Intey national Library of





Materials, Hydraulics,





Published by


Strength o{ Materials, Parts




Copyright, 1906, In




1, 2,



Copjiiylu, 1907, bj IN




\N iter\\ heels,





Copjnght, 1907,






II ill,


All rights it-served








The volumes of the International Library of Technology are made up of Instruction Papeis, 01 Sections, compiismg the
various couises of instruction for students of the International

Correspondence Schools

The oiigmal manuscripts

are pie-

pared by pei sons thoroughly qualified both technically and by expenence to uri^e with authority, and in many cases they are
in practical work as experts carefully edited to make them suitable for conespondence mstiuction The Instiuction Papers are written cleaily and in the simplest language possible, so as

regulaily employed elsewhere

The manuscripts are then


make them readily undei stood by all students Necessary technical expressions are clearly explained when introduced
The great majority of our students wish
selves for

to prepaie themfor

advancement in

their vocations or to qualify

moie congenial occupations. Usually they are employed and able to devote only a few horns a day to study Theiefore every effort must be made to gi\e them piactical and accuiate information in. clear and concise foim and to make this mtormation include




but none of the nonillustrations

To make

the text



jllustiations aie especially made by our own Illustiatmg Department in order to adapt them fully to the icquirements of the text


In the table of contents that immediately follows aie given
the titles of the Sections included



volume, and under



are listed the


topics discussed




NOTE -This -\olume is made up of -i number of separate Sections, the numbers of which usually begin with 1 To emble the re-ultr to distinguish between the different Sections, each one is designated by a numlicr piececlcd by Section nnik (), which -ippears at the top ot each page, opposite the p igt number In this list of contents the Section number is i\en follow nip MIL titlt of the Section, ind under eacli title ippears a full sjnopsis of the subjects treated This table ot contents will enable the reader to hud readily any topic covered

Stiess, Defoimation, Elasticity,



1- 6

and Strength


and Defoimation

Definition of stress, Classification of stress, Unit stress. Tensile deformation, Compressive deformation, Rate

Elastic limit, Hooke's law, Young's moduli

11-13 14-29 14-23

Stiength Simple or Dnect Stresses Tension
Stresses in a tension piece, Strength of cylindrical shells and pipLs with thin walls, Tempeiature stresses, Coefficient of expansion, Hoop shrinkage

Compressive strength dependent on length, Characteristic manners ot failuie of short blocks, Shear


External Sheai

Bending Moments Moment diagram and moment

30-48 30-35 36-48

line, Cantilever supporting load at end, Cantilever uniformly loaded, Simple beam supporting one concentrated load, Simple beam uniforml} loaded Beam fixed at one end, supported at the other, Beam fixed at both ends







of Ineitia and Radius ot G\iation


Rectangular moment ot inertia, Polai moment of ineitia, Reduction formula, Least moment of inertia, Principal


of inertia of


figures ot areai


Radius of g3 lation
Stresses in a




Stresses at am crosb-section forces Section modulus

Distribution of the normal

Stiength ot Beams
Stiffness of

Inclined Foices

Beams Undei

19-22 23-24 25-26 27-35

Classification, Eider's formulas, Stiaight-lme and paiabola foimulas, Rankme's formulas, Design ot columns

Toi sion
Strength of Ropes and Chains

36-40 41-44




of Watei Thiough Oiifices and Tubes Fundamental Facts and Pi maples Bernoulli's Law tor Fnctionless Flow






Water Thiough Oulices

Theoretical velocity and discharge, Actual discharge through standard orifices, Coefficient of velocity, Coefficient of discharge, Submerged oiifice, Rounded 011fices, Miner's inch

Flow Thiough Short Tubes




Resistance to

Water in Pipes Flow in Pipes.

1- 8

Bernoulli's law foi any flow, Coefficients of hydraulic resistance, Loss of head at entianee

General Foimulas foi the Flow of Watei in Pipes Application of Bernoulli's law, Formula for velocity, Foimulas for discharge


Flow Thiough Vei}^ Short Pipes Hvdiauhc Giade Line



Hydiauhc Table
Smooth Cast01

Pages 23-27


Long Pipes

Table of Values of the Coefficient of Fuction

Wi ought-Iron


Angulai Bends Table of Coefficients foi Cnculai Bends
Table of Coefficients

28 29 29 30-97

Hydraulic Table for Cast-iron Pipes




in Conduits

and Channels

1- 7


Conduit, Wetted perimeter, Fhdraulic radius, Hydraulic mean depth, Permanent flow

Velocity and Dischaige Gauging Sti earns and Rivers

3- 7 8-72


of Dischaige In Weirs Weirs with and without end contraction, Measuring the
head, formulas, weir


weirs, gauge, Discharge Triangular weir, Cippoletti's trapezoidal




Measuiement of Dischaige by the Cuuent Metei Description of instrument, Rating of instrument, Use
the instrument for determining velocity


and dischaige

Measuiement of Velocity by Floats Surface floats Rod floats Coefficient
, ,

of reduction

The Pitot Tube The Dischaige Table and Record Gauge Geneial Remaiks on Vaiious Instruments

52-57 58-63


methods, Variations of \elocitj

a cross-



1~ 6

Energy, Work, Efficiency, and Head

Watei Supply




Pondage, Distributed flow, Estimates of cost

Action of a Jet Energy of a jet, Pressure
sure and


of a jet on a fixed surface, Piessure on a fixed flat vane at right angles, Pressure on d fixed hemispherical vane Reaction of a jet, Pres-


of a jet

on moving vanes


Internal, or





Veitical Waterwheels



24-25 26-31 32-34 35-36

Classes of Watei wheels

Overshot Wheels
Breast Y\ heels

Undershot Wheels Transmission ot Power Impulse Watei wheels General Description and Theon Testing Impulse Wheels

39-57 39-54 55-57

Tui bines


and Geneial Principles



Principal parts of the turbine of water on a turbine

Classes of turbines


Formulas for the Design of Turbines Guides and Vanes
Guides and vanes for axial turbines
flow turbines,

5-17 18-24


Guides for outwardpitch or thickening ot the vanes,

Guides for inward-flow turbines

Tin bines Built From Stock Patterns

25-30 31-57

Gates, Gate openings, Register gates, Cylinder gates, Bearings, Water-balanced turbines,, Foot-step bearings, Draft tubes of constant diameter, Expanding draft tubes, Boyden diffuser, Governors, Replogle governor, Lombard governor

The Testing

of Turbines


testing flume



Conduits, Head-gates, Penstocks, Vertical and horizontal wheels in open flumes, Tailrace


Part 1. and the teaction exeited by the on the fonnei. ELASTICITY. the external forces acting on one of the paits thus obtained are balanced by the force that the other part exerts on the part considered COPYRIGHTED BY INTERNATIONAL TEXTBOOK COMPANY ALL RIGHTS RESERVED TLT 309-3 . that as a pair of foices consisting of the action exeited by any denoting pan of such equal opposing part of the latter part stress is body on another.L I B R A R \ STRENGTH OF MATERIALS (PART 1) STRESS. body induces in of the body are prevented from separating If the body is cut by a plane anywhere. if a body in equilibrium is cut by a plane. DEFORMATION. the term stress was a de- FlG 1 fined as is. forces. Statics. AND STRENGTH STRESS IL. AND DEFORMATION Definitions of Stiess Part 1. and it was theie stated that the measured by the magnitude of either foice It was also explained that. the two parts it thus obtained exert on each other forces As explained in Analytic any system of external forces acting on a the body intemal forces by which the parts of equal in magnitude but In opposite in direction Analytic Statics.

01 aie applied to. the equihbiant of all the external foices is the eqmlibrant of all the external MPQ The pait M P Q may be ' tieated as a sepaiate body kept in equilibrium by in forces acting on that part. a stiess if it has the direction P Q. S is perpendicular to PQ. in Fig 1. while stiesses act ///. It should be paiticularly noted that external forces act on. and moie generally. or are produced or inihucd in. nonnal stiess is is a stiess whose which line of action is perit pendicular to the surface ovet is dibtribiued A tangential stress whose line ot action is parallel or coincides with. a body. and the part as a sepatate body kept and the external may be treated equilibrium by . is in is M N.2 If the STRENGTH OF MATERIALS body 34 equihbiium under the action anywhere by a plane the part exeits on the part P Q a foice 5 equal and opposite to the foice 6\ exeited by on The pair of foices 5 and 6\ constitute the stiess at the 1. it M PQ S cut N XY t PNQ MPQ section PQ is and 5. induced. Fig and of external forces. with lefeience to Fig 1.S and the external l S PNQ forces acting on that part 2. Fiist Classification of Stress Considering the direction in which stresses act with respect to the surface over which they are distributed. as looseness or maccm acy of language leads to confusion in thinking bhould be used in the 4. it is often denned as the internal force by which a body icbists the action of external foices 3. the smface ovei \\hich it is distiibuted. . applied opposite internal forces acting at any section Thus. St stress in this sense. what is really applied is one or more external foices. the body The expression "to apply" a stiess to a body is mconect. by which the stresses are caused. or pi educed It is impoitant that terms pioper sense. acting on forces acting on PNQ. S is a normal stress. of a The teim body to eithei of the shcss is also. If. it is a tangential stress. they may be either normal or tangential A to. the stress at the section PQ the is Taking woid either of the equal and opposite forces S.

the internal forces act away from each other.34 STRENGTH OF MATERIALS inclined stress Any 5. a normal stress 6. a normal stiess 7. It is assumed pendicular to the surface of separation Tension is. where. tension. P' is exerted in Fig 2 (6) This kind of stress is called by B on A. tensile and P" are per- sti'ess. Compression Shear When the external forces applied to a body tend to crush the body. the internal forces act toward in each other. the surface of sepaiation and pievent such sliding tend to move A. for purposes normal and tangential components of When pull the paits of the the external forces applied to a body tend to body apart. which is tangential. compi-essive stress. or tlirust. When the external forces applied to a body tend to the cause one part of the body to slide over the other part. and P" by A on B It is. The second in classification of stress based on the manner which . and P" the action of AB Fig 2 (a]. and Second Classification is of Stress. into its can be resolved. and pievent the sliding This kind of stress. for con- A B P A is called that P 1 tension. theiefoie. act along internal forces exerted by the paits on each other Thus. the internal forces P' and P" act as shown. to the left 8. to distinguish them further on toisional stress. 01 sheai. as (a) represented As in Fig 2 (a). and shear aie called simple. compression. is shown sepaiated into the two the body 1 cut by a plane ot section is the action and parts This kind of stress on B of B on A. Fig 2 (c). as repiesented venience. if the external forces aie such that they or stresses and B to the right. like coinpiession. or pull. *ti esses. analysis. which will be defined 9. Tension. is called slieaiing stiess. fiom bending or tlncct.

000 45. foi it seems to imply a special unit by which stresses are measured. ft ) = 4j - 144 Theiefoie. or vniying. 5 = 45. or unit stress.000 Ib and SOLUTION (a) Heie tuting these values in the formula. are measuied by the same units such as pounds.4 the stress is STRENGTH OF MATERIALS 34 distnbuted over the section separating the If a stress is such that all equal two paits of the body areas of the section of separation aie undei the same stress. being forces. or to be a unif 01*111 stress Otherwise. . such as pounds of area. the stress is said to be umfoimly distributed.000 144 -1^X^00 = __. whereas.10. although very commonly used.000.. the intensity of stiess square foot? m P (tons) = ^ = U sq in Substi= 45.2. must be expressed in tons. the intensity of btiess . A (sq . tons. the stress is said to be noii- uniform. is misleading. and kilograms as other foices The exptession intensity of stiess will be here used instead of unit stiess Intensity of stiess is expiessed as so many units of toice per unit of aiea. expiessed in units of foice.000 - 2. wherever those aieas aie taken and whatever then extent. 10. Iiiteusity of Stiess Unit Stress. is a stress uniformly distributed ovei an aiea A.4-1. and is called The latter term. s expiess tons pei square foot Similarly any other units EXAMPLE an area of 4-J A stress of 4^. s will express P is and A in square for feet. per sq ft ft Ans .000 Ib per sq in Ans In this case.000 pounds is is distributed umfoimly over (a] square inches pounds per square inch? (b] What in tons per .000 = = -lJ^l4ir45. 45. per square inch 01 tons per square foot If P. and in square feet (d) P A P A . the result is the stress per unit intensity of stress. 720 T . If the magnitude of a uniform stress is divided by the area over which the stiess is distnbuted.000 . stresses.? is given by the foimula J is in pounds and pounds per square inch _ ~ P A in tons HP will A If in square inches.

will be here dispensed with m Classification of DefThere are three mf- 12. whose natural length is mn. but as is used also in the sense of it stress. and shearing dcfoj mation If F\ Fro 3 is FIG 4 a body or a part it of a in body subjected to a tensile stress. mation Definiticm of Deformation. m m"-r- namely. having an intensity of 16 tons What is the aiea per square foot.: 34 STRENGTH OF MATERIALS lesult The same could intensity per square result by 2.043 Ib i (b) 939 T persq ft m per sq intensity of a uniform stress distributed over an area of 12 squdie inches is 21. and dividing the EXAMPLES FOR PRACTICE 1 5 75 uniform stress of 75. By the term deforis meant the change of form or shape that a body to exsti undergoes when subjected ternal forces is it The word am often used in this sense. is distnbuted over a plane surface 3 A of the surface? Ans 156 25 sq ft 11. the tensile deformation is m m' If a body or part of a body is subjected to a compressive stretch is called a tensile . this stress.000 inch. be obtained directly by multiplying the by 144. oimations mg kinds of deformation. Fig 3 represents a rod. will stretch the direction of the deformation. tensile deformation^ compic^ivc dtfonnatwn. in tons per squaie foot Ans 2 .000 pounds per square inch What is the total stress />? The Ans 252.000 Ib uniform stress of 2.500 tons. already found. ((a) 13.000 pounds is distributed over an area of Find the intensity of the stress (a) in pounds per square inches (b) A squaie inch. coirespondto the three kinds of direct stress. supported above and If the force elongates the rod subjected to a pull F below as shown by the dotted lines.

yards. being expressed in the same units Let / = natuial length of a body of uniform cross-section. Rate of Defonnation. Fig 4 whose natural on a base and subjected to a load J\ length is inn. the ratio k. and the face a b n is changed toad m' n'. the defoimation per unit of length in a body of umfoim cross-section will here be called the i ate of deformation It is obtained by dividing the total defoimation by the length of the body. remains the same. shorten in the direction of the stress. is a shearing defoimation. resting If the load shortens lines. provided that the bame unit is used . inches. m G G & This change. which can be described either by the angle mbm'. If a the compressive is subjected to shearing stress deformation Fig 5 represents a block of rubber a n m b. = total tensile or compiessive deformation. 01 any other unit. It k = - is an abstract number. it STRENGTH OF MATERIALS will 34 shortening is represents a block. k = rate of deformation K Then. this called a corapressive deformation. shearing stresses aie developed at horizontal sections of the rubber block. the block as shown by the dotted deformation is m m'. indeWhether A" and / are pendent of the unit of length used expressed in feet. should be observed that k or P? . one face of which is firmly glued to a support and the opposite face to a small board B B that can be pulled in the guides G If the board is pulled to the it body 01 pait of a body will surfei a characteristic right. the deformation and the length 13. In the case of tension and compression. or by the slide mm' of the nppei face with respect to the lower.6 stress.

When a force is applied to a body. by which form and dimensions they regain their foim and dimensions when deforming 14. it will not be used heie force EXAMPLE I A lod 12 inches long is stretched 1 inch by an What is the late of defoimation ? Here / = 12. / is given in feet and A' m inches. foi example. 1 15 + 15 X A = 15 3 ft Aus EXAMPLES FOR PRACTICE 1 The natural length TTJ- of a block is 4 5 feet If the block is comaV pressed 2 If inch. and. theiefore. eithei / should be reduced to inches or If / K K to feet The teim umt deloi matiou is frequently used to denote it rate ot defoimation As. its length is 8 22 inches What is the rate of Ans 0275 defoimation? ELASTICITY Definition. the body will. K = i. the body is detoimed If the force does not exceed a certain limit.34 for K as for STRENGTH OF MATERIALS / 7 and are given. however.1 length of a bar is 8 inches. and. . they should be reduced to the same unit before finding the late of detoi matron If. what is the length of the bar when Since each foot of the bai is stretched -^ ft the whole Sor UIION bar will be stretched I ) X isV. which is different for different substances. \\hen the bar is under a ceitain tensile force. SOLUTION k external = 12 = ** AUS is -r?>. EXAMPLE 2 If the rate of deformation of a bar is and the onginal length of the bai deformed ? 15 feet. is misleading. on the removal of the force. regain its original This property of bodies. and a tensile force applied to it piodnces a rate of deformation of Olb. therefore. expressed in different units. \\hat initial is the rate of defoimatiou ? Ans length of i lod is 9 75 feet. the length of the stretched bar is . what is the length Ans 9 906 ft of the stietehed lod? the 01 3 'I he ongim.

