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Freud and Jung


Freud and Jung: The Social Implications of Psychological Theory
Alexander Jacob University of Toronto T h e p u r p o s e of this p a p e r is to identify the philosophical difference between the two most influential psychological systems of the m o d e r n age, those of Freud and J u n g , in order that we may better appreciate their differing social implications. This is significant in so far as the Freudian psychoanalytical movement is essentially rooted in ancient beliefs capable of being traced back t h r o u g h the Cabala even to distant Babylonian traditions,^ whereas J u n g i a n thought is rooted in a m o r e distinctly Western tradition.^ It may be stated at the outset that, as has been well recognized, Freud's psychological concepts were deeply rooted in ancient Middle Eastern traditions through his deep u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the great wealth of the Jewish cultural heritage. Yet we may also perceive in some of his writing a deliberate attempt to find alternatives to the major philosophical principles of the E u r o p e a n civilization which s u r r o u n d e d him, yet r e g a r d e d him as alien. In The Interpretation of Dreams, for instance, Freud admitted that he saw himself as a m o d e r n Hannibal who would take vengeance on Rome, which symbolized European culture in general and the Catholic Church in particular.^ T h a t he should have succeeded to a great extent in his undertaking is part of the dilemma of the m o d e r n West.

' See Sigmund Freud and the Jewish Mystical Tradition, David Bakan, Beacon Press, Boston, 1975. ^ I must stress that my intention is not to evaluate the scientific achievements of Freud and J u n g in their entirety but only to highlight those aspects of their systems which have a significant bearing on questions of social philosophy. ' The Interpretation of Dreams (1900), in The Standard Edition of the complete psychological works of Sigmund Freud (henceforth referred to as S£), IV, p.l96f. Volume XXXIII, Number 4, Summer, 1993


Alexander Jacob

Marthe Robert, in her book on Freud's sense of his own identity, From Oedipus to Moses,'* has revealed the conflict between the ethnic roots of the psychologist and the classical foundations of the E u r o p e a n society in which he lived. We may recall h e r e that the Jews were emancipated only in 1867 in Austria a n d two years later in the North G e r m a n Confederation, and Freud must therefore have been very conscious of being an "outsider" in gentile Viennese society. T h e acceptance of the Jewish people into Central E u r o p e a n society was slow and marked by suspicion a n d strife between the two communities. T h u s , as Jacques Maritain has pointed out: "at the bottom of Freudian metaphysics there is - the resentment, Freud himself has explained, of a soul insulted and humiliated since childhood, a resentment, as it seems, against h u m a n n a t u r e itself."^ In many ways Jewish scholars were m o r e free to see gentile European clearly, free from the sense of involvement that might cloud the minds of gentile scholars. On the other h a n d , they must also have had problems in c o m p r e h e n d i n g just how the Europeans themselves felt about the social behavior they observed. In a sense they were in the same position as E u r o p e a n s studying African and Asian societies. From the outside some things seemed familiar, but those same things could not be u n d e r s t o o d easily when one was not b r o u g h t u p with them from childhood. It is not surprising, therefore, that Freud told his fellow members in a talk before the B'nai B'rith that: "Because I was a J e w I found myself free from many prejudices which restricted others in the use of their intellect; a n d as a Jew I was p r e p a r e d to join the Opposition a n d to d o without a g r e e m e n t with the 'compact majority'".® Freud's persistent representation of civilized society to man's sexual instincts may therefore have been m o r e than simply a p r o d u c t of a purely materialistic psychology, it may indeed have been, as Robert called it, a conscious attempt to turn "the world upside down by revealing the i m p u r e source of all the creations of the spirit".'

* Marthe Robert, From Oedipus to Moses, Garden City, N.Y.: Anchor Books, 1976. 'Jacques Maritain, "Freudianism and Psychoanalysis: a Thomist view", Freud and the 20th Century, ed. B. Nelson, Cleveland: Meridian Books, 1963, p.253. ' Marthe Robert, op.cit., p.4. ' p.55. The Mankind Quarterly

Freud and Jung


T h e chief assumption of Freudian psychology is that all the effects of so-called culture and civilization are social manifestations of infantile instincts which, first a n d last, retain their primitive character as sexual and aggressive. This limited view of h u m a n n a t u r e a n d its spiritual products is d u e to Freud's inadequate scheme of the psyche as being constituted of three main elements, the id, the ego, a n d the super-ego. T h e r e is n o clear demarcation between the id (or libido), and the ego, or rational intellect, since the unconscious, instinctual drives of the id are present with the ego t h r o u g h o u t its development and characterize it strongly even in its highest, "civilized" state. As for the so-called super-ego, this is not really an integral part of the self, but a product of the interaction between the individual self a n d the societal psyche which serves as an admonitory agent, or "conscience", to the ego. I n d e e d , Freud maintains that conscience is derived from the earliest childhood experiences of a person, so that the superego is the parental image internalized. Conscience is actually a form of aggressiveness which, strangely e n o u g h , "does not so much represent the severity which one has experienced from [the parent] or which one attributes to [him]; it represents rather one's own aggressiveness towards it".* It is true that Freud admitted "archaic vestiges" in the superego, and so he came close to admitting that the unconscious cannot really be entirely d e p e n d e n t on its conscious interaction with external reality, as J u n g was later to establish.^ But the general attribution of the moral faculty to familial circumstance and society in Freud's system, rather than to the individual psyche itself is a distortion of idealistic philosophy which is typical of a rational-materialistic philosophical trend which embraced both Spinoza and Marx. We shall see later how J u n g corrected this inadequate view of conscience t h r o u g h his system of archetypes. I n d e e d , the major defect of the Freudian psychology, as Reinhold Niebuhr has admirably shown, is that "[S]ince Freud's system is a consistently naturalistic one, it can not, despite the

' Civilization and its Discontents (1930), in SE, XXI, p.l29.. ' See C.G. Jung, "A psychological view of conscience' in Collected Works, VoI.X, p.440: "first, the unconscious is, ontogenetically and phylogenetically, older than consciousness, and secondly, it is a well-known fact that it can hardly be influenced, if at all, by the conscious will." Volume XXXIII, Number 4, Summer, 1993

in SE.30 below. '^ Cf.269.^^ but. in Freud and the 20th century. m o r e like Spinoza. Freud even proposes a mythic model of the formation of early society borrowed from the O e d i p u s story according to which the fate of all civilization derives from an Oedipal envy of a primal father figure a n d an incestuous '° R. " See The Future of an Illusion (1927). p. " Group Psychology. XVIII. the life-instinct). However. a role in the gregarious formation of early societies. 'The Herd Instinct'. d o full justice to the transcendent freedom of spirit of which the self is capable a n d it cannot survey the creative a n d destructive possibilities of that freedom". p. unlike Hobbes. Ch." It is true that F r e u d also concedes love (i. "Human creativity and self-concern in Freud's though". p.IX. I n d e e d .e. The Mankind Quarterly ." Freud's view of the development of h u m a n civilization is akin to Hobbes's since it repeats the Hobbesian thesis of the state of n a t u r e as being o n e of strenuous efforts to satisfy physiological h u n g e r a n d appease the mutual physical strife between individuals.'^ According to F r e u d . p. p. believes that rational u n d e r s t a n d i n g will u s h e r in a well-balanced society of m e n who will reconcile their ego with their id a n d be freed of the adult illusions of civilization derived from their diverse infantile complexes. XVIIl. this envy is satisfied vicariously through the identification of the desires of each individual in a g r o u p with the desires of others in it. in SE.'* but in an ambiguous a way that it is strongly allied to envy. or Eros.^° Niebuhr insists that the self is always m o r e than m e r e reason: "No doubt the self uses all of its rational faculties as instruments of this freedom. in SE. Freud does not envisage a Leviathan as a political solution to the problem of h u m a n nature.382 Alexander Jacob subtleties of its analyses of the intricacies of h u m a n selfhood. XXI. " Ibid. in SE. Niebuhr.50. T h e freedom is however m o r e than the capacity for discursive reason a n d the creative capacities of this freedom d o not prevent it from being used destructively or egoistically". in The Interpretation of Dreams.92.lV. and Beyond the Pleasure Principle. T h u s the root of gregariousness itself is located in the envious feelings that a child feels with regard to his parent's attentions to his brothers and sisters. X V I l l .l20f. '* See Group Psychology and the Analysis of the Ego (1921) Ch.

