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MILITARY
MEN-AT-ARMS SERIES 44
NAPOLEON'S GERMAN
ALLIES 1 WESTFALIA
A D KLEVE-BERG
• •
~
OTTO YON PI\'KA RICK SCOLLI:\'S
:lYi!/;0ll'oll.i· qmllflll Jfllil'.1(;): "U1'.lf!iJlifl fllIIl 1(/n'I'-"Bng
:J\&}o/eoll:'
(.fen/If/II ru'1//ies
THE OF WESTFALl A
AND THE GRAND DUCHY OF
KLEVE·BERG
The emergence of revolutionary France as an
a,gll:rcssi,'c and capable milit:lI)' power <1\ the end
of the eighteenth century. caused the collapse of
the Holy Roman Empire (:I loose coalition of
German states, US1l3 II)' under Ausl ria's leadership).
.\u:.tria's dcfc:.tt at the Battle ofl-lohClllindcn. on
3 December 1800. created a power vacuuIn in the
now known as Germany, and Napoleon lost
lillie lime in transforming this neutralized zone
inlo a pro. French 'cordo" sa"ila;rt" bel ween France
and her traditional eastern enemies Austria,
Prussia, and Russia. In 1803 France occupit-d
Hano\'cr; in 1805 France and Bavaria defeated
Austria and Russia at 1m ('7 OctOber (805) and
.\uslcrlitz (2 December 1805). As a rinal step in
tht creation of the 'cordOIl sDnitnirt', Napoleon
formed a Confederalion of the Rhinc (Ocr
Rheinbund) which was cvcntually to include the
following stales: Fra nce: the kingdoms of Bavaria>
Saxon)'. Wcstfalia and Wtiruembcrg; the duchies
ofKle\·c.Berg, Warsaw, Baden, Hessen-Darmstadt
Oldenburg: and lhe principalities of Sachscn-
"'dmar, Sachsen-Coburg Saalfcld, Sachscn-
GOlha-. \Itcnburg. Sachsen-Hildburghauscn,
Sachsen·i\ teiningen, Schwan.burg-Rudolstadt,
Sch\\an.burg-Sondershauscn. the five Houses of
Reuss, Mecklcnburg-
Strelitz, Waldeck, Anhah-Bcrnburg, Anhalt-
Ocssau. Allhalt-KOlhen. Hohellzollern-
Hechingen, Hohenzollern-Sigmaringcll, Lippe-
DCllllold. Schaumburg-Lippe, Iscnburg, Leycn.
Lichtenstein, Wi.irL.burg: and the city statl-OS of
Frankfurt and Erfurt.
Confusing as lhis list may appear, it greatly
simplified the situation which had existL-d prior to
,Boo, when there had been an cven greater
number of tilly. independent statl'S wililin
Germany,
Grand Duchy of Kleve-Berg
Napoleon decreed the formation of lhe Grand
Duchy of Berg on 14 November 1808. This was a
rearra ngelllent of lcrri tory su bscq llem 10 the dona-
lion of Hanover to I'rllssia by France on 15
December lBo5. III exchangc. Prussia ga\'c up
Klc\'e and the fortrcss of \Vesel. Furthcrmorc,
Bavaria released Ansbach and the HerL.oglulll
Ikrg to Napolcon. who rewarded the Bavarian
Princc Elector "'ith Austrian lands and thc lith: of
King. Napoleon united Klc\'eand Bcrg, nominated
Dusseldorf to be the capital, and gave the throne
G......d Ih>chy or 8<."1;' Bas: duip 1807. Thc cotoun! ..... n:d
and with sold ....bro;dery
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2 The Dep;utmelll of the Sieg
II consists of \ \'indeck and part of Blankenberg; of
the Baronies ofHolllburg. and
Wildenburg; of Ihe Principalities of Siegen and
Dillenburg, in Iht' laller case with the exception of
Burbach which will go to Nassau: of tile barony
of Ikilstein and the Principality of Hadalllar: of
thOSt· parts of till: Herrschaft('n of Schadcck and
Runkel which lie on tht right bank of the Lahn:
and of the Hcm:chaft of Wcsterbllrg.
Popu lation: 133.0;0 souls
C"pital: Dillenburg
It will bl' di\·id('d into two districts: Siegcn.
Dillenburg.
Ihe lands vac:.lted by the Duke Vilich:
\\'olkenburg: Delltz; of the BaroniL"S of Broich.
and H:trelenberg of the Herrlichkeiten:
Ehen: Essen: and Werden: and of those parIS of
the Duchy ofKlc\'e which lie on the right bank of
the Rhine with the exception of the French-ruled
lown of \Vesel and the arc;t belonging to it, and
the Districts of Huisscn, Sevenacr and Malburgcn
which will go to Holland.
Population: 322.28+ souls
Capi taI: Dlisscldorf
It will be divided inlO four dist ricts: Dllsseldorf.
Elberfeld. Essen.
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concern;nA ,h., "um.ber OfcfI.. scriplS 10 be in
Ihe Rhineland when the area w... under Fr"'nc:h con'rol
10 his brothn·in-law,Joachim l\lurat.I:Hl'r King
of Naples. Alia the Pe:lce of Tilsit the grand
duchy received the duchies of and Don·
Inllnd from Prussia.
The decree of 14 November 1808 fe.ads Lhus:
AT TilE IMPERIAL IlEADQ.UARTERS IS nCRGOS,
14 NOVEMBER 1808
Napoleoll, 1:':III/mQr of Ihe Frel/ch, King if IllIb" Pro-
(trfQr of tht Rheillbu1Ir1. Grand-Dlike oj Klett alit!
IJrf,!!. tic.
0" til, submission ofour miniSI" ofInt Grand Due/I)'
oj fltrg and Ill, Slate unat" U't nal'( dtriJtd asJOIJOlL'S .-
First Artidt
The Gr:lIld Duchy of lkrg will be di"idt.'d mto
four departments.
I The Departmenl of the Rhine
It will consist of Ihe old Duchy of Ikrg with th('
('xcqJtion of Windeck and part ofBlankenb('rg; of
3 The l)ep;lrIment oflh{' Ruhr
It consists of I he Coullties of 1:.1 rL:. Dortmund and
Limburg. part of the Principality of
the Herrschaft Rheda and of the town ofLippstadt
and its area.
Population: '2 I '2,602 souls
Capital: Dortmund
It will bcdividcd into threcdistricls: Dortmund.
Hagcn, Hamill.
4 The DepartmcllI of the Ems
1t consists of the grealer part of the Principality of
of the Counties of Horstmar and
Rlwina-Wolbeck: of the Counties ofSteinfurt and
Ikntheim: and of the COUlllit:s of Lingcll and
·recklenburg.
Population: 210,'201 souls
Capital: 1\·1 i.inster
It will bl' divided illlo thl'('(' districlS:
Cocsfcld. Li ngen.
4
Arlidr :1
The call10ns and parishes of which the districts
will consist, and the bordns of the Departll1ents.
are drawn on the attached map.
Ar/ide .1
Our 1ll111lSter.i III the Grand Duchy of Berg are
charged with the execution of this decree.
Napoleon
By this time the grand duchy had a nc\V ruler.
.\apolcon himself. Murat had left llerg under a
decree of 15 Jlily 1808 lO become King of Naples.
:\ decree of 3 jI, larch I 80g gave Berg '0 Ihe young
nephew of the Emperor, Louis. the eldest san of
the King of Holland. Napoleon became Regellt
until the boy should become of age. Bya Senate
decree of 13 December t81 0, the grand duchy lost
the north-cast part of the Principali t)' of i\ Ilinster.
and all parts of the Department of the Ems. Thl'se
lost provinces became French Dcpanmt·nts. III
1811, however, it was increased again by the
addition of the Duchy of Rccklinghauscll and
part of the Amt of Dli1men. Berg remained so
until its dissolution in t813.
Kingdom of Westfalia
The process of fonnaliOIl of the kingdom of West-
fodia \Vilssoillcwhal simpler. This state \\'as born at
Ihe Peace ofTilsit, and was a gift by Napoleon to
.Jerome, his favourite brolher. An imperi<ll decr('e
of 15 )1ovemb('r 1807 from Fontainebkau an-
nounced the cOllStitution of the llew stall:. King
Jerome decreed the forma tion or the Departments
of this kingdom in a decree fmm Kassel. its
capital. on 24- December 1807:
IlIlhe III/fau: of Kassel 21 December /807
11·1' I-Iieroll)'l/IuS ;\falwl,"oll. elr
ordrr Ilta/llte Kin.e,dolll oj I Vestfitli(l J'!wll hI'
dil'idl'f! iI/to eigltt DelHlrtlllellls:
1 The Department of the Elbe
It will consist or the greatcst part of the Duchy or
)'lagdcburg: of the Duchy or Barby: or the
.-\etlltcrn of Gommcrsch, which has comc from
Saxony: of the Ah Mark; of the Brunswick Am!
Cah-orde and the Amt Weserlingen.
Flag of Ihe Sih W""lfalian Line Infanlry br.ing parad«l in
HaTnburg in 1809'. pri"l. (C. Suhr)
Population: '153,'110 pcople
Capital: Magdeburg
It will be di\!ided intO lour districts:
burg. Nellpaldenslcben, Stendal. Salzwcdtl.
'2 The Depanment of Fulda
It will consist of a part of Nieder-Hessen: the
Sla Ie Il.al/dl or Padcrborn ; or t be a reas or Carvey:
of the Amt Rcckenburg: of the COullty of
Rietberg Kaunilz: and the AI11I of i'vlundcn.
Population: 239.50'2 pcople
Capilal: Kassel
It will be divided into three districls: Kassel.
Hoxter, Paderborn.
3 The Dcpanmcill of the Harz
It will consist of the Principality of Eichslcld; of
the County of Hohenslcin: of part of the Princi-
pality orGrubenhagen: of the area ofWalkcnried;
or part of the Lalld of Blankcnburg; of p:1rl of
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Trooper or ••, W.,.,J.lilUl Kii .....ieu in the firllf unifo..... or
Ih1l1 regiment •• concempo... .,. pla,e. (C. Suhr)
Hesse; and of the towns of Muhlhauscn and
Norrlhauscn.
Population: 2 lo,gS9 people
Capital: Hciligcnsladt
It will be divided into four districts: Hciligcn.
stadt, Dudcl1aadt, OSlcrodc, Nordhauscn.
'" The Department of the Lcinc
It will consist of the area ofCottingcll, ofp:!rl or
the Principality or Grubcnhagcn and of parts of
the Landtr of Hildcshcim, Braunschweig and
Hesse.
j)opulalioll: 145.537 people
Capital: Gottingcn
It will be divided into two districts. Gottingcn
and Einbcck.
;) Departmelll of the Ocker
It comiSIS of almost all of the Principality of
Wolfcnblitlcl; almost all of the Principality of
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Hildesheim; the town and area of Goslar; some
of thc villages of the Land of Magdeburg; and
Halberstadt.
Population: 267.8;8 people
II will be divided into four districts: Braunsch-
weig. Helmstadt. Hildcsheim, Goslar.
6 The Depanmcnt of the Saalc
It will consisl of the Principality of Blankenburg;
of the COlll1l)' of Wcrnigerode; of the town of
Qucdlingbllrg with its arca; of the Sanlkreise: of
those parts of Mansfcld which belonged to Prussia
and to Saxony: and of some villages of the Duchy
of lagdcburg.
Population: 206,222 peoplc
Capital: Halberstadt
It will be divided intO three districts: Halber-
stadt, Blankenburg, Halle.
7 The Depanmelll of the Werra
It will consist of the whole ofOber-Hessen; of the
County of Zieg<.'nhain: of the Principality of
Hcrsfeld; of the greater part of Nieder-Hessen:
and of the Herrschaft ofSchmalkalden.
Population:
Capital:
It will be dividc.:d into three districts:
J-1crsfdd. Esch\\'cgc.
8 The Department of the Weser
II will consist of the Principality of the
County ofRavel1sburg: ofthe Bistham Osnabriick:
of the Hessian parts of Schaumburg: and of Iht
Amt ofThedinghalisen.
Population: 33'h963 people
Capital: Osnabri.ick
It will be divided into four districts: Osnabriiek.
Bielefeld, Rimeln.
Signed: Hieroll)'mus Napoleon
Ikrg and Westfalia were ruled completely accord·
ing to French laws. Each district was divided iOlO
cantonmentS which were funher divided inlO
municipalities. A prefecI ruled the Deparlmenl
and a sub-prefect each district. Cantons wert
headed by the canton-master and
by community leaders. It must be admitted that
this reorganization swept ;twa}' many cvils in the
old system.
An edict of 31 tBog abolisht-d the old
distinctions betwcen the nobility and the peasantry
and pelty bourgeoisie. On 1'1 Novcmber lBog
the Code Napoleon was introduced i1110 the
territories, bringing all citizens to equalit)· before
the law. The French laws also repealcd llnr:,ir
penalties against such religious minorities as the
Jews. There were also disadvantages, however:
free speech was suppressed, newspapers were
cellsored. political articles were limited to those
which appeared in the Paris Prt:ss and particularly
the .lfollitl!ur. This was nOI all. War contributions
and l:LXes were wrung from the people; billeting
and suppl}' of troops followed close on: and a
qau: monopoly was declared on the sale of
IObacco and salt.
yorl7lf/fioll
ojrlte r:/fml)' o/CJ3eIK
Prior to 1806. the Duchy of Berg had belonged to
Bavaria. and BaWlrian rulers lie burie-'Cl in
Cologne's famous c'llhedral. When Napoleon
amalgamatt"d Berg with Kleve and parts of
:\Ii.lllsler and certain army units also
came to the new stale from these vanished tcrri-
tories. They included the 12th Bavarian Line
Infantry Regimel1l 'Kinkel', a batWlion of thc
Xassau-Oranien inr:llllr}'. and a delachmCIll of
Hussars.
On 24 April 1806 the I Sl Bergisch Inlantry
Reg:iment of four batlalions was raised in Oi.isscl-
dart Each battalion had eight companies each of
100 men. French soldiers were also drafted
into this new regiment in order to ensure a degree
ofrcliabilitY. The French conscription system was
inlroduced into Berg in October 1806, and on
Z9 August 1808 the single regiment \\'as re·
organized into IWO (lhe 1st ,lI1d RegilllelHs),
each of three battalions containing six companies
of 120 men. There was also a common depot
baualion of four companies for recruit training.
111 October 1808 the 3rd Regiment, also ofthrel'
battalions, was raised. This infantry organization
was maintaint"d untilg August 181t when the 4th
Regiment was raised from the lhree existing
regiments. Now each regiment consisted or twO
battalions each containing eighl companies (one
grenadier, one voltigeur and six fiisilier) of 120
men. E..ch regiment had in addition its own
Depot. Kompagllie.
