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COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING KIDANGOOR

Under Co-operative Academy of Professional Education (CAPE) Est. by the Govt. of Kerala KIDANGOOR SOUTH P O, KOTTAYAM – 686 583 DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & INSTRUMENTATION ENGINEERING

SEMINAR REPORT ON

<ACTIVE MATRIX ORGANIC LIGHT EMITTING DIODE>

SUBMITTED BY

<RINKU MARIA MATHEW>
Department of Electronics and Instrumentation Engineering September, 2010

COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING KIDANGOOR
Under Co-operative Academy of Professional Education (CAPE) Est. by the Govt. of Kerala KIDANGOOR SOUTH P O, KOTTAYAM – 686 583

DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & INSTRUMENTATION ENGINEERING

CERTIFICATE
Date :13-92010

Certified that this seminar titled

<ACTIVE MATRIX ORGANIC LIGHT EMITTING DIODE>
is the bonafied record of the work done by

<RINKU MARIA MATHEW>
of seventh semester

B.Tech in Electronics and Instrumentation Engineering
towards the partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of the Degree of Bachelor of Technology, by the

Cochin University of Science And Technology.

. and my beloved parents. nothing else other than their loving prayers would have taken us to a successful stage like this. Dept of ECE). Dept of EIE) for their valuable support and guidance. Dr. Pradeep T S for being our source of inspiration and the torch of all our endeavors. Sheffy Thomas (Lecturers. I am grateful to our respected principal. Vishnu Mohan and Mrs. computer system administrator and other non – teaching staffs who helped me to collect information regarding this seminar.Seminar Co-ordinator Head of the Department ACKNOWLEDGEMENT Bowing heads to the one and only one. THE ALMIGHTY. Mr. I specially mention my gratitude to lab assistants. I express my heartfelt gratitude towards our seminar coordinators Mrs. Praseeda Lekshmi V and respected head of the department Mr. Chinchu M (Lecturer.

An active matrix OLED (AMOLED) display consists of OLED pixels that have been deposited or integrated onto a thin film transistor (TFT) array to form a matrix of pixels that illuminate light upon electrical activation. They are very thin and light weight and have greatly minimized propensity for breakage. fast response time. a wide viewing angle. high brightness and flexible characteristics. which functions as a series of switches to control the current flowing to each of the pixels.matrix organic light-emitting diode) is an emerging display technology for use in mobile devices like mobile phones. and lower driving voltage. . They have been extensively studied owing to their promising features like thin thickness.ABSTRACT AMOLED (active. self emission.

CONTENTS PAGE NO 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 INTRODUCTION ORGANIC LIGHT EMITTING DIODE WORKING PRINCIPLE MATERIAL TECHNOLOGIES OLED STRUCTURE ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES COMMERCIAL USES ACTIVE MATRIX OLED PASSIVE AND ACTIVE MATRIX AMOLED DISPLAY PANEL FACTORS AFFECTING BRIGHTNESS NOVEL LTPS-TFT PIXEL CIRCUIT ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES COMMERCIAL USE CONCLUSION REFERENCES 1 2 3 5 6 7 8 9 11 12 15 17 19 21 21 23 24 .

A corresponding circuit delivers voltage to the cathode and anode materials. full motion video. AMOLED pixels turn on and off more than three times faster than speed of conventional motion picture filmmaking these displays ideal for fluid. discrete “dot” pattern. 40 inch) for applications such as TV.that contains circuitry. organic.g. The pixels are defied by the deposition of the organic material in a continuous. AMOLED technology continues to make progress towards low-power and low cost large size (e. . and anode layers on top of another layer – or substrate. Each pixel is activated directly. ultra bright display technology which doesn’t require a backlight and Active-matrix refers to the technology behind the addressing of pixels. OLED describes a specific type of ultra thin. stimulating the middle organic layer. Active matrix (AM) OLED displays stack cathode.INTRODUCTION AMOLED (active-matrix organic light-emitting diode) is an emerging display technology for use in mobile devices like mobile phones.

