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Aim: To investigate how light intensity affects leaf thickness of Ivy (Hedera helix) in shaded and exposed areas

within a field located at Juniper Hall, Dorking, Surrey (TQ1725052707) RESEARCH & RATIONALE: (Abstract) This field study‟s main purpose was to explore any form of relationship between light intensity and how it may affect physical properties such as thickness of Ivy leaf (Hedera helix). The investigation consisted of two different conditions; a shaded area (downfield- limited exposure to sunlight) and an area receiving greater exposure to sunlight (up field). The study was primarily conducted on the grounds of Juniper Hall field centre as the location provided both easy access to necessary equipment and was of convenience due to naturally occurring Ivy plantation. This location was also used to analyse other variables so that all significant influences on thickness could be taken in to consideration. These variables include atmospheric temperature, humidity, soil pH and soil depth. These factors did have an effect on the overall results. EXPERIMENTAL HYPOTHESIS: There will be significant difference in the thickness between the leaves in the light area and the dark area NULL HYPOTHESIS: There will be no significant difference in thickness between the leaves in the light area and the dark area; the sun leaf would only be slightly thicker (Introduction) (i) Ivy also known as Common Ivy/ English Ivy, is a native species to Europe and temperate Asia that‟s Classification is as follows: Domain: Eukarya, Kingdom: Plantae, Phylum: Anthophta, Division: Magnoliophyta (flowering plants), Class: Magnoliopsida (Dicotyledons), Order: Fabales, Family: Araliacecae, Genus: Hedera L., Species: Hedera Helix. [1] (ii) Ivy is a woody, evergreen that displays differences in infant and adult form which is uncommon in other plants.[ Diedrich and Swearingen (2000)] During its early (rapid growth) stages, plant is most likely to expand outwards and upwards with branched out aerial roots and lobed leaves from main stem (can reach 30m high with stems up to 25cm in diameter). The main stem itself is coated with hair-like roots that act as an adhesive to enable the plant to climb hard surfaces. [2] During later stages in contrast, plant loses its roots, developing dependence on stem for support. Additionally the leaves on creeping or climbing stems (have blades with 3 to 5 triangular lobes) change to oval or rhombic blades, without lobes and plant begins to flower although, this only occurs in full sunlight. The overall change through maturity results in plant developing appearance of shrub. Flowering period for Ivy occurs between September-December, whilst fruit ripening period begins in spring. [2] The Ivy leaves that I examined were hairless and glossy very dark green above with a paler back. In a similar study conducted by Yang et al. (2007) it was found that decrease in light intensity resulted in leaf thickness amongst many other things. This study may apply to my investigation as this study observed the morphological and physiological characteristics displayed in tobacco seedlings according to light intensity and so can portray a more detailed account of the relationship. Juniper Hall is recorded as a Grade 2 British listed building since 1951 and is the property of the National Trust, though as of 1947 has been occupied by the Field Studies Residential Centre. [3] This centre has unimproved chalk grassland, coppiced woodlands, heath land and freshwater sites as environments and habitats for study. [4]

(iii)

(iv)

Therefore it is essential to take humidity and atmospheric temperature in to account as favourable conditions may indicate to greater thickening of leaves. However as the observations for my study will be carried out in the natural environment of where Common Ivy grows. published a study conducted by Bauer and Thöni (1987) on photosynthetic light acclimation of fully developed leaves in the two different stages of common Ivy.2 and a maximum of 7. A factsheet by Diedrich and Swearingen (2000) state that Hedera helix requires some soil moisture to be present. So by recording soil pH we can be sure to observe whether differences in soil pH may affect the thickness of Common Ivy leaves. while in the early plants phase. and tuberculosis. and gallbladder. It also claimed that English Ivy prefers damp soils. joint pain (rheumatism). [10] Common Ivy can withstand an average soil pH minimum of 5. It could be argued that due to their study being a laboratory study it lacks ecological validity as results may not generalised to what actually happens in natural environment. . gout. Their results indicate that that in the adult life phase of ivy light acclimation occurs mainly during leaf development. The same database found that Ivy required fine soil type which had a medium tolerance to calcium carbonate (CaCOᶾ). and a moist.(Rationale) In 1988 Physiologia Plantarum. chronic bronchitis. so results from my study will then gain stronger ecological validity. fully expanded leaves still possess rather wide changes in flexibility of acclimation. cool environment. The results from this investigation should be of interest to biologist and others working in the field as common Ivy leaves are used as herbs to help alleviate pain for disorders of the liver. including muscle spasms.according to a US plant database. therefore soil type needs to be taken in to consideration. spleen.8. If soil type does not meet up to norm requirement of common Ivy than this in turn may have effect to leaf thickness.

