabilitation allowance at standard benefit rate is paid to disabled insured persons for the period they remain admitted disabled insured persons for the period they remain admitted in the artificial limb centre for fixation. maternity benefit is payable for whole for whole of that period. but if the child dies during the said period. while in cases of partial permanent disablement a portion of it will be granted as life pension. The benefit is paid for Sundays as well. the legal representative of the said deceased woman is entitled to the payment.1980. then to the person nominated by the insured woman. an additional benefit is given for a period not exceeding one month. In case of permanent total disablement. [464] .

If their absence. The widow/widows share is 3/5th of the benefit and the legitimate of adopted son and daughter‗s share is 2/5 each of the benefits.e. dispensaries administered by full-time staff of the state governments or through panel system. the dependants. (5) Funeral Benefit: This benefit was introduced in the year 1968. 1.. This benefit has been divided into three parts: [465] . an amount not exceeding Rs. its is payable to the deceased insured person.e. The time limit for claiming the benefit is three months from the death of insured person..400 is payable as funeral benefit to the eldest surviving member of the family of the deceased insured person. Where neither a widow nor a child is left. Pension at the rate of 40 percent more than the standard benefit rate will be paid periodically to widow (satisfied) and children.LABOUR LEGISLATION (4) Dependants’ Benefit: The dependants‗ benefit consists of timely help to the eligible dependants of an insured person who dies as a result of an accident or an occupational disease arising out of and in the course of employment. to sons and unmarried daughters up to ht age of 18 without and proof of education and to infirm or wholly dependant offspring as long as the infirmity lasts. It will be available to the widow for life time or until she marries. called insurance medical practitioners. When. is provided either through service system. Outpatient medical care. the insured person did not have a family or was not living with his family at the time of his death. part-time private medical practitioners. under the scheme. i. benefit is payable to dependant parent or grandparent for life equivalent to 3/10 ths of the full rate and if there are two or more parents or grand parents the amount payable t them shall be equally divided between them. i. a pension may be paid to other dependants. Accordingly. (6) Medical Benefit: The kingpin of the scheme is medical benefit which consists of medical attendance and treatment of insured persons and their families. however.

Insured persons suffering from chronic ailments of long duration like duberculosis.LABOUR LEGISLATION (a) Restricted Medical Care : It consists of outpatient medical care at dispensaries or panel clinics. (c) Full Medical Care: It consists of hospitalization facilities. supply of drugs. leprosy are eligible for medical treatment for a further period of one year. All services forming part of medical benefit are provided free of any extra charges. The insurance [466] . Insured persons are also provided artificial limbs. Medical care continues to be available for a period of about 9 months. Over the years medical car is claming an increasingly large share of the total funds of the ESIC. The beneficiaries are also entitle to call a doctor to their house to see a serious case. This also includes facilities for special laboratory tests ans X-ray examinations. if contributions have been paid for half the number of days in a contribution period. 7/8th of the expenditure on medical benefit is borne by the Corporation and 1/8the by the state governments. (b) Expanded Medical Care: This consists of consultation with specialists and supply of medicines and drugs as may be prescribed by them. It is administered by the respective state governments except in Delhi where the Corporation has its own network of hospitals and dispensaries. services of specialists and drugs and diet as are required for inpatients. family planning and immunization services are available. An insured woman and an insured persons in respect of his wife shall be paid a sum of rupees tow hundred and fifty per case as medical bonus of confinement occurs at a place where necessary medical facilities under the ESI Scheme are not available. facilities of consultation with medical officers. In these institutions. An insured person and members of his family are entitled to medical care of all the above three varieties immediately on becoming insured under the scheme. pre-natal and post-natal care.

Employees drawing a pay not exceeding Rs. Once the Act is applied. Every [467] .000 per month are eligible for membership of the fund.LABOUR LEGISLATION Medical Practitioners constitute the heart of the panel system who are paid capitation fee for their services.5. however. which is not otherwise coverable under the Act. disablement. Main Features of the Act The Employees‗ Provident Funds and Miscellaneous Provisions Act. The object of the Act is to provide substantial security and timely monetary assistance to industrial employees and their families when they are in distress and/or unable to meet family and social obligations and to protect them in old age. 1952 is applicable to factories and other establishments engaged in specified industries. 1952 The Act was passed with a view to making some provision for the future of the industrial worker after his retirement or for his dependants in case of his early death and inculcating the habit of saving among the workers. it does not cease to be applicable even if the number of employees falls below 20. The Act. early death of the bread-winner and in some other contingencies. classes of establishments employing 20 or more persons. can be covered voluntarily with the mutual consent of the employer and the majority of the employees under Section 1(4) of the Act. The Central Government is empowered to apply the provisions of this Act to any establishment employing less than 20 persons after giving not less than two months‗ notice of its intention to do so by a notification in the Official Gazette. does not apply to co-operative societies employing less than 50 persons and working without the aid of power. THE EMPLOYEES’ PROVIDENT FUNDS AND MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS ACT. An establishment/factory.