A . and it is a fundamental pimciple of engineering that no pat t of a structure ot machine should be designed for st) esses g) cater than the elastic limit of the material of which the part is made foices causing stiesses Beyond this limit. ib called elasticity. that is. .UUU = & in Ans . . the lo^ of 1. beyond which the body. . known 17. and. m K whence K 1 = '~-^r J. required elongation the foregoing proportion. both inducing stiesses smaller than the elastic limit.000 Ib F'. the beha- EXAMPLE If a load of 1. great an elongation will be produced by a load of 1. As just stated. and causing in a body the deformations A" and A"7 lespectively Then. Hooke's Law. beyond which the body ceases to be perfectly elastic. to indicate that bodies possess this pioperty.000 1. that. the deformation caused by a fotce is ptopottional to the foice This important principle. the deformation caused in a body when the elastic limit of the body is exceeded does not disappear entnely on the removal of the force That pait of the defoimation that does not disappeai is called permanent set. or of the material of which the body is composed 16. Elastic Limit. . retains all or pait of the defoimation caused by the foice The intensity of stress caused by this limiting foice is called the elastic limit of the body. 1 = -1 1.. 15. there is a force. after the force is lemoved. is the foundation of the science of strength of materials Let /''and F' be two forces. and a corresponding stiess.200 Ib 7 the the elongation of -} in and Then.200 pounds' SOLUTION A". they are said to be elastic.000 pounds elongates a rod ~ inch.8 STRENGTH OF MATERIALS 34 forces are removed. It has been found by experiment within the elastic limit. K K' = F F to 1 Hooke's law does not apply greater than the elastic limit vior of mateiials is iriegular and impeitectly known.200. according to Hooke's law. as Hoolce's law. how substituting Let Fdenote the load of 1. Permanent Set. For every body.

corresponding to the different kmdb of stress. 9 Coefficient of Elcisticity. it may be shown of defoimation corresponding to that.S = As. and S' = As 1 . kl (see Art 7 13). The general formula therefore. acting in the same body (but not simulf Let the cortaneously with S).34 STRENGTH OF MATERIALS Modulus 01 . provided only that their intensity is below the elastic limit This quotient is called the modulus of of the material elasticity of the matenal. but those that are of greatest importance. which is independent of the area A. as well as most accurately known. . A" = k' l. are the of elasticity of tension and the modulus of elasticity of compression They are often called Young's moduli modulus The modulus elasticity. shows for eveiy material. deformations be deformation k and U It is assumed that s and s' are below the elastic limit Accoiding to Hooke's law. because K K K' = 5 S'. then ^k" = * = *L k k' This result. and is usually denoted by E There aie different moduli of elasticity. of elasticity is also called coefficient of elasticity JS.= k s' As'. s'. the quotient obtained by dividing the intensity of stiess by the corresponding rate of deformathat.' Let a body of length / and uniform cross-section A be subjected to d uniform stiess of magnitude . kl or k VI = As k' = s s . tion is constant. K K 1 '. and having an intensity s and and the rates of responding. or. if k" is an intensity of stiess s".S and intensity Let S 1 be another stiess. 01 has the same value for all stresses. whence In the the rate k! same manner.$ 18. for the modulus of .

. in these values in formula 2. since k = / and P^ s = A . and A to the coiiespondmg unit of area Thus. what elongation will he a bai 20 feet long and 4 25 square inches in cross-section by a force of -10 tons' caused m SOLUTION Formula 2. if / is in inches. the aiea A. A" must be in inches. and A = 80. and then substituting It should be obsetved that. the total stress P. E= ~ K_ I = -L AK (2) ' ^ Since k is an abstract number. this formula. as a rod or bar. / and must be referied to the same unit of length. and A in squaie inches K EXAMPLE 1 A steel rod 10 feet long aucl 2 squaie inches in crosssection is stretched 12 inch by a \\eight of 54. gives K~ E= = 40 In the piesent case. in In English-speaking coun- The usually expiessed in pounds per square inch value of the modulus of elasticity is determined experimentally by taking a piece of the material.000 X4 25 161 m Ans .000 lb pei sq 2 the tension modulus of elasticity of a grade of 28.000X240 28. measuring its length /.000 pounds What is the tension modulus of elasticity of the material? SOLUTION / To 120 in = 10 ft = apply formula 2. and the deformation A' caused by an applied force P.000 pounds per squaie inch. I t. its aiea A. \ve have.0001b Therefoie. = P = 54. E= EXAMPLE steel is 120 {LL|?2_>< ^ XN 1-J If = 27i ooo.000 lb per sq in these values inequation (1).q = 20 in ft = 240 in .000.000. total deformation K.10 STRENGTH OF MATERIALS 34 and the In terms of the length /. formula 1 shows that the E is expressed tries. Ef ~ A _ P T = . Ans .000 lb = 4 25 . m same units as units of force pei unit of area E is the intensity s. 28 000. solved foi /'. Substituting 80. that is. we have and A" the stiess 12 in in ~A = 2 sq in .

but duc1 m tile materials. stresses Faetoi of Safety By factoi of safety is meant the latio of ultimate strength to working stress . compression. inc h (b) the foice necessary to cause an elongation of rs f(a) 15 in Ans . numbeib aie the woiking 121. and. 01 shear is the stress greatest intensity of tensile.000.000 lb per sq m of elasticity of a rod 15 feet long and 1 5 squaie inches in cioss-sectiou being 24. deteimme () the elongation caused by a force of 30. Woikhiff Stress is The term workliig stress. or woiking stiength. Ultimate Strength The ultimate strength of a given material in tension. undergo a consideiable change in cioss-section just before ruptute It is the common practice to compute the ultimate occurs the area of the strength.34 STRENGTH OF MATERIALS EXAMPLES FOR PRACTICE 11 block 9 inches long and 8 square inches in cioss-section is What is the compression inch by a force of 60 tons compressed 1 A ^ modulus 2 of elasticity of the material? Ans 2. i (6) 12. and shear these 12. if the subjected to tension. and {) 000 pounds pei square inch.000. applied to a pait of a machine or stiuctme to be designed. compression. compression. a tiveted joint may and shear. or shearing As represented Figs 3 and 4. that the material can stand m a specimen while being stretched or compressed changes So long as the stiesses aie within the cioss-sectional area elastic limit. to denote the maximum intensity If a part is of stress to which that part is to be subjected ate as to be subjected to more than one kind of stiess.000 pounds. the change in cross-section is small. like wrought non and structural steel.000 pounds per square The tension modulus inch. intensities of the tension.500 lb STRENGTH 19. there be many woiking sti esses foi it Thus. not from the maximum load and cross-section when uiptme occurs.000. respectively.160. aie 15. compressive. but by dividing the maxi- mum load by the oiigmal area 20.

choosing a to the same thing as choosing a factoi computed by the working stiess amounts of safety Before designing a stiucture. respectively. that are only approximately tiue All such uncertainties . and. safety is selected. must be estimated. t j = = = factor of safety. a = s stiess to tnembei has a factor of safety for each kind of which it is subjected. ultimate strength. and the last. for then the deformations aie comparatively small. and this is a mattei of There aie no fixed rules foi the selection great impoitance of a factor of safety. it is sometimes impossible to compute the stresses to which a member is to be subjected.12 STRENGTH OF MATERIALS Let 7 34 s. Choice of Working Stress or Factoi of Safety working stiess is selected for a matenal whose ultimate strength is known. the factor of safety can be computed by If a the formula in the preceding aiticle. while that for a member subjected to shocks should be still less This lule is based on the experimentally discovered fact that. but. leferred to as Hie factor of safety 1 the least is 22. the least Besides the uncertainty in quality of mntenal. if thiee specimens aie subjected to a steady load. a changing and a suddenly applied load. there are poor workmanship. Strictly. it is necessary to adopt a woiking stress or factor of safety. the woiking stiess can be if the factor of same formula Hence. but the following principles should be boine in mind 1 The working stress should always be well within the elastic limit. deterioration of material. the first specimen will stand the gieatest load. working strength. if it has more than one. etc to be allowed for Then. again. 01 determined fiom assumptions they exactly alike load. 1 Then. and not permanent 2 The woiking stress foi a member subjected to changing stresses should be lower than that foi a member subjected to a steady stress.

$34 STRENGTH OF MATERIALS 13 die provided for by loweimg the working stress. the factor of safety is no longer used. the working stresses being given instead . in which the woiking stresses or factors In some branches of engiof safety to be used are stated neering constitution. as in bridge work. or increasTable I gives average values of ing the factor of safety the factors of safety commonly employed in American practice TABLE I FACTORS OF SAFETY These values will sei ve to give a general idea of the values All impoitant structuies and machinery are used in practice designed and constructed m accordance with specially prepared specifications.

the lattei being F equal to the stress this case. there for the foice to In Inalyiu Status. lines of action coincide with a longitudinal axis passing In Fig 6 (a) is thiough the center of gravity of the piece represented a tension piece B C acted on by the two equal If any section ib cut by a plane perand opposite forces F ^ <<* it F --"\ M P \ F Fir 6 - pendicular to the axis of the piece. the only stress in that section will be a tension whose magnitude is F and whose is A . Tension pieces usually have the foun of long bars. the total lesultant stress P in that section will still be equal to This is N . denoting the area of the section by A If an inclined section Af is cut by a plane Y making an angle a with the axis of the piece. Pait 1) both tension and sheai at the . X t F plainly shown in Fig 6 (b) wheie the part C is shown as a free body acted on by the foices and P. nent Pn normal MN and P may be lesolved into a compo- a component P t along MN . ' howevei. at 'J/A r (see is section M N. or to the common intensity direcE* tion of the foices F.14 STRENGTH OF MATERIALS 34 SIMPLE OK DIRECT STRESSES TENSION Stresses in a Tension Piece Any body subjected to two equal and opposite pulls is called a tension piece. and the external forces aie geneially so applied that their 23.

whence a = 45 this condition. shear It MNis denoted by A\ sin a The intensities of tension and shear are. the elongation increases fastei than the load Beyond the elastic limit. max The value For of ss is st = A sin 2 a (3) greatest rp when = 1. 01 when the plane t sm'rt = XY 1. and ductile . that is. -j \ A' A sin a A cos a st P ~ Pcosa = P sin a A A _A_ t = 1 2 F A sm n 2a / ( 2 \ ) sin a that The value of s is greatest. the tensile stress is the dangerous one.34 the STRENGTH OF MATERIALS former repiesents the tension the area at 15 the MN. respectively (bee Art 10). Percentage In a tension Area test. when a = 90. the latter. when is is. for the the elastic limit. of Elongation and Reduction of the behavior of the specimen is I H J FIG " uniform within the elastic of the load. . and the shearing stress is usually disregarded in tension pieces Since the maximum tension twice that 24. _ P_n _ /"jinjz _ F_ . the diminution of crosssection also increases faster than the load. diminutions equal increments piece sti etches equal amounts and the But beyond of cross-section aie also equal limit. 01 a maximum. perpendic- ular to the axis of the piece Foi this condition. max ^ = 2 A = 2" max of st (4) is intensity of shear.

h rate of reduction of aiea and the pei cent of eduction ? EXAMPLE -f was i SOLUTION by formula 1. then = A 100 a = ^~.. total i The late of action of ai ea eduction of area to the original aiea n a Denoting < by a. 4 iJ. Heie 100 = 10 32 9 and I = = 8. stretching and necking continue without the load being inci eased down" Fig 7 repiesents. = in 3? i^ a x 100 29 pei cent Ans 2 The original diameter of a louncl tod tested foi tension What was the inch. 4 X (5) \/ . 4 X( 47)- Theiefore. 34 to mateiials. A 100 = 100 k i eel = - X 100 is (2) the ratio of the it 25.16 STRENGTH OF MATERIALS wrought iron. the form of the specimen at rupture If / denotes the original length between two sections A and B of the specimen. and /' the distance between the same sections. and. k = ?-=-' (i) Denoting by 100 the per cent of elongation. ^L-~~~ si is \ 1 i / ) If the per cent of reduction of area fltoo denoted by (12) <?. by formula "2 of Art 24. the rate of elongation k (see Art 13) is given by the foimula 1 '. or the elonga- tion in 100 units of length. a Heie A - -. we have. such as steel and begin "neck shoitly betoie rupture. = 4 W -. in dotted lines. and. and the diameter at luptnie was 47 inc. 4 = = (625)' x /5 \ \s/ (^~- -(47)' = 10P 435 A Ans By formula a iao = 435 X 100 = 43 5 per cent Ans . the ougmal foim of a tension specimen ot a ductile matenal. lepiesented by A and B' at uiptuie. and A = 1 -.X 100 Si EXAMPLE c ti 1 etched to 10 S2 bar whose original length was 8 inches bioke when What was the per cent of elongation? inches /' SOLUTION X. in full lines.

after ruptuie. aie wide variations There aie. and the Hence. Constants for Mateiials in Tension and in in examples. wrought non. of 20. and steel TABLE II CONSTANTS FOR MATERIALS IN TENSION (Pounds pei Squat e Inch] EXAMPLE a pull 1 A lound wrought-non lod 1 inch in diameter sustains s. to measure 10 87 inches Determine the per cent of elongation Ans X-. f(<z) a = 154 (A) flico = 15 4 percent rod whose original length was 9 inches was found. Table II is here These values aie rough averages.465 Ib per sq m Ans I LT 399-^3 . (t>) the per cent of 1 A reduction of area /. from which there given 26.?? What aie the intensity of tensile stiess and SOLUTION The entire stress equals the load. for instance. or 20.00 = 20 78 per cent 2 A For use order that a general idea ot the numerical values of the constants may be had.STRENGTH OF MATERIALS EXAMPLES FOR PRACTICE 17 round rod whose original diaruetei was 7 inch was tested for tension until it bioke The diameter at rupture was found to be 69 inch Find (a) the rate of leduction of aiea.000 Ib is . 20iqp_ i- 7854 c = 25. aiea of the cioss-sectiou of the rod - X 1" = 7854 sq m by formula of Art St 1O.000 pounds the factoi of safety. many kinds of timber whose ultimate strengths differ widely from one The same lemaik applies to the constants for another different grades of cast iron.

s. = ^/ t. the factoi SOLUTION From Table II..000 pounds? of safety r (> Fiom Table I.V[ J !) i "l > sq in ir great a load can be safely sustained b> \viouyht-iion b 5 square inches in cross-section.) { (/. Ans s. 2. by = 65. the load being vamble. = steady stress is 5 forr'a for steel undei i >.00() Theiefoie.5. nc uly \(/>) I7. per sq i m and = 75.1 EXAMPLE is 2 What the piopei diametei of louncl steel loci th it to sustain a stead j pull of 60. s . nearli J = Ans . " 7854 the aiea of a steel lod to sustain a EXAMPLE SOLUTION 3 What must be Here s/ pull of 75. J = is W stress. IMPORTANT APPLIf MIONs Strength of CyhntliUal Shells and Pipes WHh a cyhnclei is subjected to internal piessure.2R(> lb c . and .000 pounds.000 stress? pounds What is (a) the facto ofsifct\' f(.000 pounds What the woikmu. if the load is suddenly ipphcd-' 4 How Ans jr> .()()() ]|i 27. is in a I) bridge? Theiefoie. the tensile stress developed in the walls 01 shell of the When . (/>) !()1 AnsfjJi (b) I ipplicd hud i. by formula of Ait 21.000 lb pei sq From the formula of Ait 1C. s S = J = / LP9? 5 = 13. flora the in of Ait 21..000 = 7- .' also the working . i sticss of 78.. ( ).18 STRENGTH OF MATERIALS This is .000 . Thin Walls..000 = k (' iS scl Ans EXAMPLES 1 y<)K I>KA( in 'I K F is ) A steel bar 4 5 square inches cioss section i nnfloi tin... = 7 (Table formula of Art 21. P d ~ . 60. hence.000. 10 ' \ /4 62 _ ~ .) woikiiii "i in.t thu iLCiuiml " l' u .!01b pu il '(> scj it 2 What should be the aiea oC a stcc-1 bai m safely sustain a vaiiable pull of 80. y .000 3 pounds? to mtUi Ans 1 th ') a S (| in A steel bar is to is be subjected (a) a suddenly sticss^ 40.

formula 2 is used to compute Formula 1 sei . and s (working stress) are given. as heie assumed. or lioop tenone-half of a cross-section of a the internal pres- sion cylinder suie. d. thickness of shell / is veiy small compaied with d. s = p / . that pressure having an intensity equal to the actual intensity of pressure on the walls ot the cyhndei Let d = internal diametei of cylinder. while the arrows marked P icpresent the hoop tensions that hold down the upper half of the cylinder Evidently. these balance the It upward component F of the internal piessure shown by the use of advanced mathematics that the component F is the same as the lesultant of a normal pressure umof \ cW^ be foimly distributed over the projection B C the inner cylmdiical surface on the p FlG 8 plane of section B C. Fig the 8 icpresents unmarked anov\s represent eveiywheie normal to the mteiioi suiface. F Also. since = F is pxdl (1) balanced by 2/*. be heated as uniformly distributed over the surface of contact of the two halves el the cyhndei. / (1) give whence = ~~ 2s d) (2) s - |f ves to compute the thickness when p. and t p= sit These values substituted in equation 2j// = 6dl. Let be the intensity of the tension/5 Then. which surface consists of two lectangles ot length / and width / The area of the pi ejection lepiesented in the figure by B C When.34 cylinder is STRENGTH OF MATERIALS called 19 circumfeiential stress. / / = = length of cyhndei consideied. the stress P may is nCX I = dl Theiefoie. p = intensity of pressure on inner surface of cylinder.

since P= F. **> The formulas in the last aiticle relate to the radial is. - 10 X_3Q x\ "a" = 4 _ oo Ib pei sq in Ans what <-hould he the EXAMPLE 2 As determined by hoop tension. formula 2.20 STRENGTH OF MATERIALS 3l of pressure p and the intensity of stress when the intensity the dimensions of the cylinder aie given tension a boilei shell Ex \MPLF 1 What is the hoop intensity of whose inside diameter is 30 inches.10 = 2. <-$&-"" 28. the Table II. is 20.000 . inside di imetei 21 inches. C and.000 Ib per sq in w orkmg stress is 20. thickness of walls of a cast iron watei pipe. that to tlie tendency of the internal picssuic to hicak the cylmdci along a plane section containing the axis The tendency ulai 1110 9 to iiiptuic on a plane section peTpenchc. the axis will now of be consideied the cylmdei cut Fig 9icp- This pait is kept in equilibby a plane rium by the tension P and the internal piessuie /" The tension/* is distributed over a nng of width /. 4 ^ whence . factor of to resist a water piessure of 200 pounds pei sqnaiu inch? A safety of 10 is to be used ultimate tensile stiength of cast iron. stresses in a cylmdei.000 Ib per sq in Substituting this. whose aiea is AT lescnts a poition JlfL The toiLC /' practically equal to nd X t a circular aiea represented in section by B is distubuted ovei Theiefoie. the steam pies- m sure being 100 SOLUTION s pounds per squaie inch? and d = HO Here p = 100. ndts = ---. plate I inch thick. as c^iven in SOLUTION The As the factor of safety is 10. / = . and the given values m formula 1.

