Introduction • Communism would be a type of egalitarian society with no state, no privately owned means of production and no social class

. In communism, all property is owned by the community as a whole, and all people have equal social and economic status. Theoretically, human need or advancement is not left unsatisfied because of poverty, and is rather solved through distribution of property as needed. This is thus often the system proposed to solve the problem of the poverty cycle. Perhaps the best known maxim of a communist society is "From each according to his ability, to each according to his need." This economic model is also referred to as a gift economy. As a political movement, communism is a branch of the broader socialist movement. The communist movement differentiates itself from other branches of the socialist movement through various things such as, for example, the communist desire to establish a gift economy, and their commitment to revolutionary strategies for overthrowing capitalism. Many will tell you that socialism is a moderate form of Communism. Others claim them to be two distinctly different and opposite theories, communism being a cruel and harsh failure and socialism being an enlightened and successful theory. Both of these notions are false though. A better definition of communism is a utopian plan to enforce complete economic equality and achieve this by means of forced income redistribution and economic management. In short it is the same idea of socialism operating most often under a smaller branch of the socialist following known strictly as the communists.

Forms of Communism • Marx, like all communists of his time, was responding to what he truly believed to be an evil philosophy – the philosophy of capitalism. Marx lived through the industrial revolution of the mid-1800s, an age filled with every conceivable mistake that could be made in the name of capitalism. Slavery, child labor, predatory monopolies, harmful products and lethal work places are but a few of the crimes against humanity that Marx lived to see. In his mind, Marx truly desired to help humanity, and communism – even as brutal as he knew it would be – seemed a small price to pay to escape capitalism. Within Marxism, there are several different trends. The largest of these trends is Leninism, which was based on the writings and actions of Vladimir Lenin. According to Lenin, capitalism can only be overthrown by a proletarian revolution, not by parliamentary means. Furthermore, in opposition to Marx, Lenin argued that the revolution would occur first in the less developed nations, and that it would require a "vanguard of the proletariat" composed of a relatively small, tightly organized Communist Party of workers declassed intellectuals. Most (but by no means all) present-day communists are of the Leninist variety. In the early 1930's, Leninism itself fractured in two distinct branches: Stalinism and Trotskyism. The reasons for this split revolved around the controversial policies of Joseph Stalin in the Soviet Union. As such, a number of different currents of opinion formed within the Communist Party. The two most prominent of these were headed by Joseph Stalin and Leon Trotsky, respectively. Stalin argued for the consolidation of socialism in one country (even one as underdeveloped as Soviet Union was at that time) and claimed that, due to the aggravation of class struggle along with the development of socialism, it was necessary to enforce strict Party discipline. Trotsky argued that the fate of socialism in the Soviet Union depended on the fate of socialist and communist revolutions around the world (therefore supporting the thesis of Permanent Revolution), and claimed that Stalin's authoritarian practices were harmful and dangerous (therefore calling for more democracy, both inside the Party and throughout the Soviet Union in general). Stalin eventually succeeded in gaining full control of the Party and the Soviet government. He went ahead with his policies, which became known as Stalinism. Trotsky and his supporters organized into the so-called Left Opposition, and their platform became known as Trotskyism. However, their attempts to remove Stalin from power failed. Stalin imprisoned, executed or exiled all dissenters - especially the Trotskyists. Trotsky himself was exiled, and eventually assassinated in Mexico in 1940 when an ice pick was driven into the back of Trotsky's head.

Communist Manifesto

Marx’s most famous work on the subject of communism was his Communist Manifesto. In it, he gave reasons why the world should reject of all other governments and economic systems (especially