But anyone who is not deceived by the c h a r m of novel mythological theories can see that the Oedipal complex is by no means a universal p h e n o m e n o n a n d . Number 4. in SE. cf.Jewi3h Antiquities. J a k o b F r e u d . 157. Philo the Jew. The emphasis on the latter that Freud provides in his system is totally un-European and typically modern. IV. In maintaining that all early societies were formed when the sons of a certain patriarch collectively killed a n d devoured their father since he represented an obstacle to their craving for p o w e r . p. " Totem and Taboo (1913). Certainly. in which h e describes the killing of Moses'* by the Jews who followed him: Moses is the father of the Jewish religious ethos from which the Jews attempted in vain to free themselves. as. since the Yahwist religion which succeeded the Mosaic system gradually acquired the characteristics of the latter. I. 184). and De migrations Abrahami. it clearly could not have been the chief impetus to the lofty creations of the spirit which are the hallmark of high civilization. Summer. even if it were. 1993 .264). for instance.Hlf.Freud and Jung 383 desire for a primal mother figure. p. But the very fact that Sophocles is aware of this dream-wish and yet does not make it the moral basis of his drama reveals that for him the fear of the gods represented by the chorus is much more significant for the health of the nation than the unconscious indulgence of repressed desires. ''Freud points to the passage in Oedipus Rex where Jocasta comforts the tragic hero by reminding him that his crime is perhaps not so unnatural as he must think since it often occurs in the dreams of men (The Interpretation of Dreams in SE. Volume XXXIII. when the biblical story of Moses makes complete psychological sense only if the central figure were a Jew expelled from Egypt for his revolutionary religious invention. " Freud was partly rationalizing and universalizing his own u n h a p p y experiences with his Chasidic father. the overtly mythic story of Prometheus is supposed to do. it has been a r g u e d that Freud's conception of the d r a m a of early society could probably be a projection onto humanity of his own psychological complexes. just as Abraham earlier was expelled from Chaldea for his inability to adapt to the philosophical constitution of the Chaldeans (see Josephus the ]ew. " Moses is depicted by Freud as an Egyptian prince. This hypothesis is reinforced in his essay on 'Moses and Monotheism' (1939). who represented the Jewishness from which the psychologist sought unconsciously to free himself. XIII. 72-76.'® I n d e e d . there is no indication in Sophocles's plays themselves that any of the events relating to o n e specific royal family of Thebes are supposed to represent the birth of either Greek or h u m a n civilization. De miUatione nominum.

But religion cannot achieve this. XVII:261.. Religion is but a product of the child's n e e d of a protecting father: Religion is an attempt to master the sensory world in which we are situated by means of the wishful world which we have developed within us as a result of biological a n d psychological necessities. religion. If we attempt to assign the place of religion in the evolution of m a n k i n d .384 Alexander Jacob However we see this. XXII: 168. T h e illusory character of philosophy is highlighted by Freud in the following m a n n e r : '^ New Introductory Lectures on Psycho-Analysis (1933). according to Freudian theory all civilization was rooted in unpleasant origins a n d developed over time into a system which imposed an ever greater control on the primal instincts. it appears as a p e r m a n e n t acquisition b u t as a counterpart to the neurosis which individual civilized men have to go t h r o u g h in their passage from childhood to maturity.^' T h a t is. as it were. aided by super-egoistic activity. cf.'^ Religious teachings are. that an obsessional neurosis is a caricature of a religion. " Totemand Taboo. In fact: It might be maintained that a case of hysteria is a caricature of a work of art. the columns of higher h u m a n civilization. ''Ibid. II. Its consolations deserve no trust . "neurotic relics" a n d Freud suggests that "the time has probably come for replacing the effects of repression by the results of the rational operation of the intellect". The Mankind Quarterly . XIII. are akin to neuroses. too. Its doctrines bear the imprint of the times in which they arose. T h u s . 73. philosophy. in this view. and that a paranoiac delusion is a caricature of a philosophical system. the ignorant times of the childhood of h u m a n i ty. are all equally "illusions" of instinctual life that have been sublimated. 'Preface to Reik's Ritual: Psycho-analytic studies' (1919) in SE. a n d art. they differ from one another only in degrees of intensity a n d not in kind. Lecture XXXV in S£. in SE. p..^" Art and philosophy.

in addition to instinct of self-preservation or 'life-instinct' (related to the libido). XVIII. Freud maintains that civilized men seek outlets for this instinct t h r o u g h the forcible creation of nations a n d wars between these nations.X)i.. ^^ See 'Why War'(1933) in SE. in SE. XXII. the experience of the Great War had p r o m p t e d him to identify. it sometimes gives the impression of being in the process of involution as a function. XXI. O n e of the obvious results of civilization. however. It goes astray in its method by over-estimating the epistemological value of our logical operations a n d by accepting other sources of knowledge such as intuition.. it behaves like a science a n d works in part by the same methods. according to Freud.\l:l&Of. severely impaired. the unfortunate aspect of the repression of the instincts which constitutes h u m a n culture is that it causes the individual to suffer an increasing malaise within the confines of civilized life and produces the various psychic disorders which Freud himself a n d his followers took it u p o n themselves to cure.^® ^ New Inlroductor/Lectures \nSE. p. by the time Freud wrote Beyond the Pleasure Principle (1920). Summer.^' This death-instinct is indeed capable of bringing about the ultimate extinction of all mankind. " Ibid. is that "The sexual life of civilized man is . Volume XXXIII. p.^'' As for the instinct of aggression. though one which is b o u n d to collapse with every fresh advance in o u r knowledge. Moreover. 105. seejung's crucial evaluation of intuition in the Germanic peoples. just as our teeth and o u r hair seem to be as organs". a 'death-instinct' characteristic of the h u m a n ego a n d inbuilt in the entire social system which the ego creates. Number 4. 1993 . it departs from it.^' According to Freud. by clinging to the illusion of being able to present a picture of the universe which is without gaps a n d is coherent. ^ See Beyond the Pleasure Principle (1920).Freud and Jung 385 Philosophy is not opposed to science.^^ Art is a m o r e harmless product of the transference of instinctual activity to the imagination since it does not p r e t e n d to be anything b u t an illusion. in SE. " Civilization and its Discontents.211.