the coefficient of expansion is that is. Cast iron is usually 0000069 0000062 III denoted by c The --^ 1 average \alues of this constant are given in Table 30. Let c / /. stances expand.OOOOOb) leet at 32.000006 X 8) teet For nearly positive. length of rod 01 bai at tempeiature A. 01 mciease in length. 01 simply the coefficient of expansion. therefore. Then. 50 (1 . since for every degree of mciease. rate of deformation due to change / t. the length of the bar will be at 41. and contract.34 STRENGTH OF MATERIALS this 21 Comparing veise rupture longitudinal formula with foimula 2 of Art 27. III __ Material Coefficient of Expansion c deciease in length. length of lod or bar at temperature /. 50 (1 . 50 (1+ 000006) feet at 42. all substances. when the Steel temperatme decreases 0000065 iron The coefficient of expan- Wi ought sion. k = = = = coefficient of expansion. and is body changes. 50 (1 + 000006 X 9. per degree Fahrenheit. different for difterent materials Thus. 50 (1 + 000006 X 2) teet at 49. and the length of a bar of that substance at 40 F is 50 feet. when the temperature uses. it is seen that the intensity of stress necessary to prevent transonly one-half of that necessary to prevent The latter. is the only mpture is one that needs to be considered 29. or _ T\BLE . of a Tempei-ature Stresses the length of the When the temperature body changes by a fixed fraction of itself for eveiy degree of change in temperatme This fiaction is called the coefficient of linear. feet at 39. the length of the rod or bar mci eases a^ebta?cally by cl. if the coefficient of expansion of a substance is 000006. lt = 1 + cK^-t) (1) . the sub_.expansion.

the tempeiatme stress is comnegative. the encct of the (b) change m tempei atuie is to deciease the aheady existing tension. substituting the value of from for- muia 1. 5 = Ec(t.000 + 8. 50 = 8. 1)25 Ib per sq in The temperatuie stress is compicssion. which is called temperatuie stress. Ftom Table l E - = Here t . or.625 = 1. is the rod or bar and the foice / produces the deformation A This foice. replacing the value of k from formula 2. i k^c^-t) If (2) constrained. by formula 1 of Art 18. the effect change in teinperdtme is to mciease the ah cady existing tension. and educing.375 Ib per sq m Ans .000. hence. Let r be the intensity of that stiebs Then.000 pounds per squaie inch the change in temperature (a) if the change is a fall? (d] if it is desciibed m change of temperature a nse ? SOIUTION (a} The temperatuie stiess is tension. hence. which causes a late of deformation k. maiks becomes negative The late of defor/.t = 50 = 2").example.- f) (3) If c{t\ if 1 t] pressive.625 Ib per sq in Ans before the the pieceding.000 For wrought Therefoie.22 It STRENGTH OF MATERIALS should be noticed that of paienthesis ~" ' 34 the term in if /. 0000060 s 25. cient to pioduce the deformation A length of the bai at the tempei attire /. and of the the final tension is 10. the constraint must exert on it a foice sufficient to pi event the defoimation /. since the natural A that keeps it at length I or. 000. ports EXAMPLE What change of 50 SOLUTION c positive. and the final tension is Ans 10. suffi/. after 10. is less than /. the rod is undei a tension of What is the stiess per unit aiea. so that it can neither expand noi contract. or. rather. is / x . the tempeiature stress is tension A wrought-non tod has its ends fastened to firm supis is the intensity of temperature stress produced in it by a 11011. in its temperature? II.000 - 8. mation k is [ . by formula 3. (>->">= IS. 000 X 0000069 X EX\MPLE 2 Suppose that. causes a corresponding stiess.

000 (Table II) = 30. pounds pei square mch ? SOLUTION formula.000.000. and in tension = outei diameter of cylinder.000 (^L=^\ \ w Ct / \ / whence. d is increased to Z?.000. substituting in the 20. For steel. hoop when on the cylinder is D and a deformation and the accompanying tension take place. the hoop is in a stretched condition. when it is put aiound the cylmdei and allowed to cool After cooling.000 . Hoop Shrinkage A hoop or tire can be p]aced on a cylinder whose diametei is slightly larger than the intemal diameter of the hoop or tue This is done by heating the hoop 01 tue until its diameter is gieater than that of the cyhndei. ^ = Ek = E-D-d d What.34 STRENGTH OF MATERIALS 23 31. the diameter of the Hence.000 X - 30. E = 30. whence D-d = -j 20.should be the inner diameter of a steel tire that is to be shiuuk on a wheel 20 inches in diameter. .000. if D is rate of defoimation L is x(D-jf)_ = D-_d d on the hoop.000 nn nnn nn-^ 1 = r^n Ans . solving for d. d = 19 987 in Ans d) EXAMPLE for 2 What For is the ratio (D d for steel tires. rd Denoting by the intensity of stress from formula 1 of Ait 18.000. Let D = inner diametei of hoop unchanged by shrinkage. substituting- 20. if the safe tensile stress of the tne is 20.000 pounds per squate inch? 1 EXAMPLE SOLUTION in the foimula. hence. we have. E = = SO.000 steel. that is. the cncumference of the hoop has inci eased from red The total defoimation is then rr(D-d). hence. and the to n: D d Then. using \\orkmg stress 20.000.

440 Ib per sq in . pillais. the tensile woiking stiess being 15.115 Ib pei sq A steel m . compression COMPRESSION 32. The strength of a compression member. and are called short Naturally. what must be its diameter? Ans 39 98 in 3 4 A What is column by a use the intensity of temperature stress caused in a cast-iron of tempeiature of 80 ? Ans 7. columns denotes the length of a compression piece.565 Ib per sq in tension tension (6) 2b.24 STRENGTH OF MATERIALS EXAMPLES FOR PRACTICE 34 be the thickness of a steel pipe 36 inches in diameter to withstand an mteinal pressure of 125 pounds per squaie inch. short pieces fail by or shearing. and d the dimension of its cross-section. and are called columns. that is.000 pounds per What is the stress per square inch when the square inch at 62 F piece is loaded and the tempeiatuie is (a) 95? (b) 5? () 8. and one than 10 may be . .000 pounds per square inch1 1 What must Ans 2 15 in tension piece is designed for a load of 15. wrought-iron hoop is to be put aiound a cyhndncal wooden If the hoop is to be undei pipe whose outside diameter is 40 inches A tensile stress of 12. but not uniformly Long pieces fail by bending. or posts. a piece for which - is d less than 10 may be foi which is greater d considered as a column At present. there is no sharp division between and short blocks crushing blocks. the division between columns and short blocks may be made appioximately when If / least - = d 10.000 pounds per square inch. the strength decreases as the length increases. unlike that of a tension member. only short blocks will be dealt with. Compi-essive Strength Dependent on Length. the subject of columns will be treated further on considered as a short block. depends on the length of the member In a general way.

besides piessnie on the top and bottom. some friction. and fail giadually. when tested. the block shortens and its cross-sections enlarge Enlargement of the sections near tbe top and bottom necessitates a slipping between the bearing surfaces. Materials in short blocks fail under comand steel. the piece separating into two or more parts. which induces fnctional resistance.) Wood with the axis of the piece. lesembhng 34. the stress at a secat a section of a tion of a short block more complex than . wrought iron. they cannot be said to have any definite ultimate strength in compression Bntlle mateiials (hard steel. approxirou^ ^ FIG 10 mately planes. as shown in does not always separate into parts at but the matenal adjacent to a more or less irregularly inclined section ciushes down. but reach a definite point of failure. whose cln action is eveiywhere toward the center of the top and bottom faces On account is of the friction. as shown in Fig 10 (a] Bodies of these mateiials do not separate into two distinct parts. failure by shear Sti esses m a Compression Short Block. cast iron. etc wood compjcssed aaoss the giain bulge out sidewise.34 STRENGTH OF MATERIALS 25 33. as in tension The buttle materials really fail by shear. Two Charactenstic Manneis of Failure of Shoit Blocks. mash down. as when under tension. is usually subjected to a pressure that is distiibuted over the whole top and bottom surfaces of the block As the load applied. make angles of about 45 Fig 10 (/. and so there is. the phenomenon as a whole failure.. the surfaces of rupture. etc ) and wood compiesscd along the ) pression in one of two ways Ductile materials (structuial gtam do not mash down. and crack veitically when subjected to stresses exceeding the elastic limit. A short is block. stone.

als is i Although there original area of the cross-section of the block by . the compressive stiess is elided as the important one. cutting a section in and If A" is As m Art 23. except that heie the normal stress is compression instead of tension. there in is sheai and the tension piece considered normal stress (heie compres- sion) block shown the oblique section j\f A T as a free body in Fig The uppci pait ot the 11 (/>) The notation and foimulas aie the same as in Art 2JJ."s is shearing stiess in a short block when it compiessed. actually fail by shearing they are said to have an ultimate cowfiu^in ^. and is equal to ^ The maximum intensity of . subjected to a load / make an approximate Inchon The c ise is uossr X be a plane inclined at an angle a with the axis ot the piece.efli >lf. and. although shoi t blocks of brittle inatci .. whose Let ) sectional aiea is A. neglecting the then similai to that ot a tension piece Let Fig 11 (a) represent a shoit block. computed by dividing the breaking comptessive load the .26 STRENGTH OF MATERIALS instinctive to 34 It will be tension piece analysis of the sttess. The Fit 11 maximum intensity of compiession occnis m sections normal to the axis.'j. w i. shear occurs in sections inclined to the axis at 45 ?p and is equal to - - when compiessed sufficiently.

617. .000 Ib is is 8. 1.000X36 iT4x "i75o6Tooo = 024m Ans FXAMPTES FOR PRACTICE With a factor of safety of 10. uhat load clncal block 10 inches in diametei withstand? 1 can a cast-iron cylm- Ans 706.000 ("Table IV) A = 144. supports the factoi of safety j.000-8 = per sq m . 1 -How great a steady load can a 12" factor of safety of 8 X 12" X 36" timber block safely stand? With a (Table I).34 STRENGTH OF MATERIALS 27 35. we ha\e Therefore. The aiea of the cross-section 144 sq m therefore. P= 144. / = 36. To apply this ^^ J 1. Constants for Materials 111 Compression. the working b} the foimula of Art 21. equation.000 Ib Ans 1 EXAMPLE SOLUTION 2 How much From foiraula would the block of example shorter under the load? 2 of Art 18.500. Table IV contains average values of the constants for the These principal structural matenals used in compression are average values from which there are wide variations TABLE IV CONSTANTS FOR MATERIALS (Pounds IN COMPRESSION pet Sqnai e Inch} EXAMPLE SOLUTION stiess is. (j Ans \fC = 4 = 5 012 m . and a weight of 1.860 Ib 2 A steel lectangulai block 8 in X 14 in . E= EA . and K PI = -=. the total piessure that the piece can stand 1.000 X 144 = 144.300 pounds Determine caused by the weight (b) the shortening K (a) 2 feet long.000.

m of As explained Occuirence of Shearing Sties'? Arts 23 and 34. there aie beams and twisted members Usually. shafts tural and. the sheanng stresses at sections of stiucthe are accompanied by normal stresses. what Ans 12 25 m nearly length must the side of the squaie be? . as will be sti important shearing esses in loaded explained further on. shearing stress occurs m most sections membeis under tension and of short blocks undei com1 pression. the puncipal resistance of these cases is is a sheanng is stiess distributed all aiouncl the surface of the metal that the Theie aie shear from In none sheanng stress unifoimly distiibuted no oidmaiy occmiences of uncombmed uniform being punched out which also to obtain values of the constants for materials in shear ticity The elastic limit and modulus of elas- (called ng-ldity modulus) are obtained from . 34 what must be the diameter of a of 75 tons? Ans 41m cylindrical cast-non block to suppoit a weight 4 If the block in example 3 is made square and of timbei.28 3 STRENGTH OF MATERIALS With a factor of safety of 8. as m tension piece and shoit block represented m Figs 6 and 11 TAB1/E V CONSTAN1S FOB M\.rFKI\LS IN SHEAR (Pounds pet Squats Inch) Beams can be supported and loaded so that theie is only On the ciossshearing sttess at some given cioss-section section of a shaft suppoited so that there is no bending. there is shearing stress only In punching rivet holes. SHEAR 36.

4S X MX) . they aie rough average values Constants foi shear. usmi> a factor ot safet3 of 10. Fig width is b inches' to 12.34 toision tests STRENGTH OF MATERIALS 29 The ultimate stiength is obtained from tests which an attempt is made to ruptuie the material by shear alone Such tests on metals lesemble a punching operation. To test the js sheanng strength of a certain 2 in made . the ultimate shearing hence. but the metal sheared is stayed down to a bedplate to pre- m vent bending at the sheanng surfaces 37.880 Ib Ans 8 = 48 sq in the greatest EXAMPLE 2 kind of wood.220 - 8 = 527 Ib per sq m Ans 6101 .2V m a piece of 13. represented by a d and in b c stress is 4. have not been so acciuately determined EXAMPLE SOLUTION 1 How if timbei safely stand its great a foice P. hence. Table V Like those given tor gives constants for materials in sheai tension and compiession. a moitise was m cioss-section. as M. is. can the end J\I N of a and. since the ultimate btrength i& L00 Ib per sq in safe \alue for P. SOLUTION 4 sq Each Theie are two sheared aieas. 'The area be sheaied is 6 X . the total sheaied area is 8 sq in The caused at ruptuie m the two surfaces equals the load. being genei ally difficult to ascertain and of less practical value than the others.220 pounds What was the \\as shorn out ultimate shearing stiength of the woocP sheaimg strength in aiea. the shearing stiess per unit area that is. it X 2 in shown m Fig then aclose-httmgsteel a FIG 12 FIG pin inserted in the mortise was pulled downwards until the pieces be d The pull requned \\as 4.10 = 2. Constants foi Materials in Shear.

and. their algebraic sum must be equal to zero . foi bievity. Definition The extemal shear at any section of a loaded beam is and leactions) to ^xteinal shear is sometimes called. but of opposite signs follows fiom the fact that the external forces on the two sides of the section m form a balanced system. the algebiaic sum of all the foices (loads the right or left of the section The As is will be shown fuithei on.} but it must not be confused with the shearing stiess at the section . fiom the torces on the light and fiom the foices on the lett of the section aie equal This magnitude. respectively. and the negative those acting downwards The values of the external shear at any section. since they are parallel. bHEAR 39. the beam not being ugidly Listened to the suppoits cantilever free or unsuppoited end A is a beam with an ovei hanging is A lestiamed bosun a beam that has both ends fixed. it is customaiy to gue to the positive sign to foices acting upwards. A beam jected to any bai Testing on supports and subfoices whose lines of action do not coincide with. shea. is a beam testing on two supports veiy near its ends. as a plate riveted to its supports A continuous beam is a beam that Tests on at both ends more than two supports Beams aie usually honzontal. and the foices acting on them are generally veitical foices. is A simple beam. or a but inteisect. including weights 01 loads and the reactions ot the supports assumed in what follows These conditions will be EXTERN AT. as computed. the external shear at any section equal to the shearing stiess at the section hence the name In computing the exteinal shear.30 STRENGTH OF MATERIALS 34 BEAMS 38. the axis of the bar beam simplj suppoitxcl.

the external shears at sections just to the left and right ot a section 2 feet from the left end the shears just 1 /""V Foi solving 41. W~ computed horn the foices on the right. and. thus. fore. computed from the foices on the A JK. form a system of parallel = 0. The forces to the W " R 3 iv i 3 Since V it forces in equihbiium.34 STRENGTH OF MATERIALS 31 of length J? lt Foi example.. . the external shear /"'. of the pait of the beam to the left of Hence. Shear Diagram aixl Shear Line .ome problems on loaded beams. changing the sign of the lesult so as to obtain the sheai as computed from the loices on the left 40. w ^. W left. y? 2 7? 3 and the weight w . theiefollows that V'+ and V V V= -}'' J>\ t". is 7?. Notation The lettei //will be used to denote the external sheai at any section of a beam. and the same lettei with a snbsci ipt to denote the shear at a particular far the section is fiom the left end of the beam Thus. FIG It is 1( customaiy to compute the external shear at any If there are fewer forces section from the foices on the left on the right. respectively.\ of the part of right aie the beam to the tight of A Hence. it may be computed fiom the forces on the right. it is convenient in each . is 7? 2 + z . and VJ denote. R 2 . and 7?. being the left external foices to the reactions of the supports of the section aie W^ R^ The and A the weight a^i. . suppose that a beam whose weight pei unit is w is loaded and supported as shown in Fig 14. the subscript indicating. J's denotes the external shear at a section 2 feet fiom the left end of the beam under consideration The accented letters ]*' and J r" will be used to denote to the left and right of a section. W. the exteinal sheat Kat the section A.

and the broken line 1 to negative. and another line. on which aie maiked the points ot application of the loads and reactions. exteinal shears . consists of a base line 01 axis. 34 sections of the It diagram lepiesentmg the exteinal sheais at beam Such a diagiam is called a slieai diagram. the external shear at the corresponding section of the beam any point Upward ordmates conespond ordmates to positive. the line A' E being the base line. to any convenient scale.=680 I I Horizontal Scale lin=4ft of the base represents.line. equal by scale beam. Fig 15 (b) is the shear diagram foi the loaded beam shown in Fig 15 (a).32 case to have all STRENGTH OF MATERIALS a. and downwaid Thus. called the blieai. so diawn that the oidinate to it from to the length of the SCO L--J 'A [C I Ib 800 Ib SOOlb -3 7ff r JJC R.