The cavall)' of the duchy consisted initially of
one regiment of light horse (dlf!uou·ftgers) but on
1 April 1812 a second regiment was raised by
transferring finy troopers frOIll the 1St Regiment
and conscripting thc rest.
There was also a battalion of artillery consisting
of one company of horse artillery, one of foot
artillery, one company of sappers, miners and
pontoniers and onc company of train.
Gendarmerie units on the French model were
raised throughout the duchy and each Cily and
town was requin.:d to provide its contingent of
garfle ,wtio,wl.
Following the disastrous Russian campaign of
r812, Berg's troops were reduced to one weak
inlill1try regiment or about 200 men, Ollt' cavalry
regimclIt of one squadron, and two artillerymen.
Berg fell under Prussian rule in 1813. and in May
1815 thc infantry and c,lv"lry were rcconslituted.
Of the two infantry regimenls re·raiscd aner 1812,
the 1st Infantry Regiment of Berg became the
28th Prussian Line Infantry Regiment, and the
2nd Regiment became the 29th. The cavall)'
regiment became the 2nd Westfalian Hussars,
Regiment No. I I. These numbers were retained
until aner the First 'Norld War.

ojflte 'Westjit/if/II r:/frtll)'
Of lhe old states which went to make up the
infant kingdom of Westfalia in 1807 (Hanover.
Braunschweig and Hessen-Kasscl), onl)· the latter
had allY troops to pass on to the new stale. These
were the men recruited by Marshal MonicI' in
October 1806 from the disbanded Hessian Army.
7
to form the 'Franco-Hessian Inr.-lIltry Corps'. In
1807 the IWO weak regiments of Ihis lormation
were reorganized to form the 1st and 2nd West-
r;.lian Line Inr."llIry RegimcllIs. When Jerome
entered his new kingdom in December 1807 he
was escorted by a detachment of I)olish lancers.
These men were transferred to Westfalian service
and formed the basis of the 1St Squadron of the
Chevau-Icgers of the Guard and of the Garde
dl! Corps.
The I st Light Battalion's cadre was formed of
some hundreds of non-Prussians who had served
in the Prussian Army and had bcen captured by
the French in 1806. Napoleon had had them
collected togelher at Ki.istrin and sent to Wcstfalia
to help the rapid build-up of the Westralian Army.
Thls unit, consisting ofa very mixed bag or men,
was Illost unpopular in its garrison town orKassel.
Its misconduct reached such a level that it W:lS
translerred to Padcrborn as :I punishment a
town \\'hich even IOday servcs as a garrison for
German and British soldicl"S.
w_l.r•.li... senera':. conlemporary pl.le. (e. Suh..)
8
The remainder of lite units of the Westfalian
Army with the exception of the Hussars of the
Guard. who were of French origin - wcre raised
and reinforced by drafts ofconscripts. The French
system of conscription was only one ofa number of
French features adopted: Westfalian soldiers
wore French rank badges, answered to French
titks. and were taught French drill and military
discipline by French instructors.
V/IIfOrllls
qjr/lf "Wesrf;/iflll

As for the French Arm)'; dark blue coats with gold
lace and but IOns, gold sash, cpaulettcs and aigui-
letle; white breeches. high black bOOIS, bicorns
with gold edging. loop and bUllon :tnd white
feathcr trim, sword with gold hilt on white slings.
Tilt: G U,\ I{ I>
Card, ,'u Cor/Is. G:tla uniform: white tunic. royal
blue collar. lapels and cuffs .111 edg<.-d in rcd and
bearing gold lace decoration; steel h<:hnet with
brass trim and combe, black cr<-ost and white
plume on left-hand side, 'IN' on frollt plate:
white brc<.ocht:s. high jacked boolS, "'hite gau ntlelS.
gold butlons and gold fringcless epauletlcs.
Service dress: same helmet (off dut} a royal
blue forage-cap with rcd piping and yellow
grenade and lace could be worn); short-tailed.
ro)'al blue Coat, red collar, turnbacks. cuffs and
piping, gold lace to collar, cuffs and button-
holes, gold shoulder-strap on the right shoulder:
royal blue waistcoat and trousers, jacked boots.
Trumpctcrs worc rcversed colours and red plumes.
Black bandolier and waist-belt with gold fittings
and cdging.
CunIllJi,,-Card,. Sec colour plales. Parade
dress: black be:lrskins with red cords and plume
and rcd tol> patch bearing a )'ello\\' grenade:
whitc coat wilh long. red-lined skirts and red
collar. lapels. cuffs and piping, yello'\' lace to
collar, lapels and cuffs. yellow buttons: \\'hite
trousers and \\'hite gaiters (black for \\'inter and
c;lInpaign \\'ear), rcd epaulellcs.
r
Ficici dress: shako \\lith dark blue within whitt·
cockade, red pompon, brass chin·
scala and lozenge plate; sing!c.brcastcd white
coat with short red tails, red collar, cuffs and
piping, n:d cpaulctlcs. on' (hlly a plain bicorn
and cockade were worn. Equipment was white
crossbdL<;. black pouch \\'ith brass diamond plate
and four grenades. French-pallern sabre with
br:w hilt and rt.'d knot. Officers wore a silver
with gold cagle badge and gold cpaulctlcs.
gold corels and white plumes to their bearskins.
Drummers had red coats with white collars. ('un!;.
lal>C!s and turnbacks, white swallow's nests
edged in yello\\' and yellow lace edging \0 collar,
cuffs and lapels; brass drum, whit<' dark
blue hoops.
Tlte Jiiger-Garde. Shako with while cagle plate
and cords. white plume, usual cocbde (green
forage.cap wilh yellow cdging and horn hadge);
dark green coat with lemon-yellow collar, cufTs.
turnbacks alld edging 10 dark gn.'en lapels; white
buuons. "'hite lace on ('ollar, cun's. lapels and
Green epaulcltes. green hrc{'chcs with
"hile Hung:lrian thigh knols and while side-
snipes, black short gaiters with white top trim
and (;Isseis. White belts. black pouch with white
badge. sabre with green knot.
Tn, Chel'au.l;gers-Garde. See colour plates. Black
kather helmet with black crcst and brass trim.
red plullle: short-tailed grcen jacket with re.--d
collar, cufTs, turnbacks and pi pi ng. ycllow hut tons.
lace to collar. Cliffs and th... chest,
yrllow scale epaulettes and aiguilelte. Green
waistcoat and Irousers, yellow !·Iunbr.ll'ian thigh
knots and side trilll, hussar boOts with yello'''' trim
and tassel. Trumpeters wore red CoatS, green
collars and CliO's, ]'(...d lurnbacks with green piping,
yellow lace on collars, cuns and chest, hussar
busbies with red cords, white plume and bag with
yellow tassel; other items as for the troopers.
The Fusilier-Garde. See colour plates. As for the line
infantry (while with dark blue facings) but white
bUllon and white lacc decoration to collar, lapels
and cuffs.
Tht Husoren-Garde ('The Lobsters'). S(''C colour
plates. Red shakos. while plumes, ycllow shield
plates, red dolman ,,'ith yellow lace and buttons.
blue some sources say red) pclisses: red breeches
with yellow Irim.


Tht.7iiger-Corobinier-Batoilion. Sh..ko wi th cockade.
green plume with red tip, red cords, yellow eagle
plate and chin-scak-s; dark green coat with red
piping and IUrnbacks. dark grecn collar and
culfs, yellow bUllons, dark green epaulctlcs with
1'(.'(1 half-moons, red lace decoralion to collar and
cuffs; dark green breeches with n.-d Hungarian
thigh knots and side-slripes, short black gailers
\\,ith red trim and tassel. Black crossbelts. reel
flask cord, brass-hilteel J-lirsch:fd1/ger in brown
sheath, riflcs.
Ar/ilfl''J' Qf/he (,'1I(ml. Shako with red cords, POI11-
pon and plume and yellow lozenge plate; royal
blue jackct with scven red laces across the chest,
red collar, cllffs, turnbacks and epaulettes; blue
breeches with red 1-1 ungarian thigh knots and side-
scams: hussar boots with red trim alld tassel, bull'
gautlIlets and bandolier.
TilE LI",E DIFA",TRY
ShakOS with red pompons, cords and plumes for
grenadiers (those of the 1st Regiment wore bear·
skins as for Ihe Grenadier·Garde); green cords
and pompons and green plumes with yellow tips
for vohigeurs; while cords and company colour
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pompons for the fusiliers (1st Company - light
blue, 2nd white, yd yellow, 4th - green),
yellow lozengc plate bearing the eaglc over the
black regimcllIal number, Whitc coalS with filc·
ings shown on collar, cuns, lapels and turnbilcks,
yellow bUllons. Initially the regiments were
dinerell1ialed b)' the r.'lcing colours (lSI and 2nd-
dark blue, 3rd and 4th light bluc, 5th and 6th-
yellow), bUl in 1810 all facings became dark blue
and rcgimelllal distinction was limited to the
number raised on the bUIIOllS.
Grenadiers had red epauleucs, \'oltigcurs green
and fusiliers initially had while shoulder-straps
edged in the facing colour, but in 1812 this
Colon",1 Commandant of tb", Jis",....carabiDi",", • plat""
(AI", ...nder S.uerw",idj
10
changed to dark blue cpaulettcs with white half-
moons, Legwear was white breeches in knee-high
black gailcrs with black leather bUllons, Equip-
ment was while crossbelts, Frcnch sabre wilh knot
according to company (grenadiers red, \'oltigeufS
- green, fusiliers - white) and rank (sergeants -
mixed with gold, sergeant-majors - all gold).
Drummers had red swallow's nests and their
facings were edged in a coloured lace which varied
according to regiment.
TilE LIGIIT I:,\FA:"'TRY
Their first uniforms werc cornflower blue with
green facings (soon changed to orange) and white
buttons. This was soon changed to a dark green
coal and trnusers with light bluc collar. pointed
cuffs. turnbacks and piping. \\'hite buttons. Black
belts, green breeches. black gaitcrs: shako with
cockadc. white c;lgle pIaIe and green plume,
TilE 1ST Ki)M.ASS ..:Rs (1806 12)
Steel helmet of French Kiirassier pattern with
black crest and brown fur turban; white lunic
with crimson collar lapels. cuffs and turnbacks,
whitc piping and buttons. red epaulcttes. white
breeches; high jacked bools. While belts, heavy
cavalry swords. no kHrasscs until 18/0 h'hen
itcms were illlroduced.
1ST KUR,\SSIEM. (1812-13)
As above but dark blue coat.
2ND KUIl.ASSIF..R REGIME:""r
Helmel, breeches, bools. equipment and klirass
as for the 1st Rcgiment; dark blue coat with
orange facings and while butlons.
1ST CHEVAU-L1:.0ERS REGIMENT
Helmet as for thc but with
white fitlings; dark gl'cen coat, orange collar,
pointed piping and turnbacks, while but-
tons; green breeches with orange Hungarian Ihigh
knots (silver for officers) and black
hussar boots with white trim and steel screw-in
spu rs, 0 ffieers wore silver and black bandoliers and
silver edging to collar and cuffs and silver epaul.
ettes. Trumpeters wore light blue coats with red
facings and white lace; black for col backs with
green bag and white plume; and a light cavalry
sabre, (A lance with white and blue pennant was
introduced fora shon time in 181 I and abandoned
soon afterwards.)
2ND CIIEVAU-LEGERS REGIMEN'I'
As for lhe 1St Regiment but with buff facings.
1ST II USS,\ 11.5
Shako \\'ilh cockadc. while cagle platc ami green
plume, white chin-scales; green dolman pelissc
and breeches wilh while butlons and lace and red
collar and cuO'S, black fur; red and white sash.
black belts and sabretache Wilh silvcr '1'.
Trumpeters wore rcversed colours. Urass-hilled
lig:ht cavalry sabrc in steel shcath.
IIUSSARS
,\sforthe 1st Regiment but with light blue dolman.
pclissc and brceches with rcd collar and cuffs and
white shako plume and grc)' fur (0 pelissc; sih'er
'2' on black sabretache.
TilE AIl.TILLt:RY REGIMt:",T
Apart from the rcd collar this uniform was exactly
as for thc Fl'cnch artillery: shako with cockade,
red pompon and cords and yellow plalc: dark
blue coat and trousers, dark blue lapels piped red,
red collar, cuffs and turnbacks. )'ellow buttons:
dark blue breeches with red Hungarian thigh
knots; black gaiters, whitc belts.
TilE TK,\!:-;
Sh<lko with cocbde and white plate: gr('y coat
with red collar, pointed cuffs and turnbacks.
lapels piped red. whitc buttons: red waist-
coats with while lace and bUltons. Grey breeches,
hussar boots. Oniccrs had silver epaulettes and
shako Irim and silver bandoliers Wilh red edging
and silver platc bearing crossed Cl.lllllons. Light
cavalry sabre in steel shcath, hussar boots with
silver trim.
1'11£ GENI),\RMERlt:
Once agai n, aImost as for I he Frcnch organizat ion:
bicorn \\'ith silver edging, cockade and red plume:
dark blue coat v.. ilh red collar, cun'S, lapels and
turnbacks. white butlons and aiguilelte; white
breeches and high boots for mounted gendarmes.
dark blue breeches and black gaiters for foot
gendarmes. white bells.
TilE OEP,\RTMENTAL COMPANIES
Bicorn with cockadc: grey coat and trousers of
infantry cut. grey collar and cuffs pipc:."CI rt."CI;
black gaiters. white buttons and belts.
N,\TIONAL-GAKOE
The 1st Ba(lalions of every !OWI1. niCOl'1I with
cockade: long-skined, dark blue coat with dark
blue collar, cuffs and lapels all edged in reel. rcd
turnbacks. Blue trousers. whi te gaiters. C rellndiers
had red cpaulcltcs; black lealherwork. Voltigeurs
\\'ore green epaulcttcs \\'ith red half-11loons:
buttons were white. The Uanalions had the
S,lme uniform Inn with white facinJ.,'S. mounted
companies had red waistcoats wilh yello\\' buttons
and lace.
q/a,r:;s fll/r/eStfll/r/al/ls
oft/Ie 'Westfi/ifll/
The infantry were of twO paLLerns which
diflcn;d onl)' in that the inscriplions 011 lhe first
were in French and on the second ill Cerman. Tlw
first nab'S were issued in 1808 alld arc knowll as
pattern. The)' werc square. dal'k blue
with an upright white diamond ill the centre. In
each corner was a golden laurel wrealh. The
central diamond was cc1gL'(( in gold laurel
and bore on the face side lhe inscription 'LE
ROil DE WI'.STl'lIALlt: I AU 8,\'1'.' On the rcverse
was 'VALt:UR I ET I I>ISCIPLI:'lE'. Two years later
the • 118 10' flags wcrc issued; the design was I he
S:ll1le but the inscriptions were now in German
and in Gothic script. On the face side was 'Of-R
KONIC I VON WESTI'IlALIEN I AM Il.EGIMt::':-I"; Oil
the reverse was "'APn:RKt:n'! UNO!
nETIl.AGt:N ! 11/\'1"'.
