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~7~ Introductory
In preparing this booklet the aim has been
three-fold: to show how certain operative features distinctive on our Universal Grinding Machine are used to advantage; to aid those confronted with grinding problems about which they are often unable to obtain all the necessary information, that they may use the Grinding Machine profitably and efficiently; and to assist those not familiar with grinding wheels to a right understanding of them, with the hope that it will prove

of service to

OUI'

many friends.

Special effort has been made to treat each subject in a clear and comprehensive manner, carefully avoiding all unnecessary matter. We do not show in this booklet our complete line of Grinding Machines, which includes Duplex Internal, Surface, Disc, and Cylindrical Grinding Machines. If the booklet does not contain certain explicit information you want, or if you have grinding problems of any kind causing difficulty, never hesitate to write us. We have specialists who are always ready to assist you in devising ways and means of economical grinding, and their suggestions may prove of value.'

It is a pleasure to acknowledge the many courtesies received from Grinding Wheel Manufacturers, and the valuable information furnished by them on grinding wheels, in preparing this booklet.

Universal Grinding Machine Co. Fitchburg, Mass.

"

THE TABLE is well proport.ioned, and like the cross slide thoroughly seasoned between operations. I t is provided with a swivel plate for ~rinding tapered work and has a scare grnduuted in inches per foot, and degrees. THE GRINDING WHU:L HEAD is of the most rigid construction and has only a vertical movement. The wheel spindle is made of tool "leel. hardened and ground, anc! run", in large adjustable phospaer-bronze bearings, thoroughly protected from W-it.. The screw which feeds tbe wheel bead vertically is graduated to 1-16"andisprovided with a micrometer reading to one-thousandt.h of an inch. TIlE HEADSTOCK haa a dust-proof swivel base, accurately graduated. The o;pindlcis made of steel hardened and ground and runs in adjustable phosphor-bronze buarings. The spindle revolves for chuck and face-plate work, and is arranged to be locked when grinding on dead centers. THE FOOTSTOCK SPINDLE is provided with a variable tension spring, controlled by a handwbcel and Quick acting lever. The spindle may be clamped rigidly for suPportini the center to the work. THE TABLE IS CONTROLLED by adjustable dogs, operating against the reversing lever, which actuates the clutch of the load and fire type, or by conveniently located hand reversing lever, which provides means for stopping the table at the end of ita traverse automatically. by giving the lever a part of a turn at any time during the traverse of the table. THE AUTOMATIC CROSS FEED FOR CYUr-;DRICAL GRINDING operates at each reversal of the work table, and can be set. to reduce the diameter of the work from .00025" to .005". The feed is automatically thrown out when the work has been reduced to the required size. THE AUTOMATIC SURFACE CROSS FEED operates at either. b0t..h j-eversals of work table. .

or

THE

CROSS SCREW I1ANDWI-IEEL is provided with a stop for duplicating work. WORK AND T~AVERSE SPEEDS are independent, and can be instantly changed while running.

Side and Rear View of Bath

Urriversaj

Grinding Machine

5

The Bath Universal Grinding Machine Arranged for Surraee Grinding

Surface Grinding The cut at bottom of page shows our Surface Grinding Attachment, as furnished with the Bath Universal Grinding Machine, and is shown attached

to machine in the above cut.

The attachment spindle is screwed onto the main wheel spindle through which it is driven. The arm which carries the outer bearing is clamped to the

grinding wheel head, the alignment being insured aligning, being carried by a swivel head.
by tongue and groove. The outer bearing is self-

Surface Grinding Attachment

1 shows cross section of grinding wheel head on our No..~: . ~{~. 1 . To take up end thrust of wheel spindle loosen screws E and F. also screw F. when the proper adjustment is made. 2 shows a section of cross screw adjustable nut on our No.:u~ take the place of liners. 2 and 2% Universal Grinding Machine. when nut B should be locked in place by nut A. :L. clamp collet firmly in place by screw E. Then tighten up screw G. loosen lock nut A and draw nut B out until proper adjustment is made.:~·~ 1'--"t=-ZfL-IH+l-I'! ~7.2 and 2 ~ Grinding Machine. should be tightened. then nuts screws AA.7 Fig. when bearings are properly adjusted screws BB ce. Fig. ce t and replace . dust screws AA and loosen tapered To adjust wheel spindle bearings: Remove screws BB which /~.::: G Fig. To take up lost motion in nut. also loosen nuts Then tighten nuts DD which draws tapered bearings in.

. . or right angles to wheel spindle. Clamp High Tooth Rest on swivel plate and adjust finger so as to bring cutting face of tooth on the same height as center of mill.JI Sharpening Large End Mill Use cup grinding wheel..-. Cutter is held by taper shank in Universal Work Holder. Use tooth rest finger for indexing also . Hold cutter against tooth rest finger when grinding.-. . Swing knee to 90 degrees. Set adjustable center and adjust jaw to mill shank so that mill revolves freely without shake.. The proper clearance is obtained by tilting V block the required number of degrees which is read direct from dial. this being insured by dowel pins.9 . The Universal Holder is set so as to bring center of cutter in line with axis of wheel spindle..

. The horizontal Swivel and V block being doweled on zero insures the face of cutter being ground absolutely straight and at right angles to side of cutter. The tooth rest is mounted on wheel head. See table on When grinding. The tooth clearance can then be obtained either by raising wheel head the desired amount. thus allowing clearance on the "upside" of grinding wheel. can be read from elevating screw dial. Cutter is mounted on an arbor and held in Universal Work Holder. Swing knee around to 89 degrees. hold cutter against tooth rest finger. or by tilting the V block the desired nurn ber of degrees which can be read direct from vertical dial. which page 34 for clearance.11 ( Sharpening Periphery of Inserted Cutter Milling Use cup grinding wheel. finger being set over cutting point of wheel and on center of cutter. and be careful not to run cutter off ot finger.

The proper clearance is obtained by tilting V block the required number of degrees which is read direct from dial. Swing knee around to 90 degrees. when 15 Sharpening Periphery Teeth of a Side Milling Cutter Use cup grinding wheel. The Universal Holder is set so as to bring center of cutter in line with axis of wheel Set adjustable center and adjust jaw so counterbore revolves freely without shake. Counterbore is held by shank in Universal Work Holder. .13 Sharpening a Counter bore spindle. Clamp high tooth rest on swivel plate and adjust finger so as to bring cutting face of tooth the same height as center of cutter grinding. 00 res Inger. Use dish-shaped grinding wheel. this being insured by dowel pins.

The swi vel h .. Mount cutter on arbor and hold in Cutter Bar attachment.. . cutter against tooth rest finger. which provides a very sensitive movement_ Swivel head to required angle Cor cutter.•••. Adjust tooth rest finger to bring face of tooth being ground the same height as center of work.. Cutter Swing knee to 89 degrees which allows clearance on the "upside" oC wheel. .---~ •. 17 Sharpening Use cup grinding an Angular wheel. Hold grinding. The proper clearance on tooth is obtained by tilting swivel head the required number of degrees which is read direct from dial. '. when Use lever feed. .ULL~r can oe left in place and ~wivel head swung around 90 degrees. us insuring the periphery and side of teeth being ground absolutely at right angles.••. ~u l'lIC I.