provides that the Central Government may. The normal rate of contribution to the provident fund by the employees and the employers. RPFC (1979-II LLJ 146) that mess attached to a hostel is an integral part of the Institute and not an independent establishment within the meaning of the Act and hence it cannot be brought under the Act. if any. The Act. and special deposit schemes. is 10 per cent of the pay of the employees. The term ―wages‖ includes basic wage. enhance the statutory rat of contribution to 12 per cent of wages in any industry or class of establishments. [468] .LABOUR LEGISLATION employee employed in or in connection with the work of a factory or establishment shall be entitled and required to become a member of the fund from the date of joining the factory or establishment. according to the pattern laid down the Government of India from time to time. after making such enquiries as to deems fit. as prescribed in the Act. if any. negotiable securities or bonds. 7-year national saving certificates or post office time deposits. The exempted establishments are required to follow the same pattern of investments as is prescribed for the unexempted establishments. Case Law of Technology v. however. after making payments on account of advances and final withdrawals. dearness allowance. including cash value of food concession and retaining allowance. The provident fund accumulations are invested in government securities. The contributions received by the Provident Fund Organisation from unexempted establishments as well as by the Board of Trustees from exempted establishments shall be invested.

the provisions of the Act become applicable to employees at its head office also. In this case. This information had to be given within one month of the expiry of one year from the date when the number fell below the requisite number. The employer is bound to give notice within one month of the date of such cessation. No permission was required from the RPFC to opt out. though situated in a different place. and only then he can cease to give effect to the provisions of the Act (Daullat Ram Dharam Bir v. Section 1(5) of the Act which provides that an establishment to which the Act applied shall continue to be governed by the Act notwithstanding that the number of persons employed therein at any time falls [469] . then the branches or department of the establishment. the factory was closed down permanently and the employer ceased to make deductions from the wages of employees working in the head office on the ground that they ceased to be covered by the provisions of the Act.LABOUR LEGISLATION etermine the strength of the workmen for deciding the question of coverage of the factory or the establishment (Nazeena Traders v. A mere intimation had to be given. Amarnath and Others (1984-I LLJ 146) that what was required to be done by the establishment was to inform the Regional provident Fund Commissioner that the number has fallen below the requisite number. which were not otherwise covered by the provisions of Section 1(3)(a) of the Act. The Bombay High Court held that once the main establishment is closed or ceases to function. RPFC v. the number of employees is reduced below 15. One of the employees in the head office claimed that the Act continued to apply to him notwithstanding that it ceased to apply to the factory. cannot claim advantage of the benefits of the Act. Act. by registered post. RPFC 1966-I LLJ 334).

Union of India (1962 II LLJ 490) whether production bonus is part of ―wages‖ as difined in Section 2(b) of the EPF Act? The company had two [470] . They are not employed in or in connection with the work of the establishment (Workmen of Hindustan Teleprinters Ltd. Lord Krishna Bank Ltd. This is incidental.. ‖ under the Act. t both printing press and office located in different premises belong to one unit and the Act which was applicable to the press extends to the office also because there was an integration of financial and managerial functions (1978 II LLJ 317).F. Co. would apply only to cases where the establishment itself continues but will have no application to allied departments or branches which are not independently covered by Section 1(3)(a) of the Act (V. RPFC and Others that apprentices are not ―employees‖ as defined in section 2(f) of the Act (1983 I LLJ 449). He may contribute his labour during the training towards the work of the person who engaged him for training. Madras 1978-52 FJR 164).LABOUR LEGISLATION below 20. Act. ngaged for putting up factory building and staff quarters of an establishment manufacturing teleprinters are not within the definition of ―employee‖ under the P. 1983 63 FJR 107). Venkatesh v. v. the main or predominant objective being that he should learn his work during the period of training (Regional Provident Fund Commissioner v. RPFC. Union of India : 1981-59 FJR 183). v. It was also held by the Madras High Court in the case of the Poly Clinic v.

