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REGENT UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF SCIENCE AND

TECHNOLOGY








Design and Construction of a Tele- Remote System to control sliding
windows

PRESENTED BY
Atanga, Azaare Francis
I D: 1960108

DISSERTATION SUBMITTED TO THE SCHOOL OF INFORMATICS
AND ENGINEERING, REGENT UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF SCIENCE
AND TECHNOLOGY, IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE
REQUIREMENT FOR THE AWARD OF BACHELOR OF ENGINEERING
DEGREE IN ELECTRONICS AND SYSTEMS ENGINEERING
(TELECOMMUNICATION OPTION)

SEPTEMBER, 2011
ii


DECLARATION

This dissertation has not previously been accepted in substance for a degree or being
concurrently submitted in candidature for any degree.
This dissertation is a result of my investigations except otherwise stated. All sources used in the
production of this dissertation are acknowledged by appropriate citation and explicit references
and are included in the bibliography that is appended.
I give my consent for this dissertation, if accepted, to be available for photocopying and for inter-
library loan, and for the title and summary to be made available to organizations external to
Regent University College of Science and Technology.


..……………….. …………………………
Student’s Signature Date
(Atanga, Azaare Francis)

This dissertation is submitted for examination with the full knowledge and acceptance of my
supervisor.

………………………. …………………………
Supervisor’s signature Date
(Mr. Emmanuel A. Williams)
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ABSTRACT

Telecommunication and Electronics technologies have advanced to such a stage where it
became possible to remotely close slide windows or doors of your house or office. Thus, this
project has demonstrated beyond all reasonable doubts that, it is not only nearness to the
controlled system that remote control operations can be possible, but also, when millions of
miles away from home or office. The embedded DTMF receiver (MT8870) was utilized in
connection with a personal mobile phone, a clock circuit, a decoder system and a stepper motor
with pulley system, to make the idea a success. Interestingly, remote control systems have
graduated from infrared technology through radio to telephone remote control systems. The
method through which the ‘Tele-remote system’ was designed and constructed was put in simple
terms such that anyone who has basic understanding of electronics can reproduce this project.
The circuit design was systematically put together by the aid of a computerized software system
known as “Circuit Maker version 5”.Testing the system has been explained in the results and
findings of which the system closes slide windows and doors but could not open them. It was
concluded that the main objective of using telephone to remotely close slide doors and windows
was achieved. Recommendations were then given for further research and advancement in the
circuitry to enable using the system to open the slide doors and windows as well.



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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

My sincere gratitude first of all goes to the Almighty God for seeing me through this research
successfully. Lord, thank you. Secondly, I cannot forget the fact that there is this special brother
of mine who assisted me financially when things got tough for me along the way. He is no other
than Rexford Anaba Atanga. I appreciate you.
Then also, there are a special number of people who gave tremendous support and
encouragement during my research: I must say thank you to John Aquah-Carrie for making
available to me his electronics shop, tools and equipments.
My special thanks goes also to my supervisor, Mr. Emmanuel A. Williams, he has been like a
father to me. You guided me throughout my write up. You assisted me to address many
mistakes. I cannot forget that the School of Informatics and Engineering did me some blessing. I
say thank you to my Head of Department and the Dean.
Last but not the least, I will like to extend my gratification to my wife Rita, thank you for your
encouragement and love during my sleepless nights. Thank you.






v


DEDICATION

I dedicate this project to the only Living God for He has done everything for this project to
become a reality.


















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DECLARATION…………………………………………………………..……………i
ABSTRACT…………………………………………………………….……………… ii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT………………………………………………..….…………iii
DEDICATION…………………………………………………….………....…………iv
TABLE OF CONTENTS…………………………………………………………PAGES
1.0 CHAPTER ONE - INTRODUCTION………….......……...…….........…………1
1.1. Background..………………………………………..…………………….…………1
1.2. Statement of Problem………..………………………………………........…………2
1.3. Objective……….……………………………………………….…...........…………3
1.4. Scope of Study………………….…..……………………………..….…..…………3
1.5. Significance of Study……………………………………………….....………….....3
1.6. Limitation…………………………….………………………………......………….3
2.0. CHAPTER TWO - LITERATURE REVIEW…………………….….………....5
2.1. Introduction……………………………………..….…….……….……...………….5
2.2. Existing Projects……………………………………………………....................…..5
2.2.1. Television Remote Control……………………….…………………………...…..5
2.2.2 Voice Operated Remote Control …………………………………………..………6
2.2.3 Opto-Components……………….……..………………………………….….…....7
2.2.4 Consumer Electronics………………………………………………….…………...8
2.2.5 Principles of Infrared Operation………………………………………….……..….8
2.2.6. Radio Remote Control………………………………………..…………………9
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2.2.7. Opto-Coupler……………………………………………….…………………….10
2.3. The 555 Timer………………………………………………………...…………….11
2.4. Operational Amplifier………………………………………….……………….......14
2.4.1 Operational Amplifier Parameters……………………..……………..………...…16
2.5. The Transistor as a Switch: ………………………………………………………...17
2.7. The LM317 Adjustable Voltage Regulator:....….………………….....…………….22
2.8. Logic Gate……………………………………………………….….....……………23
2.8.1. NAND Gate …………………………………………………..….....……………23
2.8.2 The JK Flip flop……………………………………………….…......……………23
2.9. Stepper Motor……………………….……………………………….……………25
2.9. Dual Tone Multi-Frequency……………………….…………….….....……………26
2.9.1 Resistors………………………………………………………….......……………27
2.9.2 Resistor Colour Code………………….…………………………....…………….28
3.0 CHAPTER THREE- METHODOLOGY………...………….…….……………29
3.1. Introduction…………………………………………….…….………………….....29
3.2. Components used for The Project…………..……………………......………….....29
3.3 Tools for the Project …………………………………….... …….........…………....31
3.4. Methods…………………………………………………………………………....32
3.4.1. Designing the Complete Circuit Diagram……………………....…………........32
3.4.2. Testing the Opto-coupler…………………………….………..…………………33
3.4.3 One Shot Monostable Flipflop……………..……………….……………………34
3.4.4. Switching Relay with a Transistor Switch…….…………………………….......35
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3.4.5. Transfer of Design to the PCB…………………………………….…………..35
4.0. CHAPTER FOUR: SYSTEM DESIGN, DEVELOPMENT AND
IMPLEMENTATION………………………………………………………………36
4.1. System Design………..………………………………….….………...…………36
4.2. Block Diagram of Tele-remote System……………...……....……….…………..36
4.2.1. Design Calculations……………………………………...………………………..36
4.2.2 .Complete Circuit of the Project……………………………………..…………40
.4.3. Development and implementation…………………………………......…………...41
4.3.1. Stages of Development…………………………………..…..............…………...41
5.0.CHAPTER FIVE - RESULTS AND DISCUSSION…………..…...…………48
5.1 Results……………………………….……………………………….....…………48
5.2 Cost Analysis………………………………… .……………………….…………48
5.2.1 Material Cost…………………………………………………………………….48
5.2.2 Labour Cost……………………………………………………..........…………50
5.2.3 Overhead Charge………………………………………………..........…………50
5.3 Discussion…………………………………………………………………………51
6.0 CHAPTER SIX – CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION..………....52
6.1 Conclusion………………………………………………………............……….. 52
6.2 Recommendation…………………………….………….………............…….…..52
References………………….…………………………………………..........………..54
Glossary……………………………….………………………………..........………..56
List of Figures……………………………………...…………………...........…….….58
ListofTables…………………..…………………………………………………….…60
1