I LT 399-4 . C 680 and D. . beam supported A at C. forces on the left of the EXAMPLE at To construct the shear diagram for a . the algebraic sum / = - 500 = ISO Ib Foi any section between V = 680 D and B. is drawn at anj convenient distance below A E Project C to AE.500 X 8 . the external positive negative. 800. 500 - 800 = .800 X 5 + 300 X X 2 + 800 X 5 .hear is of For any section between that is. on A E' at C. A\ and . R^ = 680 Ib = 0. the shear sheai is At K.<>20 Ib ordinate D' d to represent Next. a convenient scale.500 Ib .300) = + 300 Ib To draw the sheai line. equating to zero the moments about Thus. the external shears must be computed foi several sections. which is 180 Ib . the sheai beinf 680 pounds. the number of sections depending on how many points are necessaiy to locate or determine As explained in Art 39.800 + 920 = + 300 Ib consicleimg the forces to the right of B. as shown. the ordinate and shear between to the inch is if a scale of 1. or refened section 1 to. Analytic Statics. that is. the weight of the beam being neglected SOLUTION First. V = -(. respectively (see 4 1 I 500 For any section between A and C. as indicated by the ordinate Y' y 42. l X 10 . the external shear the shear line is customarily computed from. project the orcHmate the external shear between C and D.34 STRENGTH OF MATERIALS 33 4' ace' dd' bb' c L 1 the sheai line at is sents the external sheai the section The ordinate X' x lepreX The ordmate being upwards. and Fig D. Part 1) /<>! B and R? aie computed by and A. and draw c a parallel used 1 C of the beam Then a c is the shear line tor the pait E' to on A' 1 at D' and erect . such as 1 in to 1.000 Ib The base line A' E' parallel and equal used to represent shears .y? X 10 + 300 X 3 = 0.500 . since A^ is the r - 680 Ib the <. the leactions /?. . A C A A D E . 15 (a) and carrying loads of 500. and 300 pounds respectively. .1. For any section between B and E.000 = 68 in Then erect a perpendicular A' a at a. Construction of Sliear Diagram To draw the shear line for a loaded beam. the sheai only force on the left of C. . and E.000 Ib must be 680 . and at C eiect an oidmate Cc to lepieseut the external ib 1 V = 680 . /<>= = 920 Ib is RI.

fj Then. foi i be uu supported at the ends.# on A' E' at /? and etect the ordmate /?'/> this oidmate is diawn do\\ nwaids. because o represent 620 Ib v Fmm chaw a hon?ontal he shear between D and JB is negative line meeting d D' produced at d' the sheai line foi /. situated as shown in SOLUTION -To compute Fig the ]f. o FIG 1C l f feet of the beam.m .1.34 STRENGTH OF MATERIALS . The hon/ontal line <V is the sheai must be 180. BE EXAMPLE 2 It is required to diaw the shear diagram 10 feet long. . ( y a) the |w ovci the teactions.000 = IS in hne for CD Next proiect . weighing 100 ___^ pounds per foot. /). i-. d' b is The shear line b' e for The broken line similarly diawn acc'dd'bb'e is the shear line for the whole beam NOTE -Fig 15 (c) is referred to later v .

x = 0. that is.080 r= ordmate D d to represent 420 Ib (that is.5" at A' and C'.r lep resents a straight this line. it Gtonittiy} . distant r feet from A. to scale.280 - 200 == 1. which is the shear line for CD the sheai line between D and B is a straight line passing Similaily. is R minus the weight of the beam between that section and A. 1. 100 (2 .34 STRENGTH OF MATERIALS the base line 35 m the preceding example The external shear at an> section between yJ and C. x = 3. diaw it downwards). lespectively at any section Diaw a c. .280 and 1. is minus the weight 100 (2 H^) of the pait of the beam and that that section. neglecting the weight of the beam 200 1OO *OO 100 E FIG 17 F th*> 2 assuming Solve example 1. which is ^-^. betueen (see for degree. distant feet from C.500 x 1. taking into account the weight of it to be 50 pounds per foot beam. which is the 6 is lepiesented by the shear hue for AC x The shear corresponding oidinate G 1 ff equal sheai at any point between C and D. and V = 1. + x) - 400 x = R. We have.100 i1 .080 = C' c . between A and J? . we have 2 and the distances x and x is of the first Rudiments of Analvtic A =0. first 200 - 500 x it this is At 1.080 represents a straight = thiough the line d. V = R^ and for V 2 (section C) V= Pioject ordinates .500 X 3 = .420 Project Z? on ^/'j5" at D' lay off the .080 Ib . representing. then. 01 400 x Therefore. is and.v. and draw cd. . /'=/?. the othei b to represent extiemity b of 920 Ib R*. respectively Draw the a and C' c. Draw A' B as t C. the shears As the equation are abscissas 100 r (1) Fare (1) oidinates. and C. line To diaw . equation of the degree.080 A 1 and Con ^/' . as the shear at B determined b> drawing B 10 (t) will is 1 >? 2 . 01 Norr Fifif be referred to further on EXAMPLES FOR PRACTICE 1 Draw the sheai line for a beam loaded 30O e- as in Pig 17.In the sheai line. minus the \\eight of the distributed between The to R A l load between between C and C and /?. 1 At D.A 3 ! - 100 X = A 1. K= As line #.

r 0. X The ~= R. x. is numerically equal to that obtained This from the forces on the left. respectively. U.W ^~ Notation letter M will bending moment at any section of a be used to denote the loaded beam. respectively. - a) - IV. the bending moment is distance of AB A moment R.Wi JT.w x. Part 1. it is customary to express the bending moment as computed from the forces on the left If. its sign is changed. . is found as follows are W^ /?. so that it will in the As represent the moment of the forces on the left As an illustration. but has the opposite sign in follows from the fact that the forces acting on the beam are equilibrium. r + Mi forces on the left.a) . and therefore the algebraic sum of their moments about any point is zero Therefore. if r is the bending moment at any section as computed from the forces and Mi is the moment as computed from the on the right. the last o( which the the center of gravity of from The of R^ is positive. The foices on the left of A Fig 14. . the bending moment at the section A. while the other two moments are negative Therefore.. Definition. about the origin of moments As explained is m force of the bending moment at any section. the bending moment is computed from the forces on the right. for convenience. A lt l The lever arms of W^ 7?. . BENDING MOMENT The bending moment at any section beam is the algebraic sum of the moments of all the external forces (loads and reactions) to the right or left ot the section about that section of a loaded Analytic Statics. and is wx l x x a and ^.36 STRENGTH OF MATERIALS 34 43. as computed from the forces on the right. and the weight w x* of the pait of the beam lying on the left of are. 44. U. and the . and Mi = M M M case of shears. the moment of a considered positive or negative according as the force tends to produce clockwise or counter-clockwise rotaThe value tion.

it is required to find the bending moments y?/4 and . The D x j/ It = n. = 366 67 Ib .34 STRENGTH OF MATERIALS moment 37 at a letter with a subscript to denote the bending particular section. supports a single load of 10. tespectively The forces acting at the left of SOLUTION and the weight of the pait A C of the beam moments about the point B R. the loads and reactions being as shown Taking moments about y.663 tt -Ib EXAMPLES 1 FOB.000 X - 5 - v ^ J 1 = 0. 10. in inch-pounds. A and 21 (A) feet.832 ft -Ib Ans An are /? lf W. and weigh- FIG IS ing 250 pounds per foot. and the weight of 3. 15 feet long. simple beam 24 feet long carries four concentrated lods 180. and The a uniform load o 4. 1 of the M SOLUTION at a section 2 feet fiom the left end To find the bending moment I\F at the section K.^. S 75 = 680 X EXAMPLE 2 - 500 X 6 75 - 800 . 160. and 120 pounds.000 pounds distributed over a length of 4 feet loads being situated as shown.208 Ib M* = 11. 240.-Ans - .000 - jrn vy " i i -. c ((a) R. reactions? What is J80-pound load? (a) respectively the bending x H = 23.000 X - 12 - 4. at the = 333 33 Ib ^?. at the sections C and D. at distances from the left support of 16. beam A E./J/u.jos x 11 - 10. . or ]^ ft to the left of /-> Theiefore. RI OKn is found by taking 2 "S X 15 - 10. the subscript indicating the distance of the section ftom the left end of the beam Thus. the weight of the part forces acting at the left of of the beam.000 pounds. R.000 X 1 950 X 4 ^ = 32.208 X 4 10. PRACTICE of 4. X 3 75 = - 425 ft -Ib Ans A simple beam A Fig 18.000 Ib \\hich is consideted i_oncentrated at its centei of gravity. whence Then. . = 11. the section C are J? lt If. What are the values of the Ans . J/3 denotes the bending moment EXAMPLE Fig 15 (a) .

x = 2. = Fig that 15 (c) . /. and. equal by scale to the length of the beam on this axis aie maiked the points of application of the loads and reactions.i- SOLUTION In shown that R.055 fa ft -Ib 3 A beam that overhangs both supports equally carnes a unifoim load of SO pounds per foot and has a load of 1. moment line. and equation (1) gives through the origin M M l M* = v^ X 2 = 680 X 2 = 1. the hise.1 diagram representing the bending moments foi all sections Such a diagram is called a moment dui^i am.i lepiebenls abscissas and oiduuitLs Since equation (1) is of the hist degree between and i.38 2 STRENGTH OF MATERIALS A simple beam cames a uniform load of 40 34 loads of supports two concentrated from the left suppoit of 5 and 12 feet.000 pounds in the middle the length of the beam being 15 feet and the distance between What is the bending moment at a section t> 5 fctt the supports 8 feet Aus 1./.. represent the bending moments at the concspondThe moment diagiam is constuictcd in thu ing sections called the same geneial way as the sheai diagiam. respectively The length of the What aie (a) the reactions. the sheai diagicun Foi . between^ aud ib. it is convenient to have . since 7J7 = = 0. . except that the ordjnates represent bending moments instead of external shears purely graphic method of detei mining bending A moment described is given in Giaphit Statics 1 EXAMPLH To constiuct the m the first moment diagiim example of Ait 42. distant feet moment is A 1 . Moment l)ia<?iam and Moment TJUIC solving some problems on beams. \(t>) 4. and shown the foi the beam in Fig H iL (a] w. of the beam It consists of (a) a base line 01 axis. the solution of example in Ait 6SO Ib and as foi i A> = is laid off. C. M A = A\ (1) In the moment diagiam. that hue passLS when i At C. i .. = OJO Ib Fust./. the bending i v section fiom. measmed fiom the base. it lopicsents a stiaight line.610 ft -Ib from the left end of the beam? Foi 45. and (6) the bending beam is 18 feet moment at a section 8 feet from the left support? J? s = 765 56 Ib .300 ft -Ib . f (a) J? = 854 44 Ib pounds per foot and 500 and 400 pounds at distances Ans l . whose oidmates. and (b] anothci line.

its moment 1 is. and diawmg Cid the = Ctil lt is obtained The the lines d^ b^ and bi EI are similarly mined The lower oidmates 2 1C indicate negative bending moments the EXVMPLE shown be is To construct The . the lesultdtit equation is .50 r". betueen A and C. moment diagiam is foi beam in Fig ().= 920 A . x- 50 x* (1) which shows that the moment = 2. the l C ^ equal. X X = -- 50 x 3 Therefore. taking A as the distance fiom B. 1 5. distant A feet from C. 1.360 obtained as the moment line foi X. Projecting Z> at moment detei line for CD When x = (secWhen v = 3 (section >). A l moment line for A C is obtained moment line is similarly constructed An moment at an> section between C and Z?. using the by a smooth curve.500) a = 1. equation From this equation.900 making D^d^ = 1.1- X is y.Jlf. the bending moment is R\ v minus the moment of beam between A and that section That weight is its and lever aim . that + (#.900.34 Ptojectmg any con\enient section STRENGTH OF MATERIALS ConA E l l 39 at C.^ .36(0 Z?. When . 100 .A'.C)0 (2) i JS.1. heie. such as 5. and c lt A^c^ is A C The bending moment at any the ordmate . so that it will lepiesent the moment computed from the foices of on the w \ M= left Since. projecting the correC on A CIt and electing ordmates to represent sponding points fiom the conesponding values of J\f as computed from equation (1). and changing the sign of the lesult. and the ordmates are computed by equation (2) The details of the construction are left as an exercise for the student The distances a are laid oft horn . to drawing -Ib and joining^. = 2.280 0. then. ff lt Fig 16 (c). lepresents a straight line tion C)i M 1.a. to 1.. the The lemamder \-> of the hist written for the light reaction. -50 A' = A).1. other in the moment line aie determined Connecting these points points M C . the moment of /<?. the curve d d^ is plotted distant x feet fiom C To plot the part d^B^ an equation similar to (1) is used. the conesponding points are piojected on JBiAi. from A.. ISO* This equation.50 . ft scale.360 Pro 2 (section C).. another point Ci in the moment line is determined Giving to t inteimediate values. is repiesented by the corresponding oidmate A' t For any section between C and D. through A^ when A and making the oidmate dt. is negative. bending moment M= = is /? l (2 A\ X 2 + A) SOO-i.r) = JR> \ .i=0 line passes jectinci (section M= . whose weight 100 pounds pei foot SOLUTION />.. = A distant x the weight of the 100 . M = Ai at C\. icactions weie found in example 2 of Art 42 to = diawn and A' 2 920 Ib The base line/*. and that pomti\e.360 + is. also.280 Ib Foi any section between as in pievious examples and C. 1. .360 ft -Ib to any convenient scale.

whose lever arm is .t Therefoie. M. not pass through that point The reaction consists of a single force and a couple. FlG 19 T no single foioe passing through / can balance W. that is its value given by the formula. it does not cona single sist of foice. the moment .40 STRENGTH OF MATERIALS IMPORTANT SPECIAL CASES 34 Let A B. in I general. as will be explained later In this case. (1) i evident that greatest when the greatest bending moment occurs at A. be a cantilever of length /. shears | | and. let M X W x be the bending moment at X The reaction at A is not leadily determmable. max M = Mi = Wl (2) diagiam could be drawn by plotting foimnla 1. that and bending | |0X by general formulas. such as equation (j) 47. cairy a distributed load of loot (lengths are supposed to be in feet) t 4B Cantilever Unlfoimly Loaded Let the u> c pounds pci The nolUion at A" is being as in the preceding article. Cautilevei Supporting Load at End at Fig 19. and Let its end 46. which is the equation of a straight line It should be noted. it is simpler to deteimme the bending moment fiom the forces on the light of A' The only foice on the right of A' is W. lexer Fig 20. rule. that. as a | i 1 Fir 20 moments aic much more ^ rapidly and accurately determined by analytic methods. which docs since . shea 7 and i^h A moment moment diagrams are of value only in some special cases.. . and = /. therefore. however. suppottmg a load be any section at distance x from /?. 01 [^i. = Wx It is is.

simply supported at A W. I (1) is i \ X} or greatest when x = I \ sec- tion A). formula 2 may be written JJl this weight is M Wl ~~n~ /q\ {**' 1 48. which consist of the weight w x on This weight may be treated as one force wx acting through the middle of XB. the bending moment at A' will be denoted x Taking moments about B. Simple Load Lei fhe beam load Beam Suppoiting One Concentrated AB. when a simple beam carries t one concentrated load. RJ = W(l-z) = - 0.11 As X jt \* t PIG 21 by M usual. l/l is greatest when x is greatest. r x = W X* ~ei T" 3 . A and W when x = z member of this formula. Fig 21. that Therefore. which case Mt = The total ^ (2) If weight on the beam is wl denoted by W.34 STRENGTH OF MATERIALS 41 determined from the forces on the right. whence Ri W = (1) Since the only force on the left of - X is R^ we have (2) MI = R! It is 1 W evident. and any section. the greatest bending moment occur? . carry at distance ^r from A Let / be the length of the beam. or at a disThe moment of this force about tance \x from B is XB X wx X ix = ^ Theiefore. It is evident that in M M . distant x from A. that. from the last between is. x being less than z < . and B.

under the load M. I 2} gi eatest 2 ^ ( / z = 2.-/ and . the value computed from R. x JZ. Unifoimly Jjoadcd Let Fig the 22. the value of i that makes the former greatest is the same as the value of / x that makes the latter greatest. M= Mi = i (4) Simple Beam. = Suppose now. cany aumfoim load of iv pounds pei foot The total load /. max 49. (3) being given. wl 2 m (i) The bending moment at A' is the moment of /?. that is. evidently.5. 2 = 7? (/ 2 that makes R. minus the moment of the weight wx on AX The latter moment is * 2 " Therefoie. R. when x = I x. the load W Since the that of of is numerically equal to moment computed from 2)._ is w and.R _ R. W FlG I? /e. z gieatest must be the same as the value Thei efore. 34 then. or x = . / 3 that makes R. W _-. -- . in this case. whence s = - that the gieatest bending moment that a given load can produce in a simple beam occurs when the load This shows is at the centei of the beam Writing ^ 4 foi z in formula 3. z simply supported at. beam AB.42 STRENGTH OF MATERIALS The maximum bending moment is. that is. it is requned determine the distance z for which the moment is greatest that. to wiL=^. Since the moment of the foices on the left is numerically equal to that of the forces on the light.

as they cannot be readily deiived without the use of advanced mathematics foi fixed or Let A /?. Supported at the restiamed beams will be given without their denvation. we obtain.for 43 This shows that the greatest of the occuis at the center x in formula 2. Otliei M= Mi = 8 (3) Beam Fixed The foimulas at One End. the beam carries a uniw pei unit of length. there being a couple acting at that section. formly distubuted load of R =$wl R = w t (1) (2) at -& I The gieatest bending moment occurs by the foimula j/ A. If. the reactions are as follows 51. and cairying a single beam of length /. in addition to 7? Heie.34 STRENGTH OF MATERIALS moment beam Writing . R^ leally represents the shear at A. be a ing on a suppoit at J5. and is given = -h Wl (3) The bending moment at any other section can be computed fiom the icaction R 3 and the load instead of a single load. rest- load W at its center The R. and is given = at w (3) The bending moment puted tiom the reaction R 3 any other section can be comand the load . Fig 23. max 50. and The gieatest bending moment occurs by the foimula KI at A. fixed at A. leactions are as follows = U TiT R* W W in t (1) (2) 1* FIC 23 the following article.

and is given by the formula M = ~~ FIG 24 8 (2) 53. in middle The reactions aie evidently each equal to --.K. we ha\e = 25 JA. R *. causes the same bending moment as the maximum moment caused by Wi This. = 9.000 Ib x = in the beam ? 40.OOO pounds can produce in the beam ? SOLUTION Let the loads of 6. that \V p K. then. that loid of 12. really repreand B.000 X ]2 = 108. The greatest 7 (1) moment occuis at A and J3. the is. R. Fig & 24. foimulis in Ait T = 9.000 pounds be placed on a its bending moment shall be equal to that bending moment a weight of G. and in the following article. and undet the load. 000 ft -Ib 2 Formula 1 Ans of that article Ans EXAMPLE simple beam the greatest Where must a 20 feet long.000 X 25 = 22"). a couple sent the shears at at each of these sec- A tions The greatest bending moment occui s at 4.i = 9.000 and 12 000 pounds be denoted by Wi and W*.000 ft -Ib Applying formula 2 of Art 40. at . there being.STRENGTH OF MATERIALS 52. instead of a single load. 34 Beam Fixed at Both Ends Let the beam be fixed at both ends and carry a load W AB. /?. maximum moment occurs right) support. . M.R - W \i) (1) Here. and is given by the formula M EXAMPLE its free 1 = wT 12 (2) end from the fiee end ? cantilever 25 feet long carries a load of 4 o tons at What is (a) the bending moment at a distance of 12 fee (b) A the maximum bending moment the 12. the beam carries a uniform load of w per unit of length. / W=4 gives (b) SOLUTION 5 (a) To applj . If. in addition. respectively and let ~ be tlie distance fiom the left (or which W. and R.