of Miami Press. that the intimate linguistic setose in the case of these peoples was still lacking the necessary acuteness and clarity with respect to the material meaning and to the relationship of w o r d s .249. the animate distinction between semantic and relational expression suffers. 162) Humboldt actually argued that the Semitic languages were "deficient": I n contrast. it seems m o r e certain to me than what has been discussed to this point. as Maritain puts it. in this narrowly deterministic m o d e of thought. . George C. rather they contain complementations that p r o d u c e the true phonetic form. declared that It is self-evident that a language whose structure is most extensively suited to the intellect and which most intensively stimulates its activity must also possess the most e n d u r i n g power to p r o d u c e from its reservoir of linguistic materials new conformations. Lin^istu: VariablUy and JnUUectual Development.cil. Coral Gables. mechanistic scientism with all the prejudices of irrationalism". Freud shows himself to be a strict psychological determinist with little u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the full scope of the h u m a n spirit which is characterized by a creative force of will a n d i n d e p e n d e n t of both the Eros a n d Ananke identified by Freud as the motive powers of civilization. perceptible to the ear in connected speech. . since the original root m o r p h e m e cannot become. this is simply an effect of the intensity of the creative linguistic action in the peoples to which they belonged" (Wilhelm von H u m b o l d t . Inflected words in the Semitic languages d o not contain inflectional modifications of original tones. Now.. The Mankind Quarterly . because it combines all the prejudices of deterministic. Florida: Univ.386 Alexander Jacob In this dark theory of the state. Karl Marx. for instance. 1971."* According to Freud's psychological innovations.. a n d for such reasons as these some have maintained that there is a tendency in the Jewish psyche to limit itself to empirical-rationalistic materialism. in addition to the inflected one. ^' It has been suggested that the philosophical outlook of the Semitic peoples is closely related to their "imperfectly" inflected speech and their lack of mythological imagination. p. Humboldt. b r o u g h t forth by the lapse of time and the destinies of peoples — if the Sanskritic tongues have for at least three millennia given proof of their productive capacity. tr. man is a " Maritain. Raven. T h e alarming defect of Freud's psychological system therefore is that it is. "pervaded a n d overwhelmed on every side .. by a pseudometaphysicsof the most vulgar character . and m o r e important for determination of the relationship of the Semitic languages to intellectual development. in op. p. Freud's theories parralel the limited economic conception of man postulated by that other major nineteenth century Jewish thinker. in the published introduction {Einleitung iiber die VerschUdenheil des menschlichen Sprachbau^s und ihren Einflufi auf die geistige Entioicklung des Menschengeschlechts) to his projected work Uber die Kawisprache auf der Inseljava." I n d e e d . The importance of a fully developed language for philosophical speculation was argued by nineteenth century linguists such as Wilhelm von Humboldt (1767-1835) and Ernest Renan (1823-1892). Buck and Frithjof A...

). since it is easier for the former to live in agreement with their instincts than it is for us. reason and imagination disrupt the Renan. leurs particules d^licates. Bk. I . Volume XXXIII. 1969.22). p. a Semitic scholar. q u e les langues s^mitiques. not surprisingly. et nous feraient envisager la creation d e la parole c o m m e u n fait essentiellement transcendental. Paris: Michel L6vy F r i r e s . Thus he declared. Number 4. Bonnot. compar^es t» celles d u r^alisme et de la setisualit^. Thumain et I'inhumain dans le m e m e determinisme psychologique .. leurs mots composes. as he.. Paris: Editions Denoel. Si Ton ne consid^rail. C h . n'apparait pas moins implacable q u e les lois d e la physique. a rational liberation of the libido. la metaphysique impossible" {Ibid. Freud. the logical result of Freud's doctrine is that man as a natural being must be considered a "freak". ^ G. 1993 . leurs flexions varices. also saw the difference between the Indo-European and the Semitic languages as being one between organic and inorganic forms. Freud nous interdit d'elaborer de nouvelles valeurs morals en nous privant du seul attribut qui puisse les fonder: notre liberte. Pavlov. if civihzation is a cause of psychic disorders. au contraire. et surtout grSce ^ I'admirable secret d e I'inversion. les langues ariennes nous transportent tout d'abord en plein id^alisme. le bien et le mal. As Gerard Bonnot puts it: On a confondu le diable et le bon Dieu.^® What is worse is that the "cure" that Freud and his followers propose to this pathetic state of affairs is. qui p e r m e t d e conserver I'ordre naturel des id^es sans nuire k la determination des r a p p o r t s grammaticaux. O n peut dire q u e les langues ariennes. explicitly or implicitly. sont les langues d e I'abstraction et d e la m^taphysique. Such an aim is clearly m o r e congenial to animals than to m e n . p o u r etre inconsciente. then the only way to r e m e d y these personal defects is to u n d o the repressions of the societal superego. is in the left-Freudian Erich Fromm: Self-awareness.Freud and Jung 387 prisoner of his lower unconscious a n d therefore deprived of a capacity for ethical behavior. Indeed. II nous livre a la dictature d ' u n e necessite qui. Summer. 1878. compar^es aux langues s^mitiques. o n pourrait croire q u e la sensation pr^sida seule aux premiers acles d e la pens^e humaine et q u e le langage ne ful d'abord q u ' u n e sorte d e refiet du monde ext^rieur (Histoire gM^aU et systhru compari des langues shrtUiques. For. Avec leur souplesse merveUleuse. Thus. the Semitic consciousness was perceived by these writers as being rigid and narrowly focussed: "L'abstraction leur est inconnue. lis ont tue Descartes: Einstein. Liberateur equivoque.I.

Freud and America. a n d even certain religious consolations". Ellenberger. reject d o m i n a n t philosophic a n d religious truths"^^ is as obvious as it is. p.H.'* T h e penetration of the social fabric by the Freudian psychology is readily evident in the widespread use of psychoanalytic terminology in daily parlance. and Anti-Semitism. 1966. Boston: Shambala Press. delegitimize patriotism. p. *• H. especially terms such as "guilt feelings. aggressive tendencies. or ... "In the structure of the American unconscious. Williamson calls its "antihistorical orientation.M.Y. deplorable.. Fromm. instability. The Discovery of the Unconscious: The history and evolution of dynamic psychiatry. personal insecurity. " For the development of Freudian psychology in Europe... a n d the all-inclusive . p. unstructured personality. XV:47: Freud's psychological method is and always was a cauterizing agent for diseased and degenerate material. see H.151. "internalization". evoked the suspicion of an inner uncertainty". for some Lingering Shadows: Jungians. The Sane Society. London: Penguin Press. into the freak of the universe. Martin. ' ' As H. this grew into an aesthetic defect. 'moral courage'". Rinehart and Winston. t r a u m a ..M. especially American. dissolve social ties..'^ T h e link between the Freudian view of man a n d the chaos of m o d e r n i s m .Y. 1991. with a concomitant absence of such positive terms as "personal integrity. replaced earlier ideologies. The Mankind Quarterly . see H. Ruitenbeck. mind cannot be d o u b t e d . op. '^ See also Jung. Maidenbaum.24. T h e i r emergence has m a d e m a n into an anomaly. " A.cU. self-reliance.M. psychoanalysis has.: Holt.H. Freudians. in the highest degree. ed. Ruitenbeck p u t it. responsibility. marked by what A. such as if found chiefly in neurotic patients — Later when the new ideas met with ample recognition. Williamson. its insistence u p o n discontinuities.: Macmillan Co. its moral ambiguities" a n d its attempt "to discount national experience. N. and finally. N. 'tensions'".388 Alexander Jacob "harmony" which characterizes animal existence. 1955. for its influence in America. "The cultural foundations of racial religion and anti-semitism". A.. frustration. as Richard LaPiere has '" E. 'In Memory of Sigmund Freud' (1939) in CW. SA.'^ T h e pervasive influence of Freudian thought on the western. 1970.23. its focus u p o n the fragmented. Ruitenbeck. like every fanatacism.