Slandmds came in fOLLr versions, M 18oH,
r.,'1181 2, (Guards) nnd l'!1181 :J. These wcre
all square and 60ccnlimctrcs along each side. The
slandard was dark blue wilh a white
diagonal cross, 011 lhe face side was the royal
monogram ;HN' and the Westfalian cagle. and
on thc reverse the \\lcst faliall crest :lnd mono-
grams. The inscriptions were in French. The
slandard \\'as lhe S<1.me as the but
with German inscriptions. The M 1812 (Guards)
was only issued to the Garde du Corps, \\'as in the
same colours as the M 1808 model, and was
embroider<.-c:1 .md edged with gold fringes. On the
I I
1;ICC side wtcrc IOlll' c:lgles and the central inscrip-
tion 'I)ER KO:-iIG I vo:-: I A:-i SEI:-iE I
u:mG,\RDE Zll pn:ROI(. On the rcverse W<lS the
Westfalian crcst with the monogr:lI11 'HN' ill the
corntcrs. The Slalldards were ofa diflcrcnt
design, vertically halved, dnrk blue (next to the
pike) <l!ld "'hite with Cl'rmn!l inscriptions.
wlifonm
oltlteufi'lllJ' ql'Berg
Initiall), Ihe infantry continued 10 \\'ear their
Bavarian uniforms, merd) changing the light
blue-within-white Bavarian eockadtc for the ft.-d-
within-white one of Berg. This uniform consisted
of the \'('1)' 1:111, black Icalllcr caS<l"c "'ilh black
woollen crest, round brnss from plale bearing
Josef Kiinig {von Uayern ; corn-
nower-bluc CO:lI with bl:lck lapels and cuffs, rl'd
collar and tllrnbacks and pipinf{ to lapels and
culls; white bUllons. white Irousers and IX'lts,
black gaiters, shoes and pouches. The brass-hilted
sabre had a black sheath with brass lip.
Laler in 1806 the uniform to a more
French-style p;lItcrn. Thl' shako rl'placcd the
caSCllie and th(' Ibvarian coat "'as disc;lI'dct! for
the French spenc('r, closed to the waist \\'ith lapds
bUllOl1ed back, in white, l.iglll blue was thl'l';u:ing
colour lor all the four regiments nnd the dis-
tinguishing feature was the style of eun: BUllons
were yellow, belts white, packs brown
pouches black. The cockade remaincd rcd within
white but shako plates seem (Q ha,'e varied.
Three types appear to have been used: two were
oval, one bearing the lion of Berg, the other the
initial 'J', and ,he third wns the stand,lrd lozengc
cagle platc of the French Arm)'.
Internal regimental organization !I('ems to h;lve
bee.:n on the French pattern, Fusiliers wore tridl'll1-
cnded shoulder-straps in white, edged \\'ith light
blue: grenadiers had bearskins with red cords and
plumes and a white cross on a n:d background on
lOp. They wore.: red cpauletu:s and had red sabre
knots, whereas the fusilicr sabre knot was light
blue. Chasscurs had green pompons, ",hile shako
cords, green epaulcttts \vith a rl'd moon. and a
12
green sabre strap with a red tassel. Rank badges
were also on the French model and worn on the
lower arm and round the top of the shako. Officers
wore white French spencers I:'lced in light blue
with gold epauletlcs according to rank, silver
gorgelS bearing the golden arms of the grand
duchy, gold porte-ipie and gold trim on the shako
according 10 rank for junior oflicers; majors and
above wore bicorns with gold trim and tassels. To
prOlecl the expensive white uniforms officers wore
grey·beige surtouts and breeches while on
campaign.
Drummers wore the distinguishing marks of
their respeclive companies togelher wilh black
coats with light blue collars, cuffs and turnbacks
and a white lace with a red worm decoration to
collar, cuffs and sleeves. Drums were yellow metal.
Pioneers wore grenadier with red
plumes and cords, red-fringed cpauleltes and long
while leather aprons edged in black fringes and
decorated by a blllc·within-white·wilhin-red
Colonel CofDrna.ndant or the Chevau-lio&en La.nden or the
Cua.rd: a pta Ie, (Ale'l1Ulde.. S.uerweid)
edging. They wore full beards and carried heavy
axes, brass·hillcd sabres wilh rcd knots, and
carbines slung ovcr thcir right shoulders. Grena-
dicrs and vohigeurs wore moustaches, fusiliers
were dean-shaven.
ARTILLERY
French inr.'\ntryshako with red pompon and cords,
brass shield·shapcd plate bearing an 'N'. While
"-note! shows thc jackct to be almost of French
artillery style (dark blue with rcd collar, shoulder-
straps, cuffs and turnbacks, dark blue lapds and
square cuff·naps edged in red and with yellow
bUllons), a collcction of pictures in the Von der
Hcydt Muscum in Wuppertal painted by a Peter
Schultcn (who livcd in that town and saw the
troops passing through) shows a vcry Prussian·
st}'le coat (dark blue with black collar, cuffs,
lapels, shoulder-straps and turnbacks all edgcd in
red and with yellow bultons).
For parades, the horse artillcry wore red plumes,
dark blue breeches with a n..-d side-stripe and short
hussar boots with straight-neckcd, screw·in stcel
~ p u r s . On campaign they wore grey buHoned
overalls with red side-stripes. They had white
pouch bandoliers and .carried brass·hilted 5.'\bres
in steel sheaths on white belLS worn under the coat.
The foot artillery wore red plumes, white cross·
b<:lts, and brass-hilled 5.'\bres with red knots;
dark blue breeches within knee-high black gaitcrs
\\'ith t\\'ch'c brass buttons for parades, on cam·
paign dark blue trousers with a red side·stripe
over thc gaitcrs.
THE TRAIN
Frcnch infantry shako with light blue pompon,
red-within·white cockade, oval brass platc bear·
ing a lion, brass chin·scalcs, no cords; grey coat
with light blue collar, pointed cum, lapels and
turnbacks, grey shouldcr-straps piped light blue;
bla<;k sabre bandolier, brass·hilted sabre in steel
sheath, red knot. For parades grey breeches in
short hussar-type boots with straight-necked,
screw-in stccl spurs; for campaign grcy, bUlloned
overalls with light blue side-stripe \vom over the
boots.
THE CHEVAU-LECERS
This regiment's uniform and designation under-
\\'ent se\'eral changes during its short lifc.
Initially it was termcd the 'Chcvall-Iegcrs du
Grand Due de nerg' (1807-8); then 'ChasscuTS;\
Chcval du Grand Duche de nerg' (1808 9);
'Lnncicrs du Grand Duche de Berg' (180g--12);
'ISt and 2nd Regiments Chevnu-Iegers du Crnnd
Duche de Berg' (1812-13).
In the first role, although not armed with
Innces, they \\'orc traditional lancer costume in
white with pink facings edged in white, white
buttons; pink-topped czapka with white cords and
plume, rcd-within-white cockade, white front
platc with yellow rays; pink brecches with double
J.,rom., Napol.,on, King or WUIJ".Ii"
whitc side-stripcs, white belts and gauntlets,
brass-hil tcd S;:lbre in steel sheath, white sabre knot.
Trumpcters wore reversed colours and had brass
trumpets 011 silver cords and there was also a
kettle-drummer, a Moor, in Arabian cOStume.
Officers wore silver waist-sashes and silver car-
touche bells and had silver sabre knots. On
campaign in Spain they wore grey singlc·breasted
coats with pink collar, cuffs and tumbacks and
grey buttoned overalls with a pink side-stripe. The
czapka was covered in black oilcloth.
13
Trooper's b,dm..t o(lI..e Wesl(alian Cardedu Corp.. (Museum
fiir o.,utsd>e Guchicble)
Coal o(a Fusilier privale, 5th Weslralian Line Inrantry, 18.'1;
racings and cpauleues are dark blue. (Muliewn fUr Deulll,che
Ge.,;:bicble)
In the Chasseurs a Cheval rolc (t808-g) lhe
uniform bccame dark green and thc cut was no
longer lancer-style. The collar, cuffs and lurn-
backs werc pink, as was the piping to the dark
grccn lapels and shoulder-straps. The elite com-
pany worc black sealskin col backs with red plume,
pompon, bag and tassel, and red epauleltcs. Othcr
companies wore black shakos with rcd-within-
white cockade, company coloured pompon (lSI
Company -light blue, 2nd - white, 3rd - yellow,
4th grccn) and diamond-shaped brass plalc
14
bearing an cagle. Breeches were dark green and
worn within hussar boots with red top trim and
tassel. GaunlleLS were white.
On 17 December 1809 the regiment was
equipped with lances and retitled 'Lanciers du
Grand Duche de Berg'. They wore the same dark
grcen uniforms but adopted pink shakos with tilt
5."lme cockadc and plate as before, and a whitt
plume. For thcir action in o\·crthrowing tilt
Heavy Cavalry Brigade of the King's German
Lcgion at Villadrigo on 23 October 181 2 l h ~ ·
"·ere awarded the privilege of wearing pink-over·
white pennons on thcir lanccs.
By 1812, as the 'Chcvau-Icgers Lanciers', they
were back in complctc lancer costumc in dark
green with pink facings and whitc buttons and
pink-topped czapkas. The elite compan)' worc
black fur col backs and red epauleltcs as before.
g/«.t;Sf/llrlcJtfl/lrlfm/S
ofthe
9ml/(/ Vlldl)' o(c.Belg
There is very little evidence of the appearancc of
flags and stanclards or dctails of their issue. Murat
designed the first flags and standards according to
the follo\\ling scheme: a red ground, round \\·hite
central field edged in gold oak leaves and bearing
the arms of the grand duchy, in each corner of the
flag or standard a gold laurel wreath containing
the regimental number; in the centre of each side
a golden thunderbolt. The pike tip was a gilt
spear·poinl. The mouo on the scroll over the
ducal crest was: 'Dieu, la Gloire, et Ics Dames'.
It seems fairl)' certain that one standard of this
design was presented to the regiment of Chcvau-
lfgcrs and onc flag to the 1St Inr.'lntry Regiment
'Prince Joachim' in Dusseldorf in 1807. The
standard seems to have gone to Naplcs with somc
ofthe men of the cavalry who accompanied MlIrat
10 his new throne in 1808. The 1st Chc\'au-lcgers
did nOt receive another standard. The flag of the
1st Infantry Regiment was taken with the regi-
melH to Spain in 1808, deposited in Figuercs for
safe keeping whcn the regimental strength bccame
tOO low, and fell into Spanish hands when that
town was captured. When the grand duchy
passed into apoleon's personal (effective) control,
according to verbal tradition new flags were
issued to the infantry in Dusseldorf, but the exact
date is unknown. These flags were white and bore
in the centre the Napoleonic caglc holding a
thundcrbolt in its claws. In two opposite corners
were crowned 'N's, in a third corner the number
of the regiment, and ill the fourth lhe number of
the batlalion. Below the cagle was the inscription:
'ORIGADE D'INf'ANTERIE OU GRAND OUClIF. DE IIERG'
and above thc cagle \\las: 'ET NOUS AUSSI, C'::SAR,
CO:,\,DUIS-NOUS A LA VICTOIRE'. None of these flags
has survived and it is most likcly that they werc
dcslro)'ed or lost at the battle at the Bercsina
crossing in 1812.
The 2nd Rcgimcnt of Chcvau-Icgcrs Lanciers
apparently rcceived a grecn standard, 60 centi-
mctrcs high by 48 centimetres wide, bearing on
the face side a silver grenade with gold flamcs
between thc gold initials 'B' and 'C', and on the
revcrse a number (2?) within gold laurel wrc<tths.
This rathcr skctchy dcscription is givcn by the
Russian General Gckkel in his book describing
thc many trophies caplured by the Russians in
1812 and laid up in thc cathedral ofNOlrc Dame
dc Kazan in PClragrad. The standard was lost al
the Bcrcsina crossing.
No flags or standards were issued to the ncw
units raised by Berg in 1813.

oj/he "Westjft/ifl// ufm/)'
SPAIN 1808-13
Napolcon demandcd Westfalian troops to sUPl>ort
his campaign in Spain, initially rcquiring a
division. By slimmer 1808 only one infantry
regimcnt and the 1St Chcvau-Icgcrs wcre ready.
The cavalry regiment marched off in September
1808 with a strcngth of500 mcn, but the dcsertion
ratc was high and only 390 mcn were stilt prcsellt
whcn it reached the Spanish fromier. By spring
1809, howcver,thc 2nd Division of the '<\'estfalian
Anll)' was ready, and was SCIll southwards. They
reached Perpignan on thc Spanish border on
'2 May IBog. Divisional organization was as
follows:
Commander Divisiollsgencral Graf
Chief of Staff \"on Hcssberg
1St B,igadt (Commandcr Brigadcgencral Boerner)
2nd In£"\I1I1) Regimenl (Obersl Lcgras later Oberst
\"on Bosse): twO batlalions.
15
..ph Inr."Tltry Regiment (Oberst \'on Bonneville later
\'on L'lssberg): two ballalions.
!!I/(I Brigad, (Commander Oberst \'011 Oehs)
3rd Iuranu), Regimcnt (Oberst two bat lalions.
1St Light Battalion (Bataillonschcf\'on
Arlill"y (Bataillollschef Heinemann)
Two companies.
In Perpignan a depot under command or
Major von Lassberg was set up. The Spanish War
soon developed into a guerrilla campaign which
sucked the lifc·blood out ofNapolcon's occupying
troops, and can be compared in effect to America's
involvement in South Vietnam..
The Westfalians emered Spain on 5 IBog
and were sent to join the besieging forces at
Gerona under General Gouvion St Cyr. Arriving
at Gerona next day, the 2nd Brigade was Im-
mediately involved in combat with the Spanish
dclendcrs of the lown. As a result of1heir successful
conduct in thcir baptism of lire, many men and
office.rs were decorated and promoted, among
them von Oehs (the brigade commander) who
was promoted Brigadegencralon 15Julle IBog.
On 8July IBog Gerona was stormed with 3,000
men of the fourteen elite companies of the 'Vcst·
falian infantry regiments, the grenadier company
of thc 1st Neapolitan Infantry Regiment, twelve
companies of the infantry of Berg (3rd Regiment)
Mankat Aus.......u
16
and Wurzburg, and ten French elite companies) .