.PLANNING: (Independent and Dependent variables): SI Units (of Measurements): Number of Samples: How variable will be manipulated: Independent Variable (IV): Light intensity Dependent Variable (DV): Thickness of the leaf (lx)/ Lux 10-20 It will be manipulated through taking random reading in sample area. chalky and alkaline is favourable in growth of Ivy Measured using Digital pH Meter Soil Temperature (oC)/ Degrees Celsius None. this will increase germination of Ivy. Affect on clover: Well drained. dry.average (10-21 oC) it will increase the growth of Ivy.using description of soil 10-20 Measured using a Temp probe Description of soil type Soil Type 10-20 It is important to consider these inessential variables as they can influence the outcomes of this field study causing it to lack internal validity. --- 10-20 mm/ millimetres (Other variables): Other Variables : SI Units (of Measurements): Number of Samples: Why variable is needed to be taken in to account: How it will be taken into account: Measured using a Moisture Pin Humidity (%) / Percentage 10-20 Effects on results: the more humid it is. Soil pH (pH) 10-20 Effect on results: lower pH (more acidic= lower number Ivy plants) higher pH (more alkali = higher number of Ivy) Effect on results: low. the higher of the water content of the atmosphere and soil.

This risk score indicates that it is safe enough to proceed with this investigation. Wear footwear that is suitable for activities (grip). . The highest ranked risk score was 16 out of 25 for risk assessment. To be more specific Mann-Whitney U test was used as it discusses basic differences between assumptions of population distributions and skewed data. Handle the all pins with care and store in safe container if it is not in use. stung by wasp Steep Slopes Looking directly at the sun for a long period of time Getting pocked by temp probe 4 2 Rarel y Likelihood: 3 Infrequentl y 4 Sometime s 5 Often 1 Minor 2 Injur y Severity: 3 Major 4 Crippling 5 Fatality Risk Score: (L x S) Control: 8 8 8 16 1 Visual assessment for low branches and weather Visual assessment in case of disturbance to insects during pollination of flowers on Ivy. A non-parametric Statistical Test used in this study to avoid making assumptions over parameter.(Risk Assessment): Hazard/Outcome: 1 Very rarely Low branches/ falling branches Insect bite. Wear sunglasses that polarises and filters out UV rays. don‟t look at it directly.

Using two 5m measuring tape.  Humidity was measured using a hygrometer. The only alterations made for the main method was to use two light meters for synchronised readings.  Ten samples of soil was collected using a clean spatula and a sterile soil pots to avoid any contamination. The Sampling Technique Random Sampling in its simplest form was the sampling technique used for my investigation as it is ideal for conducting experiment on a large scale within a short space of time. this was placed on the ground and left for one minute to allow enough time for it to adjust to the surroundings for a more precise reading. an x-axis and y-axis were made and a scientific calculator was used to generate random numbers for co-ordinates.  Each Ivy leaf thickness was measured using a micrometer in 3 different sections and taken and average. Soil temperature readings also didn‟t vary as much. this reduces the chance of a biased sample and enables more samples to be taken.pH probe and distilled water Soil pots x 10 Micrometer Steps:  A sample size of 5m by 5m was chosen because it was big enough to cover a large percentage of the Ivy plantation on the grounds of Juniper hall. twenty readings were taken in each area with the light meter facing upwards. it was placed in three different areas within the 5m by 5m sample. Each reading was taken twice for each sample. (Amendments): The overall method used in the trial was almost identical to the main investigation in terms of sample size and technique. calcium carbonate which dissociates and causes the soil to become alkaline.  An Ivy leaf was picked at each co-ordinate and in total I picked 5 from each area for my trial. The trial helped rule out factors that stayed constant. readings did not vary as much factors such as soil pH and soil temperature. Co-ordinates were generated using “Ran” function on a scientific calculator. 5|P a g e . The same sampling technique and sample size was used when carrying out the experiment downfield and up field will increase reliability. distilled water and a pH meter were then used to work out pH of the soil.  The temperature of the soil was collected using a temperature probe. is due to the grounds of Juniper Hall.Anna Ly METHOD: (Initial Trial Phase) List of equipment:         Calculator Hygrometer Meter stick Light meter Soil temperature probe Soil pH. Therefore a large percentage of the population will be researched.  The light intensity in the trial was measured at 2pm using a light meter. Surrey is above sedimentary rock.

