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2011 ARS, North America, San Diego

Track 2, Session 7
Begins at 10:30AM, Wednesday, June 8th

50 Ways to Improve Product Reliability
Mike Silverman, Ops A La Carte LLC

Agenda
 Introduction

Applied Reliability Symposium, North America 2011

5 min  What are the 50 Techniques? 15 min  How to decide which are best? 25 min  Summary 5 min  Questions 10 min
Note that some of this material has been taken from Mike’s book “How Reliable Is Your Product: 50 Ways to Improve Product Reliability”
Ops A La Carte T2 S7 Slide Number: 2

Introduction
Reliability is an interesting discipline because there are many techniques you can use to solve problems and create a reliable product. There certainly are guidelines and best practices, but you should determine for yourself the set of techniques that will work within your company.
Ops A La Carte T2 S7 Slide Number: 3

Applied Reliability Symposium, North America 2011

Introduction, continued
Some of the factors you should consider are: - Size of your company - Company culture - Past experiences - Background education - Marketplace - Customer requirements
Ops A La Carte T2 S7 Slide Number: 4

Applied Reliability Symposium, North America 2011

Applied Reliability Symposium. North America 2011 Ops A La Carte T2 S7 Slide Number: 5 . many engineers don’t understand how to choose the right techniques or how to integrate the techniques together.Problem Statement When faced with the challenge of developing a reliability program.

North America 2011 Ops A La Carte T2 S7 Slide Number: 6 . Applied Reliability Symposium.Solution In this presentation I will review the most popular reliability techniques and explain when to use them (and when not to use them) as well as how to integrate them together into your overall reliability program.

Reliability Techniques by PLC Phase Assessment Goal Setting Gap Analysis Benchmark Metrics Block Diagrams Golden Nuggets CONCEPT PHASE Reliability Plan FMEA Applied Reliability Symposium. North America 2011 FTA Component Selection Predictions Thermal Analysis Derating Analysis POF DESIGN PHASE DOE Tolerance Analysis Preventive Mainten. EOL Analysis Warranty Analysis FEA Software Reliability PROTOTY PE PHASE Test Plan HALT RDT ALT HALT-AFR Calculator RCA CLCA MANUFACTURING PHASE Vendor Assessme nt Lessons Learned Ops A La Carte Outsourcing HASS ORT OOBA Warranty Returns T2 Reliability Reporting Statistics S7 EDA for Obsolesc Slide Number: 7 .

Techniques in the Concept Phase  Assessment  Goal Applied Reliability Symposium. North America 2011 Setting  Gap Analysis  Benchmarking  Metrics  Block Diagramming  Golden Nuggets  Reliability Plan Ops A La Carte T2 S7 Slide Number: 8 .

North America 2011 FMEA  FTA  Component Selection  Predictions  Thermal Analysis  Derating Analysis  Physics of Failure Ops A La Carte T2  DOE  Tolerance Analysis  Preventive Maintenance  End-of-Life Analysis  Warranty Analysis  FEA  Software Reliability S7 Slide Number: 9 .Techniques in the Design Phase  Applied Reliability Symposium.

North America 2011 Plan  HALT  RDT  ALT  HALT-to-AFR Calculator  RCA  Closed Loop Corrective Action Ops A La Carte T2 S7 Slide Number: 10 .Techniques in the Prototype Phase  Test Applied Reliability Symposium.

North America 2011 Vendor Assessment  Lessons Learned  Outsourcing Design  Warranty Returns and Manufacturing  Reliability Reporting  HASS  Statistics  ORT  EDA for  Out of Box Audits Obsolescence Ops A La Carte T2 S7 Slide Number: 11 .Techniques in the Manufacturing Phase  Applied Reliability Symposium.

Choosing the Right Techniques You do not need to use all of the techniques I have described Applied Reliability Symposium. North America 2011 You must choose the best techniques from this list based on the needs of your company and your product. Ops A La Carte T2 S7 Slide Number: 12 .

schedule. performance and reliability to achieve optimal customer satisfaction.Design Trade-offs Engineering teams must balance cost. Reliability Applied Reliability Symposium. North America 2011 Cost Customer Satisfaction Schedule Performance Ops A La Carte T2 S7 Slide Number: 13 .

