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Table of contents

Contents Organization behavior Behavior disciplines Challenges and opportunities Basic OB model Dependent variable Independent variables

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Luthans ." . groups and structure have on behavior within organization for the purpose of applying such knowledge toward improving an organization's effectiveness.Stephen P. prediction and management of the human behavior affect the performance of the organizations. Robbins 2." . It strives to identify ways in which people can act more effectively.act within organization. "Organizational behavior is a field of study that investigates the impact that individuals.2 |Page Definition of Organization Behavior: 1. "Organizational behavior is the study and application at knowledge about the how people as individuals and a groups . "Organizational behavior can be defined as the understanding. .Keith Davis 3.

. as follows: Psychology: As defined. Much discussion related to the concept of emotions and employee effectiveness in which members are aware of the tendencies and awareness of emotion has brought attention to this contribution to OB’s ongoing development. 1994). four sciences have been identified as having significant impact in OB’s development. Within each major category there exist individual contribution dimensions that carry with it a unit of analysis affecting the individual. sociology. It is in this case. Motivation: In order to optimize the performance of members within any organization it is necessary to understand the individual characteristics of such members and by attempting to fulfill their individual’s needs creates a pattern in which to bring out the best in their efforts. and anthropology. social psychology. Scientists saw particular significance to psychology’s contribution through various contributions that helped form the study of Organizational Behavior. Each of following dimensions has been assigned to an individual behavioral science. They are psychology. Of the options as it relates to Organizational Behavior. behavioral disciplines that have shaped Organizational Behavior into a distinguishable discipline. and organizational system. group. Through Organizational Behavior’s beginnings the science of psychology had with it particular impact. there exists a basis in which it is developed. and sometimes change the behavior of human and other animals”.3 |Page Disciplines of Organizational Behavior: As with most sciences. that present it as a science that has strong ties to other disciplines. The history of Organizational Behavior (OB) can be traced back to the Scientific Management approaches from the Industrial Revolution as early as the late 1800’s with the work of Frederic Winslow Taylor (1856-1915) (Wertheim). This can certainly be a key to identifying elements related to motivation and other interpersonal dynamics. Learning: This are of contribution became a significant element to Organizational Behavior studies when scientists attempted to identify how people would learn new skills within the workplace and how different learning styles would have to address for employees. Personality: Psychology’s research in personality contributes to OB ability to assess individual attitudes and tie them to an organization or workgroup. “psychology is the science that seeks to measure. As in Organizational Behavior it is “the study of the structure and functioning of organizations and the behavior of groups and individuals within them” and “drawing primarily on the disciplines of sociology and psychology” (Warner. Emotions: Certainly an interrelationship between a person’s personality and motivation include one’s emotions and the facets in which it is carried upon at work. explain.

Psychology has provided multiple means of measuring leadership and developing statistical models of attributes and behaviors that make up an effective leader. How one make such decisions and how it affects the rest of the organization will certainly be an ongoing topic of discussion as it relates to OB. Job satisfaction: Certain key metrics relating to an organization’s effectiveness include job satisfaction of its members. The modern leader must take into account more attributes and motivational elements. How an organization is to manage. and create policy should include the mindsets of its members and align to organizational objectives. Psychology’s contribution of training to the study of OB permits organizations see how individuals respond to training and how it can best serve the organization. and associated stressors has a direct connection to that workers cognitive state and tendencies. How an organization provides an environment and opportunity to bring out the best in its employees is certainly its ability to explore the psychology of this work force. Leadership effectiveness: It is a long held belief that the modern organization is more complex than ever before. temperature. Attitude measurement: Psychology’s statistical work has provided much input related to OB as it relates to member’s attitudes. Training: Since most organizations are compromised of individuals with various background and perspectives. reward. how an organization introduces the procedures. Psychology’s impact in this area is great to include quantitative analysis of characteristics found to be successful based upon position requirements and organizational needs. policies. Work design: The interconnection of worker and their environment to include machinery. and rule becomes a challenge. Psychology’s ability to contribute this element to the ongoing . climate. The tendencies to make the correct decision or the one that would be benefit the organization is certainly attributed to the individual’s cognitive and psychological state. Performance appraisal: The systematic process of providing employees feedback as to their individual performance takes into account communication parameters and goal setting that benefits both the individual and organization.4 |Page Perception: As one learned to adapt and find a place within the organization their perception of what exists around them becomes clear. Even the study of personality and work design has come to the forefront. Individual decision making: Decisions are made every day by an organization’s members. Employee selection: The traits and characteristics of successful employees has been long measured and analyzed. These cross roads of objectives and needs have within it a place in both Psychology and OB. How a member responds to the organization and its members are key to determination their attitudes and tendencies.

