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FAKULTI PENDIDIKAN DAN BAHASA SARJANA MUDA PENGAJARAN

SEMESTER 3 / TAHUN 2011

OUMH1203

ENGLISH FOR WRITTEN COMMUNICATION

NO. MATRIKULASI NO. KAD PENGNEALAN NO. TELEFON E-MEL

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830831025261001 830831025261 0134699617 makalele8@yahoo.com.my

PUSAT PEMBELAJARAN

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SAMEO RECSAM PULAU PINANG

physically damaging the computer system without the user knowing it. The computer may however be target for illegal acts in the following cases. theft of computer system. what has crossed our mind are hacking. cyber stalking. theft of information contained in the electronic form.org/pati/pati_cybercrimes_dec03. According to Wikipedia. web jacking. According to Parthasarathi Pati . Usually the Trojan attacks. The crimes include child pornography. or it may be the target.CYBER CRIME INTRODUCTION When we want to talk about cybercrime. or cybercrime. Such crimes may threaten a nation’s security and financial health.org/wiki/Computer_crime Moore. there are two kind categories of cyber-crime that have been created. logic bombs and so on. These issues become high profile." Cleveland. intellectual property 1 http://en. lawfully or otherwise. child pornography so on and so forth. one of the professors in India refers the cyber crime as a generalized as “ unlawful acts wherein the computer is either a tool or target or both 2. Net crime refers to criminal exploitation of the Internet. copyright infringement and so on and so forth.wikipedia. There are also definitions of cyber crimes and according to Davis and Hutchison: 1997. online gambling. It means that the owner of the computer has detected some changes in his or her computer especially when it involves data or password. especially in those cracking. The computer may have been used in the commission of a crime. e-mail bombing. 2 http://www. The first category of cyber-crime is defined ‘where the computer is the tool of the crime’.unauthorized access to computer/ computer system/ computer networks.naavi. internet time thefts. forgery. (2005) "Cybercrime: Investigating High-Technology Computer Crime. There are also problems of privacy when confidential information is lost or intercepted. copyright infringement. refers to any crime that involves a computer and a network1. Actually there are so many types of cybercrime in this world that might surprise us without us knowing it. Mississippi: Anderson Publishing. fraud. criminal harassment. The computer may be used as a tool in the following kinds of pornography. R.htm . computer crime.

Cyber-crime is a national and international concern that is having a really serious impact on law enforcement at all levels. The second category is defined where the ‘computer is the object of the crime’. provincial and territorial governments. other scientific branches took decades to reach the same level of knowledge. as well as the police in the community. By comparison. .violations and illegal sales. It can be dangerous to our security nationally or internationally. Until now. groups or even organizations. Cybercrime is criminal activity done using computers and the Internet. Most of the internet users have gone through with this without knowing it. Cyber-crime consists of specific crimes dealing with computers and networks all around the world. THE CLASSIFICATION OF CYBER CRIME The computer is one of the most important discoveries in the development of the technical-technological civilization. In only 50 years’ time many devices for storage and processing of massive data have been discovered and improved. Apart from all advantages and benefits that the computer has brought about very soon it has also become a device for misuse in the hands of individuals. We will discuss more about in Malaysia and U. the best definition for cyber crimes that suits our topic is that cyber crime is an illegal acts that done by an individual or groups of people to hack or access others computer without permission . Cybercrime also includes such as creating and distributing viruses on other computers or posting confidential business information on the Internet.A in comparison in facts and cybercrime statistically. there are no national data on this important issue. This includes anything from downloading illegal music files to stealing millions of dollars from user online bank accounts.S. Cyber-crime should have received increased attention from federal. As we have gone through with these definitions of cyber-crime .