But the Spaniards beat off the attack and caused
1,770 casualties dead and wounded. Due to sick-
ness among the \Vcstfalian officers, von Ochs took
command of the 2nd Division on 24 November
1Bog. On 31 August IBog the Spanish General
Blake altacked General St eyr about seven miles
south orGerona. St Cyr ordered General Verdier
(commander of the besiegers of Gerona) to join
him with the bulk of his men. Verdier left only the
'\'eSlfalian division, an Italian division and the
regiments of Berg and Wur.t:burg 10 cover the
fortress and marched off south with the rest of the
force. Blake promptly slipped round St CrT..
attacked the weakened besiegers, burned their
camp, killed their wounded, and entered Gerona
with a supply train of 1,500 mules. At Verdier's
return, Blake pulled offinto the mountains again.
Sickness and lack of food decimatcd the foreign
troops attempting to subjugate Spain even more
than the aCli011 of the enemy, and it was quite
usual for entire companies to die in that country
Icaving none to report lhe state of affairs back to
their homelands..
Gerona was stOrmed again (and in vain) on
19 September 1809 and COSt the Westfalians and
the Bcrg Infantry Rcgiment 9 officers and 124 men
killed and \...ounded. These losses included the
commander of the 3rd Berg Infantry Regiment.
Oberst Muff. Gerona finally surrendered on
10 December IBog having been starved into
submission.
The Westfalian division then numbered 1.500
of all ranks; but on 12 1810 they 'were
joined by 650 reinforcements from Westfalia.
General St eyr was replaced in command of the
French Army of Catalonia by Augercau in
October 180g; by the spring of 1810 Augereau had
subdued the province and marched to Barcelona
The Westfalians, who remained to garrison
Gerona, were subjected to ceaseless guerrilla
attacks which reduced their strength so much thaI
in lBog the 1st Battalions were made up to
strength by men of the 2nd Battalions, and
remained in Spain, while the cadres of the 2nd
Battalions of the regiments were sent back 10
Westfalia to recruit up to strength again.
Augerc3u was replaced by Marshal Macdonald
in May 1810, but the position in Spain continun!
/I. co.uempono'"Y u!lislo car1_ poke'll Cwo .1 N.pol...... 'lO
.. bakfll' eoarede... tioa or the Rhine
to deteriorate, On I April 1811 Ihe lSI Battalions
or the Westralian units were wilhdrawn home to
recruit, and there remained in Spain only one
battalion or 500 men (composed or those men or
all unilS who were still fit fordllty) and an artillery
dttachmem, These units did nOt return home
until spring 1813.
The Westralian Chevau-Icger Regimelll had
never operated with the Westf:"llian division in
Spain; initially it was attached LO Victor's I Corps
and later was transferred to Sebastiani's IV Corps.
It was involved in many skirmishes and battles
and won great fame. The first commander of the
rtgiment, Oberst von Hammerstein, returned to
WOilfalia on 16July 1810 LO be replaced by Oberst
von Stein.
In February 1813 the main part of the regiment
returned to Westralia, but one squadron remained
in Spain under command of Eskadronschef von
PICSS(:n. This unit was (like all other German
sattllite units) declared unreliable by the French,
disarmed, and interned as prisoners of war on
23 December 1813.
TilE 1809 CAMI'AIGN IN
NOItTll£ItN
Austria declared war on France on 9 April 1809
and placed the weight of her forces in sOlllhern
Germany and Italy. Only secondary forces were
deplo)'ed in the north, against WeSIr:"llia and, to
combat this threat, King Jerome was given
command of X Corps of the First German Army
on 18 April. In addition to the Austrian threat to
the cast, .Jerome had also 10 keep an eye on the
northern coast 10 guard against possible British
landings.
The composition of X Corps was as follows:
Commander, KingJerome
ChiefofSlaff, the \\'estr.,liall General Rewbell
'St Il'rstfalian J)i/';s;on of the Guard (Divisionsgcncral
Graf Bernlcrode)
One scluadron Garde du Corps of 140 men commanded
b)' Brigadegellcral \'on Bong;Jrs
One battalion Grenadier-Carde of 8.\0 men com-
manded by Oberst LangellschwarL.
One ballalionJ:iger-Gardc of6oo men commanded by
:\l:Ijor Ffillgrdf
17
Eugene Be...b......I., Viceroy or It.ly _ the man who G"ally
1.... I.he r",m".nl orlhe Grand Arme.. b• .,k 10 .. y
Thn."C squadrons Chev;IlI.lcgers·Gardc of 550 n1('11
commanded b) Oberst wom'
OntO ballatiOIl J;igcr·Carabinicrs of 360 men com-
mandL't! by Prinz \'011 Hcsscn-Philippsthal
TOlal :.1.49(') lllcn
2mlWtJljaliml DiI'iJioll (Divisionsgcncral d'Albignacl
1St Inf:lIltry Regimen! of 1.680 men commanded by
Oberst Vauthier (killed at Dodendorf)
5th Inf:ll\lry Regimen! of 1.800 men commanded b)
Oberst Craf\\'dlingcrode
6th Infantr), Rcgiment of I .7OCJ men COIllInandt:d
l\ Iajar von Hasse
1st Kiirassicr Regimelll of 260 mCll commandL't1 by
Oberst \'on Wiirthen
-1'01;11 5,-l<iO Illerl
3,d Du/ch Dit'iJ;on (Di\'isiollsgencra! Cralien)
6th Dutch Inr.,nlry Regimellt
7th Dutch Infalllry Regiment
Bth Dutch lnlalllry Regiment
91h Dutch Inr.,nlry Regimenl
',!IId Dutch Kiirassicr Regiment
Thrce companil'S of artiller)
TOlal 5.300 mcn
Thus the grand total of X Corps was 10,263
men.
18
Also coming to join Jerome from the Wesl wert".
under command of Oberst Chabcrt;
3rd Regiment of Berg Infantry (1,000 men)
Detachments of the 22nd. 271h, 30th, 33rd and
65th French Line Infantry and 28th Light
Inr.'lnll)' regiments and of the 61h, 7th and 8th
Artillery RegimenlS - 3,000 men in all
The Prussian fortresses ofStenin. Stralsund and
Kiistrin were garrisoned with Rheinbund troops
- 2,300 Mecklenburgers and 800 Oldenburgers.
But these troops could not be removed from Ih('
fortresses to suPPOrt Jerome in his field operalions.
A detailed account of this campaign in North
Germany appears in The Blo£k Brunswicke,s (5«
Sources) so only details concerning the armies or
Westr.'llia and Berg will be given here.
On 4 May 180g the Wcstfalian Gelleral von
Uslar, with a force of 1,000 men (four companies
of Ihc lSI Westfalian Infantl)' Regiment, twO
companies oflhe 22nd French I nfantry Regimen!
under Oberst Legat, and IWO guns} moved 10
Dodendorf to block von Schill's advance. Due 10
lhe bad statc or readincss of the 5th and 6th
Westfalian Inr.'llltl)' Regimel1ts at this time (the}
were still in training) General von Uslar was
removed from command Ihal day and replaced b}
Oberst Vaulhicr. Von Schill's Frcikorps wilh
400 hussars, 60 Reitmde .lager (mounted rifles) and
50 infantry advanced on Dodendorffrom Sulldorf.
Vauthier left his defensive position behind the
River Sulze, advanced to meet \'011 Schill, and
formed his men into three squares (two in front.
one in reservc) with his two guns in front of tht"
front twO squares.
Von Schill's cavalry charged, broke the squares
at the first impact, and captured 200 lllen and
both guns. Obersl Vaulhier was badly wounded.
captured, released by Schill, and died laler in
The Wcslfalian Gendannerie had
great lrouble rounding up their scattered soldiers
afler Ihe battle, many of whom lOok Ihe oppor-
tunity to return to Iheir homes. Legat's grenadier
company, which was in reserve behind Dodendorf.
was also captured by \'on Schill's men. The Dutch
Division after Ihe Austrians next day. BUIJeromr
men, while the Westfalians remained at Domilz
on the Elbe to regroup.
On 18 JUlle 180g .Jerome left Kassel with Ihe
-
Guards Division to march eastwards. His mission
was to help King Friedrich August of Saxony
whose city of Dresden had been occupied by
General Am Ende's Austrian forces on I I June
tBog. By 21 J uneJerolllc \\las al Eisenach, and had
the divisions of d'Albignac and Gratien join him;
thus his total force was 12,900 men, increased the
rotlowing day by 2,000 Saxons.
On 24 June Jerome advanced from Sonders-
hauscn lowards Querfun, crossed the River Saale,
and entered Merseburg. Meanwhile the Austrians
had occupied Leipzig;Jerome sent the 2nd West·
falian Division against them and the Austrians
withdrew again_ He then entered Leipzig on
26 June with three: divisions, and sent the Dutch
Di\ision after the Austrians next day. ButJerome
was outwilled by the rapid movements of the
AUSlfians and their Black Brunswick allics, and
"I'as alwa)'s at least one mo\-e behind in his
dispositions. From I to 4 July he sta)'ed in
Dresden, celebrating his strategic successes while
the enem)' rampaged in the Nilrnberg al·ca.
Finally he moved Out oftlte city comforts he loved
so much (his nickname was 'Konig Lustig' (I he
~ l e r r y Monarch) and marched south to Chemnitz.
His aim was tOjoin up in HofwithJunot's corps,
Jow:pbine Beauhar...is, Napoleon's firt" ",ire
coming norlh·east out of Franconia with over
10,000 men and pushing the Austrian Ceneral
Kienmayer before him.
Kienmayer broke contact, turned on Jerome,
and overthrew him at Berncck and Gefracs.s all
8.July. On II July X Corps was checked again by
the Austrians ncar HoE Jerome fell back on
Schleitz, where Kienmayer again pushed him
aside on 13 July. By 17 July X Corps had with·
drawn to Erfun when news of the armistice
between Austria and France (duc to the AUSlrian
defeat at Wagram.) and 6 July 18og) reached
.Jerome. Full of relief, Jerome hurried back to his
capital. Kassel. with his guard. The Dutch
Division remained in Erfurl. The remaining
Westfalian troops under General Rewbell went
to Hanover in pursuit of thc Black Brullswickers,
who were fighting their way up IOwards Bremell
10 be shipped 10 England on British ships.
Ceneral Rewbell. with the 1st Kilrassiers, 1st
and 6th infantry rcgiments, the 3rd Bergisch
infant')' regimcnt, and ten guns. was to have been
join<.-d by the 5th Westfalian Infantry Regimcnt
from Magdeburg, but this unil was deslroyed al
Halber5tadt on 29.J uly by Ihe Black Bru nswickers:
1,500 men of the 5th werc killed, wounded or
captured (300 of thcse crossc..-d ovcr 10 lhe Black
Brunswickcrs) and only about 100 escaped. Their
A:lgs were also captured, but what bec:lllle of thcm
is not known. Rewbell moved to Celie on 31 July
IBog to cut the Brunswickers 00" from the coast,
and on I August a skirmish took place with them
at Oelpcr (nowadays absorbed in the town
complex of Brunswick). After initial success,
Rewbcll's men were repulsed. The Kilrassiers
suffel'cd heavily from artillery fire, fell back under
pursuit by the Brunswick hussars, rode over their
own infantry, and nearly caust.-d a disaster. Only
the brave conduct of the Westfalian gunners
prcvented the enemy exploiting this advantage.
The chase up to Bremen was then resumed, with
Rewbell making haSle slowly in order to keep a
safe distance between himsclfand his quarry. In
this he succeeded so well lhat the BrunS\\lickers
were even able to sclltheir horses before: embark-
ing for England, at Brake on the \Veser, 011
B August I Bog. Suspecting that he might suffer
Jerome's rage for his failure in this campaign,
Rewbell took ship for America.
19
1<t.!JsifI, /8/2
Much has been wriuen about this ill-fated vCOlure.
one of the most dramatic and tragic military
events of modern times. The Grande Armcc of
1812 contained, as well as French troops, Rhcin-
bund Germans, Poles, Prussians, Austrians,
Spaniards, Portuguese, Italians, Neapolitans,
Swiss and Croats. Over half the men involved
WCI'C non.French.
The Westralian Army formed its own corps
(VIII). The troops of Berg became part of IX
Corps.
The composition of VIII Corps was as follows:
Commander. KingJcromc
Executive Commander. Oivisionsgcncl.ll Vandamme
(a French ofiiccr appoilHcd by Napoleon).
23KO OIVISIO:-- (Commander, Divisiollsgcllcral \'on
Oehs)
/sllJr((fnde (Commander. initially Brigadcgcncral Craf
Wcllillgcrodc: from May 1812 Hrigadcgcflcr31
l.cgras)
Grcnadier-Garde, I b3ltalion (Oberst Lcgras)
Jager-Garde, I ballaliOll Picot)
Jager-Carabiniers, I b:lltalion
1St Light Inf."lntt")' Hanahon (Bataillollschcf "Oil
Rauschenplatt)
5th Line: Infantry Rcgimeill. 2 battalions (01x:rst
Gissot)
:md Brigadt (Commander. Hrigadegeneral Danloup-
Verdun)
1St Line Inf."llltl)' Regiment, 2 ballaliollS (Oberst
PlcSlimanll)
8th Line [nr,"llllr)' Rcgimcllt, '2 battalions (Oberst
Bergcron)
,ph Linc Inf."llllry Regiment, '2 ballaliollS (Oberst
Rossi)
2.1'1'11 D1VISIOS (Commander. Divisionsgellcral
Thareau
lsI Brigaat (Commander. Brigadegelleral Damas)
6th Line Infant!)' Regiment. '2 battalions (Oberst
Ruelle)
Line Inf:mtl)' Regiment, 3 battalions (Oberst ,'on
Fiillgrafl)
3rtl Light Infantry Hatlalion (Oberst ,'on Hesshcrg)
:!1/d I1rigadt (Commandcr, Hrigadegcllcral ,'on Zur-
westen (from 2July 1812 \'on Borstcll»
3rd Linc Inlhnlry Regiment, 2 battalions (ObeTSt
Bernard)
20
Dav.d'. porll'1l't of the Emperor in ,810. He •• wurinJ; u
favourile uniform of a Colonel of tbe Guard
-
TOlals 6,061· 48
This organization soon changed, however.