Swing knee around to 89 degrees. The reamer is held between head and footstock centers.19 Shar pentng a Taper Reamer Use cup grinding wheel. hold reamer against tooth rest !in~el. . table on page 34 for clearance. Tbis cannot be accurately obtained by reading scale alone. which allows clearance on "upside" of grinding wheel. Clamp high tooth rest on swivel plate and See adjust finger above the center of work the desired amount to give proper clearance on tooth. but must be determined by repeatedly trying the reamer in a standard taper hole. ann U~Qline~rto . When grinding.n~exby. Swivel Plate is set to the proper angle.

Sharpening a Gear Cutter (Using Special Gear Cutter Attachment) Use dish-shaped grinding wheel. Feed grinding wheel into cutter by traverse hand wheel. then adjust tooth rest against heel of tooth and clamp in place. The gear cutter attachment is held in Universal Work Holder. Set cutting (ace of grinding wheel against gauge.21 =1 [ \- -. The knee is swung around to 90 degrees. this insures the teeth being ground radially. . The cutter is mounted on stud of attachment. Set cutting face of cutter by the gauge equal to the amount of stock desired to be removed. When grinding. hold cutter against tooth rest.

Emery is a natural abrasive. Carbolite wheels are used for the grinding materials of low tensile strength. as compared with other abrasives. absolute uniformity in quality. Carbolite is an artificial abrasive manufactured by the American Emery Wheel Works. The principal . and is made by fusing in the intense heat of the electric arc furnace. toughness. brass. dried and graded. and it has in addition a temper which makes it ideal for grinding steel. Alundum is an artificial abrasive. and has been extensively successful in all classes of steel grinding. It not only cuts fast. which make it a highly efficient cutting material for the grinding of steel. sharpness. Wheels made of emery are used mostly for the grinding of steel balls and on work where a very high finish is desired. Beauxite is the purest form of aluminum oxide. especially cast iron. obtained from mines in India Brazil and Massachusetts. crystalline alumina being the only element In emery hard enough to have any appreciable cutting action on metals. rubber and leather. and is distinct from anything found in nature. which gives emery grams their dark color. Beauxite. . The grains are tough and have a rough surface which provides excellent hold for the bond. and contains a large pe. sharpness. hardness. few grinding operations require such durability. Aloxite is an artificial corundum manufactured by the Carborundum Company. . cool and clean. and while not tough. Alundum characteristics are hardness.centage of non-cutting elements composed of amorphous alumina. . manufactured by the Norton Company. its very brittleness makes it most efficient for certain grinding operations. silica and iron oxi?-e. and the physical formation is such that when it is broken it leaves sharp cutting corners or edges. Carborundum is an artificial abrasive.23 Corundum wheels have been very successful in all classes of grinding and especially tempered steel. but it shows wonderful durability. when the grains are then ready to be made into grinding wheels. The characteristics of Aloxite are its purity. manufactured by the Carborundum Company. then refined. allowing wheels of great durability to be made. However. It is extraordinarily hard and sharp. a soft clay-like susbtance. In chemical composition Alundum is similar to the ruby and sapphire. and temper or character of fracture. and in its crude form is taken from electric furnace in the form of large compact ingot or pig weighing several tons. This pig consisting of crystalline alumina is crushed to grain form by means of special machinery.

They are also good for wet cutter grinding and some kinds of cylindrical and internal grinding. Thicker wheels are either moulded under hydraulic pressure or rammed into moulds the same as silicate wheels. The disadvantages are: Elastic wheels will not stand much heat. whether used wet or dry. This forms a pasty mixture. or where a very thin wheel is necessary. For making very thin wheels this mixture is rolled into moulds. Wheels may be moulded on iron centers. For wet grinding the soda in the bond has a favorable action. can be made in a week. They are well adapted lor dry cutter and reamer grinding. so that if properly graded for the work they give a fine finish. \Vheels of any SIze can be made up to five feet in diameter and over. Only experienced men are allowed to do this work. and they cost a little more than Vitrified or Silicate wheels.tic Process: Wheels as thin as 1-32 may be made and used with safety.25 with certain other materials. Elastic wheels are nearly black in color. They are baked at a temperature to set the shellac. Elastic wheels are used chiefly for fine grinding where no great amount of stock is to be removed. as it causes the wheel to cut smoothly and with little heat. which cannot be done with Vitrified wheels. which is then rammed into moulds. They are less open and porous than Vitrified wheels. Elastic Process: Elastic wheels are made from a mixture of abrasive grains and shellac. Silicate wheels are especially adapted for wet grinding on hardened steel. Advantages of El". From the foregoing it is evident that wheels of any abrasive material may be made by anyone of the above described processes for binding the grains . the abrasive grains possess all their original strength. and can be moulded on iron centers. For wet tool grinding and wet surface grinding (particularly when cup wheels are used). wet tool grinding. After the wheels are dried they are baked in special ovens at a moderate heat. The advantages of Silicate wheels are: Wheel3 As no excessive heat is used. as the uniformity and balance of wheels depend largely upon the skill of the moulder. Their elastic quality makes them very smooth cutting. saw gumming and cutting of small stock. The disadvantage of the Silicate wheel is: In the harder grades silicate wheels are generally not as free cutting as Vitrified wheels because they are denser. they are unequaled. They can be made quickly. Silicate wheels are light gray in color. the Silicate of Soda is added and the whole mass thoroughly mixed together in special machines.

A glazed wheel is one whose cutting particles have become dull or worn down even with the bond. thus presenting sharp points more often. Coarse Wheels: Use a C?&!se wheel for reducing the stock rapidly. For Surface Grinding. a softer bonded wheel is required than for external Cylindrical grinding. so as to keep approximately the same surface speed of grinding wheel per minute. In tr-ui ng and dresstng the grinding wheel the diamond should be firmly clamped to the table. and a thin wheel should be harder than a thick one. In cylindrical grinding the work shows chatter marks and a wavy appearance. The Jarger the surface of contact between the wheel and the work the softer should be the wheel. which is caused by the wheel running too slow or being too hard. and is caused by the wheel running too fast or being tOG hard. TRUING OF GRINDING WHEELS Good results cannot be obtained with wheels which are even slightly out of true. this will leave the face of the wheel rough and in proper condition for rough grinding.he face oC wheel for a moment. A coarse wheel properly dressed will produce a good finish. This causes the wheel to wear away faster and appear softer. and in all cases of grinding the finish IS poor if the wheel is out of true. For a smooth finish the final pass of the diamond across the face of the wheel should be very slow. A loaded wheel is one whose face has particles of the metal being ground adhering to it. Use a wheel one grade softer for cast iron than for soft steel. . because the grains. and the diamond traversed rapidly by the face of grinding wheel until it is true. U~ually this is because the same surface rate of speed IS not maintained as the wheel is reduced in diameter. The larger the grains the deeper the cut that may be taken and the less liable the wheel is to clog and glaze. To obtain the best results the revolutions per minute of grinding wheel must be increased as the wheel wears down. . a softer wheel is required for surface grinding than for cylindrical grinding. will break away more readily.27 required. . and for extra fine finish the cutting face of the wheel may be slightly glazed by holding an oil stone against t. Complaints are not uncommon that grinding wheels appear to be sorter towards the center. It is important that the diamond point presented to the wheel should be sharp. this is accomplished by . a harder wheel should be used for work of very small diameter than for larger work. Thus. where finish 15 not Important. Conversely.