. The Decline and Fall of the Freudian Empire. Scott Townsend Publishers.'^ T h e encouragement of self-expression on the psychoanalyst's couch is linked in no uncertain way to the vulgar. and to turn to the great task of building up a truly scientific psychology" (p. may well serve as the motto of Freud's entire intellectual production. J u n g clearly realized that psychoanalysis is: . p..Freud and Jung 389 pointed out. primarily in America..physical as well as vocal . it is not a psychology of the healthy mind.^^ T h e defects of Freud's psychology are best highlighted by juxtaposing it to a study of the discussions of the psyche and its role in society contained in the writings of the German-Swiss psychologist Carl G u s t a v j u n g (1875-1961).C. and its validity is confined to those states ..208). in the sixties. Number 4. " This Une from the Aeneid. I will move the infernal regions".. this is a symptom of its morbidity . As for the various revolts. the psychology of neurotic states of mind. The Freudian Ethic. definitely one-sided.which characterizes m o d e r n society in general a n d is the glaring opposite of the restraint typical of social conduct in a genuine civilization. it is based on an uncriticized.. VII. a pseudo-scientific doctrine that has done untold harm to psychology and psychiatry alike — The time has come to treat it as a historical curiosity.64... The Interpretation of Dreams: 'Flectere si nequeo superos. 1991. 1993 . view of the world which is apt to narrow the horizon of experience and limit one's "Richard LaPiere. against the so-called "establishment". a n d the increasing racial a n d sexual permissiveness that they have led to. Washington D. and . at worst. Summer.: Duell. see also H. a n d often violent. 1959. used to represent the operation of repressed instinctual impulses. Acheronta movebo'. these may indeed be considered the final triumph of a man who revealed his scientific intentions in the Virgilian epigraph to his most famous work. Volume XXXlll. Eysenck. 312. 202ff: "Psychonalysis is at best a premature crystallization of spurious orthodoxies. N. even an unconscious. "If I cannot bend the higher powers.J.Y. Sloan and Pearce. freedom of expression .

'The Psychology of the Child Archetype' ('Zur Psychologic des Kind-Archetypus'. es war aber — ausschlieBlich ein AnSich des Triebes. 1957-21.. the Will with a tendency to manifest itself through matter. pp. Zurich: Rascher. "From the WorldThe Mankind Quarterly . 2. J u n g . But above the Will as ideal Nature is the Will as the ineffable Self. rather like the philosopher Schopenhauer. Frey-Rohn puts it: "[Freud] erkannte ein An-Sich.390 • • Alexander Jacob 37 Vision. also. 1969. See below p. in the lower reaches. 1940). in Collected Worh. which is rather a physiological unconscious or subconscious. In jedem Fall wies der Geist auf einen Gegenpol zur Sinniichkeit bzw. that is to say. the psyche loses itself in the organic material substrate. rational materialistic conception of the ego a n d the id p r o p o u n d e d by Freud.Jacob. IX. as they approach the autonomous functional systems. as two aspects of a single primal reality:^" " 'Freud and Jung: Contrasts' (1929). war es in der Bedeutung von Seele.17. in CW. Liliane Frey-Rohn. iii. " 'On the Nature of the Psyche' ('Theoretische Uberlegungen iiber das Wesen des Psychischen"." " W e may remember that matter is characterized in the system of Schopenhauer as the visibility of the Will.393. in chemical substances. What I would call the psyche p r o p e r extends to all functions which can be brought u n d e r the influence of a willy's I n d e e d . London: Routledge and Kegan Paul. until they are universalized and extinguished in the body's materiality. considers matter and soul. auf etwas "mit dem Gesicht Wahrgenommeneshin". 1954) in CW. so in its u p p e r reaches it resolves itself into a "spiritual" form about which we know as little as we d o about the functional basis of instincts. The body's carbon is simply carbon. while Soul or Psyche itself is the Will as ideal Nature.. VIII: 183. Unlike the limited. Von Freud zuJung. and A. Hinter der psychischen Wirklichkeit stand in letzter Linie der Korper mit seinen Anforderungen — Wann immer der Ausdruck "Geist" vorkam. Ein geistiges An-Sich ein transzendentaler Sinn war ihm fremd. ja des Stoffes (Leblosen!). cf. or Will.391. Lower down. i:173: "The deeper 'layers' of the Psyche lose their individual uniqueness as they retreat farther and farther into darkness.^' J u n g ' s Psyche or the objective Unconscious is a metaphysical sphere of universal life or energy that ranges between spirit and matter: J u s t as. Hence 'at bottom' the psyche is simply 'world'. that is. they become increasingly collective. (henceforth referred to as CW) IV:335. von geistigen Interessen oder auch von "ruac/i" (Windhauch). As L. '° A transcendental realm of the spirit was alien to the thought of Freud. i.e.

It is the last that constitutes one radical difference between J u n g ' s psychology a n d that of Freud. irrepresentable". StutlgaTt. IX and X. For the collective unconscious is that level of the psyche that is prior to a n d larger than the individual personal experience. it is not only possible but fairly probable. 1993 . spiritual a n d transcendental.Freud and Jung 391 Since psyche a n d matter are contained in o n e a n d the same world. Summer. VIII:215. VI. has three layers. that psyche a n d matter are two different aspects of one and the same thing. It is not merely psychic but. ** Jung. a n d the objective or collective unconscious. See also 'On the Nature of the Psyche' in CW. the personal unconscious. in A. even. a n d energy is cosmic as well as h u m a n . that is. Franz Steiner. De Naturae Natura. Art. Eschenmayer. 1992. consciousness. for there is no idea that could have any other source than the phenomenal world. 10 in CW. XIV:551. Jacob. T h e n a t u r e of this transcendental reality cannot be d e t e r m i n e d with our limited reason: T h a t the world inside and outside ourselves rests on a transcendental background is as certain as our own existence. Of what lies beyond the phenomenal world we can have absolutely no idea.'*' T h e ultimate nature of both matter a n d spirit is "transcendental. Chs. and Schopenhauer". rpt. ScAop^n^ai^ryaArii/i:/!. Number 4. And "the only reality which is given to us without a medium" is the psyche a n d its contents.^' T h e reason why it eludes objective definition is that it is intimately connected to the observing subject: Soul to the Will: T h e natural philosophy of Schelling. but it is equally certain that the direct perception of the archetypal world inside us is just as doubtfully correct as that of the physical world outside us. 1992. first. transcendental factors. and moreover are in continuous contrast with o n e another and ultimately rest on irrepresentable." Volume XXXIII. VIII:228: "We are fully aware that we have no more knowledge of the various states and processes of the Unconscious as such than the physicist has of the processes underlying physical phenomena. •" 'On the Nature of the Psyche' in CW. T h e psyche is a kind of non-physical space in which energy operates. T h e h u m a n psyche. 19-36. Mysterium Coniunctionis (1955-56). according to J u n g .

for in principle it can be shown to be present everywhere. b u t originally the higher consciousness. " 'Spirit and Life' ('Geist und Leben'.F. op. because the concept of spirit is such that we are b o u n d to connect it with the idea of superiority over the ego-consciousness. T h e Psyche. N. E. not merely unconscious as psychic energy. (note 39 above). absolute subjectivity a n d universal truth.. cf. The World as Will and Representation. we should really speak of a "higher" consciousness rather than of the unconscious.'*'' This spirit is "above" the intellect: Spirit is something higher than intellect since it embraces the latter a n d includes the feelings as well. which certainly cannot be said of conscious contents of a personalistic nature. which alone is immediately accessible to us. 1957) in CW. It is accordingly the supporter of the world. Schopenhauer.2: "That which knows all things and is known by none is the subject.: Dover Publications.Y.*' It is. *' Commentary on the Secret of the Golden Flower (Das Geheimnis der goldenen Bliite. We never know it. 1926) in CW. 1966. shining heights. but it precisely that which knows wherever there is knowledge" (tr.J. thus encompasses not only the lower 'id' of Freud. of all objects . of the Self: If we are to d o justice to the essence of the thing we call spirit. A..1:5). the universal condition of all that appears. in this connection. It is. at one a n d the same time. but also the collective " "On the Nature of the Psyche' in CW. VIII:335. See also. It is a guiding principle of life that strives towards the s u p e r h u m a n . The Mankind Quarterly .cil. Jacob.*^ This distinction between ego consciousness and higher consciousness is completely absent in the psychological system of Freud. Art. Payne. A. VIII:230. XIII:9.392 Alexander Jacob Hence the reality underlying the unconscious effects includes the observing subject a n d is therefore constituted in a way that we cannot conceive. therefore. or "absolutes Wissen".