CHAPTER ONE




1.0 INTRODUCTION

1.1. Background of the study
Remote control systems were formerly designed to control remote systems in a very short
range. Thus, Infrared, Bluetooth and Radio technologies have been of great importance when it
comes to controls within short distances. Modern electronics has made it possible to control
remote systems over wide range. The advent of modern telecommunication infrastructure has
made it possible for remote systems to be controlled where ever in the world. Thus overcoming
the limited range offered by Infrared, Bluetooth and Radio technologies.
The purpose of this design and construction of tele-remote control system to close sliding
windows via mobile phone is to enable busy people to be able to close sliding windows when
they are away from home. The system consists of a personal mobile phone of the user and the
remote system installed in the residence of the user. The remote system has an entrenched mobile
phone that receives command codes from the personal mobile phone of the user. An MTN
customized mobile phone was used for the sake of this project.
The user will dial the mobile number of the mobile phone embedded in the system and the
system will respond automatically. As it responds, the user will notice active on the screen of his
personal mobile phone, and then he or she will start issuing command codes from his or her
keypad of the phone.
The prototype was designed to receive command codes from the number ‘2’ of the phone
keypad. Pressing the digit ‘2’ will cause the slide window to close.
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A limit switch generates a feedback in the form of a tone to inform user that the slide window or
door has been completely closed.
This system will be a convenient system for busy people whose daily schedules are very tight
and always late for home.
It is however important to note that due to financial difficulties in providing a number of sliding
windows, the prototype has only one sliding window available.
1.2 Statement of Problem

Human beings as dynamic thinking creatures always strive to make life some-what easy. If
one is in the house he or she can open and close slide windows manually or by the use of the
remote controls that depend on close proximity to function properly. If one happened to move
out of the house to a distant place where the infrared, Bluetooth and radio remote controls have
become helpless and then he remembers he or she did not close the sliding windows; supposing
that, it is even threatening to rain, and the case is that; no one can also enter your house to close
the windows since the main door to the house had been locked. How can you close your
windows? Does one resort to prayers so that the rain stops? Or one just have to let the storm
destroy things in the house? This is a serious problem that requires an innovative solution. Now,
the proposed control system that uses the telecommunication finds this solution. The question
however is:

• Can this system really be able to close a slide door or window?
• Will this system work the same with different kinds of mobile phones?


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1.3 Objectives

The main aim of this project is to design and subsequently construct an operational tele- remote
control system that can control sliding windows. The system should be able
• To close the slide windows easily.
• To work successfully with all kinds of mobile phones .i.e. different mobile networks.

1.4. Scope of study

The study is to construct the telephone remote control system to close sliding windows. It must
come with a feedback to indicate the complete closure of the door or window.
The areas of opto-electronics such as opto –couplers, light emitting diodes, photo-transistors,
flip-flops, operational amplifiers, logic gates and 555 timers, tackling the various aspects of the
timer circuits. Multiplexers and decoders have not been left out.
A little touch on telecommunication is on the Dual Multi-Frequency Tone (DTMF).
1.5 Significance of Study
The Tele-remote System will play a very important role in society. Busy people who can easily
forget to close up their sliding windows can now do so while at a distant place. This prevents
rain water from destroying properties inside their houses when they forgot to close their sliding
windows.
1.6. Limitation of the study
The first limiting factor to this study has to do with finance. Everything revolving around this
project involves money: Money for transportation to go round for data, money to search for
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information from the internet, money for the purchase of instruments and money to purchase
components to build the prototype.
Lack of access to components becomes another limitation as far as this project was concerned.
The principal components such as MT 8870, the piezoelectric-crystal, 74LS122, and some of the
regulators were imported from China at a very expensive price due to Shipment cost.
It must also be made clear that time was another limiting factor; the project could have
been modeled with more advanced circuitry to take care of other functions like setting a security
password, tamper facility, and lockout facility. Adding this circuitry would have required a little
longer time.




























5





CHAPTER TWO
2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Introduction
This chapter looks deep into the revolution of remote control systems, beginning from infrared
technology, through Bluetooth to radio and to voice operated remote control systems. Important
theories that are relevant for the research and building of the project have also been studied.
2.2. Existing projects
2.2.1. Television remote control
The history of remote control systems were developed since the 1898, when Nikola Tesla made
one and named it ,U.S. Patent 613,809, Method of an Apparatus for Controlling Mechanism of
Moving Vehicle or Vehicles. In 1898, he presented a radio-controlled boat to the public during an
electrical exhibition at Madison Square Garden. Tesla called his boat a "teleautomaton’ [1]
A remote control, according to Wikipedia, is a component of an electronics device, which was
originally meant for a television set, used for operating the television device wirelessly from a
short line-of-sight distance. The remote control can be considered as a kind of controller. It is
known by many other names as well, such as converter, clicker, "The box" didge, flipper, the
tuner, the changer, or the button. Usually, remote controls are Consumer IR devices performing
the function of issuing commands from a distance to televisions or other consumer electronics.
An example of such consumer electronics are stereo systems, DVD players and dimmers.
Remote controls for these devices are usually small wireless handheld objects with a matrix of
buttons for setting various channels of television sets, track number, and volume. It was clear
that, for the majority of modern devices with this kind of control, the remote contains all the
function controls while the controlled device itself only has a handful of essential primary
controls. These remotes always almost communicate through infrared (IR) signals and a few use
radio signals for their transmission. Earlier remote controls in the 1970s made use of ultrasonic
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tones. Television IR signals can be mimicked by a universal remote, which is able to emulate the
functionality of most major brand television remote controls. They are usually powered by small
A23 size batteries.
In 1903, Leonardo Torres Quevedo presented the Telekino at the Paris Academy of Science,
accompanied by a brief, and making an experimental demonstration. In the same time he
obtained a patent in France, Spain, Great Britain, and the United States. The Telekino consisted
of a robot that executed commands transmitted by electromagnetic waves. It constituted the
world's first apparatus for radio control and was a pioneer in the field of remote control [1]
The first remote-controlled model aeroplane flew in 1932, and the use of remote control
technology for military purposes was worked intensively during the Second World War, one
result of this being the German Wasserfall missile.
By the late 1930s, several radio manufacturers offered remote controls for some of their higher-
end models.

Most of these were connected to the set being controlled by wires, but the Philco
Mystery Control (1939) was a battery-operated low-frequency radio transmitter. That makes it
the first wireless remote control for consumer electronic devices.
The first remote intended to control a television was developed by Zenith Radio Corporation in
1950. The remote, called "Lazy Bones", was connected to the television by a wire. A wireless
remote control, the "Flashmatic", was developed in 1955, it worked by shining a beam of light
onto a photoelectric cell, but the cell did not distinguish between light from the remote and light
from other sources. The Flasmatic also had to be pointed very precisely at the receiver in order to
work.

[4]
7

In the late 2000s-early 2010s, a number of Smartphone and portable media player platforms were
provided with installable software applications which allow for the remote controlling of media
centers and media players on home theater PCs and general-purpose personal computers over wi-
Fi, such as iTunes Remote on iOS. In comparison to the user interfaces of physically buttoned
dedicated remote control devices, the user interfaces of these remote control applications are
designed to take advantage of the dynamic graphics offered by usually touch screened handheld
devices, making for larger virtual buttons and virtual keyboards.
2.2.2 Voice Operated Remote Control
The world’s most advanced remote control lets users tell the system what to do-without even
lifting a finger![5]. Why control your 21-st century system with yesterday's old-fashioned push-
button technology? It is now possible to drive sales with a modern voice-operated remote
control. This technology is so advanced that it has been used in interplanetary space probes.
The voice Operated Remote Control Technology uses the sound of your voice to control your
system. The remote control converts spoken words into remote control signals. The system is
able to recognize over fifty commands — in any language. That means that you can operate this
system successfully only when you are close to it. When you go far away such that your voice
can not be heard by the system, you would make no impact.
2.2.3. Opto Components
. The infrared diode modulates at a speed corresponding to a particular function. When seen
through a digital camera, the diode appears to illuminate purple light.
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Most remote controls for electronic appliances use a near infrared diode to emit a beam of light
that reaches the device. A 940 nm wavelength LED is typical. This infrared light is invisible to
the human eye, but picked up by sensors on the receiving device. Video cameras see the diode as
if it produces visible purple light.
With a single channel (single-function, one-button) remote control the presence of a carrier
signal can be used to trigger a function. For multi-channel (normal multi-function) remote
controls more sophisticated procedures are necessary: one consists of modulating the carrier with
signals of different frequency. After the demodulation of the received signal, the appropriate
frequency filters are applied to separate the respective signals. Nowadays digital procedures are
more commonly used. One can often hear the signals being modulated on the infrared carrier by
operating a remote control in very close proximity to an AM radio not tuned to a station.
2.2.4. Consumer Electronics
Different manufacturers of infrared remote controls use different protocols to transmit the
infrared commands. The RC-5 protocol that has its origins within Philips uses, for instance, a
total of 14 bits for each button press. The bit pattern is modulated onto a carrier frequency that,
again, can be different for different manufacturers and standards, in the case of RC-5, a 36 kHz
carrier is being used. Other consumer infrared protocols are different.
2.2.5. Principles of Infrared Operation
Since infrared (IR) remote controls use light, they require line of sight to operate the destination
device. The signal can, however, be reflected by mirrors, just like any other light source. If
operation is required where no line of sight is possible, for instance when controlling equipment
9