and should be used wherever possible. The work speed can be somewhat increased (or cast iron: 25 to 35 surface feet per minute giving good results in the most of cases. careful attention must be given the selection of work and traverse speeds. and some classes of Internal grinding. as. material. although on a very hard and tough steel better results will be obtained with slower speed for roughing. . grade. for removing stock use a slow work speed and fast traverse. Different conditions. It may be remedied by changing the work and traverse speed or work. Then too the work and traverse speeds govern. as kind of material.. the cut should be of sufficient depth to allow the wheel to do its utmost. Use a higher work speed for finishing than for roughing.. and for cast iron should be slightly less. Water keeps the wheel clean and free of heat. \Vhen finishing cast iron pass the work over the wheel as few times as possible. the kind of finish obtained. and amount of stock to be removed. to a certain extent. all vary the requirements. vice versa for finishing. cutting. Water upon most work is absolutely indispensable. good results is attributed to the grinding wheel. we give no absolute instructions. except when grinding bronze. a very narrow traverse per revolution is required. as the wheel will be less liable to glaze . No fixed set of rules can be laid down for the proper selection of work and traverse speeds. if the wheel speedis correct and work is running too fast the wheel will glaze and give the effect of a harder grade wheel. and speed of wheel.Work and Traverse lfthe best results are to be obtained. desired finish. etc. amount of stock to be removed. and prevents the generation which causes the work to get out of true. Grinding to Shoulder: The best method of grinding work with a shoulder is to feed the wheel in to the work at shoulder to within . for instance.0005" above size. This will leave edge of wheel next to shoulder sharp. Where the part to be ground is rigid enough to stand a heavy cut. material to be ground. For finishing. grain. The Traverse Speed of the work for roughing steel should be about two-thirds the width of grinding wheel per revolution of work. The depth of cu t to be taken depends upon the wheel. For finish grinding the speed should be increased. then grind the balance of work. Broadly speaking. Often wben Iailure t? produce. hence. The Work Speed recommended for steel is 15 to 25 surface feet per minute for ordinary work.

It is liable to cause breakage. Don't run a grinding wheel at a greater number of revolutions per minute than the manufacturer recommends. Don't use a wheel which is not sound. Don't attempt to true wheel without first seeing that diamond is held rigid. Don't mount wheels without soft washers between the wheel and the flanges. Don't hesitate to ask us any questions pertaining to grinding machines and wheels. Enlarge the hole so the wheel will slip on easily. Don't allow dust or grit to enter oil holes. Don't put work in machine until centers and center holes in work have been carefully clamped.ly and listen for a clean ring. It is economy to get the right grain and grade for the work. Don't force wheels onto the collet. Don't try to grind with a wheel that is loaded or glazed. Don't forget to change speed of wheel Spindle as wheel wears down. but will simply heat the work and wear out sooner. Don't forget that we invite correspondence relating to grinding propositions and difficulties. pass the diamond over 'wheel a few times. .31 Dont's Don't try to grind all materials with the same wheel. keep them for reference and re-ordering. Don't move head and footstock before thoroughly cleaning swivel table. Don't start work on a new wheel until you are sure it runs true and is in balance. Don't destroy the tags on the wheels. There will be no charge. Don't start to grind until you know the speed is right. Don't forget that soda water keeps the work and the machine from rusting. This can be ascertained by tapping light. Don't crowd a wheel on the work. It will not cut any faster. Don't use a belt of uneven thickness to drive the wheel.

Per Minute Rev.639 q.150 1.820 3.750 1.546 of 5.350 5.000 Feet 22. Per Minute [or Surface Speed of 6.273 1.091 955 849 764 694 637 586 546 509 3.273 1.820 3.300 ·1.000 2.775 of 5.600 2.728 2.200 3..584 3.183 2.639 5.364 1.637 1.27'4 2.910 1. Per Minut e Rev.000 Feet 19.730 4.910 1..061 955 868 796 733 683 637 " " ~ ~ .500 7.432 1.500 3.549 6.000 10.194 1.592 1. " " 2..050 950 875 800 750 700 Feet Rev.093 3.820 3.279 7.183 1.910 1. " " " " " " " " .500 21.100 1.387 1.865 ~.146 1.500 1. TABLE OF GRINDING WHEEL SPEEDS - Diameter Wheel Rev.528 1.292 1.366 4.099 9.459 7.918 11. Per Minute for Surface Speed for Surface Speed ror Surface Speed of 4.000 Feet 15.250 4.056 2.042 955 879 819 764 1 inch 2 " 3 " 4 5 6 7 " " " 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 3Q " .

.. J .S . Z of Vitrified SlIlcale £/asf/c Hardness v. 0 ... I. Iford ---......."'2 E' 0/4 E H % Sofl /"fed/11m Soft Ned/II"" Medfvm . AMERICAN Ileeree [. Z E - " '0 9 7 2~E So/I l1"d. CARBORUNDUM lJe....3:.1'2 E Soft i/er!lSojl .. H 5 ... a .•• -L K ----....Wheel PROCESS Co.---...Q ------ 4 6 .? /'fed/11m R ----- liard Very#ol"(/ . ---- L ------ -.o![ E Soft l-1edltlm _.•• 1.TABLE OF WHEEL GRADES ABRASIVE Oegrree of Wheel PROCESS CO..'<z co Ye. E " .zi> 3...4 E P 41E Q L 2'...____w -----..- M. . .. 4 3 .. 3 E H 3'...--. 4.. K . .T Z M ------ Hard Hard Very Hard N . 0 -----p "-. M-- 1 "'I~ 1 E .. J K Il.....-- OK F' . . I H ---VerrSo/t . ... 3~ E 4... 8 6 S 5 S T .': -. .dremi>lr --. .vlloN' .1 -. y X /iorclnes s Vi/rifled {Sillcale Elast« -. E/aslt~ 13 12 PROCESS Vill"ljJed! Sil/cole . --6 IT U Z R Sl. .. ---Z w 0 H _____ M -.2 £. 5 S'f.v/17 _. G .. _. -Z ..'2.----.W Y Hard l1~dl/ll1'l J Hora -.. ....P R U V 1 6 E 1 E Extremel!l Hard X y . I .- .. _-.. .----. 5 .. ·3 .0 .~Sofl . V U . .ree 0/ flartll1ess VenjJ/erf Co..-._...

'y So/I !fardtte55 Vd".I Soft /'{"d/vl11 ------c -----C' C' Sojl H"Ii/vlf1 -- Hed/vm l1etl/vlfI No.3 ---..tI M!'-z M~4 ---p -P~ P. ---1/~ ----.---2~ O~4 V"yH. 0/ Hardness ExIra So/I V.·3 Zj. VITRIFIED Oe~ree Wheel PROCESS Co. 14 -.1 Ot>fI"PP CO..fi~d Silictlfe Elflstic I -..-2 1~4 --0 -.-3!z r1-4 .1.TABLE OF WHEEL GRADES SAFTY Degree Emery Whe.J " Ver~/lord O~ Z O~ N -.-_. J'!'-z.!-l P~4 -I -- M~ --4 Ned/11m ----. Silicole STERLING EmeruWhe._. "1J. 0/ 0/ Hor.---- 5 [ 5~[ 6·£ 6"-[ 3~4 --4 5 6 5 6 F"' F"' f3 7'[ ----G Hard IY4 1!.l PROCESS Vi/rtffea' __ C __ CO..(ne5S PROCESS Vdrified.lrem(J/Y Hord ----F .--4 ----0 ---.. E 2 E to ~ --31 --3 Mealllm Himl HIII~d --.. E 0' 4"[ 0' ----.! Stile-aIR Elaslic ___ IY4 ..H -. ..-2. M c~ --6 S}.-4!zE [' c' r}..l V"!lS Sf/' 1' ______ Soft 1'f""«A/ So/I ---4i Heel/II'" A\ A~ Sofl Z ----.[ ----..!-lE 3 [ 0' 3}-.3~ ---37l --------- -41 - E' E' Hord Ex.• " .z ----.--5 H)z ---A -A~ -•.