In Warsaw in June 1812 Ihe Schwere-
Kavallerie-Brigade was detached and became
part or IV Cavalry Corps. The 1St and 8th Line
Infamry Regiments were detached and trans-
frrrcd to X Corps and went into Danzig as
troops. The 4th Line Inramry Regiment
was detached to become pan or XI Corps of the
'Duna Army'. These detachments reduced VIII
Corps 10 22,392 men, 'h284 horses and 44 guns.
jlh Line Inr.... nu·Y Regimcllt. 3 battalions (Oberst
Lagcon)
2nd Lig:ht Infalllry Uallalion B:uaillonschef "011
Bodickcr
Ga.rdt-h-mnUtri,-Brie.nd, Commander. Urig:adegelleral
Wain)
Garde dll Corps. squadron Esk:ulrollschef
Llllemand
Chc\'au-!cger-Garde. 4 squadrons (Obersl
When the Garde du Corps returned 10 Kassel with
King Jerome in AUgUSI ,BI2. the Che\'au-Icger-
Garde was allaclH:d 10 the Lciclllc-Ka\'allcric-
Hrigadc.)
ulthtt-Knmllrrit-Brigndt (Commander. Brigadcgclleral
\'on Hammcrstcin)
1st Hussars. 4- squadrons (Obersl \'on Zandt)
2nd Huss..... rs. 4 squadrons (01x:rst \'on Hessberg)
IIIJ:m-h-o,ollni,-Brigndt (Commander. Brigade-
general ,'on Lepd)
lSI Kfirassiers. -I squadrons (01x:rst \'on Gila)
:md Kiirassien. -I squadrons 01x:rst \'on Bastineller)
Jrlill",t Commander, Di"isionsgcneral Allix)
lSI Reitendc Batterie der Garde
III Reilcllde Battcric
Two fOOL ballcrics
Four Train companies
Twel\'e l'cgimemal piccl.-"S (six-pounders)
Six rcscr,'e guns
.\ lOlaI of forty-eight call lions
On 4 March 1812 VIII Corps marched On'rrOIll
Kassel; by G April they were at Glogau, and on
13 April at Rawitsch. There jerome assumed
command or Ihe righl wing orlhe Grande Armce,
consistingorV Corps (Poniatowski and the Poles),
VII Corps (the Saxons under General Reynier),
VIII Corps and IV Cavalry Corps (Latour-
Mauborg). In all this force totalled 80,000 men.
Napoleon's slrategy for 1812 was to make it
rapid advance into Russia, calch the twO Russian
armies separated, and destroy them in detail
berore Ihey could unite. This meant rorced
marches ror Ihe troops through very poor areas
with rew (and bad) roads. The logistics vehicles
orthe Grande Armce railed to keep up with the ror-
\\'ard troops, hundreds died or exhaustion, lhirsl.
starvation and suicide and the organization or the
rorward clements became complelely weak and
conruscd. As one \VGrncmberg officer wTOte in
his diary: 'Whal will happen irwe catch up with
the enemy?'
There was little danger or this, hO\vevcr. The
IWO Russian armies withdrew eastwards in
excellent order, leaving no stragglers or booty
behind them, and they devastated the al'cas which
they had to sacrifice to the invaders.
Relationships belwecnjerome and Vandamme
were vcry bad. Vandamme had the men's
wclrare at heart and constantly inlcrren..'d with
jerome's plans in order to ensure thaI all units had
sufficienl rood. Finally, in Grodno, jerome's
patience came to an end, and he dismissed
Vandamme. Both lhen appealed to the Empcror
who, more out or ramily loyalty than good judge-
ment, sent Vandamme back to France. Gencral
Thareau took over command of VIII Corps 011
G.June ror about four weeks until Marshal Junot
arrived to replace him.
On 13July VIII Corps reached Nieswitz in a
most exhausted condition and Jerome allowed his
troops a rew days' well-earned rest. To date only
cavalry skirmishes had taken place with the
Russians and these had all ended in dereats ror thc
invaders.
The two Russian armies were now able 10 unite
and Napoleon's hope or an early viclOry was
dashed. Even though Ihat wing or the Grande
Armce undcr Marshal Davollt had also failed 10
catch lhcir allotted Russians, Napoleon poured
Guns
oz

The entire contingelll nllmbcn.. 'd as rollows:
Mm Iforsu
22.3 15 •
3·374 3.
6
59
991 •
588 1,IgG
324 1,206
[nfantl)
Ca\alry
Artillcl)
Tr.lin
Baggage
General staff. gendarmerie.
etc.
21
out his ragc on jerome. This unhappy monarch
was sent packing back to Kassel with his Garde du
Corps 011 16july, andjullot was left in command
of VIII Corps with Davollt replacing jerome.
That same day the advance continued towards
Minsk and reached Orscha on '17 july, where a
fourteen·day hah was called. By this time VIII
Corps had lost over 2,000 mcn due 10 sickness and
exhaustion, and on II Augusl a reinforcement
draft of 1.200 infantry and 300 cavalry joined
Ihem frOIll \Vestfalia. The advance on Smolensk
began again on 12 August and on thc 15th il
appeared that the Russians under Uarelay de
Tolly and Bagralion were prepared to give
Napoleon the battle which he so urgently
required.
The lnsk of enveloping the Russian left wing
was given to VI II Corps, but Junot got lost,
granted his men six hours' rest, and thus missed
the battle, reaching Ihe battlefield only at 101'.111.
on 17 August.
Joachim, P......ce M..... t, Napoleon'. d a ~ h i n 8 : b"l .. nreliable
brolher.in.law, Grand Duke orBerp; and later KinS orNaples
22
The Emperor quivered with rage at this lax
conduct but gave junot, his old comrade, a
further chance: VIII Corps was to cut off the
Russian rearguard (they had evacuated and
burned Smolensk) and destroy il on 19 Augusl.
junotcrossed the Dniepr River but then decided 10
allow his corps to rest in the village ofSzenkowo.
Meanwhile, Ney was locked in fierce combat
with the enemy rearguard at Valutina·Gora.
Evelllually Ihe Westfalians appeared on the
Russian left Aank (which was not prepared for an
assault from this direction) but instead of attack·
ing and utilizing his surprise, junot set about
deploying his troops into columns. The Russians
realized their peril, changed front and thus
avoidtd destruction. Murat, King of Naples, saw
junot's delay and galloped across the balliefield
in a fUl)' to onler him to assault at once. This he
did, but the attack was ill·timed and the voltigeurs
of the 2nd Westr.'1lian Light Baualion were CUI
down by a Cossack charge.
Total Westfalian casualties at Valutina·Gora
wcre 450 rtJl ranks killed, \\'ounded and captured.
junOl's second failure exhausted the Emperor's
paticnce with him rtnd as a punishmcnt VIII
Corps was dctailed to form thc rearguard of the
army and to clear the battlefield of Smolensk,
which took them rrom 20 to 2'1 August. Frcnch and
Allied dead and wounded \\'ere reckoned to ha\'e
been 20,000 in Ihis baltic and the Russian
casualties 'surcly more'.
On 24 August VI II Corps movcd off towards
Moscow and suffcrcd much hunger due to the fact
that the preceding troops had stripped and
plundered everything of use from the area over
which they no\\, had to travel. They marched via
Dorogobllsch, Vyazma and Gschalz to iVlozhaisk
which Ihe)' reached on 6 September 18,2.
After having detached three battalions and two
squadrons to form outposts along the lines or
communication, Ihe strength of VIII Corps was
nO\\' fineen battalions. ten squadron and six
batteries of artillery - 10.000 men in all.
TilE BATTLE Ot' BORODI:"O,
7 SEI'TEMBER 1812
The Russian Army had taken up a prepared
position just west of i\loscow with the aim or
denying the invaders access to their capital city.
A 1 ~ d ~ r I, Tsar ofRunla
23
I
,
~ .• -
The Bald" of Hoh"aliDd"... 3 ~ m b r . r 1800; Ihill Freach
"'ietory CIIU!led the COllapH orcl,,: roileD Holy Rom... Empire
or Germ......t;o...
_. ---

,\" ~ - -
- -.
This gave Napoleon the battlc he had so long
desired, and he set about achieving the destruc-
tion of the opposing army.
The position of VIII Corps ,,,as on the right of
the Grande Arm(-c behind III Corps of Marshal
Ncy. Al about 7.30 3.m. VIII Corps advanced to
storm the Semcnowskoje Redoubt, and were
attacked by ktirassicrs as they len the cover of
some woods. The WCSlfalians formed square and
repulsed the kGrassiers, causi ng I hem considcrable
losses. Meanwhile, V Corps was rorced back by
the Russians, and VIII Corps now suffered heavily
from artillery fire. General Damas was killed,
General Tharcau was badly wounded, and
General von Ochs took over command of the
23rd Division. Now, III Corps allacked lhe
Semenowskoje Redoubt, was repulsed, and by
9 a.m. the battle was deadlocked.
The assault was renewed by Ill, VIII and
V (Polish) Corps, and by II a.m. the Semcnow-
skoje Redoubt had been captured. Shortly after-
wards the Rajewski Redoubt on the left nank was
also captured.
24
A slow advance followed, and at Olle point
General von Ochs led a charge with himsclfat Ihe
head oflhe6th Westralian Line Infanlry Regiment.
The Russians, fighting stubbornly, withdrew in
good order eastwards into the woods. By 5 p.m.
the firing slackened and the battle ended in
Napoleon's favour.
It had been a bloody day. The losses of VIII
Corps were 18 oAlcers and 488 men dead, and
164 officers and 2,340 men wounded, ofwhich at
least onc·third subsequently died of their wounds.
Heaviest losses had been suffered by the three
light cavalry regiments in their charges on the
redoubl. Generals Thareau and von Lepel died of
their wounds. French losses were 30,000 dead and
wounded, including 49 generals; Russian losses
arc given by lhe French as being about 5°,000
dead, wounded and captured.
At midday on 8 September, Napoleon moved
ofr towards :\loscow, firmly believing that once
this prize was in his hands, Russia would fall at his
fecI. How great his disappointment was to be.
Once again the unlucky VIII Corps was given
I
I
Grand Duch)' ur Rcrg
I: Gunner, Gr:lnd Duchy or ncrg. 1812
2: Grenadier Corporal. Infantry Regiment. 1812
3: Inr:llltf)' Captain. 4th Regimellt. 1812
. -
-
--''';:: . .
-.

A
B
,
,
I
2
Gr;lIul Ouch)' of Berg
I; Pioneer. 2nd Infanlr)' RcgimclII. 1812
2: Trooper. [I ile Compall)'. 151 Regiment
Ch(!\,;Ju-LCgcr LlIlcicrli. 1812
3: Corporal. 1101 ChC\,:lu.LCgers Regiment.
Spain
3
1; Grcn:ldicr Drummer. 2nd Infa11lry Regiment. Grand Ouch}' of Ilcrg. 1807
2: I'rh·atc. 1st Westfalian Infamr)' Regimcnt, 1807
3: Officer. 2nd Westfali'lI\ Kiir.lssicrs. 1808
c
I: Scrgcant.r-.lajor of Grenadiers. Westfalian Line Infalllry. 1810-15
2: Corporal of \'ulligeurs. Wcstf:.li:ln Line Infantry. 1810-13
3: Private of FusiJiers. Westf;llian Line Infantr}'. 1810·13
D
1: Grenadier of the Guard, Wcslfalia
2: C,lr:lbinicr, ElilC Comp:1I1,',Jiigcr-G:lrde, WCSlfalian GlI:.rd. 1808
3: Coloncl . .Iiigcr-C.. r:lbinicr Batlalion. Wcslfalia. 1810
-
E
F
Kingdom of Westfalia
The band of the 9th Line Infantry Regiment. 1810
I: Drum Major
2: Fusilier Fifer
3: Musician
Wcslf•• li •• 11 line Inf'lIllr,' ~ 1 usicians. 4lh and 51h J{cJ,;imcIII. pl'C- lind posl.1810
1: Musici:1II
2: Drullllller
3: "·ifcr
G
H
2
I
Kingdom of Westfalia
I: Westfalla Rillmcislcr (Captain),
Chc\'aulcgcoCardc. 1811
2: ScrgcaTlI.lightlnfantr),. 1812
3: Sergeanl. Artillery Traill. 1812
·1: Officer. 1st Hussars. 1812
3
the task of clearing the grisly battlefield. The
plight of the unfortunate wounded \"as so bad, and
medical facilities .so limited, that the Westfalians
were ordered to carry out mercy killings on the
obviously hopeless cases. On 12 September VIII
Corps moved off and J unO! set up his head-
quarters in the town of Mozhaisk. The ani)'
Westfalian troops to enter Moscow were the
Kiirassier Brigade, and an infantry brigade con·
sisting of the 3rd Line Infantry Regiment and the
2nd and 3rd Light Battalions.
Due to the lack of food in Mozhaisk,Junot was
forced to disperse VIII Corps all along the lines of
communication from Dorogobusch to Moscow.
This dispersal laid the isolated units open to
attaek by Cossack and peasant militia bands. On
10 October, 450 men of the 1st Battalion of the
6th Line Infantry Regiment under Bataillonschef
von Conrad)' were surpriSed in the town of
Vereja b)' a Russian force under General Doro-
chow, and eaplUrcd together with their battalion
Rag.
Just before the notOrious retreat from Moscow
began, the 8th Line Inf:'lntr)' Regiment rejoined
VIII Corps from Danzig with 1,000 men, and a
reinforcement draft from Westfalia also arrived.
This brought the corps' strength up to 5,600
infantry and 600 cavalry, with all guns still
present.
On 28 October the retreat began, and the head-
quarters of VIII Corps left The corps
was now the Advanced Guard of the Grande
Armce.
They marched over the balllcfieid of Borodino
in mild weather, picking their way carefully
between the heaps of unburied dead and the
rotting carcasses of horses.
B)' 4 November the troops had eaten up the last
of the food they had managed to bring with them,
and the weather became much colder with snow-
falls. Because the Russians forced Napoleon to
withdraw through the same devastated area ovcr
whieh he had advanced, almost no food could be
scavenged by the troops as they marchcd, and
casualties due to men collapsing from starvation
and f:'l.tigue rose alarmingly day by day. To add to
25
the misery of the retreating troops, bands of
Cossacks and armed peas."nts were ever lurking to
faU upon small bands of men searching for food
away from the protection of the main body or the
army.
The men were often plodding along in deep
mud, umil2 December when the weather became
vcry cold and frozen.
On 5 November the Westr:"lians passed through
Dorogobusch and, on the 8th, Smolensk. Shortly
before this town, at Valutina·Gora, on an icy hill,
all their cannon and most of the baggage had to be
abandoned because the horses were too weak (and
unsuitably shod) to pull their loads up the glassy
slope. On 9 Novcmber VIII Corps had shrunk to
1,700 men, and in Smolensk it was reorganizcd
into three battalions. 011 13 November they
marched Ollt of Smolensk and had to fight their
way through a Russian force which blocked their
path. That night, VIII Corps was down to 500
combatanu under Divisionsgeneral von Ochs.
By 22 November the weather had become much
'Black orBrua.§wick, La a
biYou"c duri0l! hi••ao, campai!!" in W_lralia
26
milder and heavy rain made the march even more
difficult than before. Now only 120 infantry men
remained under arms, and 'V III Corps' became
one weak battalion and a cavalry squadron also
of about 120 men.