molecular and polymeric. The electroluminescence in organic materials were first produced in 1950s by applying high voltage alternating current fields in air to acridine orange either deposited on or dissolved in cellulose or cellophane thin films. In 1965 he refined his experiment and showed that in the absence of an external electric field. . also light emitting polymer (LEP) and organic electro luminescence (OEL). and large-area light emitting elements. computer monitors. And the injecting hole and electron injecting electrode contacts are the basis of all current OLED devices.ORGANIC LIGHT-EMITTING DIODE An organic light emitting diode (OLED). is a light emitting diode (LED) whose emissive electroluminescent layer is composed of a film of organic compounds. portable system screens such as cell phones and PDAs. information and indication. OLEDs typically emit less light per area than inorganic solid state based LEDs which are usually designed for use in point light sources. advertising. Because there is no need for a backlight OLED display can be much thinner than LCD panel. In 1960s. The resulting matrix of pixels can emit light of different colors. can operate longer on the same charge. They are deposited in rows and columns onto a flat carrier by a simple “printing” process. The layer usually contains a polymer substance that allows suitable organic compounds to be deposited. martin pope discovered ohmic injecting electrode contacts to organic crystals. OLEDs can also be used in light sources for general space illumination. Such systems can be used in television screens. A significant benefit of OLED displays over traditional liquid crystal displays is that OLEDs do not require a backlight to function. Thus they draw far less power and when powered from a battery. This layer of organic semiconductor material is formed between two electrodes. the electroluminescence in anthracene single crystal was caused by thermalized electrons and holes. small.

The layers are made of organic molecules that conduct electricity the layers have conductivity levels ranging from insulators to conductors.conductive layer. this diode giving rise to the term OLED used a novel two layer structure with separate hole transporting and electron transporting layers such that recombination and emission occurred in the middle of the organic layer. Emissive layer. As well as conductive properties. 2.The first diode device was invented at Eastman Kodak in the 1980s. This resulted in the reduction in operating voltage and improvements in efficiency. Cathode (-).emission of radiation. 4. a conductive layer. 5. and anode and cathode terminals. 3. The first most basic OLEDs consisted of a single organic layer. Schematic of a 2-layer OLED: 1.anode . layers may be chosen to aid charge injection at electrodes by providing a more gradual electronic profile. Multilayer OLEDs can have more than two layers of to improve device efficiency. or block a charge from reaching the opposite electrode and being wasted. a substrate. WORKING PRINCIPLE A typical OLED is composed of an emissive layer. and started the current era of OLED research and device production. so OLEDs are considered organic semiconductors. for example the first light-emitting polymer device involved a single layer of poly (p-phenylene vinylene).

Metals such as aluminium and calcium are often used for the cathode as they have low work functions which promote injection of electrons into the polymer layer. holes move to the anode and electrons to the cathode. and can make higher resolution and larger size displays possible. That is why this layer is called emissive. Indium tin oxide is commonly used as the anode material. the emissive layer becomes negatively charged holes. the cathode gives electrons to the emissive layer and the anode withdraw electrons from the conductive layer. .A voltage is applied across the OLED such that the anode is positive with respect to the cathode. The device does not work when the anode is put at a negative potential with respect to the cathode. Active matrix OLEDs require a thin film transistor backplane to switch the individual pixel on or off. The recombination causes a drop in the energy levels of electrons. Electrostatic forces bring the electrons and the holes towards each other and they recombine. It is transparent to visible light and has a high work function which promotes injection of holes into the polymer layer. Thus. so they are moving from each other and do not recombine. the anode gives electron holes to the conductive layer. This happens closer to the emissive layer. accompanied by an emission of radiation whose frequency is in the visible region. In this condition. in other words. because in organic semiconductors holes are more mobile than electrons. OLEDs can be categorized into passive-matrix and active-matrix displays. Soon. This causes a current of electrons to flow through the device from cathode to anode.

