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Phileas Fogg, the character who went around the world in 80 days, was very fussy about his bathwater temperature. It had to be exactly 38.0o C. You are his butler, and one morning while checking his bath temperature, you notice that its 42.0oC. You plan to cool the 100.0 kg of water to the desired temperature by adding an aluminum-duckie originally at freezer temperature (-24.0oC). Of what mass should the Al-duckie be? [Specific heat of Al = 0.900 J/(goC); density of water =1 .00 g/ml]. Assume that no heat is lost to the air. A certain materials(environment) temperature increases by 1.0 oC for every 1560 J that it gains. A 0.1964 g sample of quinone (molar mass = 108.1 g/mole) was burnt, and the surrounding materials temperature increased from 20.3 oC to 23.5 oC. Find the molar heat of combustion for quinone. A 1.55 g of CH4O sample is burnt in a calorimeter. If the molar heat of combustion of CH 4O is -725 kJ/mole, and assuming that the 2.0 L of water absorbed all of the heat of combustion, what temperature change did the water experience? 0.20 moles of HX were neutralized by NaOH. The concentrations of the base and acid were equal. If the temperature of the water in the calorimeter increased from 19.9 to 24.6 C, what was the original concentration of HX? Molar heat of neutralization = -80 kJ/mole of HX In real calorimeters, most of the heat released by the bomb is absorbed by water, but a certain amount is also absorbed by the metal and insulation surrounding the water tank. A certain calorimeter absorbs 24 J/ oC. If 50.0 g of 52.7oC water is mixed with the calorimeters original 50.0 g of 22.3 oC water, what will be the final temperature of the mixture?

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Solution #1 -Qwater = QAl mwcwTw = - mAlcAlTAl 100 000g(4.19 J/[g C] (38.0 42.0)= - mAl (0.900 J/[g C])(38.0 [-24.0]). mAl = 30036 g = 30.0 kg. Solution #2 Qmaterial = 1560 J/oC (23.5-20.3) oC = 49 92 J = 5.0 kJ Note that 1560 J/oC is equivalent to mc from Q = mcT. H = -Q = -5.0 kJ n 0.1964g/[108.1 g/mole] 0.00182 mole H/n = -5.0 kJ/0.00182 mole = -2.7 X 103 kJ/mole of quinine Solution #3 n = 1.55g/[32g/mole] = 0.0484 moles n[H/n] = H 0.0484 moles(-725 kJ/mole)= - 35.1 kJ Q = - H Q = 35.1 kJ = 35 100 J Q = mcT 35 100 = 2000g (4.19 J/[g C]) T T = 4.2 C Solution #4 n[H/n] = H 0.20mole [-80 kJ/mole] = -16 kJ. Q = - H Q = 16 kJ = 16000 J. Q = mcT 16000 = m (4.19 J/[g C])( 24.6 19.9) m = 812g of water. Since the concentrations of the acid and the number of moles were equal (moles are equal because of the 1:1 ratio in which HX reacts with NaOH), then the volumes used were equal. 812 g = 812 mL created from 812/2 = 411 mL of acid = 0.411 L concentration = n/V = 0.20 moles/0.411 L = 0.49 M.

Solution #5 The heat lost by the hot water will be gained by the cold water and by the calorimeter. -Qhot = Qcold + Qcalor -mcT = mcT + 24J/0CT -50(4.19)( x 52.7) = 50(4.19)(x 22.3) + 24(x 22.3) -209.5( x 52.7) = 233.5(x 22.3) -0.897( x 52.7) = x 22.3 -0.897 x + 47.27 = x 22.3 69.57 = 1.897 x x = 37 oC.

1.150 g of sucrose goes through combustion in a bomb calorimeter. If the temperature rose from 23.42C to 27.64C and the heat capacity of the calorimeter is 4.90 kJ/C, then determine the heat of combustion of sucrose, , in kj per mole of . Given: mass of : 1.150 g : 23.42C :27.64C Heat of Capacity: 4.90 kJ/C Using equation (2) calculate : = (4.90 kJ/C) x (27.64 - 23.42)C = (4.90 x 4.22) kJ = 20.7 kJ Plug into equation (1): But the question asks for kJ/mol , so this needs to be converted:

Per Mole

Problems 1. After going through combustion in a bomb calorimeter a sample gives off 5435 cal. The calorimeter experiences an increase of 4.27C in its temperature. Using this information, determine the heat capacity of the calorimeter in kJ/C. 2. Referring to the example given above about the heat of combustion, calculate the temperature change that would occur in the combustion of1.732 g in a bomb calorimeter that had the heat capacity of 3.87 kJ/C. 3. Given the following data calculate the heat of combustion in kJ/mol of xylose, (s), used in a bomb calorimetry experiment: mass of (s) = 1.250 g, heat capacity of calorimeter = 4.728 kJ/C, Initial Temperature of the calorimeter = 24.37C, Final Temperature of calorimeter = 28.29C. 4. Determine the heat capacity of the bomb calorimeter if 1.714 g of naphthalene, (s), experiences an 8.44C increase in temperature after going through combustion. The heat of combustion of naphthalene is -5156 kJ/mol . 5. What is the heat capacity of the bomb calorimeter if a 1.232 g sample of benzoic acid causes the temperature to increase by 5.14C? The heat of combustion of benzoic acid is -26.42kJ/g. Answers to Practice Problems 1. Use equation (2) to calculate the heat of capacity: 5435 cal = heat capacity of calorimeter x 4.27C Heat capacity of calorimeter = (5435 cal/ 4.27C) x (4.184 J/1 cal) x (1kJ/1000J) = 5.32 kJ/C 2. The temperature should increase since bomb calorimetry releases heat in an exothermic combustion reaction. Change in Temp = (1.732 g ) x (1 mol /342.3 g ) x (6.61 x 10 kJ/ 1 mol ) x (1C/3.87kJ) = 8.64C 3. [(Heat Capacity x Change in Temperature)/mass] =[ ((4.728 kJ/C) x(28.29 C 24.37 C))/1.250 g] = 14.8 kJ/g xylose = (-14.8 kJ/g xylose) x (150.13 g xylose/ 1 mol xylose) = -2.22x10 kJ/mol xylose 4. Heat Capacity = [(1.714 g ) x (1 mol /128.2 g ) x (5.156x10 kJ/1 mol )]/8.44C = 8.17 kJ/ C 5. Heat Capacity = [(1.232 g benzoic acid) x (26.42 kJ/1 g benzoic acid)]/5.14C = 6.31 kJ/ C