modifying. And again. that it is transcendent. in his essay on "Die Schizophrenic". T h e latter is characterized by certain fundamental meanings. the "self-portrait" of the instinct. which is ultimately transcendent: T h e archetypal representations (images a n d ideas) mediated to us by the unconscious should not be confused with the archetypes as such. "> Ibid. Volume XXXIII.^® while the archetype itself is the "Sinn des Triebs". 'Instinct and the unconscious' ('Instinkt und UnbewuBtes'. 111:262. it seems to me probable that the real n a t u r e of the archetype is not capable of being m a d e conscious.*** T h e difference between instinct a n d the archetypes is that the former is the energetic aspect of the archetypes manifest in matter: T o the extent that the archetypes intervene in the shaping of conscious contents by regulating. VIII: 133. although these can be grasped only approximately . VI1I:213. irrepresentable quality of the Archetype " On the Psychology of the Unconscious (Uber die Psychologie des Unbezinifiten.. 1928). or its specific significance. J u n g describes Archetypes as "inherited.'*® T h e collective unconscious consequently consists of both instincts a n d archetypes. " 'On the Nature of the Psyche' in CW. they act like the instincts. VIII:205. 1993 . 1958) in CW. a n d motivating them. *' "The instinct and the archetypes together form the 'collective unconscious'".FrevA and Jung 393 unconscious which is both "the repository of man's experience a n d . 1943). or the "instinct's perception of itself. in CW. Number 4. 'The Archetypes of the Collective Unconscious'. Summer. They are varied structures which all point back to one essentially "irrepresentable" basic form. the prior condition of this experience". as it were.^'' T h e latter are. J u n g is thus careful to distinguish the archetypal representations from the archetype itself. VII:95. " 'Schizophrenia'CDie Schizophrenie'.^" This transcendent. instinctive impulses and forms that can be observed in all living creatures". in CW. at the same time...

It is a series of images in the truest sense. a n d are thus u n b o u n d e d by space or time. J u n g suggests that the self is apt to manifest itself in dreams "since night after night our d r e a m s " See above p. 1946). T h e s e a p p e a r in d r e a m s a n d spontaneous fantasies.*' thus confirming Schopenhauer's insight that the Ideas are.^^ T h e archetypal images of the Psyche are generally a vital formative activity. individual and collective. J u n g also emphasizes the fact that the archetypes are "typical modes of apprehension". In Die Psychologie der Ubertragung Jung declares that the self is: both ego and non-ego. T h e spirit is apt to be manifested in symbolical ways in the p h e n o m e n a l realm. from the point of view of the objectivised Will or the manifest universe.394 Alexander Jacob is the same as the transcendent reality of Schopenhauer's Will. indeed levels of awareness of the reality of the Will as the Self. akin to the productive imagination: It is difficult to see why unconscious psychic activities should not have the same faculty of p r o d u c i n g images as those that are represented in consciousness — the psyche consists essentially of images. In Psychologie und Alchemie. but a structure that is t h r o u g h o u t full of m e a n i n g and purpose. As such a n d in accordance with its paradoxical nature.''* T h e s e empirical manifestations of the self bear the n u m inous quality of their original. VIII:325f. subjective a n d objective. " 'Spirit and Life' in CW. namely the Self. It is the "uniting symbol" which epitomizes the total union of opposites.17. it can only be expressed by means of symbols. Vin:137. not an accidental juxtaposition or sequence. " The Psychology of the Transference (Die Psychologie der Ubertragung. " 'Instinct and the Unconscious' in CW. in CW. it is a "picturing" of vital activities.52 Significantly. The Mankind Quarterly . XVI:264.

For example. Volume XXXIll. begins to exercise a powerful influence on the conscious mind. T h e mythological archetypes are underlying patterns of symbol formation which. T h u s the gods were disposed of.^' This account of the larger archetypal significance of dreams is in stark contrast to the empirical interpretation of dreams as wish-fulfillment in Freud. (Gesammelte Werke. "Synchronizitat als ein Prinzip akausaler Zusammenhange" (1952). XII:182. in mythology. in CW.575f)" See On the Psychology of the Unconscious in CW. Summer. ** Jung. with the horrors of the French Revolution.. And at the present time.. VII:77. 1952) Part II. Number 4. T h e importance of the unconscious as a "determining influence of history" is indeed evident t h r o u g h o u t European history. but were simply projections. according to racial a n d cultural inheritance. a basic u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the collective psyche behind the individual is vital for a healthy social and historical life.104. T h e symbolization of the Archetype of the Self or of the Absolute Unconscious is witnessed not just in individual egos but also. VIII. a n d . Ch.Freud and Jung 395 practice philosophy on their own account". through its archaic collective contents.^® T h e collective unconscious thus not only binds individuals a m o n g themselves to the race. But the corresponding psychological function was by no means disposed of. in NaturerkldTung und Psyche. p. T h e collective Unconscious thus typically represents itself t h r o u g h mythological motifs.3. too. as we know. it lapsed into the unconscious. in its most basic and universal psychological form. T h e unconscious is prodigiously strengthened by this reflux of libido.*' Although the collective unconscious as a whole is so far from h u m a n consciousness that the latter cannot really c o m p r e h e n d it. change their particular manifestations at any time or place. Only in the age of enlightenment did people discover that the gods did not really exist. and men were t h e r e u p o n poisoned by the surplus of libido that had once been laid u p in the cult of divine images . we are once more experiencing this uprising of the " Psychology and Alchemy {Psychologic und Alchemie. 1993 . but also unites them backwards with the peoples of the past a n d their psychology. p. T h e period of the Enlightenment closed.

It is this archetype from which we can no longer distinguish the God-image empirically ('Answer to Job' in CW. to its corresponding archetypal form". The Mankind Quarterly . On the other side he is related to the highest forms of the spirit. namely the archetype of the self. J u n g maintains. But he only thrives when spirit and instinct are in right harmony". But it makes the mistake of being one-sided and exclusive.^" As h e p u t it: Freud's sexual theory of neurosis is g r o u n d e d on a true and factual principle. VII:92. which can only mean a subtle form of repression. Odajnyk. N. "' W. h e can logically maintain that it is the archetypes of the ego alone which n e e d to differentiate themselves through psychic evolution.179. that "sublimation is not the "transmutation" of instincts but the spontaneous "transfer" of energy from o n e instinctual form to another. *' On the Psychology of the Unconscious. J u n g disagrees with Freud's view of civilization as a result of the sublimation of instincts. XI:469).®^ As for the so-called "Oedipuscomplex". " T h e former is the absolute Self itself and equally the Form of God: Strictly speaking. from the primitive identification of an individual self with the world a r o u n d him to the rise of self-consciousness a n d its consequent separation from the life of nature which is the domain of the ego. also it commits the i m p r u dence of trying to lay hold of unconfinable Eros with the c r u d e terminology of sex. 1976.: Harper and Row. Jung and PolilUs. the God-image does not coincide with the uiKonscious as such. instead.Jung suggested that that may be more than a m e r e paternally oriented sexual complex ^' Ibid. in CW. J u n g himself describes Eros as belonging "on the one side to man's primordial animal nature which will endure as long as man has an animal body.Y.396 Alexander Jacob unconscious destructive forces of the collective psyche. p. whose h o p e it was to solve the world riddle in a test-tube. In this respect Freud is a typical representative of the materialistic epoch. VII:27. from a physical instinct. but with a special content of it. in CW.** Since J u n g is careful to differentiate the archetype of the SelP® from the individual archetypes related to the rational ego.. for example.