metallic chelates. also light emitting polymers. The small molecules then emit the light and have the same longetivity that they have in the SMOLEDs. The production of small molecule displays involves vaccum deposition. involve an electroluminescent conductive polymer that emits light when connected to an external voltage source. Polymer light emitting diodes Polymer light emitting diodes. which makes the production process more expensive than other processing techniques. though some are using the term SM-OLED. The polymer is used for its production and mechanical advantages without worrying about optical properties. these displays are also not flexible. for example Alq3. Contrary to polymers. Molecules commonly used in OLEDs include organo. They are used as a thin film for full spectrum . used in the first organic light emitting device and conjugated dendrimers. Recently hybrid light emitting layer has been developed that uses nonconductive polymers doped with light emitting conducting molecules.MATERIAL TECHNOLOGIES Small molecules OLED technology using small molecules was first developed at Eastman Kodak Company. The term OLED traditionally refers to this type of device. small molecules can be evaporated and therefore very complex multilayer structures can be constructed. This high flexibility in layer design is the main responsible for the high efficiencies in the SM OLEDs. Since this is typically carried out on glass substrates. though this limitation is not inherent to small molecule organic materials.

bottom only emitting. uses a light or heat activated electro active layer. becomes highly efficient as a hole injection layer.color displays and require a relatively small amount of power for the light produced. OLED structures Bottom emission/top emission Bottom emission uses a transparent or semitransparent bottom electrode to get the light through a transparent substrate. And this flexible polymer light emitting diode displays. The substrate used can be flexible. making it much easier to view displays in bright sunlight. . Typical polymers used in polymer light emitting diode displays include derivatives of poly (p-phenylene vinylene) and polyfluorene. TransparentOLEDs can greatly improve contrast. Using this process. light emitting devices with arbitrary patterns can be prepared. or both top and bottom emitting(transparent). A latent material is included in this layer that upon activation. No vaccum is required and the emissive materials can be applied on the substrate by a technique derived from commercial printing. Phosphorescent materials Phosphorescent OLED (POLED)uses the principle of electro phosphorescence to convert electrical energy in an OLED into light in highly efficient manner. Patterning technologies Patternable OLED. Transparent OLED Transparent organic light emitting device uses a proprietary transparent contact to create displays that can be made to be top –only emitting. also called flexible OLED may be produced inexpensively. Top emission uses a transparent or semi transparent top electrode to get the light through the counter substrate.

even as the viewing angle approaches 90 degrees from normal. They can have a significantly lower cost than LCDs or plasma displays. . The biggest technical problem for OLEDs is the limited lifetime of the organic materials. Energy is also wasted in LCDs because they require polarizers that filter out about half of the emitted by the backlight. brightness. and greatly reducing pixel gap. instead of next to one another. At the moment all display technologies have the RGB pixels mapped next to each other. ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES The radically different manufacturing process of OLEDs lends itself to many advantages over flat panel displays made with LCD technology. This leads to substantial increase in gamut and color depth. improved sealing processes are important for practical manufacturing and may limit the longevity of more flexible displays. OLED pixel colors appear correct and unshifted. green and blue sub pixels on top of one another. contrast and viewing angle than LCDs because OLED pixels directly emit light.Stacked OLEDs Stacked OLEDs uses pixel architecture that stacks the red. OLEDs enable a great range of colors. gamut. Therefore. The intrusion is the limited lifetime of the organic materials. while an off OLED element produces no light and consumes no power. LCDs use a backlight and cannot show true black.