Formal organization theory: Even with many organizations moving to matrix or less structured organization. Sociology: Sociology is defined “as the study of people in relation to their social environment or culture”. the study of power. The elements of Sociology’s contribution to Organizational Behavior include: Communication: The means and manner in which an organization’s member’s exchange information and the effectives of such exchange is highly necessary for the effective organization. the concepts related to the formal organization will continue to provide necessarily information as to more fluidity of structure in order to meet the coming demands and changing landscape of organizations to meet shareholder and stakeholder needs. conflict and its study are necessary in order to identify and map the process of improvement within an organization as well as predict potential calamity. Organizational technology: As technology’s presence becomes increasing present. The ability to study the dynamics of a group and their exchanges can better help the OB practitioner in facilitate the formation of groups within the organization for organization benefit. The study of conflict and its origins will be necessary to identify the sources and solutions within the organization. How an organization can adapt to environmental changes and needs will define its future success. The study of how these interplay contributes to how the organization may use such technology to its benefit. the role of power and authority and its influences is necessary. Power: As shared with Anthropology. Intergroup behavior: With teaming being a critical next step for many organizations. Stress being a potential positive negative aspect of organizations certainly has a role in the study of OB. Work stress: How a person reacts to his/her environment and perception of that environment is deeply affected by the perspective they hold and how they think. Organizational change: Change management has been at fore front of many organizations in order to compete in the global market. the tools and means in which an organization links equipment and technology with human capital will become an important competitive element. the role of intergroup behavior will have increased necessity.5 |Page management of an organization will continue to become an issue as organizations seek optimal performance and efficiency. its presence. . Conflict: As a natural by-product of any organization. Sociology’s contribution towards this dynamic of organizations is valuable in order to optimize the process and improve its accuracy. and influence within the organization has within it a substantial role within the organization. In order to best analyze and assess an organization. The impact that sociology has on Organizational Behavior is significant as organizations at their nature are formations that hold both a social environment and culture.

the study of this contributory element will an important to the ongoing development of OB. the core elements of any organization and how to interpret such elements will continue to be of significance to the organization. Within this discipline. anthropology “is the study of societies to learn about human beings and their activities”. Cross-cultural analysis: Certainly the acceleration of mergers and acquisitions will increase how an organization will blend different organizational cultures that would strength geographies and multiple diversity dimensions. As organizations evaluate the merits of modification of both issues. Group processes/Group decision making: As discussed above the study of group dynamics and its impact will affect both processes and decision making for the organization. Certainly employee attitudes affect behavior and in turn performance. Comparative values/Comparative attitudes: Values alignment has been discussed recently as it relates to employee selection and performance. Anthropology: As defined. Especially in the area of customer service do we see this discussion the often. With employee engagement becoming more important to many organizations. Anthropology’s contribution of this dimension will . Social Psychology brings together these two complimentary disciplines into Organizational Behavior. As researchers and managers continue to explore this element of social psychology and organizational behavior the benefits will become revealed. Organizational environment: The environment in which an organization exists creates for it both opportunities and challenges. Behavioral change/Attitude change: Currently and ongoing debate continues concerning attitudinal versus behavioral changes and the impact it has for an organization. the interplay of individual and group come into focus. the tangible and intangible attributes of the organization will either become a favorable aspect or challenge to the organization. but herein lies anthropology’s contribution to how it might affect the outcomes of an organization. It is the analysis of multiple cultures and their opportunities for cross pollination that will provide predictors of the future impact of such consolidation. Realizing that organizations are micro versions of societies and interdependent on society as a whole the relevance of its effect on OB becomes clear. “an area within psychology that blends concepts from psychology and sociology and that focuses on the influence of people on one another”.6 |Page Organizational culture: As shared with Anthropology. Social Psychology: As defined.