which is not a late result of the interaction between individual and society whereby the latter appears in the form of a patriarchal God of injunctions. in the T e n C o m m a n d m e n t s . Rauschning. J u n g a r g u e d that: T h e Freudian superego is not . which taught him that.. p. it is rather the consciously acquired stock of traditional customs. "evidence of a notable release from the fatalities of the family situation". T h e Freudian superego. for instance. the 'moral code' as incorporated.®^ J u n g expressly d e n o u n c e d the Freudian concept of the super-ego. T h e superego is a patriarchal legacy which as such is a conscious acquisition a n d an equally conscious possession. in short.Freud and Jung 397 a n d . as cited by Hermann Rauschning. Unlike Freud's opposition between the collective d e m a n d s of society a n d the rebellious instincts of the individual. " 'A psychological view of conscience' ('Das Gewissen in psychologischer Sicht' (1958). 1939. Jung's explanation of conscience differs from Hitler's. Hitler Speaks. the j u d g e m e n t of the creative instinct of man in fact possesses "that compelling authority not unjustly characterized as the voice of God".^^ '^ Ibid. not the same as moral precept since the former may often be in opposition to the latter. indeed. in fact. It is a blemish. Conscience is. CW. X:455. the act of conscience takes place unconsciously. but rather an a u t o n o m o u s archetypal constituent of the psyche. If it appears to be an almost unconscious factor in Freud's writings. Volume XXXIII. Number 4.220). 1993 . Summer. "Conscience is a Jewish invention. In such conflicts the p r o p e r solution is delivered by a creative instinct which springs from an active connection between the rational consciousness a n d the nonrationalunconscious. "a furtive attempt to smuggle the time-honored image of J e h o v a h in the dress of psychological theory". Yet Hitler was expressing the view that in pre-J udaeo-Christian Germanic society morality sprang from the desire to be loyal to the values of the group instead of from any individually internalized "conscience" that could turn the individual against the mores of the group. according to J u n g . this is d u e to his practical experience.. London. in a surprising n u m b e r of cases. a natural a n d inherited part of the psyche's structure. a n d insisted that the super-ego be properly considered as 'conscience'. is. like circumcision" (H.

Princeton: PUP. with the theory of the collective unconscious. on an earlier and d e e p e r level of psychic development.. all h u m a n races have a common collective psyche. he declared that it is a quite u n p a r d o n a b l e mistake to accept the conclusions of a Jewish psychology as generally valid.Jung and National Socialism". in CW. 1928). 231-59. the ancient Germanic god of war and t h u n d e r . Part 1. of the native spirit of Wotan.Jung points not only to the relation between the Self a n d the ego in the unfolding of h u m a n civilization but also to the basic psychological differences between races a n d to the psychological influences that occur between them.F. despite his public repudiation of the Nazi regime in 1946. On the other h a n d . May 26. A. An example of the exclusivity of racial archetypes is in fact offered by the m o d e r n history of E u r o p e . but the individual must not remain stuck in it. T h u s in The Relations between the Ego and the Unconscious. That Jung's political views were always intimately related to his psychological ones.. a n d strife of m o d e r n E u r o p e as being d u e to the anomalous position of Christianity amongst the European peoples.®® " "Wotan" (1936) in CW. T h e lesson to be learnt from this example is that the nationalistic awareness of a people is as essential as the selfawareness of its individual constituents: "Nationalism. "'German Christians' are a contradiction in terms". ^ The Relation between the Ego and the Unconscious {Die Beziehungen zwischen dem Ich und dem Unbevmssten).is therefore a sine qua non. or Mongolian mentality. J u n g considers o n e of the chief causes of the wars.G.l62. ed. Jaffe./ouma/ of European Studies. among the G e r m a n people.398 Alexander Jacob It should not be surprising that. 1934 in C. Grossman in his article "C. schisms. Hamitic.G. 1975. " J u n g to Dr.®* In ' W o t a n ' J u n g explains the catastrophes of wartime Germany as d u e to the emergence. Hull.2. R. The Mankind Quarterly .. where it is still impossible to distinguish between an Aryan.1. But with the beginning of racial differentiation essential differences are developed in the collective psyche as well".®^ J u n g clearly insists on the need to apply different psychological categories in considering different racial groups. No doubt. Ch. 9 (1979). Letters. VII:149n.C. u n d e r stress. p. Adler. Vol.Jung. Semitic. As he sees it.disagreeable as it is . X: 190. in so far as he is a particle in the mass h e must not raise himself above it either". is demonstrated by S. G. James Kirsch.

Number 4. not just a dreary fragment but the meaningful whole". of their civilization. they are vastly m o r e conscious than we of h u m a n weaknesses. X:165.. in CW. the Jews themselves are best protected where others are more vulnerable. and thanks to this technique which has been forced on them through the centuries. they have to aim at the chinks in the a r m o u r of their adversary. on which the whole world gazes with astonished eyes.Freud and Jung 399 J u n g criticizes Freud's mistaken application of Jewish categories "indiscriminately to Germanic a n d Slavic Christendom" for "Because of this the most precious secret of the Germanic peoples . And that is why [the] scope [of medical psychology] must be widened to reveal to the physician's gaze not just the pathological aberrations of a disturbed psychic development. Summer. 1934). being physically weaker. again. of the " 'The state of psychotherapy today' ('Zur gegenwartigen Lage der Psychotherapie'." J u n g suggests that the Jewish psychology is a representation of "the shadow that accompanies us all" for.has been explained as a morass of banal infantilism". more than twice as ancient as ours. but the creative powers of the psyche laboring at the future.their creative a n d intuitive d e p t h of soul . taught them better? W h e r e was that unparalleled tension a n d energy while as yet no National Socialism existed? Deep in the Germanic psyche. A movement that grips a whole nation must have matured in every individual as well.. Has the formidable p h e n o m e n o n of National Socialism. in a pit that is anything but a garbagebin of unrealizable infantile wishes a n d unresolved family resentments.®' Pointing out that neither Freud nor Adler is "a universally valid representative of European man. Because. H e continues: [Freud] did not u n d e r s t a n d the Germanic psyche any m o r e than did his Germanic followers. he charges: T h e Jews have this peculiarity in common with women. Volume XXXIII. 1993 .

for example. the Holy Rollers a n d other abnormalities are strongly influenced by the Ne- 'Ibid. ' Ibid.. or the subconscious. T h e Jew. T h e still youthful Germanic peoples are fully capable of creating new cultural forms that still lie d o r m a n t in the darkness of the unconscious of every individual . and hence in this respect much less vulnerable than we are. who is something of a n o m a d . T h e expression of religious feeling. T h u s J u n g points to the influence that the mind a n d m a n n e r s of a conq u e r e d people have on their conquerors.. they can be distorted by chthonic influences on the lower soul. according to J u n g .400 Alexander Jacob shadow-side of things. on the other h a n d . The Mankind Quarterly . a n d these may not be devalued as nursery romanticism without psychic d a n g e r . a n d so does the dance.. has never yet created a cultural form of his own and as far as we can see never will. since all his instincts a n d talents require a m o r e or less civilized nation to act as host for their development. Some of their culture.®^ While the archetypes of the collective unconscious are generally race-bound. is derived from the Negro: American music draws its main inspiration from the Negro.. the revival meetings. J u n g argues. the E u r o p e a n s have inevitably developed Indian morphological characteristics as well as psychological symbolisms. a n d that this accounts for the greater creativity of the former: T h e "Aryan" unconscious . contains explosive forces a n d seeds of a future yet to be born.®* T h e psyche of the Germanic peoples contrasts with the predominantlyrational ego-consciousness of the Jews. In America.

