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The Latest Development in Network and Communication

Name : Eleazar Gan Kai Huat Class : 5 Science 1 IC Number : 961014-13-6383

1.0 Introduction
The purpose of a computer communications network is to allow moving information from one point to another inside the network. The information could be stored on a device, such as a personal computer in the network; it could be generated live outside the network, such as speech or could be generated by a process on another piece of information, such as automatic sales transactions at the end of a business day. The device does not necessarily have to be a computer; it could be a mobile phone, a hard disk, a printer, scanner or even a camera on a network. Due to a very large variety of information to be moved, and due to the fact that each type of information has its own conditions for intelligibility, the computer network has evolved into a highly complex system. A computer network may operate on wired connections or wireless connections. Specialized knowledge from many areas of science and engineering goes into the design of networks. It is practically impossible for a single area of science or engineering to be entirely responsible for the design of all the components. Therefore, a study of computer networks branches into many areas as we go up from fundamentals to the advanced levels.

2.0 Mobile Computing 2.1 Definition
Being able to use a computing device even when in mobile and therefore changing location. Portability is one aspect of mobile computing. Mobile Computing is a generic term describing the application of small, portable, and wireless computing and communication devices. This includes devices like laptops with Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) technology, mobile phones, wearable computers and Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs) with Bluetooth or Infra-red Data Association (IRDA) interfaces, and Universal Serial Bus (USB) flash drives.

2.2 Specification, services and frequencies of Mobile Computing

Apple Ipad Specification
 3G network - the third generation of mobile networking and

telecommunications. It features a wider range of services and advances network capacity over the previous 2G network. The 3G network also increases the rate of information.

transfer known as spectral efficiency.  WLAN - a local area network that uses high frequency radio signals to transmit and receive data over

distances of a few hundred feet; uses ethernet protocol.  4G - the fourth generation of mobile phone mobile communications

standards. It is a successor of the third generation (3G) standards. A 4G system         provides mobile ultra-

broadband Internet access.


Assisted Global-positioning System GPS (for 4G model) Watch TV Yahoo! Messaging Browse the web Stream Video 3G Network (900MHz) 4G Network (for AT&T and Verizon capable) (700MHz and 2100Mhz) WLAN (2.4GHz and 5GHz)


3.0 Internet Technology and Services 3.1 VoIP

Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) is general term for a family of transmission technologies for delivery of voice communication over IP (internet protocol) network such as the internet or other packet-switched network. Other terms frequently encountered and synonymous with VoIP are IP telephony, Internet telephony, voice over broadband (VoBB), broadband telephony and broadband phone.

3.2 BLOG

A blog is a personal journal published on the World Wide Web(WWW) consisting of discrete entries ("posts") typically displayed in reverse chronological order so the most recent post appears first. Blogs are usually the work of a single individual, occasionally of a small group, and often are themed on a single subject.

4.0 Types of Network 4.1 PAN

A personal area network (PAN) is a computer network used for communication among computer and different information technological devices close to one person. Some examples of devices that are used in a PAN are personal computers, printers, fax machines, telephones, PDAs, scanners, and even video game consoles. A PAN may include wired and wireless devices. The reach of a PAN typically extends to 10 meters. A wired PAN is usually constructed with USB and Firewire connections while technologies such as Bluetooth and infrared communication typically form a wireless PAN.

4.2 VPN

A virtual private network (VPN) is a network that uses a public telecommunication infrastructure, such as the Internet, to provide remote offices or individual users with secure access to their organization's network. A virtual private network can be contrasted with an expensive system of owned or leased lines that can only be used by one organization. The goal of a VPN is to provide the organization with the same capabilities, but at a much lower cost.

4.3 WLAN

Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) is the simplest wireless distribution method that is used for interlinking two or more devices providing a connection to wider internet through an access point. OFDM or spread-spectrum technologies give clients

freedom to move within a local coverage area while remaining connected to the LAN. This gives the users the mobility to move around within a broad coverage area and still be connected to the network.


WiMAX which mean Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access, is a telecommunications technology that provides wireless transmission of data using a variety of transmission modes, from point-to-multipoint links to portable and fully mobile internet access. The technology provides up to 3 Mbit/s broadband speeds without the need for cables. The technology is based on the IEEE 802.16standard (also called Broadband Wireless Access). The name "WiMAX" was created by the WiMAX Forum, which was formed in June 2001 to promote conformity and interoperability of the standard. The forum describes WiMAX as "a standards-based technology enabling the delivery of last mile wireless broadband access as an alternative to cable and DSL".

5.0 Conclusion
Computer networks are groups of interconnected computers. The internet is a system of interconnected computer networks that are used to standardize the Internet protocol suite (TPC/IP). It's a network of networks that has millions of private, public, academic, business, and government networks of global scopes that are liked by fiber optic cables( cables made of optical fibers that could transmit large amounts of information at the speed of light), copper wires, wireless connections and other kinds of technologies. Networks can also be classified by wide varieties of characteristics. Such as flexibility, reliability, wave length scalability, initial deployment, and future capacity. All of this made human beings’ life easier and lighter.

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