.". • .RD..: ~'!.. 36 J. J...' J6 •• 60 60 6..J. Jnfel"lflll ?r~~~:. •• • ... -. 'Vz. J K • 3860 • z 3836 8 . 3.~~ ~!°J'~~!C~:~~ l."DI 6' Small. ABRASIVE MONARCH MATERIAL GRINDING Craifl NORTON co.l. 3836 N ../z.IIit "•• Crode 2'>. . J M L l~fE. sc (iI"""". 5T££I.. CftY5TOlOIN ~R/~~.".~::~. S 2Yl. •'0 J L K K 3846 3846 3836 J J J K K L 1. Crode Crain Crade Cntl" Srad. I'k 3.• 3846 1]4 C ZY:L % • • 3846 ~I ~I II 3846 STECl-SOFT.11' • • • ._..:1..?TJ:':.o36 >Y.y.~~~.~.tL&-" S~~. J6 J /"fer."~ '6 •• 6.a IVz.ca/ (lrl"di 8 31. '\'1 "" • • a 2'1".&.6 1lf_ElG. ~r. H~~~I ~'~!~!i~.''2 K • 3. ". lYz 3846 60 M Z."'''.> z l'i 1\..." 60 J6 • ~~~~~. • 'I... D • <Y.~I~~d. ALUNDUM 2' ~~.~S!. " 5T~EI. Cl'dlit co..JJ:f9.. U ~I-II . ~~~..6 L 6. C. K K J K M N L RUQ8£R WAe. 3036 . ~ REAMERS C. z )&30 co. 'V.HA..uhir •• •• • aasc • l~" • .~AJ'r~ndi" ~.' ~~." ".' 0 J~[ 0 3836 ~~~~~~"2-"Ji7""irZ4 lE.firj". L CAr.r~·~~fJ:.. M ~-8 0 3830 J U ~"~~~nl:111 10.~d"" J6 60 J6 K M O.o1'~1 70 KNI\lES. :. R 3830 1~~~~~U~/ir""l. . ~ ... 4.s~~~L.ac:! ':(I' 6.~~~g~ '6 ..39 TABLE FOR SELECTION OF GRADES AND GRAINS Kind 0/ Naterial ToBe Cround..dln ~!.T IRON PULlY.!-ED •• 3-~S~!c! R5!~ird/17 CAST IRON htllPrl'll1....6 60 Crl..I CrlMJIr ..J~e. Y. • 3846 • 3846 2-%. .846 9 ZV2.• z. 56 36 K to! E 3846 J J J J J J J J I c:.. ~I 2V. . J G"/. Iv..HARD c» Whee' '0 60 ~. I'A '1. " o • 38S0 ••• . '6 f!I~:~r/~A.I:D q...6-!(.!!~~~s•• J .3'4 21}h 3846 J J J J H . 3.S~~Fl~~.. M N • 3850 •46 J • 3860 · J J 3.d'iru•• L •• 60 • 'Xz 2"-4 .> I'/z.. C luul..JcO!lC""'d". ~J!~~ . N 3BSO 3 L * 38+6 50 J K 4. 9.-St:t::! . c t""d.~:dJir" L "'.UiJl'.-.. ~~%~ SIil/"".· •• C~·~~.-rz: • • • J K J 36 3' 6.). ..'." '6 J K u '6 10. L ~I 3836 J '6 8-~ R 3830 100 L 30 • ?(1-12. 60 ~~lJ/~:."M •• •6 L 60 N 46 L •••• M M 9-~1 3rt u Z •••.. " ~~~Z 'j.'h 2Y2.. 3.""!Yif? ().:'·ha ~~. STtEL-HARD.-HARD D. K K L L L L M M~ K M Infe. SOJ.S".i/'fd'.!~hl'~~L... M L M " 'V.~d.'/:. loZ1~ • 3846 l83£ R 0 2.. K • ./ctll ~~. 6.~l~!~~' (..

le from 0 to 90 degrees. and having a circular flange base as large as th top of machine base. To this Vertical Column is gibbed t e grinding wheel head.he purpose of combining in a single maehine efficient means for the grinding of Cylindrical. It is thoroughly seasoned between machining operations to insure alignment. The knee is graduated in degrees and can be readily clamped at any anl. Cutter and Reamer work of all descriptions. which een-ies the cross and longitudinal slides. Internal. bas a very large circular base that fits over the etreular base or the vertical column which provides a bearing of liberal dimensions for the knee to swivel on. THE CROSS SLIDE which provides means (or feeding the work into grindin~ wheel. Surface. and carries work table and operatin~ mechanism.2 Front View of Bath Universal Grinding Machine A Brief Description of Bath Universal Grinding Machine THE BATH UNIVERSAL GRIND( to MACHINE has been designed for t.. In this machine i!lincorporated all the essential features necessary for performing the various grinding operations with as much rapidity and accuracy as could be accomplished on a single purpose machine. the knee being swung around th9 column to bring the work tabte in proper relation to the wheel for the various operations this machine is adapted for.ly bolted a vertical column of liberal dimensions. THE BASE of tho machine is a single massive casting. 19 substantiaily ribbed internally and of liberal dimensions tbrougbout. Disc.. interna~y ribbed. It is so designed that the chan~in~ of machine from one operation to another is reduced to a minimum. and having only one movable joint between thc wheel head and base of machine.. THE CROSS SLIDE K. on top of Which is pprmanent.'lEE. thus supporting the grinding wheel head by a heavy wall of metal direct UI the floor. .

and runs in adjustable phosphor-bronze bearings. The design of this attachment secures the utmost rigidity in operation. as furnished with our Universal Grinding Machine. in detail. hardened and ground. and is self-aligning.l Grinding Attachment . thoroughly protected from water and grit. is bolted firmly to the side of tbe column near its base. Interrul. as can be seen by a study of the two views.The Bath Universal Grinding Machine A~ranged for Internal Grinding Internal Grinding The cut at bottom of page shows our Internal Grinding Attachment. The internal wheel spindle is made of tool steel. The internal spindle is driven from a pulley which is clamped on the nose of the main wheel spindle. The arm is a parabola form of massive proportion. and is shown attached to machine in above cut. This attachment is readily attached to machine.

which is furnished with this attachment. can be readily held. Cutter Bar Attachment. angular and straight cutters. when a very sensitive movement is necessary. reamers. counterbores...6 Universal Work Holder The Universal work Holder adds greatly to the variety of work possible to be ground on our Universal Grinding Machine. etc. By using Flange Plate. with straight or taper shank. gear cutters. . etc. The Cutter Bar Attachment is especially adapted for holding small end mills. large end mills.arge variety of work to be surface ground. flat form cutters. It is of speciaL value for holding inserted tooth mills. etc. saws. which provides means for holding a . The Flat Vise also can be clamped to this Flange Plate..