in another room or installed in a cabinet, many brands of IR extenders are available for this on
the market. Most of these have an IR receiver, picking up the IR signal and relaying it via radio
waves to the remote part, which has an IR transmitter mimicking the original IR control. Infrared
receivers also tend to have a more or less limited operating angle, which mainly depends on the
optical characteristics of the phototransistor. However, it’s easy to increase the operating angle
using a dull transparent object in front of the receiver.
2.2.6. Radio Remote Control
Radio remote control (RF Remote Control) is a way to control distance objects using a variety of
radio signals transmitted by the remote control device. By using radio remote control system,
you can control a variety of mechanical or electronic devices to complete various operations,
such as closing circuit, move handle, start motor, etc. As a complementary method to infrared
remote control type, the radio remote control is widely used in garage door remote control,
electric gate remote control, automatic barrier remote control, burglar alarm, industrial remote
control and wireless home alarm systems.
A radio remote control system commonly has two parts: transmit and receive. Transmitter part is
generally divided into two types, namely, rf remote control and transmitter module. By the way
of using, the rf remote control can be used independently as a whole while the transmitter
module is used as a component in the circuit, the advantage of using transmitter model is it can
be seamlessly connected with application circuit, and it's size is small, but users must have a
knowledge of the circuit to use the transmitter module, the rf remote control is much more easy
to use at this point.
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Receiver part also is generally divided into two types, namely, the super-regenerative receiver
and the super heterodyne receiver, super-regenerative receiver is actually working like the
regeneration of under intermittent oscillation detection circuit while Super heterodyne type is
working like the one in radio receiver. Super heterodyne receiver features stability, high
sensitivity and the anti-interference ability is relatively good, while super-regenerative receiver
features a small package and the price is also cheaper.
2.2.7. Opto-coupler
Figure 2.1 Opto Isolator


Figure2.1 shows an LED driving a phototransistor. This is a much more sensitive and perfect
isolator for coupling between high voltage devices and low voltage ones. The idea is straight
forward. Any change in V
in
produces changes in the LED, which changes the current through the
phototransistor. In turn, this produces changes in voltage across the collector-emitter terminals.
Therefore, a signal voltage is coupled from the input circuit to the output circuit.
Again, the big advantage of an opto-coupler is the electrical isolation between the input and the
output circuits. Stated in another manner, common for the input is different from the common for
11

the output circuit because of this, no conductive path exists between the two circuits. This means
that you can ground one of the circuits and float the other. For instance, the input circuit can be
grounded to the chassis of the equipment, while the common of the output side is ungrounded.
Figure 2.2 shows the circuit symbol for an Opto-Coupler.




Figure 2.2 Opto-coupler symbol.

The current of the LED in the opto-coupler package is calculated from the following formula:

Rs
Vin
ILED
414 . 1
~

and the collector saturation current of the photo transistor is calculated from:

I
C (SAT
) =V
CC
/RC


2.3. The 555 Timer





Fig. 2.3. 555 Timer Symbol

The figure 2.3 above represents the circuit symbol for a 555 Timer by courtesy 555-timer-
circuits.com
12


Figure 2.4 Inner Components of 555 timer

The figure 2.4 shows the inner components that make up the 555 timer which is an integrated
circuit. The 555 timer combines a relaxation oscillator, two comparators, an RS-Flip Flop, and a
discharge transistor. This versatile IC has so many applications that it has become an industrial
standard. Figure 2.4 is a simplified circuit diagram of an NE555 timer, an 8pin IC timer. The
upper comparator has a threshold input (pin6) and control input (pin5). In most applications, the
control input is not used, so that the control voltage equals +2V
CC
/3. Whenever the threshold
voltage exceeds the control voltage, the high output from the comparator will set the flip flop.
The collector of the discharge transistor goes to (pin7). When this pin is connected to an external
timing capacitor, a high Q output from the flip flop will saturate the transistor and discharge the
capacitor. When a LOW output from the flip-flop, the transistor open and the capacitor charges
as previously described. The complementary signal out of the flip flop goes to (pin3), the output.
When the external reset (pin4) is grounded, it inhibits the device (prevents it from working). This
13

ON/OFF feature is sometimes useful. In most application, however, the external reset is not used,
and (pin4) is tied directly to the supply voltage.
The lower comparator, its inverting input is called the trigger (pin2). Because of the voltage
divider, the non-inverting input has fixed voltage of +V
CC
/3. When the trigger input voltage is
slightly less than +V
CC
/3, the op-amp goes high and reset the flip flop.
Finally, (pin1) is the chip ground, while (pin8) is the supply pin. The 555 timer works maximum
supply voltage of 16V.
Monostable-mode
A monostable circuit produces one pulse of a set length in response to a trigger input such as a
push button. The output of the circuit stays in the low state until there is a trigger input, hence the
name "monostable" meaning "one stable state". This type of circuit is ideal for use in a "push to
operate" system for a model displayed at exhibitions. A visitor can push a button to start a
model's mechanism moving, and the mechanism will automatically switch off after a set time.


Fig. 2.5 555 timer in Monostable Mode.




14

Astable mode

An astable circuit has no stable state - hence the name "astable". The output continually switches
state between high and low without any intervention from the user, called a 'square' wave. This
type of circuit could be used to give a mechanism intermittent motion by switching a motor on
and off at regular intervals. It can also be used to flash lamps and LEDs, and is useful as a 'clock'
pulse for other digital ICs and circuits.

Fig. 2.6 555 Timer in Astable Mode

The following formulas are used during application designs of the 555 timer:

Pulse width is: W = 1.1RC.

Frequency is:
C R R T
f
) 2 (
44 . 1 1
2 1 +
= =

Time is: .0693(R
1
+2R
2
)C


2.4. Operational Amplifier

An operational amplifier, or op-amp, is linear integrated circuit that has a very high voltage gain,
high input impedance, and low output impedance. An op-amp is never used without the
application of either negative or positive feedback.
15


Figure 2.7 Op-amp Symbol

The symbol of an op-amp is show in fig 2.7. It has two input terminals and one output. One of
the terminals labeled (-) is known as the inverting input since the signal applied to this terminal
appears at the output with opposite polarity, i.e, a sinusoidal input signal will experience a phase
shift of 180
o
. The other input terminal labeled (+), is the non-inverting input, and a signal
applied to this terminal appears at the output without inversion. The op-amp actualizes the
difference between the voltages applied to it input terminals. Two further terminals are provided
for the connection of positive and negative power supply voltages. Both voltages are necessary
so that the output voltage can vary between zero volts. Most Op-amps will operate satisfactory
from a wide range of supply voltages and few are designed to operate from single supply
voltage.
Op-amps are either bipolar, all bipolar, FET or mixed fabrication and have JFET.
Vd
+
÷
Vo
Rin~inf Rout~0
Input 1
Input 2
Output
+Vcc
-Vcc
16

Devices that have a FET input circuit are known as BiFET Op-amps and devices that employ a
MOSFET input are BIMOS op-amp. There are also other kinds of op-amp in use: (a) the current
differencing amplifier (CDA), and (b) the operational transconductance amplifier (OTA).