Reliability vs. Choose the best tools from all of the tools available and apply these tools at the proper phases of the product life cycle. Applied Reliability Symposium. North America 2011 Ops A La Carte T2 S7 Slide Number: 14 . an organization must do two things: 1. 2. Properly integrate these tools together to assure that the proper information is fed forwards and backwards at the proper times. Cost To minimize total Life Cycle Costs (LCC).

continued OPTIMUM COST POINT TOTAL COST CURVE RELIABILITY PROGRAM COSTS COST Applied Reliability Symposium.Reliability vs. Cost. North America 2011 WARRANTY COSTS RELIABILITY Ops A La Carte T2 S7 Slide Number: 15 .

cohesively integrating reliability tools together to maximize reliability and at the lowest possible cost” Ops A La Carte T2 S7 Slide Number: 16 . North America 2011 “the process of seamlessly.Reliability Integration Applied Reliability Symposium.

North America 2011 . Ops A La Carte T2 S7 Slide Number: 17 Applied Reliability Symposium.Reliability Integration Concept Phase Example Integrating Goals with a Reliability Program The Reliability Program Assessment drives the rest of the activities in your reliability program. At suitable points during your program it also makes sense to reassess your situation to determine how much the gap has shrunk and how close you are to achieving your goals. The recommendations from the assessment help guide your company’s future action for your entire reliability program.

Case Example of Concept Phase Reliability Technique Case Study: Linking Electrical. the mechanical group. mechanical. we provided a Design for Reliability (DFR) seminar for each of the three different disciplines – the electrical group. Ops A La Carte T2 S7 Slide Number: 18 . First. and Software Reliability together Applied Reliability Symposium. Mechanical. Then we met with the electrical. North America 2011 We were working with a semiconductor equipment company to help improve their reliability on their next generation product. and software team leads and developed reliability goals. and the software group.

Case Example of Concept Phase Reliability Technique. cont. North America 2011 Ops A La Carte T2 S7 Slide Number: 19 . cont Applied Reliability Symposium. Case Study: Linking Disciplines together.

mechanical. Case Study: Linking Disciplines together. North America 2011 Each group lead then took the goal for his subsystem and broke it down further within his area. cont. we started with high level system goals and the apportioned the goals down to each subsystem – electrical. Applied Reliability Symposium. cont Next. Ops A La Carte T2 S7 Slide Number: 20 .Case Example of Concept Phase Reliability Technique. and software.

Case Study: Linking Disciplines together. Then we worked with each group lead to ensure he was on track for meeting his subsystem goals throughout the product development process.Case Example of Concept Phase Reliability Technique. cont. Ops A La Carte T2 S7 Slide Number: 21 Applied Reliability Symposium. cont Then we worked with each group lead to put together a reliability program plan to meet his subsystem goals. North America 2011 . We rolled each of these different subsystem plans into an overall reliability plan for the product.

Case Example of Concept Phase Reliability Technique. North America 2011 Ops A La Carte T2 S7 Slide Number: 22 . Case Study: Linking Disciplines together. cont The end result was that our client was able to achieve their reliability goals for each subsystem and for the system as a whole. Applied Reliability Symposium. cont.

the FMEA can point out non-relevant failure modes so that when you are developing your test plan you choose stresses and levels that avoid finding these failures. North America 2011 . In addition.Reliability Integration Design Phase Example Integrating FMEA within a HALT Plan FMEA is a great technique to use prior to writing a HALT Plan because the FMEA can identify how different portions of the product can fail so that you can develop tests to validate the mitigation for these failure modes. Ops A La Carte T2 S7 Slide Number: 23 Applied Reliability Symposium.