On the f?l1?wil. ere. We do no~ attempt to cover the entire range and The il. ete. For surface grinding small irregular pieces of work clamp in flat vise and hold vise in .. as this grvcs the same clearance to the tooth throughout the length of the reamer. Fig... and there is less danger ot drawing the temper. it will be found much quicker to tilt the V block on Universal 'York Holder.[u~er'll reeommend various angles for cast iron. the V block being removed and nl!-nge plate Inserted to receive flat vise. the wheel head should be raised until this tooth clears the bottom of grinding wheel.1ustrations shown will suggest a method of handling the great variety of other work that can be done on this machine. the desired number of degrees. the land will be concaved. and work carrier on Cutter Bar Attachment. . 2 shows the method generally U5Cd. Different manufa. of HINTS ON GRINDING CUITERS AND REAMERS Should tbe grinding wheel strike the tooth next to the one being ground. In setting for tooth clearance on milling cutters.025" [or cast iron and . dletincttve on the Bath Universal Grinding Machine:!!. 1 shows a very narrow land back oC the cutting edge. If a disc wheel is used. thus enabling the grinding to be done :faster. When grinding elearance on the teeth of cutters. cases several other ways of grinding the same Piece ean be used. ctc. in addition . It is beee to revolve the grinding wheel against the Cuttinll: edge of tooth. bronze and steel. In most. as this gives a straight lace to the land which supports the cutting edge 01 the tooth. .. instead of setting tooth rest above center. is not ar~ltrary. is traversed. pressure to prevent its being lilted by the grinding w heel. <> .?nivensal Work Holder. with auffielent. always clamp tooth rest to awivel plate.Vhen the tooth rest te stationllry and •.. Below we KJve a few general sU£gestions for grinding euttera ~eamers! ete. C if WJB A o Fig. reamers.••. Fic:. etc. When grinding taper reamers. as shown by these iUustrations.. C equals about . as it prevents a burr being formed at the cutting point. 1 Fig.to the explanatory matter at the foot Illustrations on the Icllcwing pages. Care must. 'I'hemethod of setting up. 2 Figs. be taken to hold. by hand.8 ctrrrsa GRINDING eapaeity of the machine. the work against tooth rest. B equals about 16 degrees Ior cast iron and 9 to 14 degrees (or steel. Clearanoo on the "down" or "upside" of grinding wheel is obtained by setting the knee one degree err zero. the angle of elearance being from:) to 9 degrees.• always use a cup-shaped grinding wheeJ. are used to advantage in aharpenin •• cutten reamers. The table on page 34 gives the amount to set tooth rest above center of work to obtain proper angle of clearance 01\ milling cutters and reamers.Utpages we show how certain operative featuJ'!!S.006" for steel. . care ork should be taken not to ean cutter 0(( of tooth rest. 1 and 2 illustrate two methods of grinding reamers.

Cutter is mounted on arbor and held in Universal Work Holder.10 Sharpening Side Teeth of Inserted Tooth Milling Cutter Use cup grinding wheel. the degrees can be read direct froru vertical dial. The tooth clearance is obtained by tilting the V block the required number of degrees to give proper clearance. and use finger to index by. When grinding! hold cutter against tooth rest finger. . Swing knee to 89 degrees which allows clearance of "upside" of wheel. Tooth Rest is adjusted so as to bring cutting face of tooth on same height as center of cutter. The Swivel Base is doweled on zero to insure the side being ground absolutely at right angles to periphery of cutter.

'I . Clamp high tooth rest stand on swivel plate and set finger on center of work. Swing knee around to 89 degrees which allows clearance on "upside" of wheel. Reamer is held by taper shank in Universal Work Holder. Use tooth rest tinger for indexing. Set Universal 'Work Holder swivel base to give proper angle. hold reamer against tooth rest finger. When grinding. Set adjustable center and adjust jaw to shank so that reamer revolves freely without shake.12 . . The proper tooth clearance is obtained by tilting the V block the required number of degrees.1 Sharpening End of Chucking or Rose Reamer Use cup grinding wheel.

c ( I A ~ Sharpening a Special V Cu t ter Use cup grinding wheel. and tilt V block the required number of degrees to give proper clearance. hold cutter against tooth rest finger. Mount cutter on arbor and hold in Universal Work Holder. When grinding. Set tooth rest on other side of cutter. See table on page 34 for clearance. Set Universal Work Holder to proper angle which can be read from Swivel Base. In that case the knee is set to give the desired angle and tooth rest finger set above center to give the proper tooth clearance. Swing knee around to 89 degrees which allows clearance on "upside" of grinding wheel. Set tooth Test finger on center of work. 'When one side of cutter is sharpened swivel Universal Work Holder around to opposite angle. . and use finger to index. The cutter may be also held between head and footstock centers Cor sharpening.

Use the lever feed.JG Sharpening Small End Mill Use cup grinding wheel. Swing knee at right angles to wheel' spindle. this being insured by dowel pin. which The Cutter Bar swivel head carrier is set so as to bring center of cutter in line with axis of wheel spindle. and hold cutter by hand against tooth rest finger. To index. provides a very sensitive movement. revolve bushing. also tilt swivel head to required number degrees to give proper clearance on tooth. the degrees being read direct from vertical dial. Cutter is held in Cutter Bar attachment. . Adjust tooth rest finger so to bring cutting face of tooth the same height as center of cutter.

and slide on arbor. . thus allowing clearance on the "upside" of grinding wheel. being careful not to let cutter run off tooth rest finger.18 Sharpening a Spiral Milling Cutter Use cup grinding wheel. It is preferable to have the cutter revolve and slide on arbor as this method insures the cutter being ground absolutely straight and true with the hole. If cutter is pressed on arbor. Swing knee around to 89 degrees. See table on page 34 for clearance. When grinding. Cutter is held on an arbor between head and rootstock centers. Use high tooth rest stand and set center of tooth rest finger above center of work to give the desired clearance. the tooth rest stand must be clamped on grinding wheel head. hold cutter against tooth rest finger.

a distance equal to amount of stock desired to be removed. Hob is held on arbor between head and rootstock centers.20 Sharpening. When grinding. The Low tooth rest is clamped on swivel plate and tooth rest finger adjusted so as to bring face of tooth by the face of wheel. Use tooth rest finger for indexing. . Swing table around to 90 degrees or table at right angles to wheel spindle. as face of tooth must be kept radial. hold hob against tooth rest finger.The set-up is the same for Large Formed Milling Cutters. Nole. a Hob Use a dish-shaped grinding wheel. The Table should be traversed by power and the grinding wheel fed into work by the wheel head elevating hand wheel. The table is adjusted towards wheel head until Iace of grinding wheel is in line with work center.