In a way. they may become desperate for a belief in something greater than themselves. simply meant private ownership of cultivated land). which eventually gave way to capitalism. The people of their • . there are stages of economic development: slavery. but has still tried to tap into the human need for spirituality. This differentiated people into land owners and those who needed to work other people's land for a living. The real problem with the Marxian ideas imbued in the manifesto might be that Marx misunderstood which class would ultimately subsume all the others. but about his hatred of religion. He also explains how a communist government should be started and maintained. when nomadic tribes first settled down and started practicing agriculture. • The best-known form of communism is Marxism and its various derivatives. Communism has rejected religion. and communism. as those divisions cannot exist if only one exists. at that time. The internet has opened publishing up to any person who has a few dollars to rent a server. though not all. Where only a few networks dominated the airwaves now hundred of channels proliferate. They were created at the dawn of human civilization. capitalism. in turn. and he made forced atheism a formal part of communism. • • On religion • Marx’s most famous quote is not about his hatred of capitalism. became the chief advocate of communism in the modern world. Some experts argue that all people have an inherent need for spirituality. That system eventually gave way to feudalism. He was wrong because he could not see that the dialectic process would work to elevate the working class to the entrepreneur class and not pull all of society down to the lowest common denominator.and therefore class struggle . progressing society as history progresses. Although many small communist societies have existed throughout human history. the class struggle within capitalism will eventually lead to the proletariat overthrowing the bourgeoisie and establishing socialism. Primitive communism ended when agriculture created the conditions for private ownership of the means of production (which.have not always existed. they have created a new religion called Deification of the State. and without the option of religion.communism. human beings lived in a kind of classless society that can be described as primitive communism. What he could not understand was that the means of production would become less and less expensive all the time due to efficiencies in production. These stages are advanced through a dialectical process. Among other things. • • Analysis of communist Manifesto • The Communist Manifesto still finds favor among many political groups and its tenets and ideas are worthy of study because there are economic and historical truths embedded within it. The brewing industry is a perfect example of this. In essence Marx was wrong not because there was no class struggle. or conversely. and why the entire world should become communist. now micro-breweries have become the rage. According to Marx. Marx wanted religion abolished. equating religion with the most addictive and deadly drugs of his time. Where there used to be only one or two large brewers. which will lead to the final stage of human society . and inexpensive access to the tools of a service industry would make small business a dominant and driving force. will result in the gradual fading of social classes (as the means of production are made public property). Before that. Socialism. The political theory they created. He was under the impression that laborers must ultimately take over the means of production and so destroy the capitalist system. Workers would themselves become entrepreneurs in free and republican societies. Marxism proposes the materialist conception of history. no classes. namely Marxism. It has also proved to be the foundation of one of the most prominent economic and political movements of the 20th Century. markets has become comparatively cheap. And that is the Marxist foundation for communism. This progress is driven by class struggle. There was indeed class struggle throughout most of history. Infamous communists like Joseph Stalin and Mao Zedong used this new kind of religion to make people believe they were virtual gods. Communism is the final form of class society as it results in one class. “Religion is the opiate of the people. social classes . and this in turn resulted in the slavery-based system of the ancient world. feudalism. According to Marxism. The cost for entry into many. Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels were the first to devise a rigorous theoretical basis for communism.” he said. The advent of computers.capitalism).