000 ft -Ib beam bemg 20 feet 1 What ib the maximum bending moment 2 simple beam 24 feet long caines a load of 15. uniformly distributed.000 ft A . That BOO is.-M \\nen tt\ - STRENGTH OF MATERIALS is 45 its placed at the centei of the beam. SOLUTION (a) From formula 3 w= Substituting the given values. the length of the ? Aus 36. EXAMPLE 3 (a) What weight.000 pounds at a What is the value of (a) the distance of 8 feet fiora the left support Ictt reaction ? (b) the maximum bending moment 3 f . tiansforrumg.000 = = 10. bj. and J? a Fig 23. and having a length of 20 feet ? be the reactions 7?. or.000 16.000 Ib EXAMPLES FOR PRACTICE in a cantilever carrying a unifoimly distubuted load of 180 pounds per foot.000 is at distance z X ot I(\. since the bending moment is the same for any two positions of the load equidistant t W may Ans 2 = 17 1 01 2 9 ft be at a distance of either 17 educing. . formula 3 ot Art 12. Ans (a) 10. ft i 2 9 1 or29ft from the support. "\ V Equating this to the moment 12. and value is by formula of Ait 48. -w = 8X40. C L000_X20 = 3Q)000 . whence. simply supported (6) at the other. 48.000 Ib Ans Formulas 1 and 2 of Ait 51 give R^ y? 3 per lineai ft and the total load i& = = | o | o x x 16. what amounts to the same thing.000 Ib Ans Ans 6. 8M ~ of Art 51. will produce maximum bending -moment of 40. is. ft _ lb The maximum moment caused by U r when this load fioru the left suppoit. at a distance of tiom either suppoit This is otherwise evident.000 = 2(T - or nl . the load is 800 Ib X 20 (b) = 16. Therefore. and solving for left from the supports a.000 Ib -Ib \ (6) 80. for this load? .000 x (~>(\ ^r^ = 3> 000 z.000 foot-pounds in a beam fixed at What will one end.

\ (l>) b. and for that purpose the pnnciples just stated are a great help EXAMPLE in the To deteimme the greatest shear beam AB. Fundamental Principles principles.} at these sections is the gieatest bending moment in the beam These pnnciples should be caiefully tested in all the shear and bending-moment cuives given in the foregoing 54. there is a "peak" in the bending-moment line. Fig Ib 25.46 3 STRENGTH OF MATERIALS A beam maximum bending moment 34 30 feet long and fixed at both ends car lies a umtnrmly Calculate distributed load of 400 pounds per foot (a) the teactions. wlvcm is 75 pounds per foot.000 Ib 30. it is necessary to find those sections. the bheai changes sign at more than one section [see Fig 15 (Z>)]. as The greatest of the bending moments shown in Fig 15 ((. the dimensions being as shown .000 ft -Ib MAXIMUM SHEAR AND BENDING MOMENT The two following: which are established by the use of advanced mathematics.000 pounds distributed over a length of 5 feet. aie of great importance 1 The external shea) in a beam is gieatest at a section of the beam adjacent to one of the supports 2 The bending moment is gteatest at a section of the beam where the shear changes sign In some cases. articles The dangerous section of a beam is usually where either In many the sheai or the bending moment is gieatest problems lelatmg to beams. besides its own weight. corresponding to each of these sections. simply supported at A and bending moment and B and carrying 20OO Pro 25 a single load of 2 000 pounds and a uniform load of 10. (b] the Ans /() .

there must be a section. at that section is Vt - 75 X r - ^5. then. and changing the sign.000 = - 4.900 Ib Immediately on the left of G.X />* X x A\ X /? X - -_ _ ^000 X _ DX = 6. shear changes between two sections including a uniformly distubuted load.SOO 375 = 3.300 Ib is Immediately on the light of G.900 Ib Also.000 X 8 5. = /'. fiom 20 B 2.075 ft -Ib Ans 55. X B A'+ = XS X + _ 3 Ii0 oo .925 Ib by a simple inspection of the -value of V* and the load between C and D.075 . sign in the preceding example. computing the bendiug moments at those sections.000 . that the sheai at D is negative Therefoie. or 6. . X X 16 + = whence J? l 1. however.000 + 1. at which the shear must be zero.500 Ib center of the distributed load is .000 Taking moments about B. the sheai is = V. as between these limits the shear deci eases gradually from plus to minus. between those two. = 6. I'. detei mining the sections at which the shear passes fiora positive tonegatue.925 - 2. sohmg for A. * = '^5 = 89 ft nearly at which the bending moment is s. theie must be a section at which it is equal to zeio Let the distance of The expression for the shear that section from C be denoted by . The gieatest shear occurs just on the left of J3.900 X 9 11 - -!A21^L11! IP = as 50. is usually The weight weight 4 ib beam 10 ft 75 X 20 20 ft = = The the level arm of this 1. = + 6 = 85 /?. J? 3 2. SOLUTION and taking shoitei the gieatest of the 2 The is analytic solution. This determines the section maximum The value of the moment is more readily detei mined from X the foices on moment Ait -13) will be expressed the light of X." = VJ - 2.r Making this expiession equal to zero. and is equal to A\. the shear r. and . so in terms of the forces on the that leff the (see The value of the (75 moment ) is." -75X5 = 4. - 75 X 4 = 6.600 Ib + 10.' = tf.X 1 v = 3.1 It is seen. the shear changes sign at some point between C and D. Important Rule the When.500 + and.300 Ib At C.34 STRENGTH OF MATERIALS 47 This pioblera inay be solved by drawing the shear diagiam.500 X 10 6.

the section ot maximum is bending ) moment would be at G where } the single load applied . W had different signs. VJ and just referred to The When. that load marks the section at which the sheai changes sign. thus. and for which the bending. if there is only one such change.moment may be greatest (It is gieatest. and the opposite sign immediately on the othei side.48 STRENGTH OF MATERIALS location of that section is 34 determined as in the example the shear has one sign immediately on one side of a single concentrated load. it in Fig 25. however.

and is The depends on such disposition or distribution called the moment of Iiieitia of the cross-section with It should be undei stood respect to the line mentioned above at the outset that the moment of inertia of a plane figure has There is a certain quantity really nothing to do \vith inertia that appeals in foimulas relating to the rotation of a body and is called the moment of ineitia of the body There is. the itself. likewise. strength does. and on the length and cross-sec- 1.STRENGTH OF MATERIALS (PART 2) BEAMS (Continued) MOMENT OF INERTIA AND RADIUS OF GYRATION INTROD UCTORY stiffness of a beam. the load that a beam can beat depends on the matenal of the beam. not depend on that aiea as every- day experience shows. a certain quantity that appeals in the formulas for strength rOprslGHTED BY INTERNATIONAL TEXTBOOK COMPANY ALL RIGHTS HESENVLD M5 I IL T Jw o . column. The strength and tion of the beam As to the aiea of the cioss-section. or shaft depend on various factors For instance. on the manner in which the load is applied. for. greater load a plank used as a beam will sustain a broad side when placed edgewise than when placed on its It will be shown later that the stiength of a beam depends on the manner in which the area is distributed or disposed with respect to a ceitain line of the cross-section effect of the cross-section is measuied by a quantity that of area.

tant Vny. X X a line m plane Fig 1.. each small aiea is multiits plied by the square of distance fioni the axis. as the small aieas are . sigma notation. the small aieas aie subdivided into t>mallei areas. Fig 2. 1 Definitions. etc a^ etc disfrom A7 A" .. columns. and shafts. be any plane aiea. areas If the distances ot .ay" If. a. giving to the small areas any values whatever. Pai Frr 1 t this sum may be lepiesentcd by - a v" When the whole aiea is thus divided. it will be found that. OF INERTIA 2. a ceitain value is found for .STRENGTH OF MATERIALS 35 and stiffness of beams. and the same operations as weie descnbed bcfoie a. or axis Let its B C. are performed. from a line (lepresented in the figuie by its plan O) peipendicular to the plane ot the aiea /i C are used. and whose mathein foim to that of the matical expression is very similar moment of inertia of a rotating solid hence the name MOMENT. a new value will be found for ay" As the aieas are made smaller and smaller. a sum O'/ will of the -X foim a^y* + + 3 y* +a i JV Using be obtained the in 2. a different value will be found foi ~ ay 3 If the small areas are again subdivided. the values ot -ay* approach neater and neaiei a fixed value depending on the foim of the hgure B C and on the location of the axis X' This fixed value is called X the lectaiigulai ot the moment of ineitia aiea B C with respect to the axis X' X the small etc 3. now. and Let the atea be divided into small areas a^ If .. explained Plane Trigonometry.ya.

Formulas the moments of inertia of A clear idea of the charactei of this quantity. shown area of each of these small sqvaies 2 / are. the pioducts are. foi each foi 3d tier. X squaie be as divided into # The side and twenty-five equal squaies.STRENGTH OF MATERIALS decreased in size. of the area B C with lespect to the axis O When the teim moment of inetiia is used with reference to a plane area. lespectively. the value of y will be taken as the distance of the centei of the square This dis-"^" fiom the axis 1 3d tance in is 1 d foi the tiei. be an axis about which the moment of H Let the mei tia is requn eel is d. Fig. respectively. be a square whose side and let X. the sum of 4 the ^ay= 5(0004 4 0036+ 0100+ 0196+ 0324)</ = 33 </* . 1 and 04 d For each small squaie. however.3. may 1 be obtained fiom the following illustration Let B C. coinciding with one of the sides of the square. the sum ay" approaches nearer and nearer a fixed quantity. etc little The in square 04 d* X ' ( 1 d) = For each of the squares in the 0004 d* successive 0036 d 1 tiers. the rectangular moment is generally meant plane areas cannot be derived without the use of advanced mathematics foi 4. tier. niea the lower tier X is those in the next squaie of distance. squares FlQ 3 the lower product. 04^ X 04 tf 30" = = 5 d) 04 el~x(7 d} = ( X " ( * 0100 d 1 0196 d 1 Since there aie five squaies in each pioducts for all the little squaies is. which is called the polar moment of Inei*tia.

33^* is not the exact value of the moment of inertia closer value will sought. and. the icctangular moments of inertia of the figuies commonly used in practice The 5. but is an approximate value be obtained by dividing the large square into a greater If computations like the above numbei of smaller squares aie made foi other divisions ot the large squaie. -y = = lay" 'ay 2' 9 is* 4 = 3300 3310 3316 rf rf* ct' kd.4 STRENGTH OF MATERIALS A 35 Now. 2 ay* can nevei become f?* as great as <j . in the column marked /. *rf. and the table for reasons that will designated neutral axis m be explained further on particular case of a The square may be legarded as a rectangle whose base b and altitude d . by making the number of squares to difter in sufficiently laige. the value of 71 ~ ay* can be made This is from o matical language by saying that. -i'y = etc 3325 is (t* From this series of results. is Moment axis in each case passes through the center of giavity. however gieat the numbei of small squares may be. 2 ay* = 3320a" 3323d? 1 lU. ay = iW. the following results are obtained When the side of the small squares rf. is ~ay* approaches -. as the by as little as desired expiessed mathe- number of small squares 7* increases. the inciements become smaller and smaller shown by means of the calculus that. it seen that the differences between successive values of 2 ay" become continually smaller down the column. $tt. as a limit This o limit -- the moment o to the axis of inertia of the square with respect X< X Common of Inertia of Areas Table I contains. although the value of 2 ay* It is mcieases. although.

l Islco >* Q E H H N d of Lin Form Secti 1 35 .

+ "e + "*" pq fcl-H o a c So o a O G3 .

moment the of inertia of a rectangle about side d (No Table SOLUTION axis parillel From Table 3 to d is -rs do . is given in the The distance c. A = b d. EXAMPLE its 2 To 1 in find the I) I. as here the axis Therefore. is the m last a line passing thiough the centei of gravity of a figure will be here called a centtal column For convenience. the moment of met ha of a figuie with tespect to any a\is cquah the moment of inertia of the figure with respect to a parallel cential a^ts plus the pi oduct of the atea and the squate of the distance between the two axes EXAMPLE respect to its 1 To determine See the moment I of meitiaof a triangle with base No 6 in Table parallel to the base SOLUTION The distance between the base and the central line 3 is ^d. Reduction Foi mula / its Let figure. the area is 7 b d. line or cential axis A denote the area of any with respect to an axis through its centei of giavity. moment of ineitia That is. and p the distance between the axes It can be pioved that / = / + Ap* 6.35 are equal STRENGTH OF MATERIALS The value of the area 7 A is column of the figure from the The radius of gyiation. is paiallel to d. b d Then. and p = -= d b* db* dF KXAMPLF 1 1 ?. and / = TJ. given in distance of the most remote part the fifth given in the third column. the character of which neutial axis will be explained a subsequent article. moment the letters b of ineitia 7 about a central and d being interchanged. not to b * AI^o. FOR PRACTICE Find the moment of ineitia of a square about an axis through one coiner and parallel to the diagonal that does not pass through Ans / = d* that comer (see No ?> in Table I) & 2 Find the moment of inertia of a circle about a tangent Ans . by the preceding punciple or formula. /its moment of inertia with respect to any othei axis paiallel to the former.

and it is a general pimciple that evet y axis of synnnetiy is a principal axis^ the other principal axis being a ccntial line Thus. theie is one cential axis for which the moment foi of ineitia is less than that foi central axis for which the moment any othei.MFrr squaie. and one of inertia is greater than These two lines are at right any other central axis angles to each other.8 7. m general.A. and. different. a hollow squat e consists of a large squaie and a smallei squaie. one horizontal and one vertical The moment of Jiuitia of a compound figntc with icspcct to any axis may be found />r adding. 1 To in deiive I the \alue of / gnen (. until n^ptit to the same a\n>.he foi the hollow No 4 Table The figuie SOLUTIOV the large outside square mav be regarded as diffeience behveeu and the small msicle square In Table I. the the principle 01 formula o of the figure \\ith icspect to the parallel line is equal to the moment of ineitia with respect to the central moment line plus a positive quantity The moments of inertia with 8. Moment Many of Jnei-tia of Compound Figures or Aieas figuies may be regarded as consisting of For simplei parts. Piincipal Axes respect to dirfeient cential axes aie. al%ebi anally\ the moments of ineitia. accoidmg the preceding article. The geneial method of finding the principal axes of a Many plane figures figure is compaiatively complicated used in engineering have one or more axes of symmetry. they aie called compound figuies example. of the component pat ts ot the figtut Ei. in general. STRENGTH OF MATERIALS Least Moment of Inertia. the angle and T shown under No 8 in Table I consist of t\\o slendei icctangles. . 01 a lectangle. perpendicular 10 the axis of symmetry the principal axes pass through the center of the figure and are paiallel to the sides 9. The moment of is ineitia of a figure with lesbect to a centtal axis iespttt to any other line patallel to tkat axis to less tJian with Foi. and are called piiucipal axes.

X angle efgh is then. o The moment rectand also t r r 1 of inertia of the FIG 5 of the rectangle [i (b t}~\" 'I t' he F g h' about the moment of inertia axis X' is.ttr + hbts = EXAMPLE 3 To find the moment of inertia of the Z bar shown in Fig 5. EXA. of f g' h' through about an axis its center of and paiallel to gravity s The X' is also -rV a' t X distance between this J t axis is4-( and /) the ax. TI <*' a't of the rectangle j gig' is The moment of meitia of the entne figure therefore. Ans 12 .MPLE 2 To derive the value of / given for the T in figuie Table I SOLUTION The may be icgarded as consisting of two rect- The axis angles.. .35 the side of STRENGTH OF MATERIALS 9 No and the squares are. and is parallel to the base of each Hence. of the vertical rectangle is id and the moment of inertia of the othei rect- angle is T2- bt 3 The moment sum of of inertia of the entire figure is the these. m to No 1 in Table the moment 1 -j . the dimensions being as shown will be denoted The moment of inertia about X' SOLUTION The figure may by A X be divided into the three "PI rectangles efgh. according I. = f. as shovtn Fig 4 passes through the center of gravity of each rectangle. Expanding and reducing this expression.b X'X 1. an&jg-tg-' of inertia of *' 1 The moment of e fgh about its an axis through gravity center that and parallel C to X'X e' is r [ & a't*. d and d According to 2 in Table I. e' f'g'h'. respective! y. /. that is. of inertia 3 . the moments of inertia of the squares are 4 the moment of inertia of the hollow squaie is -iT^! hence. about the principal axis X' X.

umliiij to whethei b and d are expiessed in inches. Table Units Used I. the dimensions of figines toi which monunts of bd . about the other principal axis Y Y of the Z ( b n = slum H 11 Ans /. it is neocss uy to bXdXdX specify the unit of length used. inches. these wntets call this 7/ in J momc-nt 54 biquadratic inches. The axis \\ith respect to which a polar moment ib taken will heic be called a polar. for which they use the abbicviation in when the dimensions of a figure are expiessed in inc. cl by means of the following general pimciple The polar moment the of met ha of any plane fi^itfe /? tqual /t> of the rectangular womenf* of inotia of //it fi<>iin about two axes perpendicular to each otha at the point whtn tht fvhu axzs meets the plane of the fi^inc sum Thus. and will often be used of expressing the same thing thus 5i. the polai moment of axis througn its inertia of a rectangle is about an center of giavity . the value ot the As will be moment seen from the foimnlas in of meitia always nnolves the product of foui quantities (some of winch may be equal) Thus. if. lies. and wnte it convenient.d\ Some \vi itci s state inertia are computed ate given in inches the corresponding moment of meitia as so many lut/mu/nj/ic * Thus. the moment of inertia is 54.axis. inctus. the moment ot meitia of a representing lengths <l When rectangle involves the product b d\ 01 the value of a moment of inertia is given. of Ineitui Foi the definition ot see Ait 3. etc Generally. The polai moment of meitia is compute.10 STRENGTH OF MATERIALS EXAMPLE FOR PR 1C IK 1 35 I Find an expression fot the moment of inertu Iy in Fie 5. Polai- Moment the polar moment of inertia. since such cxpicssions as s etc evidently have diffeient values ac. feet. -tefcned to the inch in this is This notation is Course Another way to state the moment 11. = C-'tf'N '"'" '""1 10.