allowing the sharp points that are below to be brought into action.. natural and artificial. Brazil and Georgia. ! From the foregoing it will be seen that the successful operation of any grinding machine depends in a large measure upon the proper selection and use of grinding wheels. To a certain extent this is true. the general principles involved are not difficult to grasp. etc. The cutting tools are the sharp particles of abrasive extending from the face of the grinding wheel. Corundum is a natural abrasive. Carborundum. Abrasive materials are of two kinds. While on the other hand. As these abrasive grains wear or become dulled. and the "bond. steel. India. the grains being just brittle enough to break as soon as they become slightly dulled by use. . the wheel is unnecessarily wasted. The best corundum comes from the Canadian mines and contains 95 % of crystalline alumina. along work being obtained. when dull. extremely hard. is nothing more or less than a cutting process. Aloxite. if PI'I[~I~~fr~~t~iiit\@'~f ~~lij~~ijmO~. If the points are retained after they become dulled. Carbolite. important that all operators of grinding machines be informed on this subject. each sharp abrasive g-rain cuts its own minute chip from the work. have a perfect fracture. namely: the "abrasive" or cutting material. A gr-indf ng wheel is made up of two distinct kinds of material. The artificial abrasives are known as Adamite. It is. The inexperienced operators of grinding machines have come to regard the selection of wheels as a mysterious process dependent upon long experience and good judgment. and the cutting action of the grains changes to a rubbing action. at high speed. Carbondite and Crystolon. they should loosen from the bond which binds them. therefore. These chips resemble those removed by a lathe tool. and prevents accurate the abrasive grains break away before they become dulled. Frequently a change of grinding wheel or method of using it will result in greatly increasing the quantity and quality of the output. with iron. but in the main. Alundum. When these small sharp tools are brought in contact.i'~~I~~\I\t~ I combined with fast and cool cutting.22 Grinding Wheels The operation of grinding as we know it today. they prevent other sharp points from coming in contact with work. the grains breaking. The natural abrasives are Emery and Corundum. found in Canada." which holds together the abrasive grains. CarboAlumina. Corundum grains are light in color. in order that the grinding wheel may do efficient work. and the time required is not excessive. causing undue generation of heat that distorts the work.

which. brass and bronze. for dry tool grinding. Vitrified wheels are generally the most efficient for rough snagging. acids. After the abrasive grains have been mixed . dried and graded. and heated in an electric furnace to between 1820 and 2250 degrees Centigrade. Vitrified. washed.24 materials entering into the manufacture of carborundum are crushed coke mixed with sand This ~aw material is placed in an electric furnac~ for thirty-six hours and raised to a heat between 7000 and 7500 degrees Fahrenheit. chilled iron. which makes it free cutting. The disadvantages of the Vitrified wheel are: It takes a month to make a wheel. sawdust and salt. and for surface grinding when a disc wheel is used. It is very porous. sand. ' The characteristics of carborundum are hardness sharpness. by constantly presenting fresh cutting edges. namely. The advantages of the Vitrified wheel are: The bond itself is so hard that it acts as an abrasive. It has proven highly successful in grinding of cast iron. for cylindrical grinding. crystallize about the grains of abrasive and so bind them together. At this tremendous heat the elements of carbon and silicon form crystal masses. Thin wheels made in this way are not practical. infusibility. the most widely used process for making grinding wheels. They are perfectly uniform in quality and are not affected by water. while its brittleness. general shop use. After these crystal masses cool they are crushed. is made from coke. and Elastic. insolubility. which. prevents glazing. upon cooling. when dry enough are shaped and then subjected to a high temperature in large ovens or kilns. The characteristic property of brittleness makes it highly efficient for grinding such metals as cast iron. or water glass. for many kinds of cutter grinding. The mixture is then moulded into wheels of the required sizes. when the elements of carbon and silicon form a crystal mass. Crystolon is an artificial abrasive manufactured by the Norton Company. The sharp edges of the crystals cut clean and fast. and just brittl~ enough to break slightly in use. as they will break under side pressure. Silicate. Very large wheels are rarely made by this process on account of the danger of cracking in the kiln. consists in mixing abrasive grains with suitable clays and fluxes. This melts the clays. Vitrified Process-This. Vitrified wheels are reddish or reddish brown in color. The bl ndf ng togeth er of abrasive grains is now done by three common processes. The intense heat used in burning slightly weakens the abrasive grains. heat or cold. and have a clear ring when they are tapped. Silicate Process-The principal ingredient in the bond of silicate wheels is Silicate of Soda.

• Ora de: The bond of. Wheels which are too hard (or the work require frequent dressing and are uneconomical to use in every way. A hard wheel will retain Its cuttmg particles longer Different kinds of work have more' or less tendency t? wear away the wheel. and generally produce a poor finish. wheels of different grades must be used for different operations. and the grain of the wheel is said to be number 60. Combination wheels: Grains of different numbers are often mixed in one wheel. The degree of hardness or softness of bond is designated by letters of the alphabet and numerals. They are likely to burn the work or distort it and it is difficult to obtain accurate work with them. in addition to holding together the abrasive grains. they are called number CO. Grain and grade of grinding wheels should not be confused. i. a wheel. N um bers run from 10. in other words. Such wheels are slow in action. to 200 and flour. The ideal wheel on any work is one that furnishes a new cutting face as fast as the particles in use become dull. A combination wheel will hold its shape better and give a finer finish than would a wheel made entirely of coarser grains and will cut faster than one made altogether of the finer grains. a Silicate corundum wheel or an Elastic corundum wheel. If the wheel is too hard the. On pages 35. Chatter marks.. These wheels are used quite extensively for the finishing of soft steel. we may have a Vitrified corundum wheel. the proper wheel will not glaze. grains will remain in place too long. ~~!tWn~~I~: i~m~~t Wll~n ~~[t Aw~~~l ~!!i~i~nt ju~t enough not 0 wear away loo raplilly. but will remain sharp.20 together. scratches and flat spots are commonly due to this cause. A soft wheelis one where the cutting particles break away very rapidly under . If the wheel is so soft that the grains are torn away before the points have become dulled then the wheel is wasted. By the grain of a wheel is meant the fineness of the grains of abrasive used in making it. which is very coarse.grinding pressure. also determines the grade or degree of hardness of the cutting wheel. If the grains will just pass through a sieve having sixty meshes to the inch. Hard wheels: Unsatisfactory work in the various grinding operations is very commonly the result of using wheels which are too hard. The harder the material to be ground.36 and 37 are given tables of grades used by different manufacturers. Each letter indicates a grade one degree harder than the preceding letter. Accordingly. the softer the wheel . e. after their POIPtsare dulled. and the wheel will glaze over and cut slowly. Thus. Such wheels are called combination wheels.