what all men condemn. this to try answering why Communism is enjoying such longevity in a cultured society as China. this in spite the country's official policy of non-interference. who officially only took power a few months ago. It can be discussed if freedom of press can not possibly coexist with the • • • • . The situation has sometimes been compared to that of the formerly divided Germany. look critically into. While the army. This is another tremendous change from the days of the cold war. Today it seems that even China is going as far it can towards criticising the policies of its eastern neighbour and Communist compatriot. and that they in other ways are hindered in giving objective reports on the domestic situation makes it possible to estimate the strength of the Communist leadership. It has later been discovered that the Americans seriously considered the use of the atomic bomb during especially difficult phases of the war. One is actually also uncertain concerning who is actually in charge. raises serious doubts if Communism can be said to have any influence at all as a political theory. It is unclear how many North-Koreans have starved to death during the last couple of years. One of the initial explanations for the demise of The Soviet Union is how the empire was unable to keep pace economically with the industrial states of the West. while the Chinese were willing to assist the North Koreans. The Soviet Union decided not to take part in the fighting. Officially the war never really ended. by rejecting religion. Examining the political government of North Korea though. North Korea has only on a very limited scale made attempts to reform its economic system. and yet it had created a new elite class and allowed the same abuses to continue. Mao did during the Chinese civil war receive substantial support from North Korean Communist guerrillas. and the suspicion and distrust so well known exist in the same manner as it did during the cold war. This year alone there have been several serious border clashes and sea battles. when access to China was very limited. in some cases) to worship them. is relatively well fed. First the background of the worlds most populous country will have to be assessed.countries were encourage (or forced. Communism in Korea: The Korean War (1950-53) certainly also played a central role in the shaping of North Korea's awkward form of Communism. China is much more open. but estimates run from a couple of hundred thousand to more than a million. Today the war is considered to have been the first main test of strength in the Cold War. communism has become a kind of theocracy. and without the division of Korea it is less likely we would have seen the extreme North Korean closure witnessed today. The fact that foreign news reporters are not allowed to move around freely inside North Korea. Such a solution would certainly put an end to Communism. Internal Conflict • What Marx has accidentally created would seem to be his worst nightmare. Still did the economic problems never reach the point where the state was not able to feed its own population. Indeed. examine first before you decide". and 37 000 American soldiers are still stationed in South Korea to scare of any possible violations of the world's heaviest defended border (Economist. Visas are only rarely handed out to foreigners. Everything he most hated about capitalism is also a part of practical communism. then one might reach the conclusion that NorthKoreans came up with the idea many years before Karl Marx. "Gunboat Diplomacy"). which made the crisis as serious as that of the Cuban missile crisis. if it is correct to categories the form of government as Communist. which with a standing capacity of more than a million men remains one of the world's biggest. and is therefore highly relevant in this context. children and other weak groups are the ones that suffer. this after having mourned his father for several years. and that the only significant similarity was the existence of a border splitting a nation into two. Ironically. Still there are not any top political figures of the Western world that have had the honour of meeting the North Korean leader. Marx called this an Internal Conflict. It should now be clear that the historic background of the two Koreas is very different from that of Germany. and did therefore consider China obliged in entering to war to protect North Korea's borders. but this only down to the middle of the peninsula. he especially liked to point out that capitalism was supposed put an end to the elite classes and abuses of the previous system (feudalism). When Marx criticized capitalism. but differs on important aspects as for instance the fact that the two German states never were or wanted to be at war with each other. Towards the end of this paper. and foreign reporters can immediately report home of anything happening in for example the Chinese capital. this even though initial reports claiming Kim Jong Il to be nothing but a mere puppet have been contradicted. the possibilities of a reunification between the two Koreas will be discussed. Marx did not live to see this term applied to his own system of government. It was Confucius who said "What all men speak well of. but it most definitely does apply. and neither is North Korea in any way burdened by having to subsidy various political allies in other parts of the world. this in contrast to China which the last couple of years even have opened up for independent travellers.