7 75 14.1 3 18.1 79 14.2 9 18.2 8.88 7.2 73 14 6 17.9 73 14.5 7.4 75 13.5 7 17.3 8 75 14.0 7.8 8 18 7 77 14.9 8 18.2 7 75 13.7 2 18 7.1 76 13.1 5 17.7 7 17.1 10 17.2 7 78 14.3 7 79 14.8 7.3 5 17.3 9 18.2 10 17.03 Shaded area Sample Temperature (°c) Soil pH * Humidity (%) Soil Temperature (°c) * 1 17.2 74 13.5 7.5 75 14.2 7.1 8.6 7.2 72 14 6 18.7 7.8 7.1 Mean 17.8 7.9 7.3 73 13.4 72 13.1 74 14.51 75.4 Mean 17. shaded and exposed area of Juniper hall (TQ1725052707) 1 18 8 76 13.96 6|P a g e .2 14.9 13.2 8 74 13.41 74.9 4 18.8 4 18.Anna Ly (Trial) Exposed sunlight area Sample Temperature (°c) Soil pH * Humidity (%) Soil Temperature (°c) Alternative Data that has been taken into account.1 76 14 3 18.95 7.8 2 17.

322 0.shade 6170 5730 6320 9360 6340 (Main) Average leaf thickness-full sunlight (mm) 0.276 0.300 0.338 0.shade (mm) 0.273 0.275 0.305 7|P a g e .304 0.280 Lux readings/ light intensity.full sunlight 17320 17560 18900 27300 17300 Sample number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Average thickness Shade Average thickness Sunlight mm mm 0.306 0.321 0.273 0.301 0.321 0.297 0.267 0.349 0.287 0.286 0.332 0.304 0.250 0.290 Lux readings / Light intensity.Anna Ly (Trial) Average Leaf thickness.317 0.253 0.252 0.363 0.305 0.321 0.335 0.

Anna Ly (Main) Box plots comparing light intensity in Exposed and Shaded area (Lux) 8|P a g e .

Anna Ly 9|P a g e .

322 0.349 0.306 0.5 6 18 2.287 0.297 0. 10 | P a g e .253 0. My U value is smaller less than the Critical value (23).304 0. Therefore there is a significant difference between the thickness in leaves exposed to the sun and shaded leaves.5 1 14 19 17 Ra=92 0.Anna Ly Mann.321 0.338 0.363 0. therefore you can reject the null hypothesis and accept the experimental hypothesis.267 0.286 0.301 0.317 0.273 0.Whitney „U‟ Calculation Sheet EXPERIMENTAL HYPOTHESIS: There will be significant difference in the thickness between the leaves in the light area and the dark area NULL HYPOTHESIS: There will be no significant difference in thickness between the leaves in the light area and the dark area. the sun leaf would only be slightly thicker Ranking A Data A Data B Ranking B 7 5 2.250 0.253 0.335 na=10 0.320 0.305 nb=10 15 10 9 13 20 12 16 8 4 11 Rb=118 Ra+ Rb= 20 x 21 /2 =210 Ua=100 +55-118=37 Ub=100+55-92=63 Critical=23 (critical value table) Conclusion: 95% confidence level for difference in leaf thickness in sun and shade area.