one for the benefit of the hourly-rated workers and the other for the rest. Ad hoc payment made to employees by the employer in pursuance of a settlement cannot be treated as basic wages and is not an allowance of any kind. RPFC 1980-81 57 FJR 41). In such cases the workers are not bound to produce anything beyond the base or standard that is set out. The company was asked by the central government under Section 19-A of the Act to include such payments in the provident fund contributions. Such production bonuses must be held to be outside the definition of ‗basic wages‗ in Section 2(b) of the Act because of exception of all kinds of bonus from the main definition. The schemes provide extra payments for superior performance beyond a particular base or standard.LABOUR LEGISLATION production bonus schemes. Hence no contribution is payable in respect thereof (Burmah Shell Oil Storage v. THE MATERNITY BENEFIT ACT. 1961 [471] . The Supreme Court held that production bonus paid under the terms of the scheme in question could not be considered part of the basic wages. what they earn would not be basic wages but production bonus or incentive wage. grouped in sub-clause (ii) of the section. Production bonus at certain rates was paid to the concerned workmen when the production reached a particular tonnage per quarter or per year respectively. The basic wage must be earned while on duty and must be provided for by the terms of employment or contract of service. ‖ shows all emoluments paid to an employee are not basic wages. Whenever the workers produce beyond the base or standard.

the services of a woman worker cannot be terminated during the period of her absence on account of pregnancy. The Act prohibits the working of pregnant women for a specified period before and after delivery. a woman must have actually worked for not less than 80 days in the twelve months immediately preceding the day of her expected delivery. For the six weeks‗ leave from the date of delivery. a notice must be given in writing stating the date of absence from work and also a certificate of pregnancy. The salient feature of the Act are as follows: This maximum period for which a woman can get maternity benefit is twelve weeks. another notice must be sent together with a certificate of delivery after the child is born. Of this. six weeks must be taken prior to the date of delivery of the child and six weeks immediately following that date. Only working days are to be taken into account when calculating these 80 days. except for gross misconduct. the employer has to pay the maternity benefit in advance for this period to the concerned employee or any person nominated for this purpose. Weekly holidays and all leave-paid or unpaid be deemed as working days. To be entitled to maternity leave however. (There is a form for both which must be filled in). It also provides for maternity leave and payment of certain monetary benefits for women workers during the period when they are out of employment on account of their pregnancy. To avail of the six weeks‗ leave before expected delivery. The employer has to pay to the employee or her nominees.LABOUR LEGISLATION The Maternity Benefit Act is a piece of social legislation enacted to promote the welfare of working women. Further. maternity benefit within 48 hours of [472] .

however. to get a certificate from a doctor in the prescribed form. disentitle a woman from maternity benefit. In this case. Every woman entitled to maternity benefit is also entitled to a medical bonus of rupees 250 if no pre-natal confinement and postnatal care has been provided for by the employer free of charge. of course. premature birth or miscarriage. This being a beneficial piece of legislation interpretation of law will have to be in tune with the social justice. V. She has. delivery. In the case of B. Labour Court.LABOUR LEGISLATION receiving this notice. a woman employee can take extra leave up to a maximum period of one month. The failure to give notice for the subsequent six weeks does not.Shah v. It is also in conformity with the Maternity Benefit Protection (Revised) Convention adopted by the ILO in 1952. she must give notice together with a certificate of miscarriage. the Court struck down the decision of the Full Bench of the Kerala High Court in Malayalam Plantation Ltd. Coimbatore and Others (1978-I LLJ 29) the Supreme Court held that computation of maternity benefit in case of a female worker engaged on a daily wage basis has to be made for all the days including sundays and rest days which may be wage-less holidays upto six weeks preceding and excluding the day of delivery as also for all the days falling within six weeks immediately following the day of delivery thereby ensuring that the woman worker gets for the said period not only the amount equaling 100% of the wages which she was previously earning but also the benefit of the wages for all the Sundays and rest days falling within the aforesaid two periods. In case of miscarriage a woman is entitled to six weeks leave with pay from the day of miscarriage. For illness arising out pregnancy. 1975 Ker.R. This leave [473] . Inspector of Plantations (A. 86). too.I.

(c) any work which in any way is likely to interfere with her pregnancy or the normal development of foetus or is likely to cause her miscarriage or otherwise adversely affect her health. a woman is prohibited from working in any establishment during this period of six weeks. With a view to encourage planned parenthood. if for any reason. or can be attached to the six weeks prior to or after delivery or miscarriage. An employer cannot reduce the salary on account of light work assigned to her or breaks taken to nurse her child. (b) grant of leave with wages for a maximum period of one month in cases of illness arising out of MTP or tubectomy. she cannot be discharged or dimissed on [474] . she does not avail of her leave. Further. (In Maharashtra. (b) any work which involves long hours of standing. Likewise. no pregnant woman shall on a request being made by her.LABOUR LEGISLATION can be taken at and time during pregnancy. and (c) two weeks‗ leave with wages to women workers who undergo tubectomy operation. A female worker can ask for light work for one month preceding the six weeks prior to her delivery or during these six weeks. the Act provides for (a) six weeks leave with wages in cases of medical termination of pregnancy (MTP). it is fifteen munutes). Further. An employer is prohibited from knowingly employing any woman in any establishment during the six weeks immediately following the day of her delivery or her miscarriage. in addition to her regular rest intervals for nursing the child until her child attains the age of fifteen months. A female employee resuming duties after delivery is to be given two nursing breaks of prescribed duration. Each state has its own rules as to the length or this break. be given (a) any work which is of ardous nature.