the aim of historical evolution. Number 4.. which is by definition unlimited. T h e ego thus becomes the object of a moral act.'° T h o u g h J u n g does not declare this mingling of racial characteristics to be entirely harmful.. the extent of the personality now gradually realizing itself cannot in practice be limited either. X:508: 'The inferior man has a tremendous pull because he fascinates the inferior layers of our psyche. that is to say. Volume XXXIII. X:49."on revient toujours a ses premiers amours" -. also 'The Complications of the American Psychology' (1930) in CW. X:46. 1931) in CW.T h e barbarian in us is still wonderfully strong and he yields easily to the lure of his youthful memories. as it were. Individuation is the fullest development of personality. Since this growth of personality comes out of the unconscious. of your ego. I am. which has lived through untold ages of similar conditions . as well as the Schopenhauerian elucidation of archetypes or Ideas as levels of Selfknowledge. Below the threshold of consciousness the contagion meets with little resistance". despite the racial and nationalistic dimensions of the Collective Unconscious. for a more compendious personality to e m e r g e in the course of development and take ego into its service. " 'Mind and Earth' in Collected Works.": a conscious and deliberate self-surrender which proves that you have full control of yourself. 1993 . But unlike the Freudian super- ™ 'Mind and Earth' ('Seele und Erde'. " If we gloss this section of J u n g ' s writings with the description of the Archetypes as constituted both of a priori forms and residues of empirical experience. he extols the virtue of retaining one's links with one's native soil for "he who is rooted in the soil e n d u r e s " . for "I" am making a decision on behalf of an authority which is supraordinate to my ego nature. However. deciding against my ego and renouncing my claim . that is. we will see that these interactions of racial archetypes indeed entail alterations of the capacity of the individual egos to a p p r e h e n d the inner reality of life or Psyche. is indeed "individuation". according to J u n g . cf. and is a "Passion des Ich.Freud and Jung 401 gro. Hence it is quite possible for the ego to be m a d e into an object. Therefore he needs very definite defenses — the defenses of the Germanic man reach only as far as consciousness reaches. Summer.

it can only be described in antinomial terms (Just as the transcendent n a t u r e of light can only be expressed through the image of waves a n d particles) . ii. It is in fact individuality in the highest sense. also 'Spirit and Life' ('Geist und Leben' 1926). Der Mylhm vom Sinn. R.402 Alexander Jacob ego.F. As an historical personage Christ is unitemporal and unique. a n d all other selves.. '^ Jung. in CW.'^ It is not the continued assertion of the individual ego against the external world but rather the subsumption of this ego in the higher consciousness of the Absolute Self: But again and again I note that the individuation process is confused with the coming of the ego into consciousness and that the ego is in consequence identified with the self. but gathers the world to oneself. Individuation is then nothing but ego-centeredness a n d autoeroticism.C. expressing the totality of conscious a n d unconscious contents. V n i : 3 2 5 . as the ego. But the psychological self is a transcendent concept. Jung's letter. it is still individual. 11:120). For." T h e aim of individuation is the renewed participation of the individual self in the transcendent Self. It is as much one's self. which naturally produces a hopeless m u d d l e . the individual ego extends beyond consciousness to the realm of the spirit. 1954). Princeton: Princeton Univ. 'Transformation Symbolism in the Mass' ('Das Wandlungssymbol in der Messe'. in religioser Sprache. the self has the attributes of uniqueness and of occurring once only in time.. But the Self comprises infinitely m o r e than a m e r e ego . or the G o d h e a d . p. Zurich: Rascher. As the apotheosis of individuality. tr. in CW. Aniela Jaffe. This J u n g tries to illustrate by the example of the divinity of Christ: In the world of Christian ideas.89. 1967.. VIII:226. cf. "Individuation muB. dated 23 August 1953: "Becoming conscious means continual renunciation because it is an everdeepening concentration" {Letters. IV. cf. As Aniela Jaffe puts it. Press. Christ undoubtedly represents the self. Individuation does not shut o n e out from the world. The Mankind Quarterly . " 'On the Nature of the Psyche' in CW.. 1973-75. als Verwirklichung eines "GotUichen" im Menschen verstanden werden". XI:258. Hull.

. in CW. Fellbach-Oeffingen: Bonz. universal and eternal. not a selfish rejection of the '* Aion (1951). also. J u n g also uses as an illustration of his ethical goal the Hindu doctrine of the immersion of the Atman in the B r a h m a n . Number 4. identisch mit d e m "Anordner"der Psyche. Und in diesem Sinn ist der individuierte Mensch frei von j e d e m psychischen Zwang.ii:62f. V.G.192. 1984. lX.C h r i s t i a n o n e of a God in Heaven but a m o r e philosophical interpretation of the symbolic significance of Christ using the ideal archetype of the self as an image of divinity.'* J^i^g insists that the ultimate consciousness of the Self is not the same as the ego. since the individual self is now integrated into the subject of the Psyche which is the absolutely free and creative Self. 1993 . p. This higher reality is also the domain of real freedom. As Dieter Spies puts it: Im Selbst ist das Ich integriert in das groBere Subjekt der Psyche. Likewise the self: as an individual thing it is unitemporal a n d u n i q u e .Freud and Jung 403 as God. Summer. terms which served as sources of his conception of the Ich and the Selbst. Alles Reden von u n d alle Sehnsucht nach Freiheit sind n u r Antizipationen dieser Freiheit des SelbstSeins. d e n n U n t e r o r d n u n g u n t e r die psychische A n o r d n u n g bedeutet nicht m e h r Unfreiheit."' This freedom that comes with the realization of the individual as the Absolute Self is. es handeltsichjetzt gewissermaBen u m die eigene A n o r d n u n g ! Es ist Freiheit im transzendentalen Sinn. XVI:264.. es ist sozusagen . in Collected Works.'^ J u n g ' s answer to the problem of loss of religion consequent on Freud's theories of civilization was thus not the traditional J u d a e o . Das Weltbild der Psychology C.Jungs. '^ See The Psychology of the Tramference. '^ Dieter Spies. but rather a higher transcendent entity that is consequent on psychic evolution or the union of the individual ego with the unconscious anima. Volume XXXIII. as an archetypal symbol it is a God-image a n d therefore universal a n d eternal.