Case Example of Design Phase Reliability Technique Case Study: FMEA Driven Test Plan for a Medical Infusion Pump RELIABILITY PROGRAM Applied Reliability Symposium. North America 2011 The infusion pump was an n+1 design We started from the goal and plan Then we performed an FMEA to identify the risks of the new elements in the design Then we wrote a test plan to mitigate the risks Ops A La Carte T2 S7 Slide Number: 24 .

Case Example of Design Phase Reliability Technique. North America 2011 Ops A La Carte T2 S7 Slide Number: 25 . MEDICAL INFUSION PUMP Applied Reliability Symposium. cont.

one for the cassette insertion and removal.Case Example of Design Phase Reliability Technique. A touch screen An 802. cont. and one for the air sensor to pinch the tubing in order to detect air bubbles in the line.11 wireless interface A new rechargeable battery design New software to handle all of these new features Ops A La Carte T2 S7 Slide Number: 26 Applied Reliability Symposium. REVIEW NEW ASSEMBLIES/FEATURES Two new motors . A new power supply that was larger and also had a battery charging circuit for the new rechargeable battery. North America 2011 .

North America 2011 The important element here is that we always had an eye on our goal.Case Example of Design Phase Reliability Technique. IDENTIFY RELIABILITY RISKS Using the Risk Analysis process. and Thermal Analysis Accelerated Testing techniques such as HALT. DOE. ALT. we identified as many new risks as possible Then we set out to figure ways of mitigating these risks Design analysis techniques such as FEA. and RDT Applied Reliability Symposium. Ops A La Carte T2 S7 Slide Number: 27 . cont.

Abuse Testing Wireless Interface . cont. ALT Power Supply – HALT then RDT Touch Screen – ALT. North America 2011 Ops A La Carte T2 S7 Slide Number: 28 . RELIABILITY TECHNIQUES USED Motors – FEA.HALT Battery – Application Specific ALT Software – Software FMEA. Software Use Case Testing Applied Reliability Symposium.Case Example of Design Phase Reliability Technique.

cont.Case Example of Design Phase Reliability Technique. We found out issues during the design analysis that would have required a redesign had we found them later in the design. Ops A La Carte T2 S7 Slide Number: 29 Applied Reliability Symposium. North America 2011 . or worse. End result: We developed and delivered a very reliable product and got it to market faster. out in the field We found out issues during the testing that would have set our program back months. RESULTS Using this process we saved time and money.

North America 2011 Two key pieces of information we use for the HALT-to-AFR Calculator are: 1) MTBF results from the Reliability Prediction 2) Operating limits from the HALT Ops A La Carte T2 S7 Slide Number: 30 .Reliability Integration Prototype Phase Example Integrating Reliability Prediction and HALT with the HALT-to-AFR Calculator Applied Reliability Symposium.

cont. Applied Reliability Symposium.Reliability Integration Prototype Phase Example. Integrating using HALT-to-AFR Calculator. North America 2011 Ops A La Carte T2 S7 Slide Number: 31 . The better the correlation between these two. the more accurate the HALTto-AFR Calculator will be. cont The HALT-to-AFR Calculator uses the MTBF number from the Reliability Prediction We recommend that you compare the highest failure items in the Reliability Prediction to the failures you found in HALT.

North America 2011 Ops A La Carte T2 S7 Slide Number: 32 . cont. and providing effective corrective actions. The more thorough you are in HALT in expanding the design margins. separating out weaker assemblies. cont The HALT-to-AFR Calculator uses the operating limits from the HALT which you directly enter as a data point. removing protection circuitry or firmware. Integrating using HALT-to-AFR Calculator. Applied Reliability Symposium.Reliability Integration Prototype Phase Example. the more accurate the HALT-to-AFR Calculator will be.

This is precisely why the HALT-to-AFR Calculator was developed.Case Example of Prototype Phase Reliability Technique Switching from RDT to HALT-to-AFR Calculator Applied Reliability Symposium. Ops A La Carte T2 S7 Slide Number: 33 . Yet HALT in itself isn’t capable of determining field MTBF. North America 2011 Most companies can’t justify using RDT because RDT requires too many samples and the testing takes too long to get the results. It saves time and money without compromising the accuracy.