2.4.1. Parameters of Operational Amplifiers

(a) Gain:
The ideal op-amp would have an infinite open-loop differential gain but, naturally, practical
circuit falls far short of this. Practical op-amps have open-loop gains which vary considerably
from one type to another but may be somewhere between 25,000 and 300,000. The gain is often
(incorrectly) expressed in decibels.
(b) Input Resistance:
Ideally, the input resistance of an op-amp is infinitely high but in practice it may be any value
between 250Kohm and 40Mohm for bipolar transistor input and 10
12
ohms for FET input type.
(c) Output Resistance:
Since an op-amp is essentially a voltage amplifier, its output resistance should be as low as
possible. Practical output resistance is in the region of 100 ohms.
(d) Input Offset Voltage:
Ideally, the output voltage of an op-amp should be zero when zero volt signal is applied to both
of its inputs. For any practical amplifier it is found that an output voltage does not exist for zero
input voltage. This voltage arises because of small unbalances within the op-amp but, for
convenience, it is assumed to be caused by an input offset voltage V
os.
The input offset voltage of
an op-amp is equal to the output voltage for zero input voltage divided by the open-loop voltage
gain of the op-amp.
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The input offset voltage is in the range of 10mV to 7mV for bipolar transistor input type and
0.5mV to 15mV for FET input type. Although, the offset voltage is small it is amplified by the
circuit and may not be of negligible amplitude at the nulling out the effect of V
os
.
(e) Input Bias Current:
The input circuit of an op-amp is always a differential amplifier and in many cases bipolar
transistors are employed. Both transistor must be provide with base current, and to keep the
circuit balance these base currents should be of the equal value. In all op-amps, however,
manufacture imperfections means that there is always some difference between the base bias
currents. The input bias current is one-half the sum of the bias current taken by each input of the
op-amp. Typically, the input bias current is 10 to 50nA for a bipolar transistor input op-amp and
as low as 10 to 100pA for FET input type.
(f) Input Offset Current:
The difference between the bias current is known as the input offset current. Typical values are
in the region of 3 to 20nA for bipolar transistor in put type and a few pA for FET input type.
2.5. The Transistor as a Switch
When used as an AC signal amplifier, the transistors Base biasing voltage is applied so that it
always operates within its "active" region. That is the linear parts of the output characteristics
curves are used. However, both the NPN & PNP type bipolar transistors can be made to operate
as an "ON/OFF" type solid state switch by biasing its Base differently to that of an amplifier.
Solid state switches are one of the main applications of transistors. Transistor switches are used
for controlling high power devices such as motors, solenoids or lamps, but they can also be used
in digital electronics and logic gate circuits.
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If the circuit uses the Bipolar Transistor as a Switch; then the biasing of the transistor, either
NPN or PNP, is arranged to operate at the sides of the V-I characteristics curves as shown in
Fig.2.8 below. The areas of operation for a transistor switch are known as the Saturation Region
and the Cut-off Region. This means then that we can ignore the operating Q-point biasing and
voltage divider circuitry required for amplification,
Operating Regions
Figure 2.8 Load line of Transistor

The pink shaded area at the bottom of the curves represents the "Cut-off" region while the blue
area to the left represents the "Saturation" region of the transistor. Both these transistor regions
are defined as:
19

a. Cut-off Region
Here the operating conditions of the transistor are zero input base current ( I
B
), zero output
collector current ( I
C
) and maximum collector voltage ( V
CE
) which results in a large depletion
layer and no current flowing through the device. Therefore the transistor is switched "Fully-
OFF". With the cut-off region, the following features are considered.

Figure 2.9 Cut-Off
- The input and Base are grounded (0v)
- Base-Emitter voltage V
BE
< 0.7V
- Base-Emitter junction is reverse
biased
- Base-Collector junction is reverse
biased
- Transistor is "fully-OFF" (Cut-off
region)
- No Collector current flows ( I
C
= 0 )
- V
OUT
= V
CE
= V
CC
= "1"
- Transistor operates as an "open
switch"
Then we can define the "cut-off region" or "OFF mode" when using a bipolar transistor as a
switch as being, both junctions reverse biased, I
B
< 0.7V and I
C
= 0. For a PNP transistor, the
Emitter potential must be negative with respect to the Base.
b. Saturation Region
Here the transistor will be biased so that the maximum amount of base current is applied,
resulting in maximum collector current resulting in the minimum collector emitter voltage drop
which results in the depletion layer being as small as possible and maximum current flowing
through the transistor. Therefore the transistor is switched "Fully-ON".
20

In the Saturation Region the following Characteristics are observed:

Figure 2.10 Saturation of Transistor
- The input and Base are connected to
V
CC

BaBase-Emitter voltage V
BE
> 0.7V
- Base-Emitter junction is forward biased
- Base-Collector junction is forward
biased
- Transistor is "fully-ON" (saturation
region)
- Max Collector current flows (I
C
=
Vcc/R
L
)
- V
CE
= 0 (ideal saturation)
- V
OUT
= V
CE
= "0"
- Transistor operates as a "closed switch"
Then we can define the "saturation region" or "ON mode" when using a bipolar transistor as a
switch as being, both junctions forward biased, I
B
> 0.7V and I
C
= Maximum. For a PNP
transistor, the Emitter potential must be positive with respect to the Base.
Then the transistor operates as a "single-pole single-throw" (SPST) solid state switch. With a
zero signal applied to the Base of the transistor it turns "OFF" acting like an open switch and
zero collector current flows. With a positive signal applied to the Base of the transistor it turns
"ON" acting like a closed switch and maximum circuit current flows through the device.
An example of an NPN Transistor as a switch being used to operate a relay is given below. With
inductive loads such as relays or solenoids a flywheel diode is placed across the load to dissipate
the back EMF generated by the inductive load when the transistor switches "OFF" and so protect
21

the transistor from damage. If the load is of a very high current or voltage nature, such as motors,
heaters etc, then the load current can be controlled via a suitable relay as shown.
Basic NPN Transistor Switching Circuit
Figure 2.11 shows the circuit diagram for an NPN Transistor Switch.

Figure 2.11 NPN Transistor Switch
It should be noted that to operate the transistor as a switch the transistor needs to be turned either
fully "OFF" (cut-off) or fully "ON" (saturated). An ideal transistor switch would have infinite
circuit resistance between the Collector and Emitter when turned "fully-OFF" resulting in zero
current flowing through it and zero resistance between the Collector and Emitter when turned
"fully-ON", resulting in maximum current flow. In practice when the transistor is turned "OFF",
small leakage currents flow through the transistor and when fully "ON" the device has a low
resistance value causing a small saturation voltage (V
CE
) across it. Even though the transistor is
not a perfect switch, in both the cut-off and saturation regions the power dissipated by the
transistor is at its minimum.
In order for the Base current to flow, the Base input terminal must be made more positive than
the Emitter by increasing it above the 0.7 volts needed for a silicon device.
22

By varying this Base-Emitter voltage V
BE
, the Base current is also altered and which in turn
controls the amount of Collector current flowing through the transistor. When maximum
Collector current flows the transistor is said to be saturated. The value of the Base resistor
determines how much input voltage is required and corresponding Base current to switch the
transistor fully "ON".
2.6. The LM317 Adjustable Voltage Regulator
The LM317 is a three terminal positive voltage regulator that can supply 1.5 amperes of load
current over an adjustable output range of 1.25 to 37volts. The load regulation is 0 .01 percent.
The line regulation is 0.01 percent; this means that output voltage changes only 0.01 percent for
each volt of input change. The ripple regulation is 80 dB. The data sheet of an LM317 gives this
formula for output voltage:






Fig 2.12 Voltage Regulator Symbol


|
.
|

\
|
+ = 1
R
R
1.25 V
1
2
out
This is valid from 1.25 to 37 volt. Typically, the filter capacitor is selected to get a peak-to-peak
ripple of about 10 percent. Since the regulator has about 80db of ripple rejection, the final peak-
to-peak ripple is around 0.001 percent.




23

2.7. Logic Gate

A logic gate is a circuit that has one or more input signals and only one output signal. In the
analysation of all logic gates, it is very necessary to make use of the truth table. The Truth table
shows all the input possibilities and the corresponding output for each input.
2.7.1. NAND Gate

The NAND gate has minimum of two or more inputs but only one output. The logic symbol for a
two input NAND gate is shown in fig 2.13, and the truth table is in below: the output, marked
‘X’ is the output and the inputs are ‘A’ and ‘B’.