Mikhail Gorbachev. communism must simultaneously account for all industries (there are billions of different industries) and their relationship with each other at the same time. The last Soviet president believed that his perestroika would be able to preserve the empire as a confederation of autonomous republics with a pluralistic but socialist democracy for its political system. and therefore. In an attempt to make more money. As the Portuguese later this year will hand Macao back to China. In many ways this can be seen to be following up the goals of the father of perestroika. They work driven by the incentive of making more money and succeeding. Communism strives for the complete equality of all incomes. and a dozen other things. Within this group. In capitalist systems. but later studies have indicated support for the claim that the Chinese later would develop their own form of Communism. Still there is agreement on that the 1917 October Revolution in Russia provided Chinese radicals with a new strategy of revolution. This occurrence exists in every industry to varying extents resulting in a massive structure of interlining and constantly changing relationships between all industries. to drill more oil requires the use of gasoline for transportation. productivity disappears. One of communism's main ideals is complete control over industries. therefore. Further. In contrast to this does the second group focus more on the indigenous roots of Chinese Communism. Though socialists often attribute it to problems elsewhere. if production in one industry changes. some existing gasoline must be used up in the process. and draws a picture of a movement under Mao Zedong's leadership which was categorised by an anti-imperialistic nationalism. machinery operation. this as independence movements in Tibet and many Muslim dominated areas of China are gaining momentum. which is true in any economic system. this change effects all other industries in one way or another due to inter linking relationships and internal consumption. The prospect of anything similar makes Beijing officials wary of political reform. is the market for oil. Therefore to get more gasoline and drill more oil wells. Currently being so close to achieving it. the simple reason behind this occurrence is the mathematic and physical impossibility of managing an economy from a centralized form. a reunification with Taiwan is the only main obstacle remaining before the ancient goal of a united China is reached. • • . Theoretical quarrels were also a main characteristic of the Sino-Russian relationship. money. refinery operation. The understanding of the origins of Communism in China has usually been based on studies that can be divided into two categories. Gorbachev ended up as a president without a country and was relieved of his office. • Communism’s failure • Communism's main failure in practice comes from the failure of a centralized economy to function. On top of these complex internal relations exists a tendency of change relating to substitute and complementary goods effecting related markets and further entangling the complex relationship between industries of a large economy. generators. but they have no intention of abandoning Marxism as a state ideology or the omnipotence of the Communist Party. everything. and develop skills which distinguish them as rare talents among that labor which is available as supply. or internally consumed. seek further education for themselves. The Chinese government is currently implementing radical reforms transforming the country's economic system. One emphasises the unfolding of Communism in the 1920's and the Soviet involvement in China. In order to efficiently plan industries. while the Soviet Union is split up and most of its former republics have either become or are in the process of becoming stable democratic societies. regimes inspired by the nineteenth-century creed of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels dominated vast territories and about one-third of the world's population. A difference in policy of the above character has often been used to explain why China today remains united and Communist. For instance. and accusations would be flung from both sides when signs of withering from the political and economic ideals of Marxism could be seen. perhaps fearing the latter would bring with it the tragic fate experienced by Gorbachev. but the existence of the former has historically meant the absence of the latter. An example of this occurrence. For example: people work so they can make money to support themselves. Within each specific industry certain goods are internally consumed to produce more of a certain product. he who chooses not to work suffers the consequences while he who works receives the incentives. China and the Soviet Union represented two different brands of Communism. Thus they are implementing the ideals of perestroika without the political reforms of glasnost. As income approaches complete equality. people are driven naturally work harder and longer.presence a Communist political system. • Communism in China: Back when Communism reached its influential peak. make more money or advance in a job. Yet this is not the only aspect that makes an estimation of China's political system difficult. Human nature includes a desire to "do better" and. this in addition to a socialist market economy. which he is working for. hoping for the right of self-determination for Tibet and other Chinese provinces seems overly optimistic. As one republic after another declared its independence.

and dissension it often becomes necessary for an inherently unequal elite to assume authority and power in a communist state in effort to combat this problem. The Soviet Union and other socialist countries failed due to the physical impossibility of managing the complex relationships of industry and resources yet capitalism has survived and thrived by naturally carrying out these tasks for they form the very root of the capitalist system. compliance with socialism and communism becomes a major problem in a communist or socialist state." The reason behind these massacres came from an attempt to build an • • • • • • • . Natural forces of self interest drive a natural and efficient use of resources and natural compensatory adjustment when a change in one industry spreads through all others. Communism and socialism depend upon ideological compliance with their theories. Unfortunately for Marx's cause. China also established a series of gulag concentration camps under Mao. When there are no workers. one of the most extreme forms of communism ever was attempted. Fortunately there is a system where all factors are accounted for by natural forces and are adjusted for by the forces of self interest working in check to each other requiring no mathematical relationships to be established. Marx's entire theory was based on class struggle and a difference in these classes forcing a revolution to be followed by an "equality" of all classes (the irony: Marx and Engels were factory owners when they published the Communist Manifesto and Das Kapital!). Approximately 100 MILLION deaths by direct murder worldwide can be traced to communism. disagreement. which in turn translates into communism and socialism's great failure.• Under true communism. People begin to work less or not work at all because there is no longer the incentive of making more money or advancing in job. This failure led to the disastrous massacres of communism which were often attempts to combat opinions different from the communist governments. Estimates on China suggest the total to be about 40 million dead. though. a third order was coming to power and it would prove to be the larger and more powerful than either the proletariat or the capitalist aristocracy. no matter how hard anyone tries. the opposite happened and the middle class actually bridged any "rift. It is simply human nature to ask questions and to look for the new and the alternative! Bad always on top: Due to the fact that free will exists even under the strictest attempts to oppress it simply due to human nature. The petit-bourgeois. complete with slave labor employing over 10 million people on numerous occasions. Try as it may. As a result. Statistically. Thought is free and independent and. It will then be true that all incomes are equal but this equal income will be zero. income is completely equal. China still employs widespread forced labor today. In fact. In order to combat this free will. The unforeseen middle class: Communism's original and most basic principles deal with the rich owners and the workers or proletariats. China: Mao Tse-Tung's "Great Step Forward" is widely known as the greatest disaster in attempt of a centralized economy. people begin to become idle. political killings of those defiant of the system. The capitalist free market automatically does what socialist managing attempts and fails at doing mathematically. noncompliance. This third middle grounds was completely misjudged by Marx and incorrectly lumped in with the bourgeois rich. socialism and communism has never been able to destroy dissenting free thought and form a universal thought: one accepting of the communist/socialist theory necessary for such a theory to be implemented and succeed. Free will: Communism attempts the impossible: to control human individualism by making a society of inherently individual people uniform. In reality. Marx's term for the middle class. can never be fully controlled. 2 million were massacred in killing fields in attempts to move toward this "equal form of communism. it is communism that is the cause of the greatest massacre in the history of the world. A concentration of widespread power arises at the top among those elite as a natural result of there existing a superior few. communism and socialism may achieve full compliance only through coercion." large amounts of power intensified in a small area tend to attract those hungry for power while corrupting those in power Bloody revolution: Communists and socialists will often tell you that capitalism "kills" the poor. When there is nothing to achieve by working harder or longer. production drops to nothing. yet human nature prompts inevitable dissention from such theories. and killings due to the abuse of power and tyranny inherent and encouraged by an unchecked system. was only to further divide the upper and working classes by an irreconcilable rift. Countless millions were murdered and starved to death in China during this period." that is to say if there was one in the first place! The arrival of the middle class practically ruins any chance for this revolution as well as any need for it. Cambodia: Under the Kmehr Rouge and regime of Pol Pot in the 1970's. This results from starvation due to failed central economies. Just as Lord Acton noticed "absolute power corrupts absolutely.