both physical and legal. traffic. at all levels. This division may be justified on the basis of . manufacturing use. or globally (entirely). its purpose ranging from private use. security of stored data of information system in segments. But this various and far stretching use of computers was recognized by irresponsible individuals who stop at nothing to get material benefit in illegal ways. So the computer has become an indispensable ‘gadget’ of modern living. services to national security and defense. To put it briefly to the term computer crime refers to all forms of crime connected with abuse of computers and informatics systems in general. The subject of cyber crime may be broadly classified under the following four major categories as they are: (1) Cyber crime against Individual (2) Cyber crime Against Property (3) Cyber crime Against Organization (4) Cyber crime Against Society There are a few types of cyber crimes if we really want to discuss in details. The characteristics of the computer crime are: * Socially dangerous illegal behavior that can be punished by the law.That is how the computer crime appeared as a specific model of present-day crime in regard of its structure. Because of these great possibilities for memorizing data and fast processing of huge data bases in very short time the number of automatic information systems goes up every day as they become an indispensable part of the work of all social subjects. The cyber criminals constitute of various groups/ category. The aim of the perpetrator to gain benefit (material or immaterial) and cause damage to other person. scope and characteristics. * Specific way and device for committing crime using computer. * Special object for protection. this super modern crime needs special attention to be paid both by state governing organs and the international community as well. If we take into account the dangers and damages to the society that can be caused by this crime.

The alleged e. The following are the category fall under cyber criminals1 ) Children and adolescents between the age group of 6 – 18 years There are no surprising to know that children and teenagers are the one that do most of the cyber-crime offences. Other reason may be to prove themselves to be outstanding among other children in their group. Example is the Bal Bharati (Delhi) case was the outcome of harassment of the delinquent by his friends.mail was sent from the account of another student to the vice president for student services. (iii) Cyber Defamation This occurs when defamation takes place with the help of computers and / or the internet. However the mail was traced to be sent from the account of Rajesh Manyar (ii) Spamming Spamming means sending multiple copies of unsolicited mails or mass e-mails such as chain letters. The simple reason for this type of behaviour pattern in children is seen mostly due to explore the things. Ravi which contained virus. a graduate student at Purdue University in Indiana.the object that they have in their mind. Further the reasons may be psychological even. For an example someone publishes defamatory matter about someone on a website or sends e-mails containing defamatory information. Recently spoofed mails were sent on the name of Mr. was arrested for threatening to detonate a nuclear device in the college campus. (iii) Harassment & Cyber stalking . Rajesh Manyar. (i) Email spoofing A spoofed email is one in which e-mail header is forged so that the mail appears to originate from one source but actually has been sent from another source. email spoofing and so on. Examples of crimes done under this category are downloading music illegally.

(ii) Computer contamination / Virus attack A computer virus is a computer program that can infect other computer programs by modifying them in such a way as to include a (possibly evolved) copy of it. email spoofing. unlike viruses do not need the host to attach themselves to. constantly bombarding the victim with emails etc. Examples of crimes done under this category are unauthorised access.The Oxford dictionary defines stalking as "pursuing stealthily". They mainly target the Indian government sites with the purpose to fulfil their political objectives. etc. Viruses can be file infecting or affecting boot sector of the computer. but the data is neither deleted nor changed. The Pakistanis are said to be one of the best quality hackers in the world. 2) Organised hackers These kinds of hackers are mostly organised together to fulfil certain objective. The NASA as well as the Microsoft sites is always under attack by the hackers. entering the chatrooms frequented by the victim. viruses and so on. Cyber stalking involves following a person's movements across the Internet by posting messages (and mostly threatening) on the bulletin boards frequented by the victim. (iii) Salami Attack . it can be of 2 forms: a) Changing/deleting data Unauthorized changing of data. (i) Unauthorized Accessing of Computer Accessing the computer/network without permission from the owner. b) Computer voyeur The criminal reads or copies confidential or proprietary information. The reason may be to fulfil their political bias. Trojan . Worms. fundamentalism.