Portable displays are also used intermittently. car radios. so the lower life span of OLEDs is less important here. Such portable applications favor the high light output of OLEDs for readability in sunlight. notably the Z610i and some models of the Sony walkman. OLEDs have been used in most Motorola and Samsung color cell phones as well as some LG and Sony Ericsson phones. digital cameras and high resolution micro displays for head mounted displays. . Prototypes have been made of flexible and rollable displays which use OLEDS unique characteristics.COMMERCIAL USES OLED technology is used in commercial applications such as small screens for mobile phones and portable digital audio players. and their low power drains.

and an appropriate operating voltage is also provided. . In order to control individual pixels. signaling to each pixel how brightly to shine. Typically. so as to be small in volume and low in cost. so as to display information corresponding to this pixel.ACTIVE MATRIX OLED An active-matrix OLED (AMOLED) display consists of OLED pixels that have been deposited or integrated onto a thin film transistor (TFT) array to form a matrix of pixels that illuminate light upon electrical activation. which functions as a series of switches to control the current flowing to each of the pixels. a specific pixel is commonly selected via a scanning line and data line. The TFT array continuously controls the current that flows to the pixels. • • • • An anode layer A middle organic layer A cathode layer A bottom layer which contains circuitry The major feature of the AMOLED display is the use of a thin film transistor(TFT) technique to drive the organic light emitting diode. AMOLED screens have four separate layers to control the picture. The digital display is characterized by a display screen composed of multiple pixels in a matrix arrangement. one to start and stop the charging of a storage capacitor and the second to provide a voltage source at the level needed to create a constant current to the pixel and eliminating the need for very high currents required for passive OLED matrix operation. this continuous current flow is controlled by at least two TFTs at each pixel. and the driving integrated circuit(IC) is installed on the panel directly.

The AMOLED display can be applied on a medium or small sized panel in a cellular phone. In order to control individual pixels. a specific pixel is commonly selected via a scanning line and a data line and an appropriate operating voltage is also provided. and it declines faster than the TFT. PDA. even if the electric currents provided by the TFT are kept constant. and the driving integrated circuit is installed on the panel directly. so as to be small in volume and low in cost. . The major feature of the AMOLED display is the use of a thin film transistor technique to drive the organic light emitting diode.The active matrix organic light emitting diode (AMOLED) display technology is a newly developed technology. and will be mainstream for display devices accompanying liquid crystal displays (LCDs) in the future. Therefore according to conventional techniques. In order to create an AMOLED display. however the brightness of the OLED cannot be maintained. the entire display degrades as well. the brightness of the AMOLED display still decays. One approach that the design of the pixels must be geared towards compensating for the degradation of the TFT. Judging from the current technology. digital camera and palm game player. This is because the efficiency of the OLED itself declines with time. so as to display information corresponding to this pixel. portable DVD player and automobile global positioning system. The digital display is characterized by a display screen composed of multiple pixels in a matrix arrangement. a TFT substrate and organic light emitting diode (OLED) films are incorporated into the AMOLED display pixels. When the TFT and OLED degrades. even when electric currents are kept steady by the TFT.

the proper row is switched on. It starts with two glass layers called substrates. which makes image appear fuzzy and lacking in contrast. AMOLED DISPLAY PANEL . One substrate is given columns and the other is given rows made from a transparent conductive material. and then a charge is sent down the correct column. The liquid crystal material is sandwiched between two glass substrates. Basically TFTs are tiny switching transistors and capacitors. notably slow response time and imprecise voltage control. The capacitor is able to hold the charge until the next refresh cycle. And if we carefully control the amount of voltage supplied to a crystal. Response time refers to the LCDs ability to refresh the image displayed. The precise voltage control hinders the passive matrix’s ability to influence only one pixel at a time. When voltage is applied to untwist one pixel. To address a particular pixel. This is usually indium tin oxide. the pixels around it also partially untwist. Active matrix LCDs depend on thin film transistors (TFT). To turn on a pixel the integrated circuits sends a charge down the correct column of one substrate and a ground activated on the correct row of the other. only the capacitor at the designated pixel receives a charge. we can make it untwist only enough to allow some light through. Since all the other rows the column intersects are turned off. The rows or columns are connected to integrated circuits that control when a charge is sent down a particular column or row. and that delivers the voltage to untwist the liquid crystals at that pixel.PASSIVE AND ACTIVE MATRIX Passive matrix LCDs use a simple grid to supply the charge to a particular pixel on the display. The row and column intersect at the designated pixel. They are arranged in a matrix on a glass substrate. and a polarizing film is added to the outer side of each substrate. But it has significant drawbacks.