Fig.2.13. NAND gate symbol

Table 2.0: Truth Table of NAND GATE

Input A Input B Output X
0 0 1
0 1 1
1 0 1
1 1 0

The X output is HIGH if either or both A and B are LOW. The X output is LOW only when both
inputs A and B are HIGH. The NAND actually performs a logic function identical to that of an
AND gate followed by an inverter.
2.7.2. The JK Flip Flop

The characteristic table of the JK flip-flop is shown below.
The main difference between the JK flip-flop and the SR flip-flop is that the JK allows an input J
= 1 and K = 1, which causes the state of the flip-flop to change; Q = Q
24

Another variation on a theme of Bistable Multivibrators is the J-K flip-flop. Essentially, this is a
modified version of an S-R flip-flop with no "invalid" or "illegal" output state.

Figure 2.14 J-K Flip flop

What used to be the S and R inputs are now called the J and K inputs, respectively. The old two-
input AND gates have been replaced with 3-input AND gates, and the third input of each gate
receives feedback from the Q and Qoutputs. What this does is that it permits the J input to have
effect only when the circuit is reset, and permit the K input to have effect only when the circuit is
set. In other words, the two inputs are interlocked, to use a relay logic term, so that they cannot
both be activated simultaneously. If the circuit is "set," the J input is inhibited by the 0 status of
Qthrough the lower AND gate; if the circuit is "reset," the K input is inhibited by the 0 status of
Q through the upper AND gate.
When both J and K inputs are 1, however, something unique happens. Because of the selective
inhibiting action of those 3-input AND gates, a "set" state inhibits input J so that the flip-flop
acts as if J=0 while K=1 when in fact both are 1. On the next clock pulse, the outputs will switch
("toggle") from set (Q=1 and not-Q=0) to reset (Q=0 and Q=1). Conversely, a "reset" state
inhibits input K so that the flip-flop acts as if J=1 and K=0 when in fact both are 1. The next
clock pulse toggles the circuit again from reset to set.
25

The end result is that the S-R flip-flop's "invalid" state is eliminated (along with the race
condition it engendered) and we get a useful feature as a bonus: the ability to toggle between the
two (bistable) output states with every transition of the clock input signal.

2.8. Stepper Motor

A Stepper Motor (or step motor) is a brushless, electric motor that can divide a full rotation
into a large number of steps. The motor's position can be controlled precisely without any
feedback mechanism as long as the motor’s rating is enough for the particular application.
The accurate control of a body by reason of its weight, velocity, inertia and distance can be
termed Motion Control in electronics. The various types of motion control mechanisms are
stepper motors, Brushless servo, linear Step motor, servo and DC Brush.
This project concentrates on step motor technology.
Fundamentally, stepper motor is a synchronous motor with the magnetic field electronically
switched to rotate the armature magnet around.
Permanent Magnet Stepper (can be subdivided in to 'tin-can' and 'hybrid', tin-can being a cheaper
product, and hybrid with higher quality bearings, smaller step angle, higher power density)
- Hybrid Synchronous Stepper
- Variable Reluctance Stepper
- Lavet type stepping motor
Permanent magnet motors use a permanent magnet (PM) in the rotor and operate on the
attraction or repulsion between the rotor PM and the stator electromagnets. Variable reluctance
(VR) motors have a plain iron rotor and operate based on the principle that minimum reluctance
26

occurs with minimum gap, hence the rotor points are attracted toward the stator magnet poles.
Hybrid stepper motors are named because they use a combination of PM and VR techniques to
achieve maximum power in a small package size.
2.9. Dual Tone Multi-Frequency
Dual-tone multi-frequency signaling (DTMF) is used for telecommunication signaling over
analog telephone lines in the voice-frequency band between telephone handsets and other
communications devices and the switching center. The version of DTMF that is used in push-
button telephone for tone dialing is known as Touch-Tone. It was first used by AT&T in
commerce, using that name as a registered trademark. DTMF is standardized by ITU-T
Recommendation Q.23. It is also known in the UK as MF4.
The DTMF keypad is laid out in a 4×4 matrix, with each row representing a low frequency, and
each column representing a high frequency. Pressing a single key (such as '0' ) will send a
sinusoidal tone for each of the two frequencies (941Hz and 1336 Hz)). The original keypads had
levers inside, so each button activated two contacts. The multiple tones are the reason for calling
the system multi-frequency. These tones are then decoded by the switching center to determine
which key was pressed.












Table 2.1 DTMF keypad frequencies (with
sound clips)

1209 Hz 1336 Hz 1477 Hz 1633 Hz
697 Hz

1 2 3 A
770 Hz

4 5 6 B

7 8 9 C
852 Hz






941 Hz

* 0 # D
27


2.9.1. Resistors

If there was not such a thing as resistance, the subject of electronics would not have existed; only
infinite currents would flow and voltages would not exist either.[5]. It has been a necessity to
reduce the flow of current if current is to be properly utilized. Resistors are components that
resist the flow of current and are said to have a resistance which is measured in ohms (Ω_),
named after George Ohm, who formulated the law (Ohms Law) by which the voltage and current
through a conductor are related. His law gave birth to the formula:
I =V/R,
Where I is the current flowing, measured in amps,
V is the voltage across the conductor, and
R is the resistance of the conductor, measured in ohms.
From this equation, you can see that, for a constant value of voltage, V,
If the resistance goes up, the current will go down, and vice versa.

Figure 2.15 Symbols for Resistor
The circuit symbols for resistors are shown in figure 2.15. Resistors are made in several ways,
the cheapest using carbon; another type is usually made from a ceramic cylinder having a very
thin film of metal placed in it – the thinner the film, the greater the resistance. All resistors are
coated with a thin film of insulation.
28

2.9.2. The Resistor Color Code
Each resistor has colour bands on it which enable us to see what value of Resistance it has. There
are normally three (but sometimes four) at one end. The fourth one gives the Tolerance levels.
The colours indicate figures, according to the table 2.2 below.
Table 2.2 Resitor color code














Tolerance Levels:
Gold- 5%
Silver- 10%




















Colour Value Colour Value
Black 0 Green 5
Brown 1 Blue 6
Red 2 Violet 7
Orange 3 Grey 8
Yellow 4 White 9
29

CHAPTER THREE

3.0 METHODOLOGY

3.1. Introduction

This chapter presents the list of the components used in the various blocks put together to form
the project. The techniques used to obtain the design and the procedure through which the design
was translated into the physical built up has been espoused here in this methodology chapter. The
chapter elaborates on how the data for this project were gathered. In this case, it was the
collection of components since our main data for engineering projects revolves around the
availability of every minute component. The tools and other materials that were used to make the
project a reality have been listed so as to make it easy for people who might in the future want to
build this project. Pictures of the soldering processes have been pasted as well.
3.2. Components used for the project

(a). Power Supply Unit
The power supply unit converted the alternating voltage to a smooth direct voltage for the rest of
the units to work. The power supply is the heart of the whole system. The under listed
components form the power supply unit:
 Main connecting wire and connectors
 Power transformer (240v-12v X 2, 1000MA)
 Diodes (12v, 1N539CD)
 Capacitors(electrolytic,[2200uF, 16v ] and [470uF, 35v]
 Positive Voltage regulator[ LM 317T, QNK824]
 Transistors [MPS 2222A]
 Resistor [220Ω]
30

(b). Dual Tone Multi-frequency ( DTMF) Receiver Unit.
The DTMF block was formed from the components below:
 MT8870DE [part code-0728A]
 Piezo-electric crystal [3.5795MHz]
 Capacitors [10uF, 16v]
 Resistors
 Diodes
 Voltage regulator
(c). The Decoder Unit
 DM74LS138N
 SN74LS122N
 SN74LS107AN
 Opto-coupler(EDR201A0500
(d). Switching Unit
 JK flip-flops
 SN74LS122N
 SN74LS107AN
 SPDT relays[ 6v]
(e). Clock Unit
 Timer(NE555P )
 SN74LS00N
 Capacitor [100uF, 16v]

31

(f). Call Accept Unit
 Timer (LM555CN-JM11AL)
 ZETTLER (AZ831-2C-50se)
 Diodes
 Resistors
All the components mentioned above were mounted and soldered on a Printed Circuit Board.
And of course, wires of sizes less than or equal to 1mm
2
and a mobile phone handset with a
registered SIM card and then the slide window that is to be controlled through a stepper motor
were included.
3.3. Tools
The various tools were employed in the project built-up:
(a) Hand tools
- Set of Screw Drivers: These were used to tighten screws of the case and the matrix
boards.
- Side Cutter: This was used to cut terminals of passive devices and cables
- Pair of Long Nose Pliers: This one was used to hold and tighten bolt and nuts.
(b) Machine tools

- A Band Saw was employed to cut mica sheet for the casing
- Grinding Machine was also used to grind the surface of aluminum sheet for the motor
holder
- Electric Sander was used to sooth the surface wooden frame of the window
- Electric Hand Drill: it was used to drill holes in the mica sheet for the case and holes in
the matrix boards.