revolving the diamond stud in its holders from time to time. except on work having a spline in it. and this will become imbedded in the surface of the wheel and so impair its cutting action. For Cylindrical and Lnter-nal grinding. whether Vitrified. as It may not run true at a high velocity.n mche~ apart. machine wheel is to be used on kind of finish desired. The number of times the face of a wheel has to be dressed depends entirely on the kind of wheel. even if it does at a slower one. A new wheel that runs out considerably should be trued up at a slow speed and then increased to proper speed when it should be trued up again. and above operation repeated until the desired accuracy is obtained. and work. state speed proposed to run wheel and work. ORDERING WHEELS When nr dertng wheels. on others. e It wheel should always be preserved and referred to when re-ordering. shape and size. and on large work when considerable stock has to be removed it. The Back Rests are placed against the part of work to be ground. Increasing the speed of the wheel makes it act like one of a harder grade. should be supported by the sprmg tension of rest which allows work ~o center Itself and . Some wheels wear away fast enough that httle dressing 15 necessary. when grinding cylindrical work. if the best results are to be obtained. Width of face. may be necessary. so as to maintain the proper peripheral speed. . aa When grinding bronze a thin oil or kerosene should be applied to work without water. Set ti ng Table to Grind Straight: The Swivel Plate should be set to the zero line and clamped. As wheels wear down the surface speed grows less. Internal grinding is done dry in some cases .14 and the result by the number of revolutions per minute and divide by 12. Grain. The tank and sediment pan must be cleaned occasionally. to true the wheel eacb time a piece receives its finish. send sample. Sal-soda and lard oil or grinding compounds added to the water will prevent both the work and machine from rusting. SPEED OF WHEEL Before starting to grind the operator should make sure his wheel is running at the proper speed. Kind of Abrasive. should almost touch the work and stand away about . To determine the peripheral speed of wheel in feet per minute. due to Its o~n internal strains. when another cut should be taken the entire length. Grade. The waterspout. Diameter of wheel. loosen 'clamping bolt slightly and adjust SWivel Plate by the two adjusting screws at end of table. If you cannot definitely specify the grade and grain and last wheel was satisfactory. Silicate or Elastic wheel.Y. and for surface grinding about 4000 to 5000 feet per minute. For table of wheel speed see page 33. Be sure to specify-Size of hole. and the number of revolutions per minute of wheel spindle should be increased. and from six to te.(1f from wheel. whether to be ground wet or dry. It is dangerous to run wheels too fast. This method should also be employed for settmg Swivel Plate for grinding tapers. Make of Machine to be used on. and if one end is larger than the other. Then the work should be measured at both ends. multiply the diameter of wheel in inches by 3. (if special shape send sketch). Decreasing speed of the wheel gives the appearance of :l. softer grade. when it will be necessary to move the spout further away from the wheel. because the grindings which collect in the hole will form a paste if water is used. If new work. Shape No. send sample of work or give complete description as to kind of material. after which a light cut should be taken over anttre length of work. Work that is out of shape. especially hard wheels. rd how muc~ stock to e ramoveu. the wheel should revolve at a surface speed of 5000 to 6000 feet per minute. particular attention should be paid to theinformation necessary for the wheel manufacturer to fill your order intelligently.

~J~mj~l~ OrOUnd ij! mat~ri~1 em~eQdedIn t1~w~~~1.01 uarauce. . Third: The grinding wheel is loaded or glazed having become Fourth: Grinding wheei too hard.

For example: The American Emery Wheel Co. and this variation will often "make necessary a harder or softer wheel than is generally used for similar work.. it will be seen that no fixed rules can be laid down for the proper selection of wheels. 38. bronze. the per cent. Some demand very durable wheels. all metals vary in composition. each offer two abrasive materials. others require high finish with necessarily slower production. for Surface Grinding Aluminum. recommends wheels made of corundum for cylindrical grinding on Aluminum castings. Thus. Carborundum Co. Alundum. "No. the Carborundum Co. By referring to the tables it will be seen that American Emery Wheel Co. In some shops work is ground from the rough. These tables have been compiled more to give the operator a starting point for selecting wheels for. Ell Elastic Wheel. * =Vitrified Wheel. for a variety of the more common grinding operations. one of which is known as No. Thus. there are the individual preferences and methods of the user to consider. referring to the table under Norton Co.. Grade 1 ~ is recommended. others look more for efficiency. 39 and 40 give grades and grams of wheels. 38 Grain 30. KEY TO SIGNS USED IN TABLES C. but by carefully studying the characteristics of the wheels recommended in connection with the result to be obtained. and wheels made of Carbolite for surface grinding cast iron. of carbon in steel. Finally. . various grinding operations. Combination wheel. and Norton Co. 38" should be prefixed to the grain number required. There are two varieties of Alundum.. in detail would read Alundum No. recommends Carborundum for grinding cast iron. and the speed and traverse of work. than to specify definitely grains and grades of wheels for certain operations. Then. Some prefer rapid work and medium finish. the size and shape of work. and to obtain it when ordering wheels. -=to. Grain e 3830. the proper grain and grade of wheel can readily be ascertained. or not. Grade 1 Yz..32 Explanation of Tables for Selection of Grains and Grades of Wheels for Various Operations The tables on pages 38.. etc. and Aloxite for steel. for instance. size and speed of wheel" the use of water or grinding compound. grains or diHerent numbers mixed in one wheel. as. too. for example. recommended by different wheel manufacturers. in others but little is left to grind. e = Elastic Wheel. Individual conditions will often modify these.

108 .059 .268 .0 16 .084 .053 .039 .671 ..065 .crz . 5 SYz 6 7 6Y.l16 .196 .046 .033 .210 .016 .436 .072 .013 . I53 . .107 .023 .043 .628 .069 .733 .039 .015 .628 .863 .052 .120 .078 .214 .118 .098 .049 .044 .118 .059 .470 .4 3Yz 3~ 4 4Y.144 .027 .076 .314 .076 . " Va I lYe IY4 1%.087 ..340 .065 .098 .305 .137 .033 .794 .033 .235 .366 .157 .0 I 0 .784 .088 . I 83 .229 .020 .153 .059 .013 .038 .157 .183 .071 .262 .480 .131 .022 .142 .567 .069 .144 .610 .006 .078 .240 .038 .099 .34 TABLE FOR GRINDING CLEARANCE DUlmeter USING CUP WHEEL eviler «r ·f To Set rDI.020 .209 .137 .026 .549 .098 .127 .020 .523 .427 .052 .392 .275 .262 .304 .orrce For TO Fot" go Cteorance CleQrolue Y.397 .147 .576 . 8 9 10 II 12 13 14 .549 .431 .023 . IYi 1% Il<\ .419 .366 .170 .Z7S .255 .349 .610 .026 .131 .471 .OJ 6 For 5° For 6· Hellmer )/4 CleQrtlnce C'earan~e elf>o.122 .196 .855 .660 .733 .06 I . I 70 . » 'y.091 .235 .055 .116 .131 .085 .029 .262 .asa .198 .157 .706 .020 1.046 .029 .174 .367 1'Y8 2 2Y4 2Yz 2% 3 3J.314 .177 .030 .076 .109 .046 .244 .183 .092 .105 .523 .092 .060 .218 .049 .098 .941 1.011 .169 .196 .114 ./i1 HQs-l A~"ye pr Below Work Ce/?fer D/S/OI1NI nr'o .353 .098 .105 .065 .236 .314 .164 .5 I 0 .283 .288 .049 .468 .039 .065 .082 .294 .340 .336 .

" #ol'd E Ver!/5o/t Z 2J. IJe9r.0 ------- 0 P Q --:~5 -.'eme:t ------Hor Z .-- -z zi -...3 4 R --.e DI I{flrti/."tj/t"l Sll/t:at~ _______ 0 £/t7shc A HQl'{ll1ess J/J11"i/i~a 'I S"lco/~ Eltls/.- -I II-...4 Z~l -zJ/<4 - I -- ~ SDII -----.E 1~4 I~~ 131'4 - F" I N M('lIl/'nn ---E ------1 G H J r .TABLE OF WHEEL GRADES DETROIT Oi?!7ree [mer~ Wheel PROCESS CO MONARCH Grindi..Z!'-Z- p Soi' Mea'IVfl1 ----- ..!? JlQI'II R V'fll"'1 No"'" R -----V -----._. 3 3Y.( lie..e 0/ PROCESS 50/1 ------- Sofl Hed/vtn 50/1 Mea"l'vl7f Hedl"um NaN II I ----. 3~ 4)/4 ..J K L M N G r Sol' "'ed/v.--- S T U 8 S Ha.~ Wheel Co.4 2 2!t'4 -.d T U ----W X '( ...@SS ~ORTON LJeg-ree Co.6 3 -. --. " " PROCESS Jlil/"'lji eJ S/J/ule --I 1'2 11'4 _ 01 Ho~d"ess /ler¥ YiI. 5 -·6 HQ.. ------- --3"2 .V Ext..5 6 4 - --·c T U /-ffulivm HaN{ 0 K L M ----N 0 p ----Q -.