TFT backplane technology is a crucial enabler for the fabrication of flexible AM OLED displays. By using transparent semiconductors and transparent electrodes. .Active matrix element: TFT backplane technology A thin film transistor is a special kind of field effect transistor made by depositing thin films of a semiconductor active layer as well as the dielectric layer and metallic contacts over a supporting substrate. since the primary application of TFTs is in liquid crystal displays. some TFT devices can be made completely transparent. The conventional glass substrate based TFT process cannot be used with the flexible plastic substrates. Chemical vapor deposition. microcrystalline silicon or it can be annealed into polysilicon. This differs from the conventional transistor where the semiconductor material typically is the substrate such as silicon wafer. Two primary TFT backplane technologies poly. A common material is silicon. primarily because of the low temperature process constraint. The characteristics of silicon based TFT depend on the crystalline state. Other materials which have been used as semiconductors in TFTs include compound semiconductors such as cadmium selenide and metal oxides such as zinc oxide. Because the substrate cannot withstand the high annealing temperature.silicon (poly-si) and amorphous-silicon (a-si) are used today in AMOLEDs these technologies offer the potential for fabricating the required active matrix backplanes at low temperatures(<150 degree Celsius) directly on the flexible plastic substrate for producing flexible AMOLED displays. TFTs can be made using a wide variety of semiconductor materials. physical vapor deposition are applied. That is the semiconductor layer can be either amorphous silicon. TFTs have also been made using organic materials. the deposition process has to be completed under relatively low temperature. A common substrate is glass. such as indium tin oxide (ITO).

which generally include a polycrystalline silicon film as a semiconductor layer. The amorphous silicon film is generally crystallized over its entire surface by irradiating the substrate from one end to the other with excimer laser light that has been processed to have a linear shape. the TFT device circuits are formed on a TFT back panel of the display panel. pixel region 210 comprises a TFT circuit . AMOLED CIRCUIT LAYOUT Illustrated in FIG is a 4*4 pixel array portion of a conventional AMOLEDs TFT back panel 200. One way to form the polycrystalline silicon film from the amorphous silicon film is to crystallize the amorphous silicon film by irradiating it with laser light. ArF. such as low temperature polysilicon thin film transistor. such as a high power excimer laser. or XeCL as a light source. The linear shaped laser beam generally spans a portion or the whole length of a TFT back panel and is scanned in a lateral direction. In general the polycrystalline silicon film is formed from an amorphous silicon film. The polycrystalline silicon film requires high electron mobility in order for the TFT device to function optimally. may be a bottom gate type or a top gate type.In a typical AMOLED display panel. The TFT devices. As illustrated. An excimer laser is a pulsed laser having KrF.

many pulses of the laser beam are required to cover the entire TFT back panel 200. Since the size of the laser beam is limited.portion 212 and an OLED circuit portion 214. on the TFT back panel often results in line shaped Mura defects. After the amorphous silicon film is laser annealed into polycrystalline film. Mura defects are defects that exhibit as non-uniform contrast regions on an LCD or an OLED display panel and are attributed to pulse-to-pulse variations in the laser beam energy that is used to crystallize the amorphous silicon film. And because the TFT characteristics is sensitive to the performance of the polycrystalline silicon and the TFT devices drive the OLED devices. Although the polycrystalline silicon film is subsequently removed from the OLED portion 221. the laser anneal irradiation of the non-TFT regions such as the ILED circuit portion 221. this often results in undesirable line Mura defects in the finished AMOLED display panel. The non uniform laser beam energy caused by pulse to pulse variations in the laser beam energy results in nonuniform performance of polycrystalline silicon. the non uniform characteristics results in non-uniformity in OLEDs brightness. drain. and channel regions of the TFT devices in the TFT circuit portion 212. FACTORS AFFECTING BRIGHTNESS . In AMOLED display panels. subsequent photolithographic process remove unnecessary portions of the polycrystalline film except for the polycrystalline islands that are required for the source. The amorphous silicon film layer is initially deposited over the entire TFT back panel 200 and crystallized into polycrystalline form using the excimer laser annealing process. These defects are more pronounced when a constant gray value image or patter is displayed. A linear –shaped excimer laser beam 220 is scanned over the entire surface of the TFT back panel 200 by irradiating a portion of the TFT back panel 200 at a time.