she is dismissed for any prescribed gross misconduct. and (e) willful non-observance of safety measures or rules or willful interference with safety devices or with or with fire fighting equipment. miscarriage. within sixty days from the date on which the order of such deprivation is communicated to her. If a woman entitled to maternity benefit dies before receiving her dues. appeal to the prescribed authority and the decision on such appeal shall be final. (d) theft. the employer has to pay maternity benefit for the entire six weeks. If she dies during delivery or during the following six weeks . in case there is no nominee. If she dies during the six weeks before delivery. fraud or dishonesty in connection with the employer‗s business or property .she works in any other establishment during the period she is supposed to be on leave. the employer has to pay the person nominated by her in the notice. [475] . and (b) during the period for her pregnancy. However . or to her legal representative. (c) criminal offence involving moral turpitude resulting in conviction in a court oflaw . a female employee can be deprived of maternity benefit if : (a) after going on maternity leave . maternity benefit is payable only for the days up to and including the day of her death. (b) assaulting any superior or co-employee at the place of work .LABOUR LEGISLATION grounds of absence arising out of pregnancy.leaving behind a child. The acts whi ch constitute misconduct are : (a) willful destruction of employer goods or property . The aggrieved woman may. but if the child also dies during the period . delivery or premature birth. Nor her service conditions be altered to her disadvantage during this period. An abstract of the provisions of the Act and the decision on such appeal shall be final. then for the days up to and including the death of the child .

amount paid.LABOUR LEGISLATION An abstract of the provisions of the Act and the rules made there under have to be exhibited in the language or languages of the locality in a conspicuous place in every part of the establishment in which women are employed. The Director General of Mines Safety administers the At in mines other than coal mines. The information contained in these returns is analysed and published by the state governments in their annual reports on the working of the Act. THE PAYMENT OF GRATUITY ACT Main Features of the Act [476] . number of claims made. a complaint can be made to the inspectors appointed by the government. some state enactments provide additional benefits such as free medical aid. So far as the coal mines are concerned the Coal Mines Welfare Commissioner is responsible for administration of the Act. The Central Government has power to exempt an establishment from the operation of all or any of the provisions of the Act if it is satisfied that the benefits granted by the establishment are not less favourable than those provided in the Act. A part from the benefits provided under the central act. The Central Government is responsible for administration of the provisions of the Act in mines and in the circus industry. In case benefits are improperly withheld. maternity bonus. provision of crèches. during the year. while the State Governments are responsible for administration of the Act in factories. and additional rest intervals. The Act provides for penalties for contravening the provisions of the Act. plantations and other establishments. Rules framed under the central and state enactments require employers to furnish to the administering authorities annual returns showing the number of women workers covered.

port and railway company. and (iv) Reserves and the possibility or replenishing the reserve.LABOUR LEGISLATION The Act is applicable to: (a) Every factory. The Supreme Court had laid down certain broad principles to serve as guidelines for the framing of the gratuity scheme. Even though the respondents payment of gratuity was voluntary in character. by notification. plantation. and [477] . In the course of time. specify in this behalf. efficient and faithful service for a considerable period. It was conceded as a provision for old age and a reward for good. (d) Such other establishments or class of establishments in which 10 or more employees are employed or were employed on any day of the preceding 12 months. But in the early stages. gratuity came to be paid as a result of bilateral agreements or industrial adjudication. as the Central Government may. either by agreement or by awards. oilfield. (iii) Reserves and the possibility of replenishing the respondents reserves. They were: (i) The general financial stability of the concern. gratuity was treated as a payment gratuitously made by an employer at his will and pleasure. The Act is made applicable only to a ―Railway Company‖ but not to the ―Railway Gratuity as an additional retirement benefit has been secured by labour in numerous instances. it had led to several industrial disputes. (ii) Its profit earned in the past. mine. (b) Every shop or establishment within the respondents meaning of any law for the time every motor transport undertaking in which 10 more persons are employed or were employed on any day of the preceding 12 months.