.. (.f."dl:' 5]/~s~L C~~:~-."d'-"" 7h~~~.....~°J.~~ CI'OUl1ti.~t7 a J J 0 p L san ~SOFT ~ J6 30 40 4.::.rd'iJn i 1~~~~~U~/....~~.~"j'e...' IRON PULLY..'~'j.. 60 J J 0 0 N 46 Sll-~~.~~~o~.~AJ!!~~ C ""dr/ell J K K 0 0 N 5T(LL-~A~D .~" (.~~~!"S G~'~"/~ ~!o.1'1"'''/. ~':-J:~~~:diirD Jb 4. J6 46 60 J I~E 3. M ':-A.t"ain ~~.!!:~~ C.. 50 50 365 N 4 R ~!...3R TABLE FOR SELECTION OF GRADES AND GRAINS Kind .ARO MlllS..':". 12 p p 46 5-~J'!~:'~}. J ~~W~ TWIST Nel~1$liiillD C'... ELi..[O J CAST IRON CHILL.rfl./f. C" W}../c"."$".. I StJllce~ It: I Yz( M SO 50 N N J ..J.1:J~"..Ca/ Gl"lifdl'/r"D 60 g~~[o"~~~~l~!LL."d.~::~.'....~9." ~~/~i7'!-~%al 36e L 3."dl. 36 40 50 50 365 5o 24 80 60 M 46 ~r.J M .lilci I'/z[ 0 M N ZE l'iE K so 40 4."'0'.' 6< t< 0 f:Jer....' ~TEEI.°."D IE IE 50 50 H 80 54 ~!.£l-HARD...... 36 36 36 L M IE K 40 36 lOJ M P M CA~T I RON.46 .-/ al C.l~P.ce (l.:~~:-. Il1fer.ED ROLLS. Small . K 46 ~!h~~. Grind/" AMERICAN [MERy WHEn co CARBOUl( Crt1Jn erade CARBORUNDUM co. K 60 4. 60 ...~. E"d ond Sia£>..· 0 6 SH.:~. CARBOAlOXIT[ fWNOUM Cralll CORUNDUM Crain Crode 54 t.46 J L 3 ~r£~7t~jcO:?C"I"'dl.~:.tilltl.icqt DRILLS Cn"d'lfl1 ~~ ~ 46 54 ~~ ~ lAPS'H~~... ./~.. 60 60 4.:~..~!c! R2~.d.~/ifdflr 6' J." CAST L 0 M K 60 2'1£ 60 80 40 3...~~~ 0 40 M (.~~'\. L 'i!/Sl':!Sl:~-S{.~:J..f KC~I •• V~~~~. 3.:. t".. 46 slI.. CromlCrade Crade 2 5 5 M M /0 60 46 K L ~!~4?~~~~"1-..CASTING 1/"".~ol.J.Ftll'#!...J1d'. C ""d. (./ Holer/al To B2 ~~..'a'jAR()D.~:: s G.

~. 10- 2y. 46 60 M'l" AY!M Z 30 1"< 36 6' C" " "-.~a~A"o~~'1~':' M 30 1!fcE. (If'll/iJ Qmd. 46 K N .r5. ·DETROIT SAfETY STERLINGVITRlnED WHEEl co..:. 46 f.!tZ 2Yz g~~'d.•• 3.d"" 4" H I IRON.rod. N O-P H 36- 6' 46 "'.'itul. C'."·36 M F Ah M'4 M M MY.1 C"lAd.' M!lz... .".1I&~rW/lVilI CUT TEffS..' CA(.a.~dl"9 46 STEEL -SOf. JII~f.• Ye."P/~ 36 30 46 G L M M H 46 36 46 J" 60 60 30 z 1Yz. z l.:..it..¥:} (i... E. :£~~a:S~~!'.. WHEEL CO.Smali. 46 M 46 46 a 46 E Zl<. 60 46 D2 0. 46 • M- f:. .. C!-ai" f. sg. . ST£[l-HARQ C. 1"lern..'!5L CAST 6.g.. 46 0." 30 3 2 36 46 24 36 36 46 2Yl. M'll P .dilN. £..-z 2}z r 46 60 - M~ 36 46 M'4 60 M!.J..."dill C "-"dri~Qlt:. Zl<. 60 54 M M't4 E Z 3 D2 46 02 14< 5 G K 30 36 46 3b 46 46 46 46 36 36 M~ MY2 M' 3.T IRON PULLY. A~.~O MYz..WJrui CAST IROH J/ISC....s." fA ° ... 36 46 M"'. n..°J.. 60 E 46 E 36 f... MJ. 5 T:.0NZ&-BR~~S c. 1L~i!INUM. tu/l"dn~o' Cri"d.I"'ndln BROHZE-BRASS "tC'"a C.. 0.lnd"7g lJ/~ 36 t't-~~!.'"'~ .~~LJ-EO ~~'r!" R~~j.. CrlKdi"q CUTTERS. 46 }!k~. M ze 0..40 TABLE FOR SELECTION OF GRADES AND GRAINS Kind "/ /Voteri'1I1 ro Be GrovlTd.JcO!?C"/l1d" Infernal 4./ct/I G"'$~ 36 STEEL CASTING C {Ind.:I?RG~~'7.~~~ (.M '\0- J ~~. . K L " •• l+ "4' 36 3' 36 30 70 20 46 60 46 30 60 60 30 36 30 36 60 z 2'> Z 36 K ~~~(S..El-HARD J]ISC {i~. D."d. WHEEL CO. . 7-SIIII atrd Millilf .do ~~. SlnOU.!~ ~UBBER . sv~"""Qce STF.~~. 0..:eE. E 46 D.'Di" Ct'dde Gnu'" en.t....JJ:f9".~~:!C~:!'~! Clloitd".. A"4 A3/4 2~2 36 ~!~.t~..~~V~~~!4JARD ~~l}JJ. !It 2"'2 4" 0. vr Q~e t.H:~0 N ~~'1Q1' s. Celli" and "6' K . 60 0' 46 D2 3.~itq 3. WHEEL eo. 0/ Gl'lhd/ rlll'med . 46 46 46 465 K K. f.:..30 MYl... f:~~{ 60c 60 '!=A~.I~~qt~!~L..cal prindi". 3.flilq ALUMINUM Inferna( 36 46 16 46 4" 46 46 36 4£ 3f 3f Ez E.iJd/ 46 a lY2 I ~2. M P 70 36 I"\Y". Zli 2 Z.T 46 CNHdilrq STEEL -SO" T.i. r. 60 E 2 4. CA$T IRON.it!Jz 9.lolc~AJ!!r:. 24 E ~L."..5I~~mfjlt 60 1~~:~.