high brightness and flexible characteristics. a wide viewing angle. Passive matrix active matrix fig1. self emission. the following factors affect the brightness uniformity in AMOLED. However the structure of AMOLEDs is mare complex than that of PMOLEDs additionally. However the PM method cannot emit light continuously and power consumption is markedly higher then that of the AM method when applied to large displays. such as a simple structure and low cost. fast response time. Schematic of PMOLED (PM) and AMOLED (AM) The difference between PMOLEDs and AMOLEDs is that the pixel in an AMOLED includes a capacitor for storing data and eliminating light continuously.Active matrix organic light-emitting diodes(AMOLEDs) have been extensively studied owing to their promising features such as thin thickness. Two programming methods exist.the passive matrix (PM) and active matrix (AM) driving methods (fig 1). Therefore. The PM driving method has some benefits. lower driving voltage. Threshold voltage variations: . AMOLED is applicable to large-high-resolution displays and highly promising for future flexible displays. high efficiency. 1.

an n-type pixel circuit must accommodate the threshold voltage degradation of OLEDs as OLED current is determined by VGS of the driving TFT.The OLED current is determined by the driving thin-film transistor (TFT). Due to these problems associated with AMOLEDs. However the disadvantage of optical feedback is a strong wavelength dependence on photo efficiency and sensitivity to ambient light. Vth variations are due to process differences and long term operational result for OLED brightness non-uniformity. Process consideration. such as the optical feedback and ac driving methods. operated in the saturated region. OLED degradation and brightness efficiency: The anode potential of the OLEDs must be considered as OLED threshold voltage degrades at 0. The OLED current formula is IOLED =1/2k (VGS-VTH) 2. 2. Therefore. However these studies focused on TFT threshold voltage variation. Where Vth represents the threshold voltage of a driving TFT. thereby preventing luminescence drops. . the effect of OLED degradation on brightness is seldom discussed. mature manufacturability and high stability an a-Si process technology has a serious threshold voltage shift over long-term operation. To overcome the brightness degradation. some compensating techniques have been developed.2mV/h during operation. Furthermore. However p-type TFT can only be fabricated using the LTPS process. 3. Therefore a work is presented where a novel five TFT pixel circuit with a feedback structure that detects OLED ageing phenomena and produces additional current to compensate for OLED degradation. Therefore. numerous mechanisms where developed to maintain display brightness uniformity. Additionally the ac driving methods does not account for VTH variations completely. The AMOLED pixel driver can be fabricated as a low-temperature polysilicon (LTPS) and amorphous silicon (a-si). In most OLED pixel circuits. although including several advantages like low cost. An n-type TFT can be fabricated by LTPS and a-Si processes. the source node of an n-type drive TFT connects the OLED anode.