(iv) Logic Bomb These are event dependent programs. The most common form of installing a Trojan is through e-mail. He further harassed this lady. E. . The cyber criminal through the web cam installed in the computer obtained her nude photographs. This implies that these programs are created to do something only when a certain event (known as a trigger event) occurs.S. Later they are employed to crack the system of the employer basically as a measure to make it safer by detecting the loopholes. One example is a Trojan was installed in the computer of a lady film director in the U. These kinds of hackers are mostly employed to hack the site of the rivals and get credible. In software field this means an unauthorized programme. Example is the Ziegler case wherein a logic bomb was introduced in the bank’s system. even some viruses may be termed logic bombs because they lie dormant all through the year and become active only on a particular date (like the Chernobyl virus). which passively gains control over another’s system by representing itself as an authorised programme. An important feature of this type of offence is that the alteration is so small that it would normally go unnoticed. 3) Professional hackers / crackers Their work is motivated by money. (viii) Data diddling This kind of an attack involves altering raw data just before it is processed by a computer and then changing it back after the processing is completed. while chatting.This kind of crime is normally prevalent in the financial institutions or for the purpose of committing financial crimes. (vi) Trojan Horse This term has its origin in the word ‘Trojan horse’.g. which deducted 10 cents from every account and deposited it in a particular account. reliable and valuable information.

revenue stamps. a simple propaganda in the Internet.Examples of crimes done under this category are credit card fraud (i) Credit Card Fraud This credit card fraud has been a major offence in the internet in the moment. can be defined as an act of terrorism committed through the use of cyberspace or computer resources (Parker 1983). Any unlawful act by which the owner is deprived completely or partially of his rights is an actually offence. As such. Spending money through credit card becomes a really common now. families. The irresponsible people know that the lifestyle sometimes makes us crazy. robberies. copyright infringement. As well there are also hacking activities directed towards individuals. Cyber terrorism in general. trademark and service mark violation and so on. . To avenge they normally hack the system of their employee. 4) Discontented employees This group include those people who have been either sacked by their employer or are dissatisfied with their employer. (i) Forgery Currency notes. that there will be bomb attacks during the holidays can be considered cyberterrorism. (ii) Intellectual Property crimes Intellectual property consists of a bundle of rights. (iii) Internet time theft The usage of the internet hours by an unauthorized person which is actually paid by another person which can be either neighbour or friends. blackmailing etc. The common forms of IPR violation may be said to be software piracy. collecting information relevant for ruining peoples' lives. tending to cause fear among people. (ii) Cyber Terrorism The use of computer resources is to intimidate others. mark sheets etc can be forged using computers and high quality scanners and printers. organized by groups within networks. demonstrate power.

malicious websites.According to Jazri.(iii) Web Jacking Hackers gain access and control over the website of another. cyber security specialist. it would be slightly unfair due to the population between these two countries. majority of them relating to cyber-crimes.Lt. 20093. Moreover. Malaysia is much smaller compared to USA which consists of at least four times bigger population than Malaysia and not to mention the computer users in USA is larger than in Malaysia. As for cyber-crimes in Malaysia. Chief Executive Officer of CyberSecurity.038 incidents. there is need for a dedicated "cyber court" in the country given that cyber crimes increased tremendously during 2008. COMPARISON CYBER CRIME BETWEEN MALAYSIA AND USA If we want to compare of cyber crimes in Malaysia and USA. while the rest to malicious code and intrusions like malware infections. online harassment.htm . The reports received from the organization revealed that nearly 50% of the incidents reported were related to fraud.spamfighter. According to CyberSecurity Malaysia. even they change the content of website for fulfilling political objective or for money. Moreover. intrusions and so on. Col. as reported by the star online on January 16. The complaints comprised fraud. the crime has increased tremendously in 2008. The total number of cyber crimes reported in 2008 had grown more than twice than the previous year. Denial-of-Service conditions and other PC problems like viruses corrupting files or 3 http://www.123 incidents of cyber crime. (retired) Husin Jazri. hack threats. the organization dealt with 2. over 4.com/News-11776-Malaysia-Experiencing-Rise-in-Cyber-Crimes. were filed with CyberSecurity Malaysia between 2007 and 08. spam. Moreover the situation might get worse in 2009 when the number of crimes increased. more than 100% increase in comparison to 2007 when the company dealt with 1.000 cyber complaints. said that the total number of Internet crimes reported in 2008 by the security firm had grown more than twice the previous estimates. the situation might get worse this year (2009). in 2008.