The \Vestfalians reached Borissow on the
Beresina River on 26 November, and the river
was crossed on the 28th, General von Oehs with
fifty infantry and General von Hammcrstcin with
sixty mounted cavalrymen. Some days later,
Hammerstein with his cavalry was able to rescue
the wounded Marshal Oudinot from a Russian
raiding forcc of Cossacks.
In Wilna VI Corps (Bavarians) rcjoined the
main body or the Grande Armec and with them
was the relatively intact 4th Westralian Line
Inralllry Regiment. This unit was thrust into the
fight and rapidly destroyed at Rukoni on 9
December 1812.
On 1'2 December Kowno was reached, and next
day the Prussian border. After thc crossing orthe
Rivcr Niemen the Russian pursuit slackened.
,
TUE REORGANIZATION AND
TilE 1813 GAMPAIGN
The lown ofThom was designated as rendezvous
for the surviving Westfalians, and duringJanuary
1813 184 officers and 683 men straggled in from
Russia. They were reinforced by 1,294 men from
the depots in Westfalia.
Soon the 1st and 2nd Marschregimenter
(temporary tactical units) were organized and the
new VIII Corps was commanded by General von
Fullgrar. General von Hammerstein had returned
10 Westfalia to organize the rebuilding of the
cavalry. On 16 January the Marschregimenter
became the new 4th and 5th Line Infantry Regi.
menIs, and on 12 February were sent 10 Kustrin
only to be besieged in that place which capitulated
on 20 March 1814.
In r.... ct the Westfalians did not eventually form
a corps for the 1813 campaign. They lOok the
field in small combat groups, each of which
operated independently, and the number 'VIII'
passed 10 the Poles.
The 1St Line Infantry Regiment had been
detached from Vlll Corps in 1812, had taken part
in the Siege of Riga, and withdrew into I)russia
on 27 December 1812 having suffered only slight
losses. On 5January 1813 it entered Danzig and
was besieged there until that place surrendered on
29 November 1813. It was then taken into
Prussian service as the Reserve Bataillon des
Elbregiments, which subsequently combined with
theJager-Bataillon 'von Reiche' and the infantry
of von Hellwig's Stveirkorps on 31 March 1815 to
form the 27th Prussian Infamry Regiment. This
number was retained until 1918. The 1st Infantry
Regiment was the only Westfalian unit 10 survive
the extinguishing of the kingdom in 1813.
The 2nd and 3rd Infantry Regiments and the
2nd Light Battalion went into Dresden as
garrison troops and were eaptured and disbanded
when that town fell. The 4th and 5lh Infantry
Regiments were, as already related, captured at
the fall of Kustrin. The 6th Infantry Regiment
was not re·raised after 1812. The 7th Infantry
Regiment was disbanded at the dissolulion of the
kingdom. The 8lh Infantry Regiment, the 1st and
4th Light Battalions and the newly raised
Fusilier·Garde (also called the 'Regimem
Konigin') were disbanded after the Battle of
Leipzig (I ij October 1813); and the newly raised
9th Line Infantry Regiment suncred a similar
fate. The 1st and 2nd Hussar Regiments went over
to the Austrians on the nighl Of22/23 August 1813
near Zittau, and became the 1st and 2nd Hussars
of the Austro-German Legion. They were sub-
sequently disbanded.
The Garde du Corps, Grenadier·Garde, Jager-
Garde, Jager Carabiniers, Chevau.lcgers.Garde,
Garde-Husaren-Regiment 'Jerome Napoleon' (a
collection of French recruits presented to Jerome
by the Emperor), the artillery, the 3rd Light
Battalion, 1st and 2nd Kurassier Regiments and
the 1st Chevau-Icgers Regiment were all in Wesl-
falia when the end of Jerome's regime carne in
September 1813, and they melted away into the
anonymity of the civilian populace.
So ended the kingdom of Westfalia. On 21
November 1813 the Kurftirst (Prince t:leclor) of
Hessen-Kassc1 re-entered his old capital cit)',
Kassel, from which he had been banned in 1806,
and his realm was re-created for him by the great
powers. The rest of Westfalia reverted to its
original owners - the Duke of Brunswick (Braun·
schweig), the King of England (the Elector or
Hanover) and the King of Prussia. Fcw mourned
the passing of the state which Napoleon had
created for his brother, but its army had won the
respeci of many of its friends and foes during its
short life.
Gampo~ ~ I I S
q/i/le C]rYJOpS olCJ3erg
1806-7
As carly as 1806 a regllllent of infantry left the
grand-duchy and took the field against the
Prussian fortresses which still held out after most
of the Prussian field army had been destroyed.
They operated with the Regiment 'Wiil7..burg' at
the Siege of Graudenz in June 1807.
180g (GERMANY)
The 3rd Infantry Regiment formed part of
Vaufrcland's brigade in Legrange's 3rd Division
27

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,
,
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,
PI... of I.he bauldi,·Jd or Borodino
of General Junot's Reserve Corps, and their
cmplo)'mcnt has already been mentioned in the
corresponding section of the battle history of the
Westralian Army. The other infantry unilS of this
brigade were the 651' Lignc and the 461' Lignc.
SP,\IN
In February 1808 twO squadrons of the lSI
Chcvau.lcgcrs went to Spain, and on '7 November
of that year they were attached to the Imperial
Guard in Madrid. They remained with the Guard
throughout their stay in Spain.
On '29 December 1808lhcy fought al Benavente
and were active in northern Spain. In 1810 they
distinguished themselves at Yanguas all 6 Septem-
ber and at Villafranca on 26 December. On.') May
1811 Ihey were part of Montbrun's force which
charged the British at Fuentcs de Onom and later
that year they fought at Burgos and Cuidad
Rodrigo.
On 23 October 1812 they charged with the
French 1St! Chasscuna Cheval and the Gendarmcs
or Burgos to overthrow General Anson's Heavy
Cavalry Brigade of the King's German Legion at
Villadrigo. As a reward for this victory, Napoleon
permitted them to wear red and white silk lance
pennants.
The 1St Infantry Regiment also went to Spain
in I Bog, asdid the 2nd Infantry. They served at the
Siege of Gerona, and suffered casualties ofGoS out
of 1.3 10 and 709 OUt or 1.3 13 respect ivel) between
I June and 15 September I Bog. In 1810 the 3rd
I nfantry also weI\{ to Spain, but at the end or the
following ye<lr the cadres of the 1st and 2nd
Regiments and of the 1St Battalion of the 3rd
Regiment returned to Germany. All serviceable
soldiers were gathered in the 2nd Battalion of the
3rd Regiment, which remained in Spain until
18 I 3.
1812
For the Russian invasion in 1812 Berg provided
the following troops:
Infanu)' Comm:lIlder, General Geither
1St Line Infantry Regiment, 2 battalion
2nd Line Inf."llltl)' Regiment, 2 ballaliOIlS
3m Line Inf."lntry Regiment. I ballaliOIl the 2nd
Ballalion was still in pain)
4th Line Inf."lllu)' Regimen!. 2 ballaliOIl$
28
II..
.,..

I !t "I

n., P........... :\h"haJ Bliic:hu a..d lbe Allied monarchs at
w;pzi5••8 October ,a.,. .fter the r.ldul balll..
C.-,\·all) Commander. Obent Craf \'on Ncssc::lrodc
2nd Chevau.I('gers 1.....lTlciers Regiment. "
Artillery Hatlalion
One horM:' :lrtillcr) !JaneT)
One foot artillery h:lIter)'
One compan) of sappcrs. miners and POlllolliers
011(' Ir;lin company
TOI;ll 5.000 men
The company of sappcrs and miners was
attached to the Imperial Gllard, and all members
of the company died in Russia.
The main body of the Berg troops were attached
to IX Corps of Marshal Victor, which was
initially part of the Grande Armcc's reserve in
Prussia and \<Varsaw. General Damas was
appointed commandcr-i n-chicfof the Berg Brigade
which with some Badell regiments formed the
26th Infanlry Division under Divisionsgeneral
Dandels. The 2nd Berg Chevau-Icgers Lanc.iers
were brigaded with the Garde-Chevau·lcgers of
Hessen-Darmstadt and became the 30th Light
Ca,ralry Brigade under General Delaitre.
In September 1812 IX Corps lay round Kowno.
but Napoleon now ordered Ihem (Q advance into
Russia to lake up Ihe shattered survivors currenlly
withdrawing from i\loscow. Moving to Smolensk,
IX Corps stayc.:d there until mid-OclOber, and
then marched cast again towards the Dunn River.
By the time they reach(:d their junclion-point with
the Grande Armce al Losnitza, 1X Corps had lost
onc-Ihird ofits men but was slill in relativcly good
condition. The Berg Brigade had now lost all ill'
artillery, and one eomplele ballalion had been
captured in Vitcbsk. Now IX Corps became real'-
guard of the Grand Armcc, marched to the
Bel"esina at Borissow, and Ihen moved nOrlh La
Studienka. In order to secure Ihe withdrawal of
the main body of Napoleon's remaining Iroops
westwards over Ihis obslacle, 1X Corps crossed
Ihe notOrious bridgt"S which Napoleon had had
built at this point over the Beresina, and on
28 November look up position on the hills above
Studicnka.
The Russian General Wiltgenslcin advanced
against them, captured l)arlOnneaux's 12th Divi.
sion in a night clash and also captured mOSI oflhe
2nd Chevau·lcgers Lanciers of Berg who were
with him. Their standard was also captun."d.
29

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Two troops of the regiment escaped this disaster.
as they were on duty in Victor's hcadquancrs.
Meanwhile, at Sludicnka, Victor was holding off
Witlgcnstein and the Berg infantry was destroyed
in this bitler, five-hour baltle. Generals Damas
and Gauthier were wounded, and that night the
brigade consisted of Oberst Gcnty and sixty
armed men. Marshal Victor and Generals Gerard
and Fournier were also wounded, and the com·
manel of IX Corps passed to Markgraf Wilhelm of
Baden. The Berg troops attached themselves to
the Baden Brigade, and that night withdrew
westwards over the Bcresina.
On 2 December IX Corps (as rearguard)
clashed again with the Russians at Plcszenitzi and
the liny remnants orthe Berg brigade disappeared
during the fighting. Only individual stragglers
now staggered westwards towards Prussia and
sarety.
The town orMarienwerder was allocated as ren-
dezvous ror IX Corps and 200 inrantrymen and
130 dismounted cavalry were concentrated there
inJanuary 1813.0n I March 1813lhecontingent,
rurther reduced by sickness, re·entered Diisseldorr.
The inrantry was reorganjzed into a single regi-
ment and selll to Cherbourg. Later a second
regiment \\'as raised. The cavalry rormed a single
regIment.
The Chevau-Icgers Lanciers took the field
again in 1813, and on 15 August Oberst von Toll
was in command or the regiment when it was
ambushed at Possendorrand nearly destroyed. The
survivors were at Leipzig (16-18 October 1813)
with Poniatowski's Corps, and this was the end or
their career in the scrvice orlhe French Emperor.
In April 1814 Berg became a Prussian province,
and the two inrantry regiments became the 28th
and 29th Prussian Inrantry Regiments. The
cavalry became the I I th Prussian Hussars and the
2nd Squadron was sent to Prussia to rorm part of
the new 5th lanen.Rcgiment.
30
II was apoleon's policy to leave no enemy
armed forces behind his lines in lands which he
had conquered. Not only did he disband the
armies he defeated, he sought to raise new troops
from them which were then incorporated into his
own armies. One such formation is the litLle-
known Regiment 'Westfalen'.
Napoleon decreed the formation of this regi-
ment at his headquarters in Posen on II December
1806 with an order which began ~ 'In considera-
tion of the fact that the areas on the other side of
the Elbe should no longer return 10 Prussian
control and that numerous soldiers are available
who wish to pursue the honourable profession of
arms. we have decided to assist them in their
desire. '
The recruits for the Regiment 'Westlhlen'
were 10 be drawn from the discharged Pnlssian
soldiers resident in the areas of Munster, r-,'Iinden
and Erfurt (no mention is made of the men of
Eichsfcld who were also brought into the regi-
ment) and also former Brunswick and Oranien-
Fulda soldiers. The regiment was to havc four
banalions, each based on onc of thc areas men-
tioned aOO\'e: General Laison was responsible for
recruitment in Munster; General Gobert in
~ I i n d e n ; General Bisson in Brunswick; and
General Thiebauh in Fulda and Erfurl.
Each battalion was 10 have six companies
(probably one grenadier, four fusiliers and one
voltigeur) each with 3 officers and 140 mcn; the
regimenlal 10lal (without officers) was thus
3,360 men. Uniform, headgear, etc., was to be
of Prussian paltern SO as to make best usc of the
stocks in the captured magazines and of the
material captured alJeon.
Very little material has survived 10 confinn the
formation and career of this regiment. There is,
however, a diary of a former N.C.O. of the 4th
Battalion who later became a Premierleutnam
in Kurhcssian (Hesse-Cassel) service. This was a
man called Vogler. Fieffe, in his History of the
Genna"s in Ihe Seruiu oj Frat/u, and Thiebaull in his
Mellloirs, give us also slight hints as to their battle
history, uniform and formation.
Thiebault's 4th Battalion was formed of thrce
companies of Oranien-Fulda soldiers and three
companies of soldiers from Erfurt. The soldiers
from Oranien-Fulda came partially from the
Furstbischoflich-Fulda Upper Rhine Kreisregi.
ment, from the Prussian regiment 'Graf\'Vartens-
leben' No. 59 which had been garrisoncd in
Erfurt, and also from the Kurmainz Inf.·uHry
Regiment 'Knorr'. Thiebau1L hurried to his task
ancl soon laid samples of his chosen unifOl'm
before the commanders of the other baualions so
that they were forced to clothe their men as his
were. The 4th Battalion thus received the nick·
name 'Ie bataillon modele'. Thiebault, however,
perverted apoleon's order concerning the uni·
form in that instead of blue (Prussian) coats he
dressed his men in white (Saxon?) coats with
red collars and cuffs.
The flags of the regiment were of the usual
Napoleonic pattern for foreign regiments nnd of
the 1805 pallern. In the centre was n while
lozenge and each corner of thc square c101h was
l.ie.. len"'l.General W;l1gen"Iein, one of Napoleon'II RUIIlIian
adverllar;ell in ,8'2
31
-
red or blue as follows: top staff corner, blue; LOp
fly corner, red; bottom stafT corner. red; bottom
fly corner, blue. In each of the corners was a
golden laurel wreath. In gold on the cenlral whitc
field wcre the words 'L'EMPER£UR DES FRAN<:AIS
AU R£C1MENl' DE WES'l'PIlALlE', and on thc
reverse was 'vALEUR E1' DISCIPLINE 4mc BATAILLOS'.