LABOUR LEGISLATION (v) Return on capital. The Government of Kerala enacted factories. In 1971. Southern Railway is not an establishment. in which 10 or more persons are employed or were employed on any day of the preceding 12 months. regard being had to the risk involved The first central legislation to regulate the payment of gratuity was the working journalists (conditions of service) and Miscellaneous Provisions Act. planations. there was general agreement at ht LMC and ILC that a central legislation on payment of gratuity might be undertaken being in force in relation to shops and establishments in a state. to have a Central law on the subject so as(i) To ensure a uniform pattern of payment of gratuity to the employees throughout the country. It became necessary. under the conditions of their service. The proposal for a uniform legislation on gratuity was discussed at the Labour Ministers‗ Conference at New Delhi August 1971 and also at the Indian Labour Conference at its session held in October 1971. the employee were liable to transfer from one state to another. After the enactment of these two Acts. when. 1955 . (c) To Administration‖. 1971. the provisions of the Act are not applicable to the Southern Railway administered by the Central Government. therefore. shops and establishments. Therefore. the West Bengal Government promulgated an ordinance which was subsequently replaced by the West Bengal Employees‗ Payment of Compulsory Gratuity Act. some other state governments also voiced their intention of enacting similar measures in their respective states. commercial establishment of shop [478] . Moreover. and (ii) To avoid different treatment to the employees of establishment having branches in more than one state.

by section 3(b) thereof. Uthaman (1980 ILLJ 83) the question came up by a writ petition before the Kerala High Court is: How to calculate gratuity for a fulltime employee engaged in a seasonal establishment: It was held that ―seasonal [479] . will be the Central Government and applications under section 7 of the Act should be made to the Controlling Authority appointed by the Central Government (Binny Ltd.Ramamoorthy and Others 1978 52 FJR 490). is at once attracted by the words‖ other allowance‖ in section 2(S) and as such teller‗s allowance cannot be included in the basic pay for purpose of calculating the gratuity (Central Bank Of India . Esmail Koya & Others 1978 52 FJR 470 ) The teller‗satisfied allowance drawn by an employee. But it was held by the Court that the provisions of the Act clearly applied to the Electricity Board and Gratuity Act would apply to such establishment (Haryana State Electricity Board v. If a piece rated employee did not actually work was not given to him. T. K. Hyderabad. that period has to be reckoned as continuous service (Vallabhadas Kanji (p) Ltd . The Haryana State Electricity Board claimed that the provisions of the payment of Gratuity Act. Controlling Authority 1983 62 FJR 287). would not be applicable to it as the Electricity Board was exempted from the provisions of the Punjab Shops and Commercial Establishments Act.J. not being dearness allowance. In Consolidated Coffee Ltd. V. A company having it main place of business of textile mill in one state and a branch mill in another state would fall within section 2(a)(i)(b) of the Act and appropriate government. v. Erode v.K. 1958. v.Varghese 1979 54 FJR 80). 1972. in relation thereto. V.LABOUR LEGISLATION within Section 1(3) (b) of the Payment of Gratuity Act (Executive Engineer (construction) Southern Railway. Commissioner of Labour and Others 1980 57 FJR 139).

The rate of gratuity has to be determined with reference to the period of employment of an employee in a particular establishment. The meaning of the expression has. Therefore. In the instant case. to be understood in the popular sense. and not throughout the year. act was enacted to achieve the following object: ―Experience of working of the Trade Disputes Act of 1929.I. therefore. the provisions of the Act are not applicable [480] . Act nor in the Employees‗ Provident Fund Act.S. The Gujarat High Court has held that even in seasonal establishments employees working throughout the year in jobs like maintenance. would be entitled for gratuity at the rate of 15 days‗ wages. is a seasonal establishment.. it is found 36 employees work throughout the year while 160 work only during seasons. REGULATION OF INDUSTRIALRELATIONS Objects of the Act according to the Notification in the Official Gazette of India. Pt. 1946. The factory is a seasonal establishment in respect of those persons who work seasonally and it is non-seasonal establishment in respect of others who are engaged throughout the year. has revealed that its main defect is Case Law The Act is made applicable only to a ―Railway Company‖ but not to the ―Railway Administration‖. V. Appellage Authority 1979 38 FLR 196). Any factory which only works during certain seasons of the year.LABOUR LEGISLATION establishment‖ is not defined in the Payment of Gratuity Act nor in the E. But the employees who work only during seasons would be entitled for gratuity at the rate of 7 days‗ wages (Akbar Hussain v.