For example. some users do not own a distinct password while many are not updating their security software. There are a lot of complaints have been filed to offender. it is hardly surprising that online crimes involving banking fraud and as in US the cyber-crime offences also increases a lot lately. Malaysian Police said that to an unwary person. these utilities could be used as means for Internet crimes. In addition. in turn. . Besides. increase the number of online crime incidences. Commenting on this. which. As the Internet usage in the country grows. The problem of insufficient awareness about cyber security or Internet-safety practices among Malaysians surfing on the Web continues to pose a big challenge. an innocent recipient thinks that an e-mail announcing a 'prize win' is genuine.data getting exposed. Therefore. According to the FBI (Federal Bureau of Investigation) cases in US are getting worse every year as the offender still doing their job very well by covering tracks that they did. a fraudulent website appears to be the bank's real website. But unfortunately. Similarly. growth in broadband and wireless capacity makes the Internet more convenient and quicker to use. the ongoing economic crisis across the world will also boost cyber crimes. so some cases consume time and some never solved. As we know that it is very hard to find the offender. the total number of online transactions along with other activities is likely to increase.

com/work/techno/cybercrime. and keeping them sufficiently complex in the first place can do this. Accepting data from only known users. which should be followed by all users on a network. They provide access to only known users. which protect a user from unauthorized access attacks while on a network. or people who the user permits. downloading carefully.html . Safe surfing This is a practice. which do not have adequate protection methods.SUGGESTIONS Prevention methods:4 1. Safe surfing 4. not chatting on open systems. Email filters Firewalls These are programs. visiting secure sites. Also any external media such as floppy disks and CD ROMS should always be virus checked before running. Email filters These are programs. Thus one should always keep passwords to sensitive data secure. Frequent virus checks One should frequently check ones computer for viruses and worms. CONCLUSIONS 4 http://arjunvenkatraman. which monitor the inflow of mails to the inbox and delete automatically any suspicious or useless mails thus reducing the chances of being bombed or spoofed. Frequent virus checks 5. Firewalls 2. Frequent password changing With the advent of multi-user systems. Safe surfing involves keeping ones e-mail address private. Changing them frequently. security has become dependent on passwords. and then from known sites also minimizes risk. Frequent password changing 3.

We can get a lot of information through internet. but they do that through computers. books. For them as long as no action taken. So do not wait until the last minute to prevent these cybercrime from invading your private and space. We must accept that this ‘world without barrier’ has made some people in this world think that they can do anything. types of cyber crime. Everything about our lives is in some manner affected by computers. ( 2992 Words ) . Cybercrime is everyone’s problem. we are all at increasing risk of being affected by Cybercrime. journal and mass media. Just like normal crime. it is going to be fun for them. And its time we did something to protect ourselves. Under the circumstances its’ high time we sat up and took notice of the events shaping our destinies on the information highway. comparison between Malaysia and USA. it comes to conclude that these offences happening because our lifestyles.As we have talked and discussed about definition of cyber crime. Information is the best form of protection. With the information highway having entered our very homes.

html .wikipedia.REFERENCES 1) http://en. R.naavi.com/Cyber_Crimes. (2005) "Cybercrime: Investigating High-Technology Computer Crime.my/en/knowledge_bank/news/2007/main/detail/1473/index.htm 6) http://www.org/pati/pati_cybercrimes_dec03." Cleveland.html 5) http://www.org/wiki/Computer_crime Moore.com/News-11776-Malaysia-Experiencing-Rise-in-CyberCrimes.cybersecurity. 2) http://www.htm 3) http://arjunvenkatraman.html#_Toc139026714 4) http://arjunvenkatraman.html 7) http://crimeusa.com/work/techno/cybercrime.com/work/techno/cybercrime.spamfighter. Mississippi: Anderson Publishing.