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ANATOMY OF EAR

EXTERNAL EAR 1. Auricle 2. External Auditory Canal MIDDLE EAR 1. Eustachian tube 2. Middle Ear Cavity 3. Mastoid Air Cells INTERNAL EAR 1. Cochlea 2. Vestibular system

1. EXTERNAL EAR AURICLE ( PINNA) formed mainly of CARTILAGE - with perichondrium firmly attached to skin - in continuity with the cartilage of outer part of EAC Areas without auricular cartilage : 1. LOBULE – fat 2. Upper part of area between TRAGUS & HELIX – fibrous tissue EXTERNAL AUDITORY CANAL (EAC) - 24mm OUTER 1/3 CARTILAGENOUS PART skin with - short hairs, sebaceous & ceruminous glands *FURUNCULOSIS runs UPwards & BACKwards INNER 2/3 BONY PART skin with - NO hair follicles or glands

runs FORwards & BACKwards

Tympanic membrane (eardrum)
- 1 cm (transverse diameter) - set at acute angle with the floor of EAC  inclined forwards & downwards PARS TENSA PARS FLACCIDA - cone of light located at the lower end of umbo (concave) a small triangular part above the short process of malleus - outer epithelial layer - outer epithelial layer 2. MIDDLE EAR CLEFT layer [insertion of short process & handle of malleus] - middle fibrous - inner mucosal layer - inner mucosal layer * NO fibrous layer EUSTACHIAN TUBE MIDDLE EAR CAVITY MASTOID ANTRUM & AIR CELLS - 36 mm in child is - both are contained within the mastoid - extends from middle ear cavity to nasopharynx inferiorly - wider process

BONY part upper 1/3 close to middle ear bony opening always patent (unless obstructed pathologically)

CARTILAGENOUS part lower 2/3 close to nasopharynx cartilaginous opening is potentially closed & opens only during swallowing & yawning

- shorter - more pheripheral * infection more in children! communication = - ant : nasopharynx (thru ET) - post : mastoid anthrum & mastoid air cells contents = 1. 3 ossicular chain = malleus, stapes, incus + ligaments supporting them 2. 2 muscles = tensor tympani, stapedius 3. 1 nerve = chorda tympani

MASTOID PROCESS - 80% : pneumatized with many air cells - 20% : sclerotic with few or no air cells (if contain bone marrow  called diploid) MASTOID ANTRUM - communicate with attic of middle ear thru the aditus

6 walls Superior - tegmen tympani - middle cranial fossa - temporal lobe of brain Parts of tympanic cavity Epitympanium (attic) Mesotympanium Hypotympanium Inferior - jugular bulb Anterior - bony Eustachian tube - canal for tensor tympani muscle - ICA Posterior - aditus ad antrum - vertical part of facial nerve Medial - horizontal pt of facial nerve - oval window - promontory - round window Lateral - tympanic membrane - scutum

above tympanic membrane opposite tympanic membrane below tympanic membrane