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pliegues de papel

14 de julio de 2008

contenidos

1 Número de oro

2 regular pentagon

There are many things in mathematics that are beatiful, yet

sometimes the beauty is not apparent at first sight.This is not the

case with the Golden Section,which ought to be beautiful at first

sight, regardless of the form in which it is presented.The Golden

Section refers to the proportion in which a line segment is divided

by a point.

graficamente

B − − − − − − − P − − − − − −A

Simply, for the segment AB, the point P partitions (or divides) it

into two segment,AP and PB, such that

AP PB

=

PB AB

the Greeks,was probably first named the “Golden Section“ or

“section aurea“ by Leonardo da Vinci, who drew geometric

diagrams for Fra Luca Pacioli’s book,De Divina Proportione(1509),

which dealt with this topic.

There are probably endless beauties involving this Golden

Section.One of these is the relative ease with which one can

construct the ratio by merely folding a strip of paper.

Simply have your student take a strip of paper, say about 1-2

inches widw, and make a knot.Then very carefully flatten the knot

as shown in the next figure.Notice the resulting shape appears to

be a regular pentagon,that is, a pentagon with all angles

congruent and all sides the same length.

regular pentagon

a light,they ought to be able to see the pentagon with its

diagonals.These diagonals intersect each other in the Golden

Section(see below).

regular pentagon

AC in to the Golden Section,since

DC AD

=

AD AC

We can say that the segment of length AD is the mean

proportional between the lengths of the shorter segment (DC) and

the entire segment (AC).

For some student audiences,it might be useful to show what the

value of the Golden Section is.To do this, begin with the isosceles

triangle ABC,whose vertex angle has measure 36o .Then consider

the bisector BD of ∠ABC(figure)

We find that m∠DBC = 36o .Therefore,4ABC 4BCD.Let AD = x

and AB = 1.However,since 4ABC y 4DBC are

isosceles,BC = BD = AD = x.

1−x x

=

x 1

This gives us

√

2 5−1

x + x − 1 = 0 and x =

2

(The negative root cannot be used for the length of AD)

We recall that √

5−1 1

=

2 φ

The ratio for 4ABC of

side 1

= =φ

base x

We therefore call this a Golden Triangle.

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