In April 1807 the 4th Battalion concentrated in
Fulda, and on the 15th of the mOnlh the)' marched
out under command of Batail Ionschef Schenk and
reached Blirtschcid (now part of Aachen) aftcr a
march of three and a half weeks via Stcinan,
Cclnhausen, Hanan, Frankfurt am Main, Mainz,
Bingen, Bacharach, Boppard, Koblenz, Ander-
nach, Remagen and Julich. Here it joined the
rest ofthe regiment, which nowwas commanded by
Oberst Erbprinz von HOhenzollern-Sigmaringen.
On 20 May 1807 the regimcnt marchcd Olll via
Maastricht, Tongern, Louvain, Brussels, Ath.
Tournai, Lille, Bailleul and Montcassclto St Orner
which they reached on 3 June. After a short rest
they continued to Calais which they reached on
10 June. By this time so man)' men had deserted
that the fOllr battalions of the regimcnt had to be
reduced to two.
Here the regiment was issued with new muskets
and then marched via Cre\'elingen, Dunkirk,
ieuport, Bruges, Chent, St Nicolas and Antwerp
to Mechcln, which it reached on 25 June and
where it remained as garrison. During this period
of static duty the time spenl concentrating thc
capable mcn into thc iSt Ballalion and thc less
capable mcn into the znd Ballalion. On I Novem-
ber 1807 the 1st Ballalion marched off to Spain
under Schenk's command, where on 4 January
IBog it was completely absorbed into the French
Army. During 180g its strength was so reduced
lhat it was combined with the Hanoverian


0/
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32
wnlr....... bUilD" d...iS.... I..rt 10 riSbl' C ......di..r-G.rd .
Fii.ilier-Garde,Jiiser-G.rde.ad C.rd.. du Corp., K ii "ulIie...
•1108-.2 a.od lio.. iafa.olry .ao,....3' Kii .....ie.... 8'2-'3
Legion, which in its turn was disbanded on
9 August 1811.
The 2nd Battalion orthe regiment len Mcchcln
on 4January 1808 under comm.lI1d or lhe Erb-
prinz von Hohenzollern-Hechingen, and marched
to Kassel which it reached on '29 January. Here
the officers and men were used 10 re-establish the
2nd Westralian Linc Inf."lllry Regimcnt whieh
was destroyed at Leipzig in 1813,
SOURCES
Gerdes. A., Die Gmhirhle du Tm/J/!m Bl'rg alld IIItstJalm
1812 in Rau/alld
Knold, Handhllrh du U"ijormkl/1/de
Lossbcrg, Britft in die flt;mol
Lunsmann, r,. Die IVtl/ftlilthe Annu
Dimes. J" flUft tilT Ifergangrnheil. Tafeln
Oman. C., History of the I'tninlu/af IVaf
<tillthriftftr fluWlunde
O\'crkon, F.• III RUllllwd Vtnlli.Jllt UIU Rhein/oliff lind
IVtstJaltn
Thomas, Un Rtgimtnl Rhtllfln lOW Napolton Premia
SEE ALSO: VOIl Pivka, Ki',g's Guman Ltgion and The Black
Brallswitktfl. both published ill 1973 by Osprey
Publishing
EXlltllITS: BrauJlsehweigisehe Landcsmuseum;
ivluscum fUr deutsehe Cesehiehtt'S - East Berlin
Docur.n:sTS: Arehiv del' Staclt Kl'crcld; Lancleshauptar.
chiv Dusseldorf; The Lipperheiclc Costume Collec-
tion Wesl Berlin; The Hcwig Colleelion (now in
possession or Dr Kleitmann, West Berlin)
33
Tile Plates
. J: (,'f(Il1d Duell] ojBerg
.11: CUnT/if. Graml of BfTg. /812
The cnli,'c uniform is ob\'ioush' based dosdv on
, .
the French modd \\ilh the rro-\\ilhiIH\hilc cock-
"de orBcrg making the diffcr('IlCC. Like mOSI Olher
contingclllS ill\"okcd in the irwasiOIl or Russia in
1812 all the gUlls \\crc 10SI and o\'er go percent or
I he troops involved ne\'er returned. !'I'Olc I he short-
barreled musket used by the aniller. Based 011 a
Knotd pl:llC.
11:!: (;"!'//fuJiI'/' Corporal. b!!flf/I Regi 11/1'1/ I. 1812
Alliouf illlillllry \\'ore Jig-lit blue lhcings
:llId wen: dillen::ntialcd by the l'cgimcIllal number
raised un tlie brass bUIIOIlS (the Regimel1t
\VOfl' lI'b i I(' and by the st )'11: 01' I he culf As
inllw F"nwh army, the rcd plume, cpault.'III'S and
sabre knot ar(' used 10 indicate gn'llt.:dier Sial us. It
i:- u.'iual thai bearskins wert bt.:ing: used as laiC as
1812; 1Il0St Frcnch grenediers by this limc' were
shnkos with rcd cords, pompon' and
plulllc. On the origillal Knene! plate Ihe bearskin
cords arc \\ hill' and no cockade is shO\\ n-a most
unusu;11 combillalion. The lOp of the bearskin i<,
red \\ ilh an uprighl white cross; his pouch lid bears
a brass grellade.
. 13: II/fillll/}' CuPtt/ill, -I11l 181:!
The li!{hl blue pompon identifies this onicer as
belonging to the 1st Fusilier Company; Ihe 2nd
won: white, tht 3rd yellow and the 4th grcen. II is
unusual for him Hot 10 be weal"ing a gorgt" OJ' a
plaIt 011 belt. Tbesword knot in gold and
thc l'paulettes togcthcr indicate his status and
rank.
Unlike other minor German swtes, there ap-
peal's to bc \'Cry lillie piclorial matt.:rial on \\ hith
10 basc uniform reconstructions, Artcr Knold.
B: (;r(llld J)ud!), ojBug
111: Pionft'r. 211d Rrgi11/f1Il. 1812
The characteristic grenadier appointlllellts bear-
skin, red plume. cords, epauleltes and sabre knot
\\ idcl} used 10 designale these m{'n. To this
cia}. piollecr :;erl?;eallls ill British inr.'1ntr}
34
mcnts are pl'l"llliucd 10 \\"e:lr a full set ofwhiskcrs,
ret.:ognises thc fact that the pioncers
weI'(' often \\ a a head of their rel{i ments lor days in
rough and without the facilitil'S 10 keep
Ihemst'!vcs dean sha\T1l and in spotlcss cOlldition.
On the Knotcl platc no cockade is sho\\ 11:
thill llIU-St haH been on thl' source he us<.'CI
but is 'CMCl'!} cr('diblc in the real life circum-
stances of thc dn}. I t is :llso unusu,d that thi... man
\\ cars no cr(hS(-d axes badg:e on his upper arm.
TIll" 1st Regiment initiall} \\orc plain round
cuns bllt later addt:d a \\hilc. :i-blltloll tridel1l
sh:tpl-d flap edged light blue, the 3rd Regimellt
had the sam(' flaps but in re\'Cl'lltOd colours .md the
,ph Reginll'tlt had plain round cufls,
Ih: Truu/lrr, ifr I'. lsI Rt'g;11/'111
l.rwrirrJo/II/2
This lllall is shcl\\ II ill campaign dr('ss, withoul Ihe
S{Oatll't shahraquc with \dtite ('dging and white.
crowncd ill t he long n:ar comers, Thc
and e:llobillc \\CI'<: both Frcllch light pal·
tcrn. CCIltrc compalliL'S of tIle rcgiml'nt \\ore the
squarc-toppt'd. Polish czapka having n brass-
I'a) l'd frull t pia tl' \\ ith central picce a
('"1"0\\ nl'd 'X' °
In a "Crond regimcnt or
\\ as rni'l'd. un a cadrc or :1° !1len of the 1st
Regimcnt. It \\:IS dcstO}l-d in til(: Russian c,un-
paign \\hilst Ihe 1St Regiment \\as in
Spain. III 1813 a l'egilllent ofhussan. \\ as r.li...ed h)
the PrussialiS \\ hen Berg rcll under their influence.
After a Belligni platc in the book' L" n Reg-imetH
Rhcnan SOltS I\'apoleon I'.
JJ3: Cor/Jural. lsI Cllel'tlll-Ugers Regill/fIIl ill S/)(/ill
As was the case in alt campaigns, dress regulations
wcre leli bnek ill the depol, fe-su ppl}' ofclothing in
the field wns prat,ticallly Ilon-cxistalll nnd within :t
fcw weeks of" marching out of their peace-time
garrisons, the troops in the field \\ould hn\'e
presented an appearance anYlhing but unifOnll
particularl} irthey had been invoked ill combat.
In the bit tel' Guerilla \\:1 r \\ hich ra\-a1l'ed Spain
rrom 1808· I 8 I3 conditions or commun-
ications and evcn SUI"\'i\',11 for the French \r(>OI>S
and their allies werc panicularl} b:ld, :\fan} units
'requisitioncd' the relatively plentiful stock arlocal
bro\\ n cloth intended for the tllall\ monasteries III
Standard, UI and 'nld WUlfaliaD H"....n, .807-13' lbe
eolo"... of tbe central o;:re.1 .re •• foUow.: Top lerll white
borN Oft red. Top "lIlbl: 6...., two 1Il0ld leop.rd. On wbite;
aecond d fourth., t_.i1ver .1.... Oft bl"", over black; third,
sold Ii DII «DtraJ shield blue with red_d.whhe-
.niped He..i.a.a lioa. <:eat"" sold ea.Slt. ... bl"",. Bottoon left:
bhlck li__soLd with lIlold aad reel ...y.. Bono... riSht: 1i...1.
1_lIlold Ii.... DII reel; aecolld, blue Ii_ 00 white; third, sold
Ii__ reel; fourth., bh.e Ii __ loLd aa1ttered with red
hearts
the country and used il 10 make trouser.; and
jackelS to replan' Ihe ollce-gaudy rabTS which their
peace-time had bccomc. P1UIlICS, cords
and other embellishmctlls were packed away and
the headgear was covered ill black oilcloth 10
prolect it. This regimellt was very actin: in Spain
and was eventually dcystfoyed Ihere.
(;1: Grmadi,r D"l1n",,,. :md "!fanl')' R'gimml. Crand
Dud,),tifBerg, 1&7
InSlead or wearing reversed colours as in most
olher armies or Ihe da). the drummers or Berg's
rour inrantry regimcnts \,'orc black coat:. with
normallighl blue racings and Ihe additional whitc
lace" illl a red worm on Ihe collar and in chevrons
up the slL'C"es.
lusirians won' l)icOfllS wi III Iigh I hllll' pOl'l1 pOll.
regimental bUHon. loop ;md nalion;ll red'\\'ithin-
white cockade. light blue. singie-bl'c;lsied tUllics
with light bluc coltar' and cum edgcd white.
It is likely that the drum major \\'ore an
elaburation or the dnlll11ller'S black tunic \\'ith
sergeants' rallk <:hevl"ons on the lower arm and a
bicOl'n with red and while pllllllt's but this is pure
conjeclUre ;IS no definile inrormation has been
round,
(,'2: Prim/t. lSI ll',sifaliall "!fall/ry R,gimml flkJ7
In the init ial or the raising or the arm) or thc
nc\\ Slate, lhe toops-man} or whom had been
laken over direcLly from the disbanded regiments
or J-1 essell- Kassel (sec :\ I1\1\ 122 'Napoleon' s Ger-
lllall }\lIies (5) Hcsse ill tbis serics)-colltinued 10
\\'(',11' their old uiliforms merely replacing llle
35
.- ,
• •
,.'
1808 - 181:3.
-
-.
-
. -
'-
Soldi.. rs of the Klnjl;dom or WHlr.li,.. From 1.. (1 10 riShl:
Garde-JiSf!r, LiDieo_lnr.nleri... Offixi",r
de" I..icbl", tnfa..nlrit:', Garde du Corp_, C.rde·Cb"vau.1isers,
Kurau,er, Hu...r, ArtiJI.. rie.Offiilier
Ill'ssiallco<:kade II ith ,llC FI'('neh Oil!' ,110\111 11('re,
The ("oal is based Oil .1 1'\ i\ ing c"a III pit- i II
Frkdrirlmt'in; lilt' IOIlt{ l'l'(l IUI'nhad., art' plain,
The i!!o tilt' old pall(:fIl II ilh \1 hilt'
lealher fi<;1 slrap,
{'3.0 Offiur, 2/ld Jrt'jljolifl1l "'iirossim 11108
This man wears campaign dress, the overall"
and short bools replacing tht, \\'hite bl'('('chcs and
on·r·the-knee boots or the parade
!1:ruund, The helmel is the lil'St v('rsioll bearing the
crowned cypher IN'' wilhin laurd (rightl and oak
(leli) branches, French-pattern, ("avalry
SII onls were carried, Ki.i rasses were IHII until
aboul 1810, Othcr ranks \Iore nxl \Ioollen
epalllcHcs. The consisled or Ihe rront
plate and. 1'01' offinT<;. bore a gold "lIllburn \dlh
tilt' CI'O\1 ned pher :J;';' in Ihe cent I'C,
/)1: S''.I!,t'f1ll1 .\I(/jor of (;rt//(lditr5, II"tJII(//ifl I.iff'
IlIfi/llf'..I', 1810 IBtj
\\'illt lite illtroduction orlh(' comnHJtI l!llirOl'llll()r
Ihl' lill!' ill!;lI1tl') in t810 ;t11 \\(/1'(' dark
36
hlu(' and hra" \\ ilh tlw l'cl\"il11cll1:t1
till III her fill ,he but 1011.
TIlt" rhombic lohako platt' bear<; lilt" iTlJ\\ m'd
th(' numher sl.lrupcd
IhrolH.:h it. Sl'n,:cillll major .. IaIUS lilt"
011(' \\ iel(' O\-el" one narm\\ lOp hand 10 the
shaku. ,ht, ami n..d cords, ('pauktll'
li'illg"(:s \lith Kold hall' 11100n<;,. and knOi
tog-c,ther \lith the I\\() bars 011 the lower
ami the gold service c1H'\TollS 011 the upper
rig'ht ann. lie carries a shon-barreled llluskc!.
Fu,ilin \\ore ov('r dark blue
('pauklt<: or \'oltif;Clll"'i (1\(:1'
1;"n:('II. ,\lIer I\.nolel.
f):/: Cor/lOml oj /I'nljalioll /,111' II/falll'..r.