. XIll:184f.. T h e unconscious is not limited only to the instinctual a n d reflex processes of the cortical centres. It is therefore quite as much a "supraconsciousness". VI 1:240. with its symbols. The Mankind Quarterly . in J u n g ' s idealistic metaphysic.'^ By contrast. 'The phenomenonology of the spirit in fairy-tales' ('Zur Phanomenologie des Geistes im Marchen'. "'Paracelsus as a spiritual phenomenon'('Paracelsus alsgeistige Erscheinung'. T h e lumen naturae is the natural spirit. but is a largely autonomous psychic system for compensating the biases a n d aberrations of the conscious attitude. It is the great achievement of Paracelsus to have elevated the "light of nature" to a principle . but rather a realization of the identity of the individual self with that of other beings: the self is o u r life's goal. whose strange and significant workings we can observe in the manifestations of the unconscious now that psychological research has come to realize that the unconscious is not just a "subconscious" a p p e n d a g e or the dustbin of consciousness. the Freudian discovery of the subconscious is " The Relations between the Ego and the Un/:onscions' in CW. the full flowering not only of the single individual. but of the g r o u p in which each adds his portion of the whole. 1952).i:239. 1948).. and Symbols of Transformation (Symbole der Wandlung.. 1942) in CW. Were that not so. cf. she is also spirit. as we have noted earlier. the only source of spirit would be h u m a n reason.. in CW IX. for the most part functionally.'' This liberation of the ego is m a d e possible by the fact that. for it is the completes! expression of that fateful combination we call individuality. " See above p. 11. anticipates future conscious processes. it also extends beyond consciousness and.'* the external world of n a t u r e too is not matter alone but ultimately spiritual: Nature is not matter only.404 Alexander Jacob world. though it sometimes corrects them by force . in CW V:430. according to J u n g .

Volume XXXIII. p. fascism. 14. unlike the materialist philosophers or psychologists.*"* T h e resulting "inexorable moral degeneration of society" can be checked only by the enlightened individual who has c o m p r e h e n d e d a n d assimilated the full r a n g e of his unconscious. O n the contrary. irresponsible way'. "Ibid. or communism. since the communal ideal "puts a p r e m i u m on the lowest common denominator. '^ The Relations between the Ego and the Unconscious.. in his epistolary essay "Why War?" (1933). only the enlightened individual is capable of a truly impersonal social life in that he alone has realized the metaphysical identity of his individual self with that of the others. according to J u n g . in CW VII:150. J u n g points to the greater dangers of the suppression of the individual psyche in a heavily communalized society. so that "the one source of moral spiritual progress for society is choked up". " See above p. individual changes are the necessary condition of social changes."*' This leads to a gradual lowering of culture by restricting the possibilities of individual development.*^ We have here an explanation of the negative social results of the Freudian ethic discussed above. It may be mentioned that Freud.*^ Whereas Freud pointed to the dangers of the repression of instinct in civilized life. on mediocrity. In fact. destructive. there are specific dangers in the communal models posited by both communism and fascism. it is not surprising that J u n g .*" Given this metaphysical basis of his psychology. J u n g ' s ideal of a spiritually regenerated mankind was completely opposed to the mass mentality of m o d e r n times p a r a d i n g in the guise of democracy. 1993 . proclaimed that society would be best organized when the masses were subordinated to an elite who have '"The Relations between the ego and the unconscious. and 'on everything that settles down to vegetate in an easy. H in CW VII:185.58. for the repressed elements of the psyche fall into the unconscious a n d a r e "transformed into something essentially baleful. Jung and Politics. Number 4. does not consider the realization of the ideal society to be d e p e n d e n t on modifications of social relationships.Freud and Jung 405 only of the "mirror-image" of the consciousness which contains only "distorted reflections of conscious contents". " OAayny]/. Summer. a n d anarchical". For.

all the m o r e dangerous as Hegel was a psychologist in disguise who projected great truths out of the subjective s p h e r e into a cosmos h e himself had created.. are considered to be based on the "illusion" that the leader loves ail the m e m b e r s equally. on the other h a n d . by libidinal ties to the leader. as two "artificial groups" b o u n d .*^ J u n g . thus making possible that intellectual juggling with the object which achieved such a horrid brilliance in his philosophy of the State. T h e nobility believe ' 'Why War'. on the other h a n d . T h e s e ties. in spite of his a p p a r e n t "elitism". saw the fascist state as resuhing precisely from the rationalistic system of Hegel: T h e victory of Hegel over Kant dealt the gravest blow to reason a n d to the further development of the G e r m a n a n d . VIII:169-70.406 Alexander Jacob subjected their instincts to "the dictatorship of reason". who is Hegelian insofar as his repudiation of the instinctual life of man for being productive of the "illusions" of religion and civilization is directed by his admiration of reason. We know how far Hegel's influence extends today . like all other ideal relationships."® F r e u d . of the European mind. and can look not only others in the eye but above all himself . as all groups are.It is perfectly natural that a leader should stand at the head of an elite. ultimately. XXII. deserves the same rebuke that J u n g aimed at Hegel. either Christ or the Commander-in-Chief. It is indeed significant that. [In Hegel we find] the practical equation of philosophical reason with Spirit. 213. The Mankind Quarterly . in SE. the church and the army. as well as to the other m e m b e r s in it. J u n g ' s idea of a national leader. ' 'On the Nature of the Psyche' in Collected Works.. which in earlier centuries was formed by the nobility. was of o n e totally conscious of his self a n d his racial/archetypal identity: the true leader is always one who has the courage to be himself. Freud considered the two principal u p p e r castes.

" 'The Undiscovered Self ('Gegenwart und Zukunff. "resistance to the organized mass can be effected only by the man who is as well organized in his individuality as the mass itself'. W. or in the form of anarchic rebellion against this collective parent. the years following the second world war have " C. I n d e e d . McGuire and R.*® Until the individual attains a considerable degree of selfrecognition. J u n g also deplores the projection of the personal desires and fears of the individual psyche onto society at large either in the form of patriotism. X:278. Hull.Jung speaking. T h e truly m o d e r n man will be one who considers the present as a creative transition point between the past a n d the future. had a quite different u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the racial-psychological ideal which governs an idealistic nobility than Freud proposed in terms of his narrowly limited psychological categories. Number 4." J u n g . X:225.5966. For.F. therefore. ' ' 'The Fight with the Shadow' (1946).C. where the nation is considered a father or mother that is to be d e p e n d e d on or obeyed with complete obedience. 1977. 1993 . 1957) in CW. J u n g was opposed to the deracinated individualism which calls itself "modernism. as he p u t it. pp. in CW. while the p s e u d o .Freud and Jung 407 by the law of nature in the blood and exclusiveness of the race. Unfortunately. in CW. cA. 1928).m o d e r n men "appear by the side of the truly m o d e r n m a n [as] uprooted wraiths."While c o m m e n d i n g democracy since it "takes account of h u m a n n a t u r e as it is a n d makes allowance for the necessity of conflict within its own national b o u n d aries". Volume XXXIII. '" 'The spiritual problem of modern man' ('Das Seelenproblem des modernen Menschen'.G.** he definitely repudiates the "modern man" who is unhistorical a n d denies the past to live wholly in the present. X:76. h e will remain vulnerable to mass movements a n d leaders who may use him as a pawn to further their personal ambitions. Summer. Princeton: PUP. blood-sucking ghosts whose emptiness casts discredit u p o n him in his unenviable loneliness".®" T h e truly m o d e r n man is indeed proficient and creative in mastering the traditions of his culture a n d contributing his own spiritual creations to them.

408 Alexander Jacob witnessed the t r i u m p h of the Freudian ethic over t h e J u n g i a n . the increasing influence of America on the mind of Europe should not be ignored either.®' T h e corrective to this fragmented view of the world. is p e r h a p s to be found in the integrative psychology of J u n g with its crucial dimension of spirit as the ultimate reality of the psyche. T h e widespread influence of the limited rational-materialistic psychology of Freud with its restricted u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the constitution a n d powers of the h u m a n mind can be said to have contributed to the inexorable vulgarization of the p s e u d o . The Mankind Quarterly .m o d e r n man. wherein all civilization is reduced to its lowest psychological and social sources r a t h e r than traced to archetypal ideas which prefigure the spiritual possibilities of m a n . " While this is especially true of American society. both individual and collective.