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Ecosystem management Farquharson An ecosystem is a biological environment consisting of all the organisms living in a particular area, as well as all

the nonliving, physical components of the environment with which the organisms interact, such as air, soil, water and sunlight. It is all the organisms in a given area, along with the nonliving (abiotic) factors with which they interact; a biological community and its physical environment.

Ecosystem management Farquharson Ecosystem management is a process that aims to conserve major ecological services and restore natural resources while meeting the socioeconomic, political and cultural needs of current and future generations. The principal objective of ecosystem management is the efficient maintenance, and ethical use of natural resources. Ecosystem management acknowledges that the interrelation of socio-cultural, economic and ecological systems is paramount to understanding the circumstances that affect environmental goals and outcomes. It is a multifaceted and holistic approach which requires a significant change in how the natural and human environments are identified. Several approaches to effective ecosystem management engage conservation efforts at both a local or landscape level and involve: adaptive management, natural resource management, strategic management, and command and control management.

Pandas live in bamboo forest habitats. (2) protect representative examples of all native ecosystem types across their natural range of variation. Flamingos are usually found in shallow wetland and lake habitats. Very large. nutrient cycles). possibly even for the indefinite future. and (4) manage landscapes and species to be responsive to both short-term and long-term environmental change”. Ecosystems also include habitats. and long-term maintenance of human populations in situation. Sound ecosystem management is key to sustained resource utilization. Grumbine suggests that ecosystem management is based on three observations: to protect biological diversity the processes that produced it must be protected as well: species richness alone is not a good measure of management success and management must be planned for the long-term. mussels are usually associated with a rocky shore habitat that is subjected to tidal currents and waves. places where the plants and animals of an ecosystem live. Characteristics of Ecosystems Farquharson Ecosystems are some of the components that constitute the biosphere the complete assembly of the Earth’s ecosystems. groups of ecosystems possessing same overall general character . Wildebeest are found on African grasslands.To maintain hierarchical patterns of biological diversity as well as the processes and functions supporting the phenomena that spawned them. ecosystem management is intended to result in both a sustainable system and a set of sustainable management activities Wilcove (2010) discussed ecosystem management and suggested that it encompass four goals within which human activities are to be accommodated: “(1) maintain viable populations of all native species. For example. healthy regional economies. (3) maintain evolutionary and ecological processes (example. disturbance regimes. easily recognized.

It is also indispensable for maintaining or increasing the ecological value of a high-quality environment or even for restoring deteriorated environments or preventing future degradation. In this way. The ecosystem management is a tool to use when planning the management of natural habitats. allows adequate and appropriate management. it provides a framework and vision for making informed decisions by focusing on the conservation and protection of natural habitats. . Objectives of Ecosystem Management Farquharson     To ensure the protection and enhancement of the natural heritage To maintain plant and animal bio-diversity To detect changes in biophysical resources To identify concrete solutions to the consequences of human development or natural causes on the ecological value of environments The reason of managing ecosystems is to conserve natural heritage. and. to increase the value of the different interventions. if possible. Moreover. It helps better understand the dynamics of the environments and landscapes of nature parks.constitute biomes. and designs and implements different activities for users. no choice of action is taken lightly. Examples are deserts. boreal coniferous forests. tundra. coral reefs and mangroves. This Ecosystem Management optimizes the cohabitation between the various components of the mission. evergreen tropical rainforests.

Identifying the biologically achievable management goals. these phases are as follow:   Determining the current status and threats. . for example. The result: maps that give an overview of knowledge and ecological value  Draw up a plan specifying the orientations for zones in each park Second Management component  Intervene to attain specific objectives. increasing the quality of part of a park through planting  Maintain the integrity of ecosystems through various monitoring activities The development of Ecosystem management plan has four distinct phases. the ecosystem management program has two separate components: First Planning component   Take inventory of natural resources: wildlife and plants Evaluate the ecological characteristics of environments.There are two main components of the Ecosystem Management In order to attain these objectives.