03°c). The thickness may have been due to the moisture in the air. Overall the investigation has shown a positive correlation between higher light intensity has an effect on the leaf thickness. Due having a 2. [9] Fluctuation in light intensity readings was probably due to reaction timing of my assistant and I. the fluctuations might be due to taking readings and being out of sync. indicating that there may be a correlation between the two variables. Computer generated box plots where used to compare results because the results were too close together to plot manually on graph paper. The micrometer used was manual so it could have been easier to miscount compared to using a digital micrometer increasing likelihood of random error. Despite the systematic and random errors in equipment and method. which was used because it is accurate to 0.Anna Ly INTERPRETING & EVALUATING: Discussion: This section will discuss any limitations of findings and improvements made. 74.01 in 0. 75. the same micrometer and light meter was use throughout the whole experiment. The Shaded area was slightly colder (13.4. Ivy grows better in colder temperatures which is why they are most abundant in September-December. the sunlight exposed area may have had higher water intake due to the surrounding atmosphere. This might be the cause of the anomalous result of 0.2%. this is ideal for comparing two different sets of data. To improve results this experiment could be replicated on a larger scale to identify the accurate effects of light intensity on leaf thickness. giving it a larger percentage error.5% percentage error. For example a leaf is 0.9% and the exposed area.363mm as the micrometer might have clicked too soon giving a thicker reading than expected. using a ruler accurate to 1mm to measure would give a 200% error.5%.4mm thick (say it is less than 0. pH and soil temperature had an effect on the thickness.96°c) than the sunlight exposed area (14. it can be concluded that it is generally alkaline due to the grounds being on Calcium Carbonate. Whereas. which is why 30 readings were taken to increase reliability. Nonetheless there were fluctuations in the results most likely due to equipment used in the experiment such as the micrometer. Soil pH sample was taken ten times and each reading was given at least one minute for the ions to dissociate with the distilled water before it was taken. large samples were easily taken and gave enough to calculate an average to support the conclusion. therefore it would have a very low percentage error compared to using a ruler which is accurate to 1mm. Humidity the shaded area had. 2. There was barely any difference. The general trend of my dataset shows that in common Ivy plantation as light intensity increases the thickness of leaves increases. It could be also due to a cloud going by and affecting the results. Fortunately the equipment was quick and easy to use. Alternative factors were also measured such as humidity. Soil temperature may have had an effect on the size of the leaves. excluding anomalous results in the calculations. and in this case it was to find and compared the thickness of common Ivy leaves in an area of greater exposure to sunlight and a shaded area. it is not guaranteed that the readings of the thickness is 100% accurate. the results were reliable because it was controlled environment. and therefore it would have higher water content in the cells.5 mm) would only have a percentage error of 0. The statistical test used to analyse the findings was Mann Whitney U test. measurements taken were repeatable. The results showed a positive correlation between light intensity and thickness. 11 | P a g e . the shaded area Ivy leaves appeared larger than the sunlight exposed leaves.01 of a millimetre. so repeating the readings will not eliminate this error in any way as it is a systematic error.

http://houseplants. Photosynthetic light acclimation in fully developed leaves of the juvenile and adult life phases of Hedera helix. B. Physiologia Plantarum.Bauer. Juniper Hall.uk/nature-online/species-of-the-day/biodiversity/economic-impact/hederahelix/index. G.htm (Copyright 2013) [10]-Website: .co.x [8]-Factsheet: .http://www. Y.Conservation Alliance‟s (PCA) Alien Plant Working Group. This source is an electronic outlet of information from a well known institution based in the UK. & Liu. [6].nps. 73: 31–37. & Ye.13993054.S.1988. & Wang.pdf -.wikipedia. Factsheet: English Ivy (Copyright 2006) [9]-Website: .F.Y.1111/j.http://en.Journal: .uwlax.webmd. as it is a concurrent website for Natural History Museum and it is always up to the date with new scientific guidelines. (2003).uk/en-289953-juniper-hall-mickleham-surrey . study was based in Austria. doi: 10. 12 | P a g e .aspx?activeIngredientId=465&activeIngredientName=ENGLISH%20IVY(Copyright 2009) EVALUATION OF SOURCES: [2] This source can be viewed as having very high reliability.Website: .http://www.Website: .Website: . [7]. Juniper Hall (2012) [5]. X.html – Natural History Museum (Copyright 2012) [3]. K.http://www.4) 252-259.Seong. based on the Interrelations between Plant Surface Temperature and Cultivation Environments. X.htm – English Ivy Classification (Copyright 2006) [2]. as the study can be considered out dated and new findings could disprove the content of this research. [7]This article was published in 1988 therefore the reliability can be questioned for this source. [8]This fact sheet has a variety of references of other journals that date to 2005 and this fact sheet itself is considered current (2006) however this fact sheet focuses primarily based in the US so credibility would be questioned due to environmental differences. W.edu/bio203/s2009/hitchins_abby/classification.Website: .britishlistedbuildings. This article was also published in a journal that is still publishing ecological scientific work to date. and MITSUO.Journal: -Yang.about..Journal: .Wikipedia. (1988).org/wiki/Juniper_Hall .com/vitamins-supplements/ingredientmono-465ENGLISH%20IVY.http://bioweb.nhm. H.gov/plants/alien/fact/pdf/hehe1. (2007).http://www. Mickleham [4].ac.Q. H. Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao. The Cold Resistance of Hedera helix L. Although.Anna Ly BIBLIOGRAPHY: [1]. Journal of Agricultural Science. 18(11):2642-5. Effects of light intensity on morphological and physiological characteristics of tobacco seedlings.British Listed Buildings. 47(NO.tb09189. & Wei. and Thöni.com/od/foliageplants/p/Ivy-How-To-Grow-English-Ivy. it is part of Europe where common Ivy is native to.