Case Example of Prototype Phase Reliability Technique.% of Failures/Year Input Matrix 40. Switching to HALT-to-AFR Calculator. Field Failure Rate Estimate . cont. cont. North America 2011 MTBF (in Hrs) = Product Thermal (Hot in °C) = Product Thermal (Cold in °C) = Product Vibration (in Grms) = Prod Published Spec Level (see below) = Number of HALT Samples = Steady State AFR. Hrs (HALT Only) = Lower 90% HALT Confidence Limit = Upper 90% HALT Confidence Limit = Published Spec 0 to +40 0 to +50 -10 to +50 -20 to +50 -25 to +65 -40 to +85 Ops A La Carte T2 Data Verifiy OK OK OK OK OK OK Key User input Calculated Selection Data Validity .000 94 -58 80 3 4 1. % (HALT Only) = Steady State Field MTBF.06 822954 443657 1691518 Level # 1 2 3 4 5 6 Guard Band Limits Consumer -30 to +80 Hi-end Consumer -30 to +100 Hi Performance -40 to +110 Critical Application -50 to +110 Sheltered -50 to +110 All Outdoor -65 to +110 S7 Slide Number: 34 Applied Reliability Symposium.

Therefore. how effective must the HASS be to meet your reliability goals? Your prediction is only accounting for steady state failures and doesn’t account for infant mortality failures.Reliability Integration Manufacturing Phase Example Integrating Reliability Predictions with HASS How do you know if HASS is needed and if so. if you are just barely making your goal after the product reaches steady state. Ops A La Carte T2 S7 Slide Number: 35 Applied Reliability Symposium. North America 2011 . you don’t have a chance of meeting your goal before the product reaches steady state unless you have an effective manufacturing screening program.

Case Example of Manufacturing Phase Reliability Technique Choosing the Correct Stresses for HASS A computer company asked us to help them determine the best manufacturing screening methodology. They had been using various types of screens for years. Ops A La Carte T2 S7 Slide Number: 36 Applied Reliability Symposium. North America 2011 . they changed the screen because they thought the screen was inducing the failures. Every time a major failure occurred during the manufacturing process.

Choosing the Correct Stresses for HASS cont We had them list the top failures across the product lines of interest. cont. North America 2011 Then on the horizontal axis.Case Example of Manufacturing Phase Reliability Technique. Ops A La Carte T2 S7 Slide Number: 37 . We listed those on a vertical axis. we listed about a dozen different types of screens (including ones they tried in the past plus some they hadn’t tried). Applied Reliability Symposium.

Ops A La Carte T2 S7 Slide Number: 38 .Case Example of Manufacturing Phase Reliability Technique. The screen that had the most “x’s” in it was deemed the most effective. we researched the failure modes on the internet including past papers written on the subject. Choosing the Correct Stresses for HASS cont Then we filled out the matrix by marking an “x” in the boxes for those screens that would be effective at finding each type of failure. cont. North America 2011 For those that we weren’t sure about. Applied Reliability Symposium.

cont. The new screen only cost a few dollars more per system. Ops A La Carte T2 S7 Slide Number: 39 Applied Reliability Symposium.Case Example of Manufacturing Phase Reliability Technique. Our client ended up with a screen that was significantly more effective at finding manufacturing defects. North America 2011 . thereby reducing the number of field failures. Choosing the Correct Stresses for HASS cont Next we determined how to implement this screen within the cost and schedule constraints.

North America 2011 N/A $ 900.200 $632.000 ($155.000) 4th 4 No Screen Units Screen Parameters (initial estimate) 40C/min w/20G 50C.000 900.200 1st 5.Case Example of Manufacturing Phase Reliability Technique.000 $104.000 888. cont.000 30.750) 3rd Ops A La Carte T2 S7 Slide Number: 40 . 48 Hours Applied Reliability Symposium.000) ($755.000 $0 $0 2nd $ $ NRE Total Cost of Defects Not Found Cost of Screening per Year Cost of No Screening ROI in 1st Year ROI in 5 Years RANKING (by ROI) 27.000 240. 48 Hours 5.000 900.750) ($68.750 24.000 810.000 ($17.000 0 900.000 900. SCREEN OPTIONS 1 HASA on boards only inside unit -50 to 75C @ 2 Unit Burn-In Sample 3 Unit Burn-In 100% 50C.800 738.