As stated above.7 |Page certainly assist the study of Organizational Behavior in areas such as workspace studies and the various employment arrangements available to management. As each develops new theories and research it presents new challenges and opportunities to find the highest level of effectiveness for the Organizational Behavior practitioners. . it is clear there has existed substantial basis and precedence from these four behavioral sciences as a foundation for Organizational Behavior.

and attitudes from those you are used to back home. • Managing people during the war on terror An understanding of OB topics such as emotions. • Increased foreign assignment Transferred to your employer’s operating division in another country. 2. need to modify by managers to reflect economic values in those countries they’re working. • Coping with Anti-capitalism backlash “Soak the rich” means fine should be charged with respect of income you earn. geographic and religion have shaped them. Managing w orkforce diversity The people in organization are becoming heterogeneous demographically. communication a n d leadership can help managers to deal more effectively with their employees’ fear about terrorism. motivation. Globalization to Respond Organizations are no longer constrained by national borders. Embracing diversity Changing US demographics Changing management philosophy Recognizing and responding to difference. a g e . • Working with different people Working with bosses. r a c e . Once there. Managers at global companies have come to realize that economic values are not universally transferable. peers and other employees who were born and raised in different culture. world become global village. . aspiration from employees.8 |Page Challenges and opportunities of OB: 1. m i x o f p e o p l e i n t e r m s o f g e n d e r . jobs tend to flow to places where lower cost provides business firms with comparative advantages. Workforce diversity= whereas globalization focuses on differences between people from d i f f e r e n t c o u n t r i e s . you’ll have to manage workforce. • Overseeing Movement of jobs to countries with low cost labor In a global economy. to work effectively with them you’ve to understand how their culture. a n d s e x u a l orientation.

improve the organization quality and productivity. design workplace and jobs. Coping w ith Tem porariness Survival for the organization. Working in netw ork organization Global working through one link i. jobs are redesigned. Im proving Custom er service OB can contribute to improving an organization’ performance by showing that how employee’s attitude and behavior are associated with customer satisfaction. 5. is need to move fast and flexible and innovative in their products. at the same time. overcome resistance to change. . 4. Excess capacity translate in increase competition. Im proving people skills Designing motivating jobs. continually improve their quality and beat their competition in market place. technology changes the people to work together and communicate at thousand miles. Helping employees Balance work-life conflicts Flexible Working hours. the challenge to the manager to stimulate their creativity and tolerance for change. better understanding of change.9 |Page 3. how creating effective teams. 9. 11. job Security. 8. right person appointed at right place. An organization’s employees can be major block in change. create organizational culture. INTERNET. creating opportunities for employees. trained old employees with new technology. task are done by flexibility. effort on what good for organization. 7. Stimulating innovation and change Victory will go the organization maintain their flexibility. 10. people can work from their home and non office locations.e. techniques for improving interpersonal skills. Creating positive Work Environment Human strength. Improving Quality and productivity World added capacity in response to increase demand. is forcing managers to reduce costs and. 6. Improving Ethical Behavior Manager shouldn’t place an order on which subordinate don’t agree. vitality. reporting time.

not new. Group-level variable: The behavior to people in groups is more than the sum total of all the individuals acting in their own way. human beings human beings whom others have gotten to first. . Individual-level variables: It has been said that “Managers.10 | P a g e Basic OB Model: Organizational System Level Group Level Individual Level Organizational Level: Organizational behavior reaches its highest level of sophistication when we add formal structure to our previous knowledge of individual and group behavior. Unlike parents must work with used.

