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Chapter 9

Teachers Collaboration
Ahmad Sashwani Azmi

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recognition and reward when facing competition for finite resources. focus on the process of working together. Most collaboration requires leadership.  Collaboration in Education. unions. Collaboration is also present in opposing goals exhibiting the notion of adversarial collaboration.two or more co-equal individual voluntarily brings their knowledge and experience together by interacting toward a common goal . teams that work collaboratively can obtain greater resources. derived from its Latin root. determination to reach an identical objective— for example.9. the root word for "cooperation" stresses the product of such work. In particular. Ted Panitz (1996) • John Myers (Cooperative Learning vol 11 #4 July 1991) points out that the dictionary definitions of "collaboration".1  INTRODUCTION Collaboration is working together to achieve a goal. an Educational Collaborative Partnership is ongoing involvement between schools and business/industry. although the form of leadership can be social within a decentralized and egalitarian group. It is a recursive process where two or more people or organizations work together to realize shared goals. an intriguing endeavor that is creative in nature—by sharing knowledge. Educational Collaborative Partnerships are established by mutual agreement between two or more parties to work together on projects and activities that will enhance the quality of education for students while improving skills critical to success in the workplace. though this is not a common case for using the word. (Wikipedia) • Collaboration is a philosophy of interaction and personal lifestyle whereas cooperation is a structure of interaction designed to facilitate the accomplishment of an end product or goal. (this is more than the intersection of common goals seen in co-operative ventures. collective.2  COLLABORATION IN TVE Generally defined. governments and community organizations. but a deep. Ted Panitz (1996) 9. learning and building consensus.

(Emily.3  TEACHERS COLLABORATION Collaboration can have powerful effects on student learning. a number of factors may moderate the impact of collaboration on student the best interest of students for the betterment of their education success. 1993) 9. including student characteristics. and explore new relationships between the school and the world of work. decision-making. Jun 2011) .solving. there is scant empirical evidence to support such predictions. and regulate such interactions. Such training should also emphasize desirable qualities of interaction. such as providing elaborated explanations. communication. asking direct and specific questions. Students achieve team building and communication skills meeting many curricular standards. they urge educators to provide explicit instruction that encourages development of skills such as coordination.R. because many researchers appear to believe children can be taught to collaborate. Although historical frameworks offer some guidance as to when and how children acquire and develop collaboration skills. problem. However. Students have the ability to practice real-world communication experiences. meaningful teacher collaboration. and responding appropriately to the requests of others. and negotiation. ( Morten Inger. and task characteristics. make connections between subjects. in these reforms. group composition. specify ―ground rules‖ for interaction. Two of the reforms--tech prep and the integration of vocational and academic education--attempt to dissolve the dichotomy between academic study and preparation for work.Lai . conflict resolution. Teachers should structure tasks in ways that will support the goals of collaboration.( Wikipedia)  Most of the current major educational reforms call for extensive. Students gain leadership through collaboration and empowers peer to peer learning. teacher collaboration is essential: Academic and vocational teachers are expected to work together to alter the curriculum and pedagogy within subjects. particularly for low-achieving students. However.

decision making. curricular. educators are urged to devote explicit instruction to developing collaboration skills. plan and prepare their lessons and materials alone. However. 1997). ―specific training in cooperative roles is not offered in most studies of cooperative learning methods: The activity itself constitutes the training‖ (p. and how to provide help to others (Fall et al.Teachers should also emphasize that multiple skills are necessary to complete group tasks and each person in the group is going to be skilled in at least one area (Webb. including coordination. how toseek help. Teachers should also provide ample opportunities for students to practice collaboration skills. many researchers recommend providing explicit instruction in collaboration skills (Fall et al. Teacher collaboration is essential: Academic and vocational teachers are expected to work together to alter the curriculum and pedagogy within subjects. 227). 1995). Such training could emphasize how to give explanations... Webb. in most schools.. and how to respond appropriately to others’ requests for help. and. and negotiation. They work out of sight and sound of one another. Teachers should encourage students to actively participate during group work (Fall et al. and management problems (Morten Inger)  Few studies investigate whether students can be successfully trained to collaborate. and struggle on their own to solve their instructional. problem solving. For example. . make connections between subjects. how to directly and explicitly ask for help. and explore new relationships between the school and the world of work. teachers are colleagues in name only. 1997)  Similarly. communication. 1995). conflict resolution. using tasks that are similar to those used during group-based assessments. (Morten Inger)  Teacher collaboration is a departure from existing norms. As Bossert (1988) observes. Webb (1991 and 1995) recommends training students in general interpersonal and teamwork skills. Such training could include instruction in effective communication.