Definition. AS whence = I - (1) (2) gives radii of gyration LOT re- = -*/ \A I The 13. and inertia of the figuie with lespect to the same axis / denote. and the square of the radius of gyration with respect to an axis parallel to and Denoting these radii by r and raf distant p horn that axis respectively. Reel ucti on Formula Dividing both sides of the foimula in Art 6 by A. Computation of inertia of Radius of Gyration the ladins of gyration of moment aiticle Table Foi I. A is the square of the tadius of gyiation of the figure -. . r = ^h U* - rfx 14. found directly from its 2 of the preceding Foi example. the ladms of gyration and moment of meitia of a figure. then. and A ? the aiea. the preceding equation becomes r* = . = ^hbd -bd = ^V3 o a For 4. respectively. there lesults. the radii of gyiation for Nos 1 and 4. 1 = ! A A Now. last column of Table sponding to the moments of ineitia given in the fourth column Usually. RADIUS OF GYRVTION The lading of gyration of a plane figute with respect to an axis is a quantity \\hose square multiplied by the aiea of the fignie is equal to the moment of If .35 STRENGTH OF MATERIALS its 11 The polar moment thiough center is of ineitia of a circle about an axis " 64 64 32 jTl with respect to a central axis. are found thus a figure is by means of formula No No 1.

the sqiiaie of the jadnis of gviation of a figute with respect to any axis equals the squai-e of the ladua of gyration of the figitte with temped to a paiallel ccnt>al axis plus the squatc of the distance between the tr^o axes EX\MPLE to What is the ladius of gyration of a square with icspect an a^is coinciding with a side' SOLUTION /o Call the desiied radius of gyration j t From Table I. the section PQ Let V be the external sheai at/^. p = 12 - Then. Fig. be a pait of a beam cut by a plane PQ (b) (c) FIG 6 According forces to the principles of statics. b} the above the beam at is. the part may be treated as a free body kept in equilibrium by the external BD actually applied 1 to the beam on the left of PQ. 6 A BEAM Let Stresses (a). at Any Cross-Section. and by forces acting in the section p q. that . B D.12 STRENGTH OF MATERIALS 35 That is. a > = also. = - and 3' t = -\ \3 I = d - STRESSES IN 15. equal to the forces exerted on B D by the part of the beam on the right of PQ These last forces are the stresses existing.

and those near p will be compressed line a Evidently. those above the neutral surface aie in com- Let the resultants of these tensions and comprespression and C. in Fig 6 (c) ing. is called the iieutial axis the section pq. a sheaung the left" shear on sttess numerically equal to the external This shearing stress is called the of that section resisting shear. are Fig 6 (a) T parallel to the axis n o of the beam 6 (a). and in (&) by 0*0". V equal This force. representing normal stresses. opposite direction on B by the part of the being a tangential force excited T t beam on the light of PQ.e foices. the fibers (see Ait 21) near q will be stretched. Fig is veitical. including. but acting in the D is thus seen that there is. the and [/'represents the resultant left of all the forces.that reaction. which will assume such a form as is repre- By this bendsented. represented in Fig 6 (a) and nor compressed of (c) by 0. the all the veitical forces on the left of pq equihbnum by the vertical of the beam is held part B and the forces acting in the section pq Accoidmg force sum of all the to the pimciples of statics. very much exaggerated. V is likewise the lesultant In either case. If the end B.35 STRENGTH OF MATERIALS *3 the resultant of the vertical forces acting on the left oifg It is obvious that the external forces have a tendency to bend the beam. as shown in sions be denoted bv Thes. reaction at than end is simply supported. there will be between q and p where the fibers aie neither stretched This line. at every section of the beam. acting on the This is tiue whether the other end of of the section pq If the end B is the beam is fixed or is simply supported 16. respectively. the fibeis below the neutial surface are in tension. of the free end of a cantilever. the algebraic must be equal to zero. therevertical forces acting on r numerically theie must be at pq a vertical force D m r BD fore. or p q' q" p". and a plane through it and the axis of the beam is called the iienti-al suiface of the beam 1 The neutral surface is icpresented in Fig 6 (a) by no In the piesent case. repiesents a shearing stress to V. .

by the use of certain assumptions that are very nearly . their intensities are not the same at all points of the areas in which they act How they are distributed will be explained pression C form It a couple. sometimes called couple. the moment of the forces on the left of pq will be the bending moment at the section pq. the conditions of equilibrium require that the algebraic sum of the moments. as computed from the foices on the left. as It the bending moment is negative. about any axis. since the moment is V r is zero The moment of the stiess couple called resisting moment at at the section is pq Therefoie. the beam at that section bends downwaids. 19.14 STRENGTH OF MATERIALS 17. further on 18. respectively. shown m Fig 7 (a) the beam bends upwards. is positive. their algebraic sura must be equal to zero That is. the resisting moment any section numerically equal to the bending moment at that section It is evident that. are made to apply. or is concave upwaids. which follow dnectly from the fundamental principles of statics. the numerical value is Vi. the resultant tension in any section is equal to The tension and the comthe resultant compression BD T the stiess should be understood that T and C aie resultant forces the tension and the compression are not timfoimly distributed over op and og. of all the shall be zero If moments forces acting on the body BD aie taken about the neutral axis o. or is concave downwards. Finally. that is. the M moment the of the of the foices acting in the section pq is simply moment of the stress couple. are 35 Since the only horizontal forces acting on the body T and C. if the bending moment at a section. as shown in of the In each Fig 7 (b) bending moment of these figures. The foiegomg conditions.

35 to STRENGTH OF MATERIALS T 15 of beams fixed at both ends A complete theory true. such beams is. a side view is shown at p o' q' o" Fig 8 (/>) The neutral axis is o-o' o" The matenal of a beam is imagined as consisting of threads. aie represented by their projections f> q and 0. m The inten- As already explained. 1 . Position of tlic Neutral Axis It can be shown by the use of advanced mathematics that the ncutial axis of any section of a beam parses thiongh the centei of gtavity of the Action Thus. or ' most i emote The fibei fiber- a distance of this axis is from the neutral denoted by c. the cioss-section p'g'g"p". be a cioss-section of a beam. are the From the results ot resultants of non-uniform stresses experiments. Frc 8 the fifth column of Table I section are given sity of stiess in any fiber is called fiber stiess. parallel to the axis The fibei passing through/*. howevei. Values of c foi different foims of cioss- . and that the intensity of tension and compression at point* equidistant horn tht ncultal a\is a)c equal It follows that the greatest intensity of stress occurs in the most remote fiber Let that .. be$ ond the scope of this woik 20. 01 fibeis. the neutral axis o' o" passes through the centei of gravity o'" of the cross-section p'q'q"P". lespectively Distiibutiou of the Noimal Foices Let pq^ Fig 8 (a). in Fig 6 (). and its center of giavity o'". which point 11 c fi is the faithest the neutral om p axis. in Fig 6 (a). the tension T and the compiession C. which are the normal sti esses at the section pq. in -*---* as shown Fig 8(b). 21. is called the ex- me f i 1) er . it is assumed that the intensity of tension o> compiession at any point of the ctoss-seciion is ptopottwnal to the distance of that point f)O)ii the neutral axis.

resisting be denoted by r be anv small area distant Let . or Resisting Moment The moments of . from the neutral axis from the neutral axis and the intensity at any distance y c is -y c 22. the value of -ay" finally becomes the moment of ineitia / of the cross-section about the neutral axis Theiefore. as in Fig 8 (b) According to the punciple of the article. + rt + . the total stress in of this stress about y.16 STRENGTH OF MATERIALS from 35 intensity be denoted by / fiber Then.. Section Modulus The section modulus cross-section of a beam is the quotient obtained by dividing . aaj3 + "\ ' iv a ay c~ * ) It has been denoting by -ay" the sum in the parenthesis explained that. by inci easing the number of small areas a. the Moment of Stress Couple. o" is X-y.} X c I = -X^j/. the intensity of stiess at the distance y^ shown piecedmg from the a. Mr = -I As explained (1) cally equal to Ait IS. j'. is neutral i axis is -y c L Therefore. M T or the algebraic sum of and C. and making them smallei and smaller. the intensity at unit's distance is -. about the neutral axis. o' X -yi c The moment a. Fig 8. B A' lJ '' j. since the distance of that the neutral axis is c. the resisting moment the bending moment therefore. C finally. from the axis. will and is detei mined as follows moment. the moments -V^ri/ s\ " J " of such other small aieas as a t 5 and # 3 are a . m M is numeri- t -I=M c (2) ot a 23. c 2 Similarly. -V/71/ s\ ('3 j C is 2 3 f>tr> CH_ C The sum // of these moments .

leguired ~> m V T?" ~ . modulus whose breadth is of b a beam m which the and depth is rf ? Table I. it will 5 and be referred to as 28 cubic inches. The fiber stress is a maximum at the most remote fibei of If the beam is of constant cross-section. numencal value of the section modulus is 28. 2=Since / units. = 48 m 3 Ans it is Problem to The loading on a beam being given. by formuLi 1. hence. SOLUTION From No 1 -fa l> d\ and. in is c expressed cubic units in biquadratic units and length Q is in By this is meant that Q is expressed the product of three lengths. c m /= = . and expressed as 28 m Formula 2 of the preceding article may now be written fQ = M (2) This formula is useful when a table of values of Q is availSuch tables aie given in many structural handbooks able EXAMPLE cros&-section ib What is the section a rectangle. if the terms of dimensions the of the cross-section are expressed in inches. some section determine the then / and c are constant for all sections Formula 2 of Art 22 gives /_ It M i to follows is from outermost fiber is greatest in the of the cross-section at which the bending this formula that / moment I greatest Hence. although the value of this quantity has nothing to do with volume Thus.35 STRENGTH OF MATERIALS moment 17 of inertia of the cross-section with respect to the its neutral axis by the distance of the most remote fiber of the section from that axis It will be denoted by (1) Q c in Then. hbd* _bd* y~ 6 ~ d_ 2 If b = 2 in and d = 12 Q= 24. since the neutral axis passes thiough the center of gravity of the cross-section. compute the maximum fiber LT 399-6 . maximum fibe? sttess in the beam.

and substituting known values m the formula of this article. and the upper m compression Denoting by ft and fc the maximum fiber stresses for tension and compression. the beam at tlle P olut of maximum bending EXAMPLE of a it is 2 Assuming the section FlG 9 tensile when the SOLUTION maximum bending moment is 30. c = = 4 5 \ in the Table I.370 Ib per sq in Ans in = . more simplj fc = 28 X 12 ft = 7 3 X 8 370 ' 19 530 lb ' P r stl 1U Ans. tons.000 foot-pounds.000 X 2 8 __ = = 19^530 ]b pei sq Or. or -Ib . from = 943. and. . etc per squaie incJi which the the EXAMPLE 1 To deteirmue the maximum fiber stress in a beam in maximum bending moment is 50. Af in . Theiefore. and the highest m compression positive. two values of c must be used.000 inch-pounds When it is required to determine separatelj the in Fig 9. it _ . lequned to deteimme the maximum and compiessive fiber stresses. /should be .000X45 = 943 __ nil ll'llO lb is P er scl U1 Ans bends downwards Since the bending moment H H 1=4 30 in* moment The lowest extieme hbei is A=290sqin in tension. = 600. te 30. as in this case. 30. by the formula.000 ft -!D . The maximum bending moment 600. 2/ic/i-tons./< //-pounds. beam to be as lepiesented compression and the greatest tension m the greatest section. the value of / is found In the application of this formula. the same unit of length should be used for the different quantities Thus.000 X 1 2 = j-g 8. respectively.^=9. one for the most remote fiber in tension and one for the most remote fiber in In the piesent case. / = 9 ig- ! = 4. the compiession lower fibeis are intension. etc in biquadratic nukes. we have. ..000 beam is m 50. and /in pounds. assuming beam to have a lectaugulai cioss section 9 inches deep (vertical dimension) and 4 inches wide SOLUTION In this case. if c is in of c and inches. the first STRENGTH OF MATERIALS Substituting the value of this in the 35 maximum bending moment must be determined moment and the values / preceding formula.18 stress.

000 pounds. Modulus is of Kuptuie The modulus of rupture to of a matenal the greatest fiber stiess that a piece of the matenal can stand when subjected II bending made The TABLE MODULI OF RUPTURE modulus of rupture It is also called the inferred ultimate strength from the of flexuie.35 STRENGTH OF MATERIALS EXAMPLES FOR PRACTICE maximum fiber stiess m au S-mch Ans 19 simple I beam 20 feet long. shows that this is not the case .000 Ib per sq in 6. if the totil load.900 Ib per sq in 2 A simple T beam 10 feet long and -t inches deep suppoits a load of 168 pounds pei foot If the moment of ineitia of the section is 4 54 in 4 and the neutral axis is 1 12 inches from the compression flange. and that eveiy matenal has two moduli of mpture. corre spending to the ultimate strengths of tension and compres sion Experience. ]s> 9. what is the hbei stiess () in tension? (6) in compression? Ans 16. whose moment of inertia is 68. however.200 Ib per sq in STRENGTH OF BEAMS 25. including the weight of the beam. mnfoimly distributed? 1 is What the 15. might be foregoing articles that the ultimate stiength of a beam depends simply on the compressive and the tensile stiength of the material.

has a value intermediate between the Himate tensile and compiessive strengths of the material "able II gives Dr diffeient ntiallettei aveiage values of the modulus ot up tine si. (2) its M When the r = s>Q is beam is loaded to utmost capacity. which is the modulus of lupture divided jy a suitable factor of safety EXAMPLE 1 A simple beam 20 feet long and ha\msj the crossection shown in F\% 9 is to suppoit a weight (pounds) pliced in he middle of the beam How heavj can the load be. The subscupt b is used as it is the matenals " The values given express pounds of "bending i er squaie inch Ultimate Resisting Moment. in he application of the formula. Part 1. that M = M. the gieatebt ending moment that the beam can resist at any section is ibtamed by wilting s* foi / in foimula 2 of Art 22. M r = c (1) In terms of the section modulus (see Art 23). M=s>Q (4) This is the formula used foi the design of beams. Let s b be themodumatenal of a beam Then. or of the beam.000 pounds per square inch? SOLUTION >f Foi the maximum bending moment we have (Slitn^th Afatetials.. (3) In terms of the section modulus. s t is taken as the working . if the beam is of uniform ross-section By making the substitution just indicated. the \\eiijhl of he beam bemsf neglected assuming the flexure stiess of the working W natenal to be 20. whethei comression or tension. but. is of rupture of the iave. = ^ c is.trength of flexuie. the bendequal to the ultimate ng moment of the external forces esistmg moment. .STRENGTH OF MATERIALS 35 beam breaks when the greatest fiber stress. This Lioment is called the ultimate icsistiu^ moment of the ection consideied. we 26.

Pait 1). distributed over the whole length of the beam. and is equal to the sum of the bending moments due to the umfoiru load and the central load. Si. that the beam may carry a uniform load stiength being 15. . in >.000 pounds.000 pounds per square inch? SOLUTION The maximum bending moment evidently occurs at the middle of the beam.000 = 800 X \ D t 1 = ~ 6 \\hence x= ^900 = 9 65 in Ans EXAMPLES TOR PRACIICE the cantilever is made 12 inches \\ ide (hoi izontal example dimension). what should be its depth (vertical dimension)? Ans 8 66 in 1 If. formula 3. that is (Strength of Afateiials. and s6 Q = = .000 M is m -Ib Let x. since here M= A 97. 7 x /i Q = = -rin Suhstitntmg formula 4.000. or. and c = 28 - Substituting these values in 2Q OOOX43 . assuming the working flexure stress to be 800 pounds timber cantilever 5 feet per square inch ? SOIUTION The maximum bending moment = 2. be the lequned side of the squaie cioss-section From Table I. 15.500.500 - 15.35 STRENGTH OF MATERIALS -) ft _ 21 lb = ( 60 jp) m .000 X (5 X 12) = 120. Q = EX\MPIE 3 97. in addition to a central load of 2.000.000 = 6 5 in 3 Ans long and of square crossWhat must be the side action is to carry a weight of 1 ton cit its end of the cioss-section.000 moments in inch-pounds. the woiking flexure EXAMPLE 2 What must be the section modulus of the cross-section a simple beam 10 feet long. / = *-- t=*2 * 12 ' whence . e\pi easing 12 250 2. whence W7 = " ' = ? 512 Ib nearly Ans of of 250 pounds per foot.ib Here ^ = 20. 12) M= X^QX + X 10 X^ (10 X = ^ m ^ Fiom formula 4. 120. 7=43.

a lectangular beam must be so designed the value vull not exceed the woiking sheaimg strength of In metallic beams with thin webs (plate mateiul gliders). load of ). and D -this that. in cioss-section. Shea ring? Strength is of a beam section. the strength As consideied with regard to bending alone explained in Ait 16.000 pounds pei foot r (6) A a uniform / (a) r i { (6) -'I In what precedes. distributed over the cross-section of the web . and the area of the cross- 27.000 pounds at the end. 35 of steel 30 feet long has the foim and dimensions shouu carr> in Fig 10 What load. the sheaimg stress may beconsideted as uniformly There is.000 pounds persquaie inch? Ans 628 Ib per ft 3 A white-pine cantilever is shown in Fig 11 Find the factor t 8 feet long and its cross-section of safety of the cantilever if is it as is 1 PIG 10 FIG 11 loaded \vith (a} a load of 10.22 2 STRENGTH OF MATERIALS A simple beam . T r the average intensity of sheaimg stiess in the section -^ it This sheaimg stress can be shown is not uniformly distub- uted. uniformly distributed. the maximum beams of lectangulai intensity of shearing stress is that Hence. can the beam taking the working hber stiess as 15. by is .-/. theie is at every section a shearing If the stiess numerically equal to the exteinal shear external shear is denoted by V.

beam . the moment of ineitia of the cross-section. both honzontal and vertical. Definition The stiffness of a beam is the resist- ance of the in certain beam to deflection in the dnectionof the external This propeity is of importance on the beam kinds of construction Thus. in pounds pei squaie inch. uniformly distnbuted. by 7. calculus In all in biquadratic inches. Young's modulus of elasticity of the material. tion of Deflection Formulas is beams Foimulas foi the most usual cases are given here these foimulas. in inches. most machine parts must be stiff. 01 they will crack the plastering The theory of the deflecrather complicated. by w I (pounds) w denoting of the is . the stiength and not on its bending stiength safe load for a beam 4 in X 12 in and 4 feet long is 11. is denoted by /. and the maximum deflection. and the formulas for deflection cannot be teadily derived without the use of the 29.35 also. by E. as then excessive "giving" or yielding may Flooi joists and ceilings sustaindestroy then adjustment ing a flooi with a plasteied ceiling below must not deflect too forces acting much. -- = 175 pounds which exceeds the working shearing stress for the wood along the giain by about 100 pounds per square inch STIFFNESS OF BEAMS 28. by v single loid at the middle A denoted by ^(pounds). in inches. at STRENGTH OF MATERIALS 23 a horizontal every horizontal 01 longitudinal section of the beam. when based on a fiber strength Such a load will produce a of 700 pounds per square inch shearing stiess pei unitaiea equal to ^^--^ pei square inch. the safe load for a wooden beam may depend on its shearing For instance.200 wooden beams pounds. usually small. the length of the beam. the sheaung strength of wood along the giain is also small As the honzontal external sheai usually acts along the gram. sheaimg stress the intensity of which at any equal to the intensity of the vertical shearing stress point is at that point Although the maximum in intensity ot sheaung is stiess. and a load uniformly distnbuted over the whole beam.