We can have the freedom of democracy and capitalism." Stalin is estimated to have put 20% of Russia's population to death. • Soviet Union: between 20 and 50 million were put to death at the hands of this evil empire. Scientists. As people were sent to camps. so America is considered to have a very “mild” form of socialism. This means that people who are good friends with government officials. but the average person cannot. The only people who can start businesses in China. and yet we have to find ways to fix these problems without sacrificing too much of our freedom."equal" society though the only equality which resulted was death. anyone can get a business license and start a business. Corporations and businesses often find new ways to abuse the freedoms in this country. have to receive special permission from the government. and maintain safe products and work-places. In America. but few other restrictions exist. Socialism can be difficult to explain. Many countries. there can never be a perfect government of any type. Government control is limited by the Constitution. pay workers a minimum wage. The USA has a form of socialism that is mostly capitalistic and democratic. doctors. because many kinds of socialism exist. are able to start businesses. so it is considered an “extreme” form of socialism. however. so that our government does not become even more abusive than our corporations. (some estimates exceed upward of 50 million. The answer to all this? • Capitalism and communism are both obviously flawed systems. This compromise between democracy/capitalism and communism is called socialism. often referred to as a "reign of terror. In an imperfect world. The government cannot take the business away from the owner unless it has an extreme reason to do so. including the USA. not even a perfect balance of socialism. but we give the government a little more power to keep people safe and make businesses act fairly. for any reason. often call themselves socialist countries. Communist countries. laborers. Our solutions need to be careful and limited. and teachers with non-agricultural professions were targeted and murdered because they differed from the agricultural profession and created inequalities in jobs. The majority of these killings took place under Stalin's regime. the Soviets often deleted all records of that persons existence making exact totals hard to find) Intentional starvings and man made famines were a major killer in the USSR. we need to take the best parts of both systems and careful avoid the worst parts. Somehow. Those who had distinguishing differences from the government's planned economy of farmers were murdered. have decided that we can find a compromise between the systems. The government of China can also choose to nationalize a business (take it away from the owner) at any time. China has added a tiny bit of capitalism to its communist system. like China. or who know the right person to bribe. and even then it must prove in court that it has acted constitutionally. Pol Pot murdered an estimated one fourth of the population of Cambodia. • • • . The government insists that businesses pay taxes. True enough.

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