Hyderabad. that period has to be reckoned as continuous service (Vallabhadas Kanji (p) Ltd . T. The Haryana State Electricity Board claimed that the provisions of the payment of Gratuity Act. Erode v. Esmail Koya & Others 1978 52 FJR 470 ) The teller‗satisfied allowance drawn by an employee. 1958. not being dearness allowance. V. [481] . K. would not be applicable to it as the Electricity Board was exempted from the provisions of the Punjab Shops and Commercial Establishments Act. Controlling Authority 1983 62 FJR 287). in relation thereto.Ramamoorthy and Others 1978 52 FJR 490).LABOUR LEGISLATION to the Southern Railway administered by the Central Government. v. commercial establishment of shop within Section 1(3) (b) of the Payment of Gratuity Act (Executive Engineer (construction) Southern Railway.J. will be the Central Government and applications under section 7 of the Act should be made to the Controlling Authority appointed by the Central Government (Binny Ltd.K. Southern Railway is not an establishment. by section 3(b) thereof. v. But it was held by the Court that the provisions of the Act clearly applied to the Electricity Board and Gratuity Act would apply to such establishment (Haryana State Electricity Board v. Moreover. Commissioner of Labour and Others 1980 57 FJR 139). A company having it main place of business of textile mill in one state and a branch mill in another state would fall within section 2(a)(i)(b) of the Act and appropriate government.Varghese 1979 54 FJR 80). If a piece rated employee did not actually work was not given to him. 1972. is at once attracted by the words‖ other allowance‖ in section 2(S) and as such teller‗s allowance cannot be included in the basic pay for purpose of calculating the gratuity (Central Bank Of India .

no provision has been made to render the [482] . Uthaman (1980 ILLJ 83) the question came up by a writ petition before the Kerala High Court is: How to calculate gratuity for a fulltime employee engaged in a seasonal establishment: It was held that ―seasonal establishment‖ is not defined in the Payment of Gratuity Act nor in the E. it is found 36 employees work throughout the year while 160 work only during seasons. Pt.S. to be understood in the popular sense. In the instant case. The factory is a seasonal establishment in respect of those persons who work seasonally and it is non-seasonal establishment in respect of others who are engaged throughout the year.LABOUR LEGISLATION In Consolidated Coffee Ltd. But the employees who work only during seasons would be entitled for gratuity at the rate of 7 days‗ wages (Akbar Hussain v. The meaning of the expression has.I. 1946. V. act was enacted to achieve the following object: ―Experience of working of the Trade Disputes Act of 1929. The rate of gratuity has to be determined with reference to the period of employment of an employee in a particular establishment. therefore. has revealed that its main defect is that while restraints have been imposed on the rights of strike and lockout in public utility services. and not throughout the year. REGULATION ODF INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS (1) Objects of the Act According to the Notification in the Official Gazette of India. The Gujarat High Court has held that even in seasonal establishments employees working throughout the year in jobs like maintenance. Act nor in the Employees‗ Provident Fund Act. V. Appellage Authority 1979 38 FLR 196).. Any factory which only works during certain seasons of the year. is a seasonal establishment. would be entitled for gratuity at the rate of 15 days‗ wages.

‖ The defect was overcome. the purpose of this Act is to harmonize the relations between the employer and the workmen. is gaining momentum due to stress of post-war industrial readjustments. The Preamble of the Act reads. which applies to workmen drawing wages not exceeding a specified amount per month and which governs the service conditions of such persons. would undermine the industrial peace and cause dislocation and even collapse of industrial [483] . which this rule has proved useful. as industrial unrest in checking. the Central Government to refer industrial disputes to adjudicators and to enforce the awards. 1972. Power (Continuancy) ordinance. the need of permanent legislation in replacement of this rule is self-evident. It may be regarded as a supplement to the Indian Contract Act. either by reference to a Board of Conciliation or to a Court of Inquiry conclusive and binding on either parties to the dispute. This bill embodies the essential principles of Rule 81-A which has proved generally acceptable to both employers and workmen retaining impact for the most part. by empowering under Rule 18-A of the Defence of Indian Rules. whose aim is to regulate the contractual relationship of master and servant in ordinary sense. This Act deals with the prevention and settlement of conflict between the two parties and there by try to improve relationship between them.LABOUR LEGISLATION proceedings institutable under the act for the settlement of an industrial dispute. 1946. and to afford a machinery to settle disputes that arise between the management and the workmen which. if not settled. the provision of the Trade Disputes Act.‖ This is a special legislation. ―An Act to make provision for the investigation and settlement of industrial disputes and for certain other purposes. 1929. Thus. for further period of six months. Rule 81-A is being kept in force by the Emergency. during the war.