32



(c) Instruments
• Oscilloscope
An oscilloscope was used to observe the voltage and current waveforms and for the
measurement of the frequency of the electrical signals.
• Digital Multimeter

Digital Multimeter was used for the measurement of voltage, current, resistance, capacitance
and frequencies of the components. The results of the measurements were displayed on liquid
crystal display. Thus, the instrument was used for continuity, resistance, voltage, current and
terminal checks.
• Soldering Iron

The soldering iron was used in joining the pieces of copper wires to each other and to
terminals. The joining surfaces were first cleaned with a wire brush and then coated with ROSIN
that cleans them chemically and assisted the solder in making a bond.
- Lead.
A coil of lead with flux was required for the soldering. The flux prevented dry joints in the
soldering process.
3.4. Methods

3.4.1 Designing the Complete Circuit Diagram

CIRCUIT MAKER version 5 Software was used to design the circuit diagram. The various
blocks that formed the project were designed individually before they were merged into one
complete circuit diagram of the project. The results of the designs were saved as picture
document and that enabled copying into Microsoft Office 2007 Word document.
33



3.4.2. Tests on Opto Coupler

Figure 3.1a . Testing Opto Coupler with an opened switch

Consider how the Opto Isolator was tested as shown in Fig. 3.1a above:
(a) When the switch was opened; no current flows through the LED in the Opto Coupler and
the LED emits no light. So the output transistor remained at Saturation. The collector
voltage measured was 5volts (V
c
=5V).

Figure 3.1 b. Testing Opto- coupler when switch was closed.
In fig3.1 b, when the switch was closed, the LED emits light and the output transistor cuts off.
The collector voltage was approximately zero (V
c
=0).




34



3.4.3. One Shot Mono Stable Flip flop

Figure 3.2 Monostable Flip flop Test

By following strictly the directives in the manufacturer’s data sheet the one shot mono stable flip
flop was built. A1 and A2 are active LOW trigger inputs which were tied together and connected
to a push button switch SW1 as shown in fig 3.2 above .
Table 3.1. One Shot Monostable Flip Flop output state







As shown in table 3.1 at the initial state of the one shot mono stable flip flop, when SW1 was
not closed, Q (pin 8) connected to the LED1 was OFF and Q (pin 6) connected to LED2 came
ON. When SW1 was pressed closed, both Q and Q outputs flip flop (*change state)
momentarily according to the time constant of RC. The Q output was used to clock the call
connected JK flip flop and Q output was used to trigger the call accept circuit.


SW1 Q
Q
Opened 0 1
Closed 1 0
35

3.4.4. Switching Relay with a Transistor Switch

Due to the fast nature by which transistor switch can be, the mechanical switch was substituted
with the transistor. C711, bipolar transistor was used in place SW1.

Fig3.3. Transistor switch for relay
3.4.5. Transfer of the Design to the Printed Circuit Board

As stated in 3.21, the design for the individual block units were wire- soldered onto the printed
circuit board. Below is a picture showing how the blocks were connected to one another.













Figure 3.4 Pictures of Circuits and Soldering process.

The power supply unit, the DTMF receiver unit, the switching unit and the call accept part were
joined together to form the project.


36


CHAPTER FOUR

4.0 SYSTEM DESIGN, DEVELOPMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION

4.1 System Design
Figure 4.1 Block Diagram of Tele-remote system

The individual units in the block diagram was explained by the aid of circuit diagrams as can be
seen in the complete circuit diagram below to make up the design of the project.
4.1.1. Design Calculations

Relay Driver:

The following are the design calculations of the relay driver.
Transistor specification (transistor ratings from the manufacturer’s data sheet)
V
CEO
30v
V
CBO
60v
V
EBO
5v
I
C
800mA
P
D
500mW
37

All voltage ratings are reverse breakdown voltages. The first rating is V
CEO
, which stand for the
voltage from collector to emitter with the base open.
V
CBO
is the voltage between the collector and the base with the emitter open.
V
EBO
is the voltage from the emitter to the base with the collector open.
I
C
is the maximum dc collector current rating: this means that C711 can handle up to 800mA of
steady current. The last ratings is PD, the maximum power rating of the device
P
D
=V
CE
I
C,
where P
D
is power dissipated, V
CE
is collect-Emitter voltage and I
c
is collector
current.
The V
CE
of the C711 is 12v and I
C
= 98.36mA, then P
D
= 118.032mW
This is less than power rating, 500mW. As with breakdown voltage, a good design should
include a safety factor to ensure a longer operating life for the transistor. Safety factor of 2 more
are common practice.
As the maximum power rating of C711 is 500mW, a safety of 2 is required a power dissipation
less than 400mW.
The input voltage to the base of the transistor C711 is 4.5v; this is the voltage on the Q outputs of
JK FF1 and JK FF2.
The base current is calculated from;
Rin
0.7v - Vin
IB =


Where Vin = 4.5v, 0.7v is intrinsic PN junction voltage of a silicon transistor (threshold voltage
of silicon transistor)

3.8mA
1000
0.7v - 4.5v
IB =
O
=




38

Saturation:
C
CC
(SAT)
R
V
IC =
73.52mA
68
5v
IC(SAT) =
O
=
Where, R
C
is the collector resistor, and instead of fixed resistor, because the transistor is used as
a relay driver, R
C
is the coil resistance of the relay.
Cutoff:

The cutoff voltage is the supply voltage minus the sum of the voltage around the collector and is
V
CC
-R
C
I
C
=0

Cutoff voltage = 5v-(68Ω ×73.52 ×10
-3
)

Cutoff = 0v


Opto- Coupler:

The following formulas were used to calculate the design of the Opto- coupler.

The light emitting diode side of the Opto- coupler; the LED current is

R
V 1.414
I
CC
LED
×
~
Where I
LED
is the light emitting diode current; 1.414 is a constant, V
CC
is the supply voltage to
the light emitting diode and R is the limiting resistor.

6.363mA
1000
v 5 . 4 1.414
ILED =
O
×
~

I
LED
= 6.363mA

The photo transistor side of the Opto- coupler: the saturation value of the photo transistor current
is
C
CC
C(SAT)
R
V
I ~
39

Where I
C(SAT)
is the saturation current (collector current), V
CC
is the supply voltage to the photo
transistor and Rc is the collector resistor of the photo transistor.
5mA
1000
5v
IC(SAT) =
O
~
I
C(SAT)
= 5mA


Cutoff:

The cutoff voltage is the supply voltage minus the sum of the voltage around the collector and is

V
CC
-R
C
I
C
=0

Cutoff voltage = 5v-(1000Ω ×5 ×10
-3
)

Cutoff = 0v

Clock Generator Time:

T
=
.069(R
1
+2R
2
)C

T = .69(1000+200000)10 ×10
-6


T = 1.3869sec














40

4.1.2. Complete Circuit Diagram
Figure 4.2 Complete Circuit of the Project
41

4.2. Development and Implementation

4.2.1 Stages of development and Implementation

a. Ring detect unit

Figure 4.3. Ring detect unit

When the mobile number assigned to the system is called and the ringing tone is transmitted on
the link, the ringing signal from the output of the mobile phone normally is sound wave
converted into alternating signal is then again converted to direct current by zener diode D1
during the positive half cycle of the incoming signal and regulates its voltage at the same time.
The zener diode is 2.5v which is sufficiently good for such an application. Diode D3 is reversed
biased in parallel with the internal LED of the opto-coupler to sink any accidental negative
feedback which may damage the LED of the opto device. The conversion that has been done by
the Zener diode is series of pulsating-semi- direct current voltage. This pulsating semi direct
current voltage is sufficient enough to make the internal LED of the opto-coupler to illuminate
and the output transistor which is normally in saturation mode cut-off to trigger the single shot
monostable flip flop to momentarily send a single shot pulse to change its Q state depending on
the time constant of RC.
42