TFT2. and an additional control signal. The data voltage (V data) is applied to node A (VA) through TFT5 and the gate voltage .NOVEL LTPS-TFT PIXEL CIRCUIT (a) Circuit schematic (b) Control signal timing diagram Fig. a storage capacitor. TFT1 determines the OLED current by analyzing the storage capacitor voltage of C1. utilized to store the driving voltage during one frame. this work proposes a novel circuit comprising of 3 n-type TFTs. First. SCAN1 goes To low voltage and SCAN2 is high voltage.3 schematically depicts the proposed pixel circuit and its control signal timing diagram. TFT4 and TFT5 are turned on and TFT3 is turned off. and the other TFTs are used for a switching function. The operational scheme and compensation principle of the proposed circuit are described as follows. 3. 1. Fig. Circuit schematic and control signal timing diagram for the proposed driving method To reduce the non uniform brightness problem mentioned above. Initialization period: during the first period. 2 p-type TFTs.

where VTH_T1 is the threshold voltage of TFT1. the initialization period. ADVANTAGES • Very thin and light weight • Greatly minimized propensity for breakage. that is. . Node A is connected to a source node of TFT1.of TFT1 (VB) is charged approaching to the voltage difference between VDATA and VB. compensation period: SCAN2 signal goes to low voltage.V data) until the next initialization period. the C1 continuous to sustain the voltage (VOLED_0 +VTH_T1 . emission period: both TFT2 and TFT3 are turned on: VDD is connected to the drain node of TFT1 through TFT2. such that VA becomes VOLED_1. VB becomes VOLED_0 + VTH_T1 +VOLED_1 -V data. the drain. consequently. and VOLED_0 is the threshold voltage of OLED when no current is flowing through OLED. 2. The storage capacitor (C1) is discharged to VOLED_0 +VTH_T1-Vdata. The VB is discharged through TFT4 and TFT1 until TFT1 is turned off. This node voltage settles to VOLED_0 +VTH_T1. where VOLED_1 is the voltage of OLED when the OLED is emitting light. and TFT3remains turned off. Turning off TFT2. The corresponding OLED current is determined based on the VGS of TFT1. At this time.current of TFT1 (IOLED) is given as IOLED=1/2k (VGS-VTH_TFT1)2 =1/2k (VOLED_0+VTH_TFT1+VOLED_1 -V data-VOLED_1-VTH_TFT1)2 =1/2k (VOLED_0-VDATA)2 3.

• High perceived luminescence: Perceived luminescence is 1. o Wide viewing angle .5 times higher than thet of conventional lcd display Contrast ratio the contrast of an AMOLED is unbelivable it offers clear images and readability in any environment.

• Fast response More vivid and dynamic image quality is realized in moving pictures. • Lower power. transportation and storage. allow a unique form factor of conformability and roll ability during use.• True colors High color gamut and no color shift by viewing angle/or gray scales. . highly rugged with superior image quality and low cost compared to the current LCD display. • Due to their inherent ruggedness.

Samsung NV24HD NOKIA N85 has a 2.DISADVANTAGES AMOLED displays are prone to material degradation. PDA.5inch WVGA AMOLED 3g-full touch screen phone called “HAPTIC AMOLED”. The colors are bright and evenly lit with no side or backlighting. Samsung brought to the United States the first phone using an AMOLED display. Samsung electronics launched a 3. In July 2009. However technology has been invented to circumvent this problem.6 inch display with support for up to 16 million colors. COMMERCIAL USES AMOLED displays are used in mobile phones. The display is viewable for virtually any angle and looks great in the dark and in direct sunlight. portable DVD player and automobile global positioning system. . In April 2009. digital camera and palm game player.

representing a compound annual growth rate of 83.6 billion by 2014.The world AMOLED market will grow to US$ 4.3 percent up from $67 million in 2007 .

AMOLED continues to make progress towards low power and low cost applications. larger color gamut. .CONCLUSION Active matrix organic light emitting diode (AMOLED) displays have been considered a potential candidate for the next generation of flat panel displays due to the ability of AMOLED in providing wider viewing angle. and lower fabrication cost. It can be efficiently utilizes in mobile displays.

html www.tw/re/articles/e/20071102/3.patentstorm.REFERENCES www.com http://research.google.us/patents/7352345/description.org .wikipedia.edu.ncku.html www.