IBw 18q
,\rIa thl' Frt'lI("h m(KIt'\. the
lIon' liu' grt:t'll. plume. gn.'l'll pom·
pon, and ,abrc kllot and cpaulcucs
Ilith Corporal<; rank haN IIt'fl.·
110m abon' each cutf in til(' {'olow',
Ep:lult-Ut' frin.l(t'<; \len' O\'cr tilt'
Kias:dom of West!""" 1810, ofthe Garde du Corps ill full duss
37
colour lor corporals, Turnback badgcs \\'('re whilC
on the dark blue cloth ilnd sho"'ed the regimcntal
number (011 the outside flaps) wilh 8-pointed stars
on the inside flaps for fusiliers, grenades for
grenadiers and hUllling horns for Volligcurs,
D.1: Primle 0/ Fllsiliers, II'tst/aliall Lillt IIl/allll1
1810 1813
The }dlo\\ pompon identifies the 3n:1 compan}:
the dark blue epaulet tes wi lh \\ hite C'rl.-'SCents were
\\ Orll from :I1>OUI I Bog,
EI: (,'rtlloditr o/fllt Guard, II'tst/alill
011 lhe n'd lapels of this coal \\cre SC\'Cll gold
bUltonholc laces with poimed outer ends, on cach
side of the collar two similar lan's (with golden
lor onicers ill full dress) and to the rear of
each \\'hitc, 3 bUllon, lid('nl-shapcd cuO' flap two
more such 1;lccs on the red curl' al the lev!:1 of lhe
bUlton ,Ind ('Cllt rc bUltonS Oflhc f1;lp.
Kia!dOnl of Weufalia 1810, o(tbe Guard La
levee drt..
38
As in the French army the guard was an elite
force with lllany pri\'ileges over their colleagues in
the line. Aller Sauerwcid.
E:!: Carab;"ia, Elilt Compml)' 0/ tilt lilga-Gardt,
Il'tIljalioll Guard. /808
Elite company status is shown by the peaked
bearskin and the yellow half moons to thc green
cpaulcltl-s; after Hahlo. The line companies \\'ore
shaklli with lenticular poml>ons in the company
colour hilving thc company numbcr in black on
lhe white Cl'ntral ficld. Shako cords \\crc" hite as
wcre tllC chi nscalcs and the almost crcscen t·sha ped
frOIl platt:' Ix'aring the crowned :JjX'. According to
R. Fonholfer and H. Knotel, drummcrs of the
cenlre companies wore a yello\\ shako \\ ith white
top b;l Il(l , sealcs, tords and cagle platt: and coats in
reversed colours with the green collar, cuns anc!
swallo\\'s nests !:dgcd white, The yellow lapels were
cdged \\'hitt arid piped green, thcl'(' wcre white
hunting homs on the grecll tLl1'l1backs and the
cpalllctlcs had gr('cn straps with whitc crcsccnts
and fringes, The brass drum had lig:ht blue and
white hoops.
£3: Colmltl, !JaUalion,
Il'uljalia 1810
This figure is based on Sallef\\eid's Contemporar:
plate and is highl} detailed. The no\\ ned pher
',jX' can clearly be seen on the original 011 the
gorget and the belt plate, This unit recruited from
the sons offol'csters or the kingdom and a two-year
Slilll in the battalion was a pre·reqllisite for a posl
in the Slate foresll'}' service,
Prim'to the 1812 campaign lhis unil consisted of
six field companies and a depot company; it was
destroycd in Russia and subsequently n:-raiscd bUI
with only four companies. These were nOI an
integral part of the guard but pennancmly atta·
ched to them. The commanders (Obersl Prinz von
Hcssen·Philippsthal in 1810; in
1812 and Ualaillonschef \'on Hcssbcrg in 18t3
were all officers pre\'iously ill the sen'ice of the
Electorate of Hessen-Kasscl sec 122
German Allies; s) Hesse in this series ,
Among their other duties. lhis battalion was
charged with the pursuit and arrt."St ofd<."Serters,
The} wcrc armed" ith a rifle "'ilh Hirschf:inger
(s\\'ol'd·b;lyonet); officers earned the sabre -
KingdolU of WUlfalia .8.0, Ch.lIlI.,ur.Ca.... b;.. il:T..
emphasising their role as light troops. The
crowned 'Jl\'" cyphcl" was IV01'll all the black
leather pouch ba ndol iel's orIbc.J agcrs; gua rds' lace
was \\"orn Oil t:'ollars and nlns.
F: Kingdom of 11'(s!fiIl;(l1l
FJ. 2. 3: The BOl/d of {he 9/h Lilli' '!!frllll'J' Regiment.
/810
This plate is based all lilt.' series or colour plates
painted ill c. 1830 and published in the Zcilschrift
fUr Hccrcskundc in 1963.
The drum major (Tamhour is a real
peacock \\,jth the plumage all the bicom :lI1d the
gold-embroidered red brel'ches. He wears normal
regimen wI colours wiler-ens I he rusil itr fifet' and the
musician wear reversed colours. The drummcn'
and fifcrsorthc 61h, 7th and 8lh line regimellts also
wore 7 chevrons in regimental lace on lheil' sleeves'
whilst those of the 3rd and 51h regimcnls wore i
horizon wI bars, \\'hal lhe druillmers and filers of
G'/, 2,3: JIIrs!!alill/l I.illtl hUlIlllr)' MIIsiri(lll, 4th lind5th
Regimelll, (lnd /lOsI-181O
Fritz LUlIsmann in his book 'Die \\"estIZilisehc
Armee 1807-181g' (published in 1935) gives only
brier details of the uniforms worn bv drummer
, ,
filers .. nd musicians staling merely thai, aner lhe
introduclion of the cOlllmon while and dark blue
uniliJl'tn lor lhe line inl:1lllry in 1810, 'Drumme!'s
had red swallows nests and all lheir f:lcings \\'(Te
edged ill yellow bce',
In the pOSl war period riHlch more inlormation all
Ibis su hjl'ci heta me a vai la ble and was publ ishl'd i11
1963 in Ihe 'ZellSchrift flir Hccreskundc', The
figures shown here arc laken from this source, the
basis for which was a series or 30 coloured plales
paimcd ahout 1830 and gcnerously made avail-
able bv Rcnce Fonhollct",
,
From thcse plates-which experts havt: verified
as being reliable sources-it seems that as ill lllallY
other armies, regimental commanders \I'ere :"11-
lowed grcal lc.:eway in deciding how their bands
werc dressed. This CUSlom still prevails ill Britain
today,
According [0 the service material. each regi-
mental band its own lace ed,l{ing to Jilcings,
some d ru III Illers had ehevl'OlIS on the slcevcs, otller
plain horizontal bars of rcgimental lace. Drulll
hoops varied in colour and design betwecn regi-
mcnts and often renectcd the regimental lael'
colouring, Some regimcntal bands wore rC\'crscd
colollrs (this was Ihe ctlse with the 61h Regilllcllt)
olhers had colOllr schcmes l10t really relating 10
their comrades at all.
The various regimcntallaces arc reproduced on
the other colour plales,
olber regirnellls wore is not quite clear; the
Volligcur hornists orthe 1Sl and 2nd regiments arc
shown wilh neither swallows nests, bars Ilor chev-
rons all theil' sleeves, These hornists wore nOrmal
green epaulcllcs with yellow crcscents, A drumillcr
of the grd regimcnt is shown with lighl blue
epaulelteS, while crescents and a lWO-lhirds yellow
over one-th ird Iigh I blue plumc. I-Ie wea1'5 a yellow
coal with lighl blue collar, lapels, round culls and
lurnbacks; the drulll hoops were in while and lighl
blue diagonal stripes,
Suhr!\hows the 5tll Line Regimei'll in Hamburg
in IHOI) wilh a drulllmer.
-
-
39
Lancer, Cleve·Bt:rw Re.-iment
II: " "W/om rif II
/,,: Wl!slj"li(/ H;UII/I!;slrr ((.'''/I{(/;1/), Chn'(I11/tgu-
(,'tmlt, dill
Tllis figure is all an original by Pinhas but
tile' helmC't been slightly alttered to comply with
tilt' dC'tail" ora su rviving cxampIc ofan 18 I0 model
onkers' helmet. The diflercnccs arc restricted to
the sidc strutS; thosc all Ihe Pinhas plate being
indistinct and not seeming' VCl'y functional. Sallcr-
\Vcit! shows brass helmet embdlishmcnls practi-
cally iell:mical to thOse shown by Pinhas but more
delai led; one COl n oilly conjectll rc as to whether one
copied lbteotllcr. Both the helmet <ll\d the cartOllch
ba lldolict' bear tIIe crowned cypher J N' as docs the
lid of Ihe canollche. Horse f1l1'llitllre was black,
light c;walry pattern with lmlss fittings; the dark
gTcen "habraque had a wide yellow edging with a
40
rcd outer piping' and a yellow, crowned 'ji\"' in the
rcar cornCI'. The round dark green portmanteau
hnd a wide yellow ring and red ouler pipingon the
ends.
1'12: Str.t:tol/I rif /.;ghl "ifol/f':.)', 1812
The first unilorms of the light infantry were
cornflo\\er blue \\ ith green facings and \\ hite
bu(\ons, Lat<:r in 1807 08 facings became orange
but by 1809 dal'k green cuat and trousers with light
blue E,cing:-.. \\hile buttons and black belts had
been adopted, The coat \\as always single·
breasted: the bullons hem: the batlalion number.
OOieers carri(:c1 hUS;,;lrs sabres in black sheaths
\\ilh silver fittin!-.TS on black bandoliers,
1/3: Strgttml rifIht ,lrJillt'.." Trtr;1/, 1812
Rank is indicated b) the silver tOP b.and to the
shako, the and I"(.'d cords, the sih'er stripe on
red backing all the forearms and the silver and n.'d
flststrap.
OAleers' COSt ume \\ as similar but \\ ith silver side
chevrons to the shako according to rank, silver
bOllom bane!. silver bandolier edged red and
bearing' an oblollg sih er pia te \\ ith the ero\\ ned
cypher black sabre slings \\ ith sikcr fillings,
light sabre in silver she;llh, silver fistslrap,
silver trim to thighs of the grc) breeches and to the
lOpS oftht, hus"a.. bIX)(S, Clovcs were \\ hite.
I/.J.' Ojfirtr, Isil/llssa,s, JlII2
Both hussar regiments \\cre clothed and C(luipped
eomplctely according 10 French regulations. The
black leather sabrel<tschcs bore the regimental
number in silver.
Trumpcters rode greys and wore dolman and
pclissc in reversed colours, those or the lSI Regi-
ment wore brown fur busbies having a rcd bag
\"ilh white trim and l:uscl to the ldi hand side,
Theil' trumpet cords and tassels \\'cre blue and
whitc. On campaign gre) o\'cralls with a side
stripe in the facing' coloUl' ;llld white bliltonS and
black leathcr booting: \\'ere \\01'11,
mmJ]
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THE ANCIENT WORLD
21. AnCIent Chlnew: Arm.es
lot Arooflnt 11Iddle: East
137 The:5cytIwn$700-lOOB.C
" & Wus soo-32] B.C.
•4' Army of AIeJ<.l,r><Ier the Greal
•21 UrtNglnlln WI/'$
46 Roman Ivrrrt'

9) 1-Udni.n-Conmnl<M
129 '$

8 Dao.ons
158 ); Gallic & hoi>Cells
175 PW""$& So$$;\IlIds
180
243 5):TheDestnFronuer
THE MEDIEVAL WORLD
241 Romano-Byunt<MArmoes 4th·9th C.
154 Arthur & Anglo-Saxon Wus
255 Armoes of the Muslim Conquest
125 Arm.esofloWn. 7m·llme.
I 50 The: of Charlemagne
" Byunt,neArm>eo886-1 liB
85 Saxon. v,ltJna &Norman
23 I French Mecbe"a1 Arm>eo 1{XX)..11OO
15 Arm.esoltheCNsadeo
111 SaIad,n &the Saracens
155 Kn,fhtsoiChnst
200 EIGd& Rec:ooqu,m 1050-1492
105 The Mongols
222 The: Age 01 Tamer:ar.e
.I'IeGse IlOle dIGt for spoa te<lSOm
lidoIlWV- <J!H>otr, ..nen
quote die !ide number, e.t WJ V....., Henir', <tC.
251 Med,eval Ch,nese Arm.es
50 Med_al Europein Arm,es
151 Scou &Weloh WI/'$
'4 The:Sw1s.I)OO.ISOO
lJ6 llaI.." Arm.es 1)00.1SOO
166 Gennan ArmieS 1)OO..1SOO
195 Hung.vy& E, Europe
259 The M.1mluks Izso.l 517
140 OttominTurkll)OO..l774
210 'mlehanEmpore 1200-1670
II' Arm.es d Crky lU'Id Poouen
144 Medoeval Burgvndy 1364.1477
I I 3 Arm.es of Aglma"""
145
99 Med>e-.ral Heraldry
16TH AND 17TH CENTURIES
256
Itl HenryVlll'sAtmy
38 The: l.l.ndsknechts
•0I The ConqlHstadores
163 Mugl>ul Ind'" 1504-1761
235 Gumv\IS AdoIptlUSII): Infantry
161 Gusu\NS.AdoIptlus
14 EnHI'oh C,,,,I War Arm.es
110 NewModelArmy 1645-60
103 lou.s XN's Army
167 The: Bnt,oh Army 1660-1704
'7 Marlborough'sArmy
" 5amUI'aJ Atmoes 1550-1615
184 f'QI,ohAtm.es 1S6'>-1696I'l
188 Ptll,oh Atm.es 1569·16'>6 2
A"ec notatlon. en francais sur In
p.anch en couleu•.
Mit auf Deutsch tiber den
Farba.reln
179
18TH CENTURY
161 18lh Century
16(1 Peterthe Greifs Army II)' Infantry
1'" PettrtheGrut'sArmy 2):Cavalry
t I'
2]6 FrederICk the Greltl' I
]40 lhe Greal 2
24. fredendclheGreat 3
271 AuStnin Army 1740-80I'1
]76 AustmnArmyI740-80 2
280 Austf\l.nArmy 1710-80 3
48 WoIfe'slvmy
228 Amenan Woodland Indians
39 Bnl<oh Army 'n N. Amenu
244 French ,n Amer, Wirlnd,
27] GeneraIWaoh,nglOO'IArmy(I}' I77S-I778
NAPOLEONIC PERIOD
251 ,n July
7' Napoleon'sEgyPl,anCampa'Hn
.7 Napoleon'sMarsl'.l.ls
64 Nap'sCu,m$le<"\ &
SS Nap'sDl'l.HOO"s&Un<;trS
" L,ne
16 Nap's HusW"S
8l Nap'sGuardCavalry
141 Nap's Lir>e Infanlry
146 Nap'sL'Hhllnfantry
IS) Nap'sGuardlnfantry(l}
Tiu..lisl conlinue<1 /In back coYer
ISBN 0-85045-211-2
1111/ 111111
9780850452112