The ecosystem management plan. you have to figure out what endpoints are biologically achievable. (5) collaborative stewardship.  Characterizing societal factors that in influence the choice of management goals. That means doing at least two things  Determining the boundaries of the ecosystem to be managed and the types of habitat within it that are to be managed and  Developing a conceptual model of human influences on the ecosystem. . An ecosystem that means knowing its current status and the threats that it may be facing. and (8) economic incentives. Biologically achievable management goals Once you've figured out what the system is that you're trying to protect and you've indented the threats to the system. (6) monitoring and adaptive management. ask yourself whether you see evidence of: (1) integrated and balanced goals. (2) inclusive public involvement. (7) use of multidisciplinary data. (4) use of consensus groups. and Establishing management goals. Current status and threats In order to manage a system you have to know what its characteristics are. (3) stakeholder influence. To identify what things are possible it is necessary to:  select appropriate measures for the \health" of various ecosystem components.

Societal factors Human and societal influences his extent that they pose a direct threat to the species we were trying to protect. well-illustrated by example is the conservation initiatives may sometimes be needed at a very broad scale. One of the premises of ecosystem management. An implicit part of dining biological achievable management goals is that the goals are sustainable for the indianite future. Loss of a substantial portion of the original core area of the Everglades. That means that if the system is to be managed sustainably. management scenarios. Abnormal water depths and altered sheet flow patterns. if not yet implemented. Seepage losses to the east.     Lack of dynamic storage space to capture water releases . but we can figure at least some of them out from what he said about what features of the system are inadequate given current management and agreed. and at that very broad scale humans are part of the system.Harwell (2009) doesn't state explicitly what measures he adopted for ecosystem health. attention must be given not only to the needs of non-human organisms in the system but to those of humans as well. There are three different ways in which it is necessary to assess societal factors: .

institutional. Biologists have no special competence allowing us to choose one outcome over another." If you are a biologist participating in such a process. While biological expertise is needed to dine the range of the possible.  The legal. economic. all that is necessary is to establish ecological sustainability goals in terms of ecological endpoints and human values. The human activities that lead to substantial influences on or domination of ecosystems must be indented and understood. decisions about design and implementation of an ecosystem management program lie along a continuum: . To point out. Establishing management goals With all of that in place. and other societal factors that aect the frequency and scale of those activities must indented and understood.  The values and preferences of relevant interest groups with an influence on the ecosystem must be characterized. The endpoint chosen for south Florida involves a large core area (whose characteristics are \de need by ecological characteristics of the predrainage and substantial changes in agricultural practices. your expertise will be particularly important in dining what endpoints are. choosing among possible endpoints is a question of values. what biologists can do is to make sure that everyone discusses only scenarios that can be achieved and that everyone understands the trades among them. political. In a discussion about choosing among endpoints. but we don't necessarily have any special standing to choose one set of consequences over another. We can describe the consequences of different choices.

The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment defines four types of ecosystem services—provisioning.  Societal values and scientific expertise will have equal roles in determining the system endpoints that will be measured to determine whether management goals are being achieved. The term Ecosystem services is which that describes the benefits humans derive from ecosystem processes. resources and ecological systems. cultural and supporting. seaweeds) Fresh water Genetic resources (for drugs and other uses) Mineral resources (oil. shellfish. such as . salt. gas. Societal values will have a dominant role in determining the outcome of those that are predominantly concerned with dining the management goals  Scientific expertise will have a dominant role in determining the outcome of those that are predominantly concerned with measuring how the system responds. including products that humans get from ecosystems. but many of these services are invaluable and priceless. diamonds. regulating. The value of a few of these services can be measured in monetary terms. sand) Regulating: These are benefits to humans that arise from how the ocean regulates processes. such as       Alternative energy resources (derived from wind. Provisioning: These are natural resources. tides. algae) Fiber (seaweeds) Food (fish. waves.

nitrogen and others) Production of the oxygen we breathe Resilience to human impacts. shellfish.   Controlling levels and incidence of human and animal disease Regulating the world's climate Supplying the world with fresh water Cultural: These are non-material benefits that humans enjoy. including climate change Water cycling . including  Biomass production (the production of fish. including       Cognitive development Culture Economic growth Recreation Reflection Spiritual enrichment Supporting: These are processes in the ocean that are required to provide the other three services to humans and all other life on earth. algae and all other organisms in the food web)      Formation and maintenance of habitats (reefs. kelp beds and more) Nutrient cycling (carbon. beaches.