whereas the dependent variable is the presumed effect. the independent variable refers to the status of the presumed 'cause. "The DV refers to the status of the 'effect'(or outcome) in which the researcher is interested. cigarette-smoking. The IV is the antecedent. "In no experimental research. In experiments. For example. treat them as IVs (Heppner. instead the DV is observed or measured for variation as a presumed result of the variation in the IV. Even though researchers do not actually control or manipulate status variables. The dependent variable: Production: A performance measure that includes effectiveness and efficiency. ethnicity. is the independent variable. the IV is the variable that 'logically' has some effect on a DV. Absenteeism: Absenteeism is defined as the failure to report to work. Kivlighan & Wampold.' changes in which lead to . the independent variable is the variable that is varied or manipulated by the researcher. in the research on cigarettesmoking and lung cancer.11 | P a g e Independent Variables (IV) & Dependent Variables (DV): In an experiment. researchers can. p. Absenteeism is huge cost and disruption to employers. Effectiveness: Achievement of goals." (Kerlinger. Efficiency: The ration of effective output to the input required to achieve it. which has already been done by many subjects. etc. whereas the DV is not manipulated. gender. it is technically referred to as a status variable (e. Job satisfaction: The final dependent variable we’ll look at is job satisfaction. Turnover: Turnover is the voluntary and involuntary permanent withdraw from an organization.g. where there is no experimental manipulation.). and the dependent variable is the response that is measured. whereas the DV is the consequent.32) When researchers are not able to actually control and manipulate an IV.. the IV is the variable that is controlled and manipulated by the experimenter. 1999). 1986. and often do. An independent variable is the presumed cause. Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB): Is discretionary behavior that is not part of an employee’s formal job requirements but that never the less promotes effective functioning of the organization.

Individual-level variables: It has been said that “Managers. and ability to handle conflicts. 2002. Group-level variable: The behavior to people in groups is more than the sum total of all the individuals acting in their own way. 57) IV: Participation in intensive study program. Some Examples of Independent and Dependent Variables The following is a hypothesis for a study. it has been observed that rumor-mongering can sometimes cause a riot to erupt. In recent years many resident assistants have left their positions before completing even 1 year in their assignments. but it has also been observed that riots can cause rumors to surface. 1. The director decides to assess knowledge of the position." (Rosenthal & Rosnow. attitude toward policies. For example. 1991. unlike parents must work with used. human beings human beings whom others have gotten to first." (LaFountain & Bartos. "There will be a statistically significant difference in graduation rates of at-risk high-school seniors who participate in an intensive study program as opposed to at-risk high-school seniors who do not participate in the intensive study program. DV: Graduation rates. The director wants to identify the factors that predict commitment as a resident assistant (defined as continuing in the position a minimum of 2 years). p. 71) Independent Variables: Organizational Level: Organizational behavior reaches its highest level of sophistication when we add formal structure to our previous knowledge of individual and group behavior. p. attitude toward residential policies. 2002. The following is a description of a study. 8) .12 | P a g e changes in the status of the dependent variable…any event or condition can be conceptualized as either an independent or a dependent variable." (LaFountain & Bartos. Rumors are variables that can be conceived of as causes (IVs) and as effects (DVs). "A director of residential living on a large university campus is concerned about the large turnover rate in resident assistants. DV: commitment to position (continuing in position for 2 years or not continuing). IV: knowledge of position. 2. and ability to handle conflicts as predictors for commitment to the position. not new. p.

Foundations of behavioral research (3rd ed. CA: Brooks/Cole. 7(2). Historical background of organizational behavior.. Retrieved September 2. Malcolm (1994). from ABI/INFORM Global database. E.. S. 37(1). L. & Wampold. 47(10). G. Jr. A. Convergence. P..). (Document ID: 772216201). Retrieved August 29.13 | P a g e References:  Heppner. P. 2007. New York: McGraw-Hill. Retrieved September 2. B. Organizational behavior. M. Kerlinger. Human Relations. 177. Inc. 23-29. (1999). (2002). A Social Influence Interpretation of Worker Motivation. Academy of Management. Retrieved September 2. (Document ID: 49053). R. Robbins. The Academy of Management Review. 1151. 2007.htm#schools. Robert P.edu/~ewertheim/introd/history. Helena (2004).. Essentials of behavioral research: Methods and data analysis (2nd ed. Sussmann. T. R. Worthen. New York: Brooks/Cole. Warner. Organizational behavior revisited. Rinehart and Winston. (2007).). R.cba. from http://web. Fort Worth: Holt. Upper Saddle River. Vecchio. E. (Document ID: 944674). F. from ABI/INFORM Global database. 2007. Wertheim.neu. Kivlighan. & Judge. P.          . B. D. (1991). & Rosnow. LaFountain. from ProQuest Education Journals database. (1986). Research and statistics made meaningful in counseling and student affairs. 2007.). & Bartos. M. Pacific Grove.. R.. N. (1982). Mario. Inc. Rosenthal. Research design in counseling (2nd ed. Studying the workplace: considering the usefulness of activity theory.