Transistor Q1 is also normally saturated, but the momentary change of the Q state of the one
shot monostable flip flop causes it to cut off momentarily. And energizes relay RLY1 to make
contact momentarily (* one shot contact) to accept call.
b. Idle Detect circuit



Figure 4.4 Idle detect circuit

The Idle Detect is made up of two binary coded decimal counter (BCD counter) and two NAND
gates. The BCD counters are complementary metal oxide semi- conductor integrated circuit
(CMOS) and the NAND gates are transistor-transistor logic (TTL) type. The first BCD counter
was configured to count decimal ten and second BCD counter U2B to count four. Clock input
CP0 accepts HIGH signal where the clock system is connected.
Q0 and Q3 outputs of first counter were connected to the two inputs of first NAND gate and its
output is connected to the clock input CP0 of the second BCD counter. Q2 of the second BCD
counter was connected to the bridged inputs of the second NAND gate. CP1 of the first counter
and CP1 of the second counter were tied together to ground, which serves as ENABLE for the
two BCD counters. As the MR of the two BCD counters are connected to the QN of the JK flip
flop, at the initial state of the JK flip flop QN is HIGH and it keeps the call timer at reset state
while call is not detected. When the system is called and call is detected. i.e, when the system is
43

called and the call detector circuitry accepted call automatically, the QN which was HIGH at its
initial state, changes from HIGH to LOW and the counter starts to count for a period of 40
seconds. Commands are supposed to be sent within the period of 40 seconds. If one fails to send
the command, then after 40 seconds the system cuts off the communication link by resetting the
call detector JK flip flop.
On the other hand, if a command code is sent within the 40 seconds count, then the pre-
amplification circuit leads the process as below.
c. Pre-amplifier circuit details

Figure 4.5. Pre-amplifier circuit

The input amplifier consisted of an operational amplifier (op-amp) LM741, and its associated
devices. The input amplifier is designed as an inverting amplifier with negative feedback. The
feedback network is formed by a resistor whose value is 1MΩ. The purpose of the feedback
resistor is to feed a fraction of the output signal back to the inverting input to regulate distortion
and give a high gain to the LOW DTMF signals coming from the output of the mobile phone.
The Resistor and capacitor form the input coupling
network. The Capacitor as part of the coupling network eliminates unwanted direct current
components of the DTMF tone signal. The gain of the amplifier depends on the values of the
resistors.

44

d. Dual Tone Multi-frequency (DTMF) receiver connections


Figure 4.6 Dual Tone Multifrequency ( DTMF) receiver connections

DTMF (MT8870) is a dual tone multi-frequency receiver which receives DTMF tones through
an RC input network. The MT8870 has an internal clock whose frequency is set by an external
piezoelectric crystal (XTAL1). The capacitor and resistor set the time guard of the receiver and
the binary output is derived from Q1, Q2, Q3 and Q4. For the purpose of this project to be
achieved only three of the four outputs are used.
e. Decoder system


Figure 4.7 Decoder system
The 74LS138 is a TTL decoder-demultiplexer chip. This is because it can be used as either a
decoder or a demultiplexer. It has three control inputs and eight outputs as well as three data
45

inputs. The presence of the data inputs makes it a demultiplexer. The upper inputs are labeled
A0, A1. and A2 and they are controlled or data select inputs. The lower three inputs are labeled
E1, E2, and E3 and they are the data inputs. In order to use this demultiplexer as a decoder, E1
and E2 which are data inputs were made active LOW by tying them to ground and E3 is active
HIGH data input as connected to +5V.
f. Switching Unit


Figure 4.9 . Output switching system

From the decoder outputs, two decoded signals are used to control the J and K inputs of
(74LS107). The 74LS107 is a TTL fabricated JK flip flop that has four control inputs and two
outputs. The inputs are J, K, CP and R. The J inputs when HIGH sets the flip -flop to change
output state making Q=1 and QN=0. When the K input is HIGH, the outputs change to its initial
state. The R input is used to reset the flip flop. CP is the control pulse input and is active only
during the negative going edged of a pulse to enable the flip flop to change state.
At the initial state of the JK flip flop, Q=0 and QN=1, and as Q is connected to the transistor Q1
through R3 and the initial state of transistor Q1 in saturation mode , and relay RLY1 make
contact is opened when the mains terminal L, N, E is connected to 220 volt AC mains. When the
decoder output connected to J is high, the JK flip flop sets the Q output to HIGH to cause
transistor Q1 to cut off to energize the relay RLY1, then when the relay make , current flow to
46

stepper motor. If the supply to motor is to turn off, then the decoder output connected to the K
input of the flip flop should be HIGH.
Turning ON and OFF supply to the motor occurs only when the clock input sees negative going
edge of the clock pulse. By applying logic LOW to R reset the flip flop no matter what state it is.
g. The Power Supply System
Shown in the above figure is the system power supply. The transformer input voltage is 220vac
and its output is 12vac. The power has multiple voltages. The ac output was converted by four
rectify diodes and smoothed by the capacitors. The LM 7805 is voltage regulator which regulates
the positive 12 volts to 5 volts to supply the digital chips.
In all, the power supply gives minus 12 volts, positive 12 volts and positive 5 volts. Then +5V
goes to the DTMF receiver IC.
4.22. Operational Instructions for User
After all wire connections are done to the various sliding windows, connect the power cord of
the telephone remote switching system for slide windows into 220vac electricity. Press button to
switch on the mobile phone system. Allow some few seconds for the phone initialization. Turn
ON the power and press the reset button to reset the system to synchronize.
Figure 4.10 Power Supply
47

When the slide window or door is opened and is required to be closed due to weather uncertainty
from a personal mobile phone or office phone: Dial the assigned number of the system, in this
case 0243935623, the system responds automatically. This action displays on the mobile phone
screen as active. But in case the situation where an office phone is used, ensure that the
telephone instrument is touch button type (DTMF) but not the pulse type. Land line telephone
instrument may not have a screen so you will hear a connection click in the ear piece.
When it is successfully connected to the system, pressing the digit ‘2’on the telephone keypad
will slide close the window or door that the ‘2’ is assigned to. The same should be done for the
rest of the windows to slide close them. A feedback tone indicates that windows have been
completely closed.
The system must not be turned OFF once connections have been made unless of course you have
decided not to use it for a while. It is strongly recommended that the opening of the slide
windows be done manually when at home in order to save telecommunication charges.










48

CHAPTER FIVE
5.0 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
5.1. Results
The teleremote system was successfully built as a product after its design, development and
implementation. It was tested and the following results were observed:
- The teleremote system was able to close the prototype slide door but could not open it.
That meets the scope of this project requirement of being able to close the slide door or
window. But for the opening of the slide door or window could conveniently be done
manually. It may not even be that necessary to try to open the sliding windows while no
one is in the house.
- The system responded in the same positive manner when MTN customized mobile phone
was replaced with a Vodafone customized mobile phone. It was realized that, the system
works well with all networks.