  Ocean Chemistry and Coastal and shelf edge processes. Isotopes. molecular biology)  chemical oceanography/marine chemistry: Trace elements. ocean modeling. Nutrients. ecotoxicology . air-sea interaction. and much of the world's ocean is yet to be explored. sedimentology. taxonomy. paleontology. water masses  biological oceanography/marine biology: plankton. ecology. aquatic toxicology. Ocean Science covers the following fields:  physical oceanography: waves. . benthic organisms. sediment dynamics  marine pollution: pollutants analysis and monitoring. coastal processes. fates of contaminants. Gases  geological oceanography/marine geology: geophysics. paleogeopraphy. fish. from the icy wastes of the polar seas to the tranquil lagoons of coral islands: from the still blue depths of the Pacific to the busy and polluted waterway of an urban estuary. currents. Ocean science combines direct observation of this environment with a systematic search for understanding of the processes that control it.The importance of ocean science on wealth and employment creation (Farquharson) Ocean science is the study of the global marine environment. So ocean scientists are explorers as well as scientists. Organic substances.

They also pointed out that the growth of these activities could exacerbate their potential ecological impacts. are being enjoyed by more people than ever and can have significant economic benefits. such as overfishing. Some estimated the level of participation in these activities worldwide. At the same time. such as recreational fishing and whale watching. they have historically been overlooked in ocean resource management efforts even though these activities depend upon healthy marine ecosystems. society must improve understanding of these resources and balance their health and use. The ocean remains a vast. how much people spent to participate and how many jobs were supported. and great gakes generate tremendous benefits and opportunities. managers need to be able to quantify a full range of the benefits and impacts of MRAs. its resources are subject to many pressures. the effect of MRAs should be considered like any other . recreation. Theirs is the first study to assess the socioeconomic value of MRAs on a global scale. unexplored realm with the capacity to provide new pharmaceuticals. The ocean is a source of food. industrial products. Marine recreational activities (MRAs). However. and tourism. and energy sources. generated $47 billion* in expenditures annually and supported more than 1 million jobs. To incorporate MRAs effectively into marine resource management plans. and Great Lakes. and energy and is used for transportation. minerals. Therefore. coasts. such as whale watching that disturbs breeding or feeding animals. coastal watersheds. The ocean preserves a record of the nation’s cultural past. coastal watersheds.The resources of the open ocean. Found that MRAs were enjoyed by roughly 121 million people worldwide. habitat destruction. and competition with invasive species. To unlock the full resource potential of the open ocean. coasts.

they have historically been over-looked in ocean resource management efforts even though these activities depend upon healthy marine ecosystems. tickets or licenses.activity with ecosystem impacts. including equipment. managers need to be able to quantify a full range of the benefits and impacts of MRAs. They estimated the level of participation in these activities worldwide. expenditure and employment data from 144 maritime countries. Expenditures were costs associated with participating in one of these activities. Recreational fishing was defined as fishing where the main motivation is recreation and not to sell the catch or consume it for subsistence. such as recreational fishing and whale watching. The authors collected 2003 MRA participation. To incorporate MRAs effectively into marine resource management plans. accommodations. are being enjoyed by more people than ever and can have significant economic benefits. Marine recreational activities (MRAs). . such as commercial fishing. This Pew Ocean Science Series report is a summary of the scientists’ findings. and included in a comprehensive resource management plan. These data were used to measure the socioeconomic benefits of recreational fishing. Whale watching also included watching other animals such as sea lions and dolphins from above the water. Diving included both snorkeling and scuba. However. whale watching and diving.

Marine conservationists and fisheries managers have begun to re-assess the exclusive value of conventional management measures. value of the fish as they first leave the boat. ocean fisheries). To estimated the total global economic activity supported by marine fisheries (example non-aquaculture. People in coastal countries depend on healthy fisheries for their livelihoods. however. This estimate. the total global value is approximately $240 billion annually. or market. as . MPAs are increasingly being considered as an important tool for achieving effective fisheries management. and to add effectively designed and managed MPAs as a tool within an integrated and ecosystem-based approach to both marine conservation and fisheries management (Willis. such as gear regulations and catch quota adjustments for sustaining fish stocks (Carr & Raimondi (2008). They found that by considering the economic impacts of fisheries on other sectors such as boat manufacturing or canning industries. A more accurate accounting of the value of the fishing industry to the global economy would incorporate the indirect effects on related industries that depend on well-managed fisheries. Gross revenue globally from marine fisheries has been estimated during the last decade at $80 billion to $85 billion annually. reflects only the landed.Marine Protected area (MPAs) and fisheries management Farquharson In recent years. and it underestimates the full economic impact of fisheries. 2003) and that they have positive effects for fisheries.