4 B. Fig 12. Fig 13. Fig 14. in the (4) Beam fixed at one end and simply suppotted middle (B at theothet Foi single load IF C= ~ 240 FIG 14 Uniformly distributed load y _ in I 192 El (6) . supported is A and B Single load Wm the middle y = vvr FIG 12 Uniformly distributed load y 2 = 5 wr 384 El (2) Cantilever AB '. fixed at A Single load end B y _ = ^//3 3EZ (3) Fio 13 Uniformly distributed load y 3 = S~V A.24 STRENGTH OF MATERIALS The form assumed by the 1 35 the load per inch beam when loaded 1 the figuies very much exaggerated in at Simple beam.

000. and 9m Ans BEAMS UNDER INCLINED FORCES Extended Meaning Al though the term 30. Substituting in formula 2.000 X 424 Here ^. E = 30.000 X _ ~ m S EXAMPLE 2 To determine the deflection of the beam considered in No 2 of the Examples foi Practice following Art 26.OOO. 384 X 12 X 400 X 120' X 1. I = 10 = 120.500. it is otten ex- tended to mean any FIG iu elongated piece having a stiaight axis '0 containing the centers of gravity of all cioss-sections (a crosssection being a section cut by a plane perpendicular to the . E = -' l^OO.35 4 STRENGTH OF MATERIALS 25 15 load W Beam fixed at boih ends A and B. cames a uniform load of 1 EXAMPLE A 400 pounds per foot SOIULION What is the To apply foimula 5 deflection ? 2.000. beam usually denotes a of |" the ~fi Term Beam. 5 X 628 X 360* y = 384 rr: = X 12 X 30. when the beam is loaded to its utmost (woikmg) capacity SOLUTION / = 424 -u = I = 30 X 12 = 360. and having a width of 4 inches and a depth of 12 inches. we have 4 w = = 576 i ff-.I horizontal piece acted on by vertical forces.000. Fig Single in the middle wr 192^7 (7) Uniformly distributed load y = 384 (8) PIG 15 timber simple beam 10 feet long. and I = -^ X X 12 X 576 12 3 Substituting in the formula.

Fig 17.P |.-as The may be applied to all othei foices The beam may then be considered as acting on the beam acted on by two independent systems of foices The forces along the latter peipendiculat same method of resolution perpendicular to the axis. . + X. which will be called the direct tension 01 compiession. cause shearing and bending sti esses m the section pg. To find the stiesses in the section square inches f> g SOLUTION Let the components of the foices the a\is be X along- V.() = fi <.3. = 10. Then. 120 lb 10. which contains the centers of giavity of to it.000 cos 45 . considering forces to the nght and upuiid .as shown The moment of meitia of the section is 12 in ind the area is 4 5 '. which will be called the system Y. The force /^ be resolved into two components A'. act on a beam CD. as shown 3. md V . and Ylt the foimer axis. CD is a part of a beam of taining the axis which pg is a cross-section cut by the plane P O on. all sections perpendicular is the axis of the the axis at an angle H beam. and have no on the shearing stress atpq peipendiculai to the axis Both the compiessive and the puted from the foices Y by tensile libei sti esses are the methods already |P com- explained. Ex \MPTE Foices of 3.000 pounds. bined by algebiaic ^ addition with the stress pioduced by the system X. may General Method of Tieatment. = Y. and aie then com- - . to obtain the total tensile [oj- and compressive stresses X.(. these stresses can be computed exactly as foi any ordinal y beam The system X.000 and 10. respectively. the to the a. = -Y and and those pei pendicular to the a\is s ]". and F^ any force intersecting 31.5 = .= + + + S80 2)1 lb . = + foices as nositue V.000 cos ".+ >.000 sin 4. cause effect forces acting along the axis.780 lb = X.() lb' } =10 000 sin 30 = } 000 lb ]=}. the inclinations and distances being.26 STRENGTH OF MATERIALS 35 axis) and acted on by any system of coplanai foices conIn Fig 16.+ 2 120 lb .2. on the left of the section p q.

fa) The fixing of the Fig 18 () ends ib so ngid that bending does not change the direction ot the column at its ends 2 Column* luitk pivoi ends (also called i ound-ended colFig LS ().. ptoduces d compressive stress whose intensity is of ^= is X 10. the shearing stress in is 2. accoidmg to the conditions of the ends 1 Co I it Dim with fixed ends. column Classification of Columns Columns are cjas33..100 . in which the ends can slide freely .100 - 2. the beam bends fibeis of the section p q are in downwards. and (see formula in Ait the intensity of stress example 2 of that article) m upper fiber and that in the lowei fiber. and the lov er in tension is The maximum 24.880 Ib The foice A'. in inch-pounds (here the sign of r X a (4 X 12) - } .35 Since > the section is STRENGTH OF MATERIALS the external sheai on the left 27 p q. per sq in Combining with these above.800X15 = .780 j~5~ = 2 400 lb ' P er sq m Y l The bending moment about o disiegauled). X (5 X 12) = + 112. Part 1.400 = = per sq in in Total tensile stress = 14.000 lb y Total compiessive stiesb = 23.. finally stresses the direct compression ^-= found 25.400 11.500 + 2. 01 . is.. theie- compression. sified as follows. n = 112.-y 1linnilb 14. strength of compression piece member .800 in -lb Since this fore.. and a that it bends betoie failure is pei ceptibly piece so long called a. we have.. .700 lb per sq Ans Ans COLUMNS 32. being directed toward the right. the moment upper is positive. Definition the its As a stated in Stiength of Materials. depends on length.

as for values of fail - less than On the ilumn would by direct compression . in pounds. G !9 should not exceed the bending woikmg stiess of the mateual 37. in squaie inches. P= n is area of cross-section ot column. 1 - ~ \n~h ~^~. L = -" E whence. Euler's foimula is denved fiom the assumption that le column will fail by bending due to the moment pioduced y lateral deflection ot the column This deflection will occur nly le f when ./ - it for- p in )uler's formula. inch. that the column can suppoit a numbei depending on the end condition.exceeds a certain limit the value of \\ill below which value column / -> ? fail by crushing Foi the this minimum P A : is maximum Assuming maximum to be the lastic limit ot the mateiial L.. and substituting . maximum load. and On the The pait of the cui\e to the lett Drresponding \alue of f ac does not apply. \ ~r~ In Fig 19 Ob repiesentb the elastic limit /.as 7 al>- and the cone1 spending \ alues ot P as oidmates The Kittei T r. and has he following values n = 1 for columns with both ends pivoted. n = 4 tor columns with both ends fixed Fig 19 shows the graph of Eulei's foimula plotted by taking scissas \ alues of . n 2r for columns with one end pn oted and one fixed.STRENGTH OF MATERIALS a which 3^ E= A= Young's modulus in pounds pei square of elasticity of the matenal.


500 - 6 f-V \d i l (I) Long-leaved yellow pine White oak A P = A . t = = (1) r ultimate compressive stiength of mateiial. lespectively. foi columns with flat ends when / d is less than 60 White pine Short-leaved yellow pine A = 2.500 . and weie devised foi convenience of ptactical application They aie as follows Sf? a igh t-line fo .k l} and k* are given Each of these formulas is used only within the limits of the value of / r theie given Beyond these limits Eulei's toi01 Rankme's toimula. In formulas for wooden columns is convenient to introduce the least width instead of the ladius of gyiation of the cioss-section The following are parabola foimulas.300 . constant depending on mateiial and on condition of ends Table III. values of s ln L.sf-V \d (4) . constant depending on mateiial and on conditions ot ends of column ^ A = *.000 8(^ a I 3. A in (2) r which L = k = elastic limit of material. in which s. to be tieated latei..-AiX- Paiabola foumila. should be The values of >i r" E given in Table III are foi use applied in connection with Eulei's foimula Thej weie computed The m mula for /ZTT* = 16 and 2fi.32 STRENGTH OF MATERIALS Straight-Line and Parabola Foi mulas 35 These 38. m u la . are not rational formulas. but lough geneiahzations from experiments on the failure of columns.= A = 3. the \alue-> of n given in and holding good for ideal columns."( \ V/ ( (2) (3) l\" I 4. where the ends aie eithei peifectly fixed 01 perAit being" only theoietical fectly free to turn 36 The lettei m m the table means millions it 39.

Since = 16 X .35 STRENGTH OF MATERIALS 1 33 column EXAMPLE I 1 What in I is the safe load m X 12 in cross-section -^ and a white-pine 16 feet long ? for SOLUTION therefore. which. was derived partly fiom theoretical considerations and paitly fiom the lesults of actual tests range of conditions. be used .= 14 X 12 . 8 inches outside diameter. P which is the piobable biealung load 8. su which s kj = = ultimate sttength. -5-J* = = hence. for a steady load.000 . with flat ends.500 - 16=) This is the probable breaking load. being 17 08 sq in = 17 08 (80. 10 in Table I.900 Ib The following formula. Ans the safe load 56.400 - 8 = 109. and Use a factor of safety of 8 7 inch thick? 2 is EXAMPLE What SOLUTION Fust. 01 the Gordoii-Rankine foimula. making the safe load for a hollow circular cast-iron column 14 feet long. .900 Ib Ans The parabola foimula 17 08 (60.300 Ib 338. constant depending on material and class of column I I T 399-7 . Raukiue's Formula known as Rankine'fe foi'inula..2 25 X 05 1) = 861. is It covers a wide -.000 gives the piobable breaking load as .400 Ib III. foimula 1 may be used. P= 144 (2. f less Do 65 1 This being thau the limiting values of for cast iron given in Table The either the stiaight-hne or the paiabola formula formei gives. 12 6 = X Ib. is The safe load. applicable to all values of and r seems agree \\ith the results of experiments better than It is as follows any other formula so far proposed to P_ A in = . factor of safet}. with a factor of safety of 879.438 X 65 1) = 879. A may . 40. v = A V8 ar-M>~5* / .000 Ib the safe load depends on the = may be taken as 6. 01 should be computed to ascertain whether to use Euler's formula one of the others Fiom No 2 58 in __ .

1 3 For cast non.O'l^JOO Ib . and substituting in Rankme's mula. s which case EXAMPLE 1 To compute circular llns !* the sime as the second example of Ait .400 822[1401b Ans EXAMPLE 2 To compute by Rankme's foimula flat leat>t the factoi of safety of a mild-steel column with 11 3 square inches. 4( 194. we ha\e = 17 08 1 80.4 = 113 Making JB = DO. the factor of sifet^ is 27d. \ u = 80. and 7 inch taken the value ot specifications. and substituting in the formula. safety being necessaiy for a hollow the bieakmg load.000 = ^ + ^JL 6.000 When the column sustains a load of This is the breaking load 70. by Rankme's EoimuUi. cast-non column with flat ends.lit inches.000. k z in = rmr foi many P obtained by Rankme's foimula (and the same a similar notation is used) applies to other formulas in which no factor ot is the safe load that the column can support.000 pounds ends. = f>!5 1 and A - 1" OK ioi Making su = 80. when the column sustains a load of 70.000 = 27U|20(? lb + 3^000 70. in a large pany's handbook. 40 feet long. area of cioss section 41 squue and the least ladiiib of gyration 2 r inches? Use thf ^ ni. S H = 50. these are given = oTnr For mild steel. the Lolumn thick being 14 feet long. area of cioss-section ladius of gyration of the cross-section SOLUTION ^3 Here / = -- ~ J2 = 2. and 2 47 inches. in those budges. 8 inches outside diameter. P= 11 3 1 X 50.JO SOLUTION From the solution in Ait 3 39. the length of the column bein^ JO feet. = X eToir. is What the .000.34 STRENGTH OF MATERIALS 35 steel comMany values of s a and k* are in use.I<*n 1 I OK I'RACIICP bieakmg load foi a steel column with flat ends. flat ends.200 - = 4 nearU Ans E\\WPL.000 pounds.000. i f line formula A 'is l. . especially as the working stiess of the material.OOO. = Te^oo. In is flat ends.

but the determination.500^ = 420. it is easiest to solve by the "tiial method. 1 3. 1 inch Considerthick. 01 d /. from ormula 4 of Ait 39. namely. of gyiation 3 inches Use a factor of safety of 4 Ans 4 87. determine the factor of safety by Ra-nkine's formula Aris 7 3 A 41. because theie aie two unknown quantities in each formula. area of cross-section 8 square inches. and 20 feet long. spacing but simply the built-up metal columns.3 ). etc The deteimmation of the dimensions ot the cross-section choice ot foim depends on conditions a discussion of which does not fall within the scope of this Section The dimensions of the cioss-section can be determined by means of the piecedmg foimulas. A = s (I . the bieakmg load would be 420.OOOX <> = With a factoi of safety of b. is . and tadius of g} ration 3 4 inches? Use the paiabola formula Ans 929. cannot be made diiectly. solving i for d. and a tew othei sections aie illustiated in the following two examples 1 Such Kx \.000 lb Also. and lachu".350 lb the S Deteimine by Rankiue's formula the safe load for a flat-end steel column 18 feet long. and ^ = 120 in . is not Design meant in or Columns By the design of columns . except in special cases. hence. and Usually. -ases i as in squaie.400 Ans the limit / Since ne 111 d use of the paiaboli foimula = "'0 = 31. sustains a load of Ib4. aiea of cross-section 41 squaie inches. \\hich is belo\v instified gn en in Art ( . cuculai.35 2 STRENGTH OF MATERIALS What is 35 bteakmg load for a pm-end steel column 40 feet long. vhence ml. at iivets the selection of form of cross-section.Mpr F he A squaie \\hite-oik column 10 feet long factoi of safet> of 6 is to sustain load of 70.000+ d = 11 1 in 8 X 14.000 pounds with a side of the cross-sec tion ? What must be SOLUJ row "O.000 pounds ing that the column has flat ends.400 lb hollow cast-nou column 10 inches outside diameter." as will be illustrated in connection with bridge ? Jlesigfii ->ible The special cases in which a direct solution is posand r 01 d is aie those wlieie a elation between i A known.

500. A is consideied shaft is By twisting moment at a section of a algebraic sum of the moments. beginning fioiu . and I = 8 X 12 = 96 m Hence. - = lt 2 ^ = 152 This value to less than the limit given in hence. the breaking load i<3 A = %rd". d _ *.000 Now.effect times compressed 42. it was proper use the paiabola formula TORSION shaft.000. 1^ -.000 Ib .000 pounds. sub- stituting in the parabola formula.d 34. is the same numeiically It is a shaft at rest or rotating customaiy It pounds may The to express twisting moments in ini. r Table III. = '. when in use. and sol\mg d". whether computed fiom the forces on the light or from those on the lett.000. about the ot all the forces applied to the shaft on section meant the axis of the shaft. is subjected to forces that twist and bend it. ~ " A S 34. -<j. either side of the moments It particular lule foi signs is used. -700. With a factor of ) safety of 4. except that opposite dnections are given opposite signs can be piovecl that the twisting moment at any section ot in No at constant speed.SOO.197 ' a ~ it. -1. and it ib also someFoi the piesent. inch-pounds lettei T will and then reduce then sum to be used to denote twisting moment EXVMPIT sented in PIJ> Suppose that the moments j!0 of the belt tensions repieabout the shaft axis aie. and -400 foot pounds. the length column being R feet? Use a factor of safety of 4 ends of the vSoLUTiON 120..hbe convenient to compute the moments of the forces in foot-pounds. -bOO. Twisting Moment.000 1 1416 + X 1H9.f>2 480.000- WY id IT Cleanng of fi \4/ foi actions. 4.36 STRENGTH OF MATERIALS EXAMPLE 2 35 flat What size of lound Drought-iron column with is needed to sustain a load of 30. only the twisting. respect ivclv.

000 . T = 4. the stress in each crossFIG 21 This shear. Torsiomil Sness When two cyhndeis placed end to end ate piessed togethei.500 = 3. se^tion is a shear which is called loisioiml or twisting stress. the weight of the shafting and pullejs on that side.35 STRENGTH OF MATERIALS 37 Each moment is obtained by the left multiplying the conesponding foice by the distance of its hue of action from the axis It is assumed that all forces. . and the slipping is prevented by section If the so in a solid cylinder the sti esses at the cylmdei is circular in cross-section. is not unifoimly chsti ibuted. FIG 20 are perpendicular to moment at any section the axis What is the value of the twisting of the shaft? The fences on either side of a section consist of the SorurroN belt pulls.000 ft -Ib etc t . the pulls only ue consuleied in computing twisting moment At any section between the fust and second pullejs. . but its intensity vanes as the distance horn 1 the axis of the shaft.500 ft -Ib between the third and fourth pulleys.000 ft -Ib between the second intl thud pulleys.000 . and the rcictions of the beatings The weights have no luoment about the ixisof the shaft If the shaft is tuiuiug. if the piessuie is large enough.500 . T = 4. solid or hollow. hut these are small and negligible Hence. there is a tendency to slip. which. and then subjected to twisting foices in opposite directions. there is a ten dency foi the patts on each side of a cioss-scction to slip 01 slide on each othei. . is prevented by the h iction between the cylinders Just when it is twisted. although acting at the suiface of the shaft or pulleys. 43. and the applied foices tend only to twist it. T = 4. the frictional paits of the icaLtions have moments.600 = 2.