49

5.2 Cost Analysis

5.2.1 Material Cost
Table 5.1 Material cost of the project

component quantity Unit cost (GHC) Total cost(GHC)
Power transformer (240v-12v X 2,
1000MA)
2 5 10
Diodes (12v, 1N539CD)

10 2 20
Capacitors(electrolytic),[2200uF, 16v ] 10 2 20
Capacitor (electrolytic) ] and [470uF, 35v] 10 2 20
Positive Voltage regulator[ LM 317T,
QNK824]

3 5 15
Transistors [MPS 2222A]

10 2 20
Resistor [220Ω]


20 1 20
MT8870DE [part code-0728A]

4 20 80
Piezo-electric crystal [3.5795MHz] 4 15 60
Capacitors [10uF, 16v]

6 2 18
DM74LS138N

4 15 60
SN74LS122N 4 15 60
SN74LS107AN 2 10 20
Opto-coupler(EDR201A0500) 2 2 4
50

JK flip-flops 8 5 40
SPDT relays[ 6v] 4 3 12
Timer(NE555P ) 2 10 20
Capacitor [100uF, 16v] 1 8 8
SN74LS00N 3 5 15
Slide Window 1 100 100
ZETTLER (AZ831-2C-50se) 2 5 10
Timer (LM555CN-JM11AL) 2 5 10
Printed Circuit Board 2 6 12
Stepper motor 2 25 50
MTN mobile phone 1 35 35
TOTAL

739



5.2.2 Labour Cost
Table 5.2 Labour Cost
Resource

Cost

Duration


Electronics
Engineer





GHC 5/ hour





3 hours a day for 20days





Total Labour Cost= GHC 3x20x5
C
L
=GHC 300


51

5.2.3 Overhead Charge
Overhead Charge= 10% of (Material Cost + Labour Cost)
=0.1x (739+300)
=GHC 103.9
Therefore, Total Cost of the Project=(739+300+103.9)
=GHC 1142.9.
5.3. Discussion


The product has achieved its performance specification as stated in the scope. That is, “ability to
close the slide window or door”. But the opening of the slide door or window could conveniently
be done manually. It may not even be that necessary to try to open the sliding windows while no
one is in the house. When MTN mobile network was replaced with that of Vodafone, the system
worked properly. This is because both networks make use of the DTMF keypad accessories. So
once the network was able to connect a call, the DTMF receiver takes over to serve as the
interface for the rest of the action.
The presence of the limit switch in the window gives feedback to the caller to confirm the
complete closure of the slide window or door. This limit switch is important since the user needs
to be sure that the command given has actually done what it is expected to do. Otherwise, how
can it be notice as to whether the door or window was half closed or whatever? This shows that
the limit switch mechanism is very significant in this project.
In analyzing the cost of the project; it appears to be expensive but it is cheap when compared
with the cost involve when rain water destroys properties costing millions of dollars. This project
is one of its kinds and it is difficult to make any price comparison between it and that in the local
market.
52

CHAPTER SIX

6.0 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

6.1 Conclusions

The Tele-remote system was developed to compensate the need for long distance remote control
which cannot be possible with the usual Infrared, Bluetooth and Radio remote systems. It is now
easy to remotely close sliding windows while at millions of miles away from home or office.
This system even though, reliable, could not tell if there was power supply failure to it. The Tele-
remote system’s operation is power baseline constrained and cannot function in the required
manner when electrical power fails.
The system is also maintainable should it develop any fault in the near future and if resolved
properly will function the same manner as before. The Tele-remote system to control sliding
windows is not in the local market yet. It is believed to be the first of its kind as far as this
project is concern.


6.2 Recommendations


The teleremote control system is very simple and easy to operate and it is recommended for use
in the house and offices. The system should also be installed at an area where there exist good
mobile network for better reception.
However, it is very obvious, as can be referred from the conclusion that there is the need for
further research into finding out how to incorporate a mechanism that would always give
indications to the user when power outage occurs. It is also required that the string that would be
used for pulling the slide windows, be very strong and smooth.
53

Meanwhile the slide glass rail has to be regularly cleaned and lubricated so as to prevent any
resistance to the smooth running of the slide glasses. As can be seen from the design of the
switching unit in page 51, figure 4.3, there could be further advancement to make the Tele-
Remote system include the function of opening the slide window since the design has both
forward and backwards circuit terminations to the motor.
It is strongly advised that the user must almost always ensure that the embedded phone’s battery
indicates charging when the system is connected to electrical mains power. This is just to make
sure the battery does not run down to put the mobile phone off.
The system must also be handled with care not to drop it, for it is very delicate and can perhaps
be damaged beyond repairs if it is dropped vigorously.











54

REFERENCES

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nd
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[5]Dr. Brown, George , Radio & Electronics Cook Book, Newnes, 1
st
edition, 2001.p23-45.
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st
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[9] B. Gross, "Radiation-induced Charge Storage and Polarization Effects", in
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[10] Physics of Thin Films: L. Eckertova, Plenum Publishing Co., New York, 2004,
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[11] Brandt S. and Dahmen H.D., The Picture Book of Quantum Mechanics, 2
nd

edition, Springer- Verlag, New York, 2003, p. 70..
[12] Mentha V.K., Electronics made simple, 2
nd
edition, Zimse Pub. Co., 2002, pp. 123
55

[13] Coskun I. and Ardam H., “A Remote Controller for Home and Office Appliances by
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[15] Dahmen H.D., The Picture Book of Quantum Mechanics, 2
nd

Edition, Springer- Verlag, New York, 2003, p. 73.
[16] Rashid M.A., Power Electronics Handbook, 1
st
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[17] Edward Hughes, Electrical Technology, 7
th
edition, ELBS Longman, 2005, p416.
[18] Donald P. Leach, Digital Principles And Applications,6
th
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Publishing Company Limited, New Delhi, 2006. P121.
[19] ] kulshreshtha D.C, Electronic Devices and Circuits, 2
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nd
edition , WBC Publishing, 2007,
p701.
















56

GLOSSARY


DTMF Dual Tone Multi Frequency
PC Board Printed Circuit Board
DC Direct Current
AC Alternating Current
D/A Digital to Analog
BCD Binary Coded Decimal
TTL Transistor-Transistor Logic
MF Multi Frequency
Op- Amp Operational Amplifier
FET Field Effect Transistor
O/P Output
I/P Input
CDA Current Differential Amplifier
OTA Operational Transconductance Amplifier
JFET Junction Field Effect Transistor
CMOS Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor
MOSFET Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor
BiFET Bipolar Field Effect Transistor
mA Milli Amperes
mV Milli Volts
Ic Collector Current
57

V
CE
Collector –Emitter Voltage
mW Milli Watts
Rc Collector Resistance
MΩ Mega Ohms
KΩ Kilo Ohms
Gnd Ground
mSec Milli Seconds
Vcc Supply Voltage
LED Light Emitting Diode
R Resistor
C Capacitor
dB Decibel
















58

LIST OF FIGURES
Figure2.1 Opto- Isolator 10
Figure2.2 Opto Coupler Symbol 11
Figure2.3 555 Timer Symbol 11
Figure2.4 Inner Components of 555 Timer Circuit 12
Figure2.5 Timer in Monostable Mode 13
Figure2.6. 555 Timer in Astable Mode 14
Figure 2.7 Op-amp symbol 15
Figure 2.8 Load line of Transistor 18
Figure 2.9 Cut-off 19
Figure 2.10 Saturation of Transistor 20
Figure 2.11 NPN Transistor Switch 21
Figure 2.12 Voltage Regulator Symbol 22
Figure 2.13 NAND Gate Symbol 23
Figure 2.14 J-K Flip-flop 24
Figure 2.15 The Circuit Symbols for Resistors 27
Figure 3.1a Testing Opto Coupler with an opened switch 33
Figure 3.1 b. Testing Opto- coupler when switch was closed 33
Figure 3.2 Monostable Flip flop Test 34
Fig3.3. Transistor Switch for Relay 35
Figure 3.4 Pictures of Circuits and Soldering process. 35
Figure 4.1. Block Diagram of Tele-Remote System 36
Figure 4.2 Complete Circuit of the Project 40
59

Figure 4.3. Ring detect unit 41
Figure 4.4 Idle detect circuit 42
Figure 4.5 Pre-amplifier circuit 43
Figure 4.6 Dual Tone Multifrequency (DTMF) receiver connections 44
Figure 4.8. Decoder system 44
Figure 4.9. Output switching system 45
Figure 4.91. Power supply 46


















60

LIST OF TABLES
Table 2.0 Truth table of NAND gate 23
Table 2. 1 DTMF keypad frequencies 26
Table 2.2 Resistor color code 28
Table 3.1. One Shot Monostable Flip Flop output state 34
Table 5.1 Material Cost 48
Table 5.2 Labour Cost 50