(e) To give the workmen the right of collective bargaining and promote conciliation. With the passage of this Act. The purpose of the Act. retrenchment.‖ (2) New Principles Under The Act The Industrial Disputes Act can be described as the mile-stone in the historical development of industrial law in India. is ― amelioration of the conditions of workmen in an industry. [484] . to minimize the differences and to get the dispute settled through adjudicatory authorities. a number of new principles relating to industrial relations had been introduced in the country. (b) To provide a suitable machinery for investigation and settlement of industrial disputes between employers and employees. essential to the life of the community. wrongful dismissals and victimization. or between workmen with a right or representation by a registered trade union or by an association of employers. the principal objectives of the Act may be stated as below: (a) To promote measures for securing and preserving amity and good relations between the employers and the employers. according to Patna High Court . On the basis of the judgements given from time to time . This industrial peace is secured through voluntary negotiation and compulsory adjudication. by the Supreme Court. between employers and workmen.LABOUR LEGISLATION establishments. (c) To prevent illegal strikes and lockouts. (d) To provide relief to workmen in matters of lay-offs.

a permanent machinery (conciliation) has been set up for the speedy and amicable settlement of industrial disputes. has been imposed. strikes and lockouts during the pendency of conciliation and arbitration proceedings and the arbitration awards. maximum time limit has been prescribed within which the machinery must be set in motion.LABOUR LEGISLATION such as. the industrial disputes may be referred to an Industrial Tribunal where both parties to any industrial dispute. Fourthly. are prohibited. Secondly. First. specific time limits for various stages of conciliation and argitration. compulsory arbitration in public utility services. are prescribed. Seventhly. apply for such reference or where the appropriate government considers it expedient to do so. to eliminate delays. enforced by the government order. Has been recognized. an obligation on employers to recognize and deal with representative trade unions. including the enforcement of arbitration awards. Thirdly. [485] . In case a dispute actually exists or is apprehended. The deadline is fixed from the date of notice of strike. Works Committee to provide machinery for mutual consultation between employers and employees have been set up. Sixthly. it can be referred to a Tribunal by the appropriate government. Fifthly. To expedite conciliation proceedings.

(vii) It has inserted a new section 17.LABOUR LEGISLATION Some of the important highlights of the Industrial Disputes (Amendment) Act. (vi) It provides for the continuation of industrial disputes proceedings. if the employer prefers an appeal to the High Court or to the Supreme Court. by inserting a new Chapter II-B. (v) It stipulates a time limit for deciding industrial disputes. (iii) It shall cover under the term ―workmen‖ even the supervisory staff whose wages do not exceed Rs. Tribunal or National Tribunal regarding reinstatement of any workman. (ii) The term ―Industry‖ has been defined widely in the light of the Supreme Court decision in the case of Bangalore Water Supply Company. in the case of death of a workman. over the decision of the Labour Court. both individuals and collective and also for disposal of claims. the Industrial Tribunal or the National Tribunal with a view to secure speedier justice to workmen. etc. (iv) It has made provision for setting up of a time-bound grievance redressal procedure in establishments employing 100 or more workers.600 per month. to the workman.. B providing for payment of full wages. the dispute in relation to which the Central Government is the appropriate Government. applications and other references by the Labour Court. by the heirs etc. 1982 are : (i) It has empowered the Central Government to refer an industrial dispute to a Labour Court or an Industrial Tribunal where. [486] . 1.

(3) General Scheme of The Act The Act contains 40 Sections which have been grouped in 7 Chapters. Chapter –II B deals with reference of certain individual disputes t grievance settlement authorities. commencement. industry. strike. Industrial Tribunal and National Tribunals. public utility services. (x) A new chapter V-C has been added dealing with Unfair Labour Practices by both employers as well as workmen. Chapter II details out the various Authorities under the Act and how they are constituted. retrenchment. and also by trade unions and also periods for the imposition of penalties. and finality of orders constituting Boards. Tribunal and National Tribunals. etc. etc. Labour Courts. definitions. employer. (ix) Chapter V-B has been made applicable to industrial establishments employing 100 workmen. Courts of Enquiry. filling of vacancies. average pay. Chapter IIA deals with notice of change and the power of the government to exempt. lickout. The new amendments seek t achieve the above objectives and to provide for certain other consequential and clarificatory changes in the Act. lay-off. bonus. Conciliation Officers. Chapter I deals with the preliminary matters like the respondents tile. These comprise works Committee. particularly those relating to appropriate government. It also deals with disqualifications for the presiding officers of Laour Court. [487] . Extent. industrial dispute. Boards of Conciliation. workmen. award and settlement.LABOUR LEGISLATION (viii) A new provision for lay-off in mines on various grounds has been incorporated.