Ops A La Carte T2 S7 Slide Number: 41 . Choosing the Correct Stresses for HASS cont The net effect was that the new screen saved our client thousands of dollars per year.Case Example of Manufacturing Phase Reliability Technique. cont. North America 2011 This example illustrates the power of an ROI Analysis as well as the variables we recommend including in an ROI Analysis. Applied Reliability Symposium.

Program  1.Steps to an Effective Rel. Assess / Plan  2. North America 2011 Ops A La Carte T2 S7 Slide Number: 42 . Review Applied Reliability Symposium. Execute  3.

North America 2011 Benchmarking Statistical Data Analysis Assessment Interviews field failures $ unreliability Now complaints Ops A La Carte ? Unknown Reliability ? T2 A detailed evaluation of an organization’s approach and processes involved in creating reliable products. Program Plan • • • • • Initiate a Reliability Program Determine next best steps Reduce customer complaints Select right tools Improve reliability $ Profits Program Plan Goal market share Gap Analysis satisfaction Applied Reliability Symposium. and Writing a Rel.Step 1: Assess Your Needs. The assessment captures the current state and leads to an actionable reliability program plan. Setting a Goal. © 2008 Ops A La Carte 43 S7 Slide Number: 43 .

Applied Reliability Symposium.Step 2: Execute and Collect Metrics As you execute your reliability program. North America 2011 Ops A La Carte T2 S7 Slide Number: 44 . it is important to have the right metrics in place to assure you are on track to meet your reliability goals.

Step 3: Review Field Data for Gaps and Modify Your Program Accordingly No technique is perfect. You will miss some failures. The important thing is to quickly determine why you didn’t catch the defect and to modify your program to make sure you find it on future iterations of the design or on future designs. Applied Reliability Symposium. North America 2011 Ops A La Carte T2 S7 Slide Number: 45 .

Conclusion The key to an effective reliability program is knowing which techniques to use. and how to integrate them into your overall reliability program. when and how to use them. North America 2011 Ops A La Carte T2 S7 Slide Number: 46 . Applied Reliability Symposium.

He set up and ran an accelerated reliability test lab for 10 years. and compliance experience. North America 2011 Mike is founder and managing partner at Ops A La Carte. Mike is a member of ASQ. Japan. PATCA. Germany. a Professional Business Operations Company that offers a broad array of expert services in support of new product development and production initiatives. quality. energy. and has consulted for over 500 companies in a variety of different industries including medical. The primary set of services currently being offered are in the area of reliability. consumer. (408) 472-3889. mikes@opsalacarte. ASME. space. Mike just completed his first book on Reliability entitled “How Reliable Is Your Product: 50 Ways to Improve Product Reliability”  Mike has 25 years of reliability. He is also an expert in accelerated reliability techniques. SME. Ops A La Carte T2 S7 Slide Number: 47 .Mike Silverman   Mike Silverman.com Applied Reliability Symposium. and Canada. testing over 500 products for 200 companies in 50 different industries. and IEEE Consulting Society and currently the IEEE Reliability Society Santa Clara Valley Chapter President. Mike and his team at Ops have authored and published over 50 papers and 30 seminars on reliability techniques and has presented these around the world including China. Mike has had extensive experience as a consultant to high-tech companies. the majority in start-up companies. defense. Through Ops A La Carte. telecom.  Mike has a BS degree in Electrical and Computer Engineering from the University of Colorado at Boulder. and many others. including HALT and HASS. IEEE. and is both a Certified Reliability Engineer and a course instructor through the American Society for Quality (ASQ) and IEEE.

Applied Reliability Symposium. North America 2011 Do you have any questions? Ops A La Carte T2 S7 Slide Number: 48 .Questions Thank you for your attention.