• Raising the profile of an area for marine tourism and broadening local economic options. local economies and the marine environment including: • Conservation of biodiversity and ecosystems. .calculated from 2003 data nearly three times the landed value. heritage and culture. MPAs provide a range of benefits for fisheries. • Protecting sites with minimal direct human impact to help them recover from other stresses such as increased ocean temperature. This Pew Ocean Science Series report is a summary of the scientists’ findings. • Protecting settlement and growth areas for marine species so as to provide spill-over addition in adjacent areas. To conclude that considering only the direct value of fisheries underestimates the true economic impact of marine fisheries worldwide. and • Providing broad benefits as sites for reference in longterm research. training. nursery and feeding habits. Properly designed and managed MPAs play important roles in: • Conserving representative samples of biological diversity and associated ecosystems. • Providing opportunities for education. • Protecting critical sites for reproduction and growth of species. • Halting and possibly reversing the global and local decline in fish populations and productivity by protecting critical breeding.

hurricanes. Human development and activity leads to pollution (point source. and storm surges). and mineral and energy resources. influences our weather. recreation. In addition. humans have removed most of the large vertebrates from the ocean  Coastal regions are susceptible to natural hazards (tsunamis.  From the ocean we get foods. medicines. cyclones. and • Providing undisturbed control or reference sites serving as a baseline for scientific research and for design and evaluation of management of other areas. sea level change. It is also an important element in the heritage of many cultures. It moderates the Earth’s climate. and noise pollution) and physical modifications (changes to beaches. Humans affect the ocean in a variety of ways. serves as a highway for transportation of goods and people. In addition. It supplies freshwater (most rain comes from the ocean) and nearly all Earth’s oxygen.• Providing focal points for education about marine ecosystems and human interactions with them. it provides jobs. and affects human health.  The ocean affects every human life. and plays a role in national security.  The ocean is a source of inspiration. supports our nation’s economy. shores and rivers). • Providing sites for nature-based recreation and tourism. Laws.   Much of the world’s population lives in coastal areas. . The ocean and humans are inextricably interconnected. rejuvenation and discovery. regulations and resource management affect what is taken out and put into the ocean. non-point source.

energy distribution and outdoor recreation account for another 10% of the GDP. The use of technologically advanced satellite systems results in potential savings in expenses related to natural disasters. (Leben. Agriculture. It is in the general interest of society to promote advanced technological tools that aid in understanding natural systems. The TOPEX/Poseidon and Jason missions are among a suite of ocean altimeter projects that provide critical data to support these benefits to society. • Fire season 2000 resulted in 7 million acres burned and estimated $2 billion in damage costs. or $3 trillion1. or economic return to individuals. Worldwide agricultural benefits of better El Niño forecasts are at least $450 to $550 million per year. • A significant increase in warning lead times for El Niño and La Niña climate events has led to decreases in deaths and injuries and provides significant cost savings. Everyone is responsible for caring for the ocean. The ocean sustains life on Earth and humans must live in ways that sustain the ocean. 2005). and monitor climate and weather systems that may affect population centers. governments or industries are a benefit to society. SOCIETAL BENEFITS Satellite missions that enhance safety. . • Drought is estimated to result in average annual losses to all sectors of the economy of $6 to 8 billion annually. Individual and collective actions are needed to effectively manage ocean resources for all. construction. gross domestic product (GDP). operations.S. observe changing conditions on Earth. Weather and climate sensitive industries account for approximately 30% of the U.

uk/about/what.php.pdf Harris. Retrieved from. M (2010). (2o09).• The annual economic return to the U. Retrieved from. W.ac. M.org/responses/ecosystem-management-need-adoptdifferent-approach-under-changing-climate-0 http://www. (2005).. http://science.en?catid=&subid=3986 . Societal benefits of ocean altimetry data. Munnang. Leben.bangor.howstuffworks. Ecosystem management: the need to adopt a different approach under a changing climate.worldresourcesreport. R.com/environmental/green-tech/energproduction/ Mumba. http://earth. R.sos. and Rivingion.esa. How Ocean Power Works. http://www.S. Retrieved from. economy of NOAA’s El Niño ocean observing and forecast system is between 13 and 25 %1.int/workshops/venice06/participants/787/paper_787_srinivasan.