Chapter IV deals with the procedures. re-employment of retrenched workers. Schedule Third deals with matters within the jurisdiction of Industrial Tribunals. Chapter VII deals with miscellaneous provisions. procedure to be adopted in dealing with the industrial disputes. powers and duties of authorities. instigation. lockouts. settlement and commencement of the award. compensation. Chapter VI deals with penalties for illegal strikes and lockouts. amendment of modification and voluntary reference by parties of disputes to arbitration. publication of the reports and awards. and Schedule Fourth mentions the conditions of service for change to which notice is to be given Schedule Fifth deals with unfair labour practices. their cancellation. Schedule second deals with matters within the jurisdiction of Labour Courts.LABOUR LEGISLATION Chapter III relates to reference of disputes to the various authorities. Chapter V-B deals with closing down establishments and V-C deals with unfair labour practices. Chapter V and VA deals with strikes. their prohibition. period of operation of settlements and awards. The Act contains 5 schedules. breach of settlement and other offences. illegal strikes as well as lay-off. Schedule First specifies the industries which may be declared to be the public utility services. Retrenchment. INDUSTRIAL EMPLOYMENT(STANDING ORDERS)ACT The Object of the Act [488] .

This Act requires the employers to define the conditions of service in their establishments and to reduce them to writing and to get them compulsorily certified with a view to avoid unnecessary industrial disputes .LABOUR LEGISLATION The preamble of the Act clearly says that the ―Standing Orders shall deal with the conditions of employment of workers in an industrial establishment. with sufficient precision . they also represent a form of compulsory collective bargaining agreement with a built –in device for compulsory arbitration. as also their and interpretation arises. This aims of the Act have been : (1) To define . It is obligatory upon all employers/covered by this Act to define precisely the conditions of employment under them which will govern relations between the employer and the employees and to make the said conditions known to the workmen employed by them. They may be described as the written ―Code of Conduct ― for employees . [489] . In other words. Standing Orders are intended to be the nature of ― shop rules ― promulgated by employers under statutory obligations . ―The Act provides uniformity of terms of employment in respect of all employees belonging to the same category and discharging the same or similar work in an industrial establishment. for any act subversive of discipline is described as an act misconduct. the principal conditions of employment in industrial establishments under them and to make the said conditions known to workmen employed by them. if any dispute relating to the fairness and reasonableness of the rules . In actual practice. The standing orders bring home to the employers and the employee as to on what terms and conditions the workmen are offering to work and the employer is offering to engage them .

LABOUR LEGISLATION (2) To regulate standards of conduct of the employers and employees so that labour –management relations could be improved. harmonious working conditions and achieve higher productivity by providing satisfactory employment and working conditions. They specify duties and responsibilities on the part of both employers and employees. which after certification from competent authority under the Act. the employers to follow certain specified rules and regulations as laid down regarding working [490] . and also those who were employed previously. In sum . (6) To provide statutory sanctity and importance to the standings orders. the purpose of Standing Orders is to create an attitude of mind among both the parties so that industrial harmony is achieved in an industrial establishment. Once the Standing Orders come into force. On the one hand. (5) To specify the duties and responsibilities of the both employers and the employees. they make both of them conscious of their limitations. they bind all those presently in employment of the concerned establishments as well as those who are appointed thereafter. (3) To maintain proper discipline. The Orders from part of the contract between management and everyone of its employee. constitute the statutory terms and conditions of employment in industrial undertakings. They require. These are reduced in writing and they are to be compulsorily certified with a with a view to avoid unwanted industrial disputes. The Act makes provision for certification of Standing Order. (4) To provide for redressal of grievances arising out of employment or relating to unfair treatment of wrongful exaction on the part of the employers against the employees.

(d) Most of the mutual rights and duties of workers and management are clearly defined. (b) These are approved by the proper authority and published in such a way that all the workers can be familiar with them. On the other hand. pay days. and the procedure which the worker has to follow when he has a grievance are both given in clear language. (c) All the principal terms and conditions of employment. The procedure which the management is to follow in disciplining the worker. termination of employment. they require that the employees should adhere to rules and regulations mentioned in the Standing Orders. except matters pertaining to wages and other forms of remuneration. Main Features of the Act The substance of the Act may be stated thus: (a) Standing Orders cover all matters specified in the Schedule of the Act. holidays. [491] . (e) The procedure to be followed whenever there is any dispute or disagreement over these mutual rights and duties are also specified. temporary stoppages of work. granting of leave to the employees. supervision or dismissal in certain conditions.LABOUR LEGISLATION hours. Standing Orders try to create an attitude among both the parties which is beneficial for achieving industrial harmony. are settled clearly under the Standing Orders.