and conversations about teaching. study groups. Schools benefit from teacher collaboration  Through formal and informal training sessions. the advantages of collegial action are varied and substantial. In short. the research findings were summarized in the following five statements: 1. . teachers and administrators get the opportunity to get smarter together. it is fragile. groups of teachers. 3. 1993) From the teachers' reported perspectives. and generally speaking. which often serve to deter collaborative practice. and the enthusiasm of teachers about their collaborations is persuasive. and their schools for steady improvement. 2. it produces greater coherence and integration to the daily work of teaching. Teacher work continues to be characterized by competition and individualism and lacks the type of trusting. When schools are organized to support it. Further. 4. ( Morten Inger. and where it exists.9. Teachers do not consider their schools to sufficiently exhibit expectations of or support for regular. When teachers work as colleagues. it equips individual teachers. it helps to organize the school as an environment for learning to teach. Teachers need professional development directed at improving their collaborative skills. caring environment that is more conducive to collaborative practice. Teachers are dissatisfied with scheduling and appropriations of time. There needs to be greater articulation of underlying values and beliefs about educational practice that is tempered with respect for diverse professional opinions and practices. 5.4 CONCLUSION Serious collaboration--teachers engaging in the rigorous mutual examination of teaching and learning--is rare. high levels of collaborative involvement. Yet it can and does occur.

 Teachers are better prepared to support one another's strengths and accommodate weaknesses.5 RECOMMENDATION The obstacles to collaboration between vocational and academic teachers There are grounds for optimism  First. 9. both vocational and academic teachers aspire to cultivate students' capacities for complex reasoning and problem. they reduce their individual planning time while greatly increasing the available pool of ideas and materials.  Schools become better prepared and organized to examine new ideas. methods. the boundaries and divisions are fundamentally at odds with values central to public education. Training and assistance ( Morten Inger . Working together. School-level organization of assignments and leadership Latitude given to teachers for influence on crucial matters of curriculum and instruction Time. Support for teacher collegiality and collaboration has six dimensions. and materials.solving Further.      Symbolic endorsements and rewards that place value on cooperative work. and it is a commitment to deeper values that enables some schools and their teachers to bridge subject and departmental boundaries. The faculty becomes adaptable and self-reliant. both groups of teachers share an orientation toward good work habits and related skills such as punctuality and ability to understand and follow directions   Second. 1993) .

 Move classroom locations of both vocational and academic teachers so that they will have more ready access to one another.  Have vocational and academic teachers work in pairs to assure that students are being taught comparable applications of basic skills.  Provide for staff development that is free from the distractions of the day-to-day routine of school operations and involves all academic and vocational teachers.  Provide adequate planning time for academic teachers to incorporate real-world examples in their instruction.  Provide time for vocational and academic teachers to observe and experience hands-on activities in each others' classes.  Have vocational teachers share work completed by students with academic teachers so that the academic teachers can determine what skills are used in vocational classes.  Administrators need to set the stage. When larger groups meet. This has the additional benefit that students can no longer say that the other teacher does not make us do this.  Provide open. small groups of two to six teachers are better than larger groups. (One is a comprehensive high school. unstructured time in a relaxed atmosphere for vocational and academic teachers to share.The strategies listed below have been used to achieve the integration of vocational and academic education at three Southern Region Education Board/Vocational Education Consortium pilot sites.  Have vocational and academic teachers share competency lists so they can learn the basic competencies the others teach or need students to know. parents. This planning time should be shared with vocational teachers. sharing of ideas and planning becomes limited. but teachers need to determine the how to of these collaborative efforts. .  Publicize to students. and community the purposes and anticipated outcomes of the collaborative efforts of the teachers.  When vocational and academic teachers share information. the other two are vocational centers serving four high schools.)  Involve both vocational and academic teachers in the development of integration goals and objectives.

Teacher Collaboration in Secondary Schools . Group discussion and large-scale language arts assessment: Effects on students’ comprehension.1993 ) REFERENCES Webb. Collaboration : A Literature ReviewFall. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis. Lai. (1995). and outcomes. & Chudowsky. Webb.1993. N. 17(2). 239–261. N. Los Angeles. CRESS Morton Inger . Group collaboration in assessment: Multiple objectives. (1997). processes. CSE Technical Report 445. M. R. (2011).. Emily R. N.(Morten Inger .