. and f .t. the intensities of stiess at these distances. the distances of thiise aieas fiom the Si. of d X /-t tf. the llowmg fundamental (I) obtained T=^XJ . 35 Twisting Resisting Moment lesisting moment at a section is By the twisting meant the sum of the all moments Let axis. Fig . be small aieis a shatt. and /. the intensity of stiess in the outermost fibei...2/vX^ d >D ^a _ L 2 d ^v X SD s-\ _ 2/ v x d . za etc . etc . . 21. Zi. at the intensity of stress unit's distance from the axis is /_-_. i J 3) etc . of the sheaiing stresses on the small paits of in the section of the section about the axis ot the shaft <? . whose distance t . <7 a . z 3> etc = The moments respectively. ei. of the section the polai moment by is the resisting moment foimula X J.88 STRENGTH OF MATERIALS 44. 01 their number incieased. a. = I these " d stresses about X . 1 denoting the diameter of the shaft by d Then. . accoidmg to the principle stated in the last article. . S Jt etc fiom the center is -. since this equal to the twisting fc moment T is of the external toices. S S_. S and their - 9 " "* i / - }{ ci d z S z '''- = 9 "* / ^ X ct- v " etc sum ^ is 3 9 ~ f v(/7" ^ 11 7 -l-/7S' J 1 I I -l-/7S' 3 '41~ t( 3 *j ! I 9 \ / / " ^' rf 7 flf n ^* " inertia / As the areas are made smaller and smaller. etc the axis aie.a 2? finally becomes the polar moment of of the section about the axis (see Ait 11). the total stresses at the small areas.s. d 2/ ^i .z s . and.-. and becomes the twisting Denoting " is 2 ^az" d resisting moment J.

000. = yT" I (f . __ 10 7jdL = J")(). of the 1 gives the toisiomil streiifftli of the T- / J = *2s r . " j 1<>.> STRENGTH OF MATERIALS foi 39 H maluial.000 m -Ib . and the The on it tuin sli^hth \\ith icspect to each othei of tins t\\istin<4 dcpLMids on the stiftness or rigidity. namely. is amount and not twist in on i the- stiuiuth of the material Large amounts at shaft aie ohicttionahle. nspcc li\U\ is subjected to a twisting moment of foot-noumls What is the value of the maximum shentinjy i i K 'A . foimula '-haft. iu and T= TT \ - - J // ~<-/ a / -fl ( 1) denote. For a solid tin ulat shaft.{. 1 1 I uini foi nml i ii cif Art 45. . d. and and the inside diameter. equation. hence.. -= r(f/l ' /jl) - . /is substituted the ultimate shearing stress T. = 10. uoss-section r = -r "5 K\ I \.S3. _rL rf /\ v / J r I I i-i i ' Q \ '15. d.ule in which cf.Mi mil )(). = 4 Sub in tin. is ti Angle it of Toi sion.0()() J hollow shift \\hose inner and ontei diameters are 10 UK IRS. If. the (2) l''or a is \</ntr>i law of vanation of the shear- The simple as foi cuculai shafts ^iLMtcst vilne ol the intensity ot sheaiing stress occnis at tlu middle of the sides of the square The stienoth of the ing i sticss not so shaft is yivui by the following foimula. X :.H(K) 000 X 10 _ 17. When pullers twisted. the out. iespei_livcly.7 ^ '^i '/ = 7r - b ' ( '/i ~ d^~ 16^ \hnft. r in which d denotes OIK' side ot the. \ r or a hollow tiKnlai >>hatt. Inn H<IMI. tits. stiffness lather than stienfjfth may determine the sue of the shaft Rules foi . shaft msmittintf powei.(l(i() x IJ =.1 Toi sloiinl Slirfiu^s.- 1 SmuimN line.

the angle of torsion a (degiees). 240. E = Substituting 10.r Bending of Shafts The foregoing foimulas do a = ~ A 141(r not take into account the bending ot the shaft. Heie T = r 17. for long shafts cariying loads. and the lines m n and m n stant. and do not fall within the scope of this Course 48. such as pullers between supports. which is parallel to the axis befoie twisting. when it is subjected to a twisting moment of 17. Part 1). In any shaft in which the twisting moment is con- Fig 22.500 inch-pounds' is Ex \MP:LE What SOLUTION (Strength formula.000.40 STRENGTH OF MATERIALS 35 are based on experience rather than on theory. \vliich is> then solved foi A E the angle of toision foi a 20-foot length of a wiought-iron shaft whose diameter is 3 inches. as in ?/. for any section . 1 traced on paper is they would be found to be straight when the laid out flat The angle between the two lines is it. although they .500X240 = ' "^ X 10.760 ~~ is given by the formula Tl of elasticity in which E is the shearing modulus NOIE The last foirmila is the basis of the method for determining the shearing modulus of elasticity of au> material specimen of the material is twisted. / = JO of Material's. thev should not be to Where shafts ate subjected used bending only. .000 X . and that between the two lines om and om 1 is called the angle of toisioii For a solid circular shaft.000. takes a foim such as m' n The line m' n is a helix if the stress does after twisting If a piece of tracing paper not exceed the elastic limit were wrapped about the cylinder. a line its on suiface. MbO X 17. and the angle of torsion and the twisting moment are measured These values and those of / and d are next substituted in the formula. hence. Fig 22. and </ X 12 = = 3 .000 in the 49.500. FIG 22 distant / from the end n of the shaft 5. they are treated as beams. called the helix angle..

000 inch-pounds. an equivalent twisting moment be touncl. = M+ in V/I/ 8 + EXAMPLES FOR PRACTICE 1 If the twisting moment is 2. J (1) which P= C= working m pounds. moment Then. but their strength For most purposes. 7". that will take the place of the twisting and bending moments combined may 1 Let /]/ = T= bending moment twisting for any section. when it is subjected to a twisting 2 What moment 3 of 18. Hemp ami Manila Rope*. The strength of liemp and maiiila i-opes vaues greatly.000 foot-pounds ? Ans 1 4 hollow cast-non shaft has an outside diameter of 8 inches and a thickness of 1 inch If the twisting moment that the shaft can safely sustain is A 80. what should be a solid circulai \\rought-iron shaft its diameter' Use a factor of 1 safet> of 10 Ans 3g is m the angle of torsion for i 12-foot length of wrought-iron shaft whose diametei is 6 inches.500 foot-pounds. depending not so much on the mateiial and aiea of cross-section as on the method of manufactuie and the amount of twisting Hemp ropes aie about 25 to 30 per cent stronger than mamla lopes or taried hemp ropes Ropes laid with tai weai better. but not to cases in which there is combined bending and torsion In the lattei case. circumference of the rope.35 STRENGTH OF MATERIALS rotate 41 may The formulas for beams apply directly to such cases. = equivalent twisting T. moment for same T* section. by the use of advanced mathematics. than those laid without tar. what is the factor of safety? Ans 17 STRENGTH OF ROPES AND CHAINS ROPES 50. m inches . the and flexibility are gieatlv reduced following formula may be used for the safe woiking load of any of the three ropes mentioned above P= in 100C load.

they aie supenoi to the best non- wire ropes lopes If made fiom an mfenor good the ropes aie not so as the bettei quality ot steel wire. Long Rope-. and may be much smallei in size to cany the same load For iron-wne lope of seven strands. foi different bizeb. nineteen wires to the strand computing the woikmg 1.42 STRENGTH OF MATERIALS 35 hemp hemp rope When the load by the formula This rormula gives a factoi of safety of fiom 7i for manila or tarred rope to about 11 tot the best thiee-stiand P is given. the letters having the same meaning as in the foimula in the pieced ing aiticle P = 600 C- ( 1 ) Steel-wire lopes should be made of the best quality of steel wire. When using lopes the purpose ot raising loads to a conbideiable height. the object in to gain an mciease of weai lathei than to reduce the size The following formula may be used size or in stiength of the best steelwire rope. be obtained from the manufacture! 's catalog may . the circumference is obtained C=^ 10 is (2) it When make excessive wear likely to occur. the larget 51.000 p = r (2) a factoi of safety of 6 toi Formulas 1 and 2 are based on 52. the weight of the lope itself must also be considered and added to the load The weight of the lope pei running foot. seven strands. is better to circumference of the lope consideiably than that given by formula 2. number of wires (usually nineteen) together into and then twisting seveial stiands (usually seven) togethei Wire lope is very much stiongei than to form the lope hemp rope. the following formula may be used. nineteen wiies to the strand. class of iron-wire When view should be substituting steel foi iron lopes. when so made. Wire Ropes Wne lope is made by twisting a a stiand.

made geneially used aie the openchain and the stud-link chain The 23 (fl).35 1 STRENGTH OF MATERIALS What should be the allowable is 43 of iion-\\ire rope \\hose circumference GT inches? working load The weight an of the rope is not to be considered SOLUTION Using formula 1 of Ait 51. d being the diameter ference is CHAINS 54. ropes. it is about 3 d. of a hemp What should be its cncumference ? pounds of Art SOLUTION Using formula 2 5O. the circumSize of Ropes used instead of the diametei. The size of a chain is always specified by giving the diametei of the iron iiom which the links are The two kinds of chain most II iik. P= EXAMPLE lope is 2 to be 900 600 X (bl)= = 27. = o 3 in In measuring. foi seven strands. but increases then toughness and ductility two qualities that aie sometimes more important than mere strength .337 5 Ib Ans The woiking load. and thus stiengthens the chain It is good piactice to anneal old chains that have become This buttle by oveisti aming FIG 23 lenders them less liable to snap The annealing process leduces their fiom sudden jeiks tensile btiength. foi Fig Fig met is shown and the lattei in m 2-> (b) The stud prevents the two bides of a link from coming together when under a heavy pull. because the ropes are not round and the circumfetence is not equal to 3 1416 times Foi thiee sttands the circumfeience is about the diametei 2 86 d. A Ans ^ C= 53. including the weight.

in inches a Then.7 ><) II) Ans What must be the di.000 d" P= EXAMPLE SOLUTION 2 = 12.44 STRENGTH OF MATERIALS Let 35 P= d = iron.125 pounds? Solving formula 2 fen (/.000 d' EXAMPLE link chain? 1 load will be safely sustained by a J-iuch open- SOLUTION Using formula 1. in pounds. d = -~ Vfajooo "Viajooo = u m Ans . diametei of link. for stud-link chains. made from rf" ooocl quality of P= What 12.000 d) (2) and.uneter of a stud-link chain to cairy a load of 28. safe load. wrought for open-link chains.000 X h = r <>. P = 18. 12 .

or viscosity. ix COPYRIGHTED BY INTERNATIONAL TEXTBOOK COMPANY ALL RIOHTS RESERVED . the laws liquids that aie more or less imperfect i elating to pressure on surfaces are scaicely affected by the 1. lational formulas are modified by introducing into them ceitam numbers determined by ib experiment Such numbei s are called empincal constants. friction between the is the liquid and the walls of the enclosing pipe or conduit. the viscosity becomes of great Foimulas derived for the flow of ideally perfect liquids must be modified to take account of the internal friction due to eddies. which neglected impoitance piovmce of hydiaulics. Liiti foi oduction deduced 1 viscobity of the liquid. therefoie. and. and the lesultiny modified foimulab aie called empirical foi in ul. ina> be But in dealing with the flow of liquids. internal fuction. so long as the liquid is at lest or moving veiy slowly.HYDRAULICS (PART 1) FLOW OF WATER THROUGH ORIFICES AND TUBES FUNDAMENTAL FACTS AND PRINCIPLES In hydi ostatics. and take into account all the conditions of actual flow. cioss-currents. etc In the study of hydiauhcs. the following method (1) Formulas foi flow are deduced on the adopted These formulas are assumption that the liquid is peifect called lational Foi in u his (2) In order to obtain results that will apply to imperfect liquids. the principles perlect liquids apply with very little eiror to Thus.

those near the walls feet per second. Velocity. will expiess the aiea. of water flowing past this cioss-section a second The volume 01 quantity Q is called the ilis- If all the paiticles move past the seccliaige of the pipe tion /"with the same velocity v.HYDRAULICS As is 36 thus largely a matter of empirical conhydiaulics stants. or head. in cubic feet pet second. . //. with the understanding that v signifies the mean velocity of the flow The formula . tull Let F and in Q the volume denote the area of a cioss-section of the pipe. the dischaige. be used. in 1 second is equal to the volume of a pi ism 01 cylinder whose base is /''and whose length is ?>. . ?'. Q = Fv F In this and subsequent formulas given in this Section. and Ci oss-Section Assume water to flow through a pipe. it is evident that the quantity passing. in and O. by from 1 to 3 per cent 5 per cent and that for the flow m a channel or conduit. and the pipe to be 2. in feet Actually. pet haps by 5 to 10 per cent Discliaige. the velocity. FIG 1 of the pipe moving more slowly than those near the centei just given may. however. hence. in square feet. it is not to be expected that problems on the flow of water can be solved with the same accuracy as problems in The calculated result of the flow mteiest or mensuration through an orifice or over a weir is likely to be in enor by that toi the flow in a long pipe. the height. the particles of watei passing thiough any section will have different velocities.

dled pies^urc <'n(l^:^ il llu liquid is at a ctitam Icv. t<i ind(iui^\ in iv lie ithi'i knit lie oi ])otential \ mass ot liquid iua\ possess .ition abo\e a Icvt (Uimiallv lathes. dilktent sections will vaiy Since watei essihk' the same qu mtity must How i inn d \\ith the tile I iti to 1 le \ <. its capacity .. denoting the fit uea the. ri at lanat \\ ith tin t\\ ylnulci of s ue i onnce one the lc\cl /'and tin at lest otlui at Assume II the w itei to be cntncly \ \\tij. hence. / vt . asih found Ii\cl </ the weight ff u ts tlnou^h a distance //. J'i - . pipe vanes. /'. < .ive (J ~ />'. and should In mcmon/ed i I I M<'i'<4\ .un potential tiiT^\ diu to llif IJUSSUM and c.'//\ irft I ///. the. =. i't /\ lot itit\ i Tin \t i st ] is! equations sho\\ that tin n\ I/it at tmv i"i'0 no\\is //. -. liod\ As explained in /\. e t \ample 'I he it 1 it i on hi be \% i. If HYDRAULICS the 3 Fig I. it has it motion and same time mule! piessuit. it il t 1 th i i i is m 5.1 store oi enei^ydue eilhei its motion. m it motion.'t Q / r-. > ~" : \\he nee .i of \\ntci J\in tti\. oi the piessuie to \\hieh it is sub- is It it jtited kmeiii tiuiijv. /.'imniittn\ and has tiKMj'y \\lun it is iaj)ahh of doititf t \\oil. e spiemeh we must (' /. a (eit.' f.dit i eonsistm^ pounds ot uatei hm^ at the uppi is ( \vliu h has encifjfy ol position. it has.f/w/j il <i/(ti\ <>/ ///(Mf jt'\\-\ti /itw\ This i iiMilaiin. wall dh in a stand pipe (. .$3ti }. 1 tween the chfieient kinds of neiey may The tank ui is tilled with ml ol IM^ \\huh is // tee I above the uleienee rf. I'lualh.IHI^\.utu. as in a \\atiiwoiks pipe line. hv /.1 /'. i-.1 stuam at the 01 nvei. and A. Us position.'. be those (cd. //. /'/ . h. in addilion !o the kmetii iiiti^> ilue to its i is dl the .ilh meoinpi thiou^h eaeh stttuni pei unit of time. i 'oss-scct ions at pi int i])l<.. as o < (. as is in m ./. as shown in the MR . amount of In dese ending to the ictci cnee lc\ e. :. it has anothei foi m of potential d JMHI^'V of position. \elouties it . Also. and (.." /. e "2 level/ (lom (t any li inlei i r // mediate level. /'/ ?'. /'7'/.

may be made to do work Suppose a valve to be opened into the cylmdei t then. in cylinder of the total is now is zero. the upper level has no pressuie eneigy. watei the leg n ence level b W^ m level. l> mass ot water above the level zeio. a mass of watei has no eneigy of posiThis. since the gauge is zero (the atmospheric piessure is pressure at the surface since it is at rest neglected). valve be closed and a second \alve opening fjaugc is the atmosphere be opened The picssme /ei<>. of weight the referConsider. Ato the right let the 1 1 (a) Frc.) cubic feet. ami the distinct.HYDRAULICS \V h 36 is This weight for work. the velocity /en>. and. takm* a . to the. and. referred to the level b. subjected to a piessme due to the head A. because of its tion. will overcome a lesistancc P l and push the piston i When the weight IT has cnteicd the let c\hmlu. us entering piston" eneigy U had bufoiu the cylinder is pieciselv equal to the This work is calculated woik dmic on the as tollows The volume is of the weight PFthat enters the cylinder U 02 . and the cnetsiv is hence. for it is already at the lowei farther It is. 2 pressure. . and it has no kinetic eneigy. because of that pressme. the water will enter the cylmdei. now. and can fall no however.

in pounds. since / volume of the entering water. that the energy of level b due to the piessure is the same as that of \V pounds at the level a due to position It is moie convenient in subsequent fotmulas to express the piessuie eneigy in teims of the intensity ot piessuie W As shown head of wheie zu ( a in Hydto^talics. and. bv in pounds pei squat e inch. the intensity of piessure // p due to feet is equal to is wh pounds per square inch. it will do work on the pibton because of its ptessure. volume through by the piston this is also the (\144 XL } cubic feet. c the liquid is allowed to entei the cylmdet /. do the work the level that has energy of . s\\ept traveled by the is piston. a mass of watei at the mtei mediate le\el If the piessure enei g\ in foot-pounds. is. theiefore. and. then. as just shown. = 144 W 62 - 5' whence AL==W X = since = // 434 pounds per square inch (see Hydrostatics] The total pressure on the piston ispA. and the work done by this torce pA pounds acting through the distance L feet is The pressure p at the level b is 434 PAL = It 434 h X -~~ = \Vh foot-pounds pounds at the appears. icsult by the weight ot 12 cubic inches of the liquid Take. multiply the \veight. of a liquid. and divide the . = 434 pound) the weight of 12 cubic inches of watei Theiefore. foot-pounds still it But.36 the weight of in 1 HYDRAULICS cubic foot of water as 62 5 pounds aiea. 5 Let A denote the piston feet and the L the distance. to find given weight ot Wh = <v the piessure. in squaie inches. the amount in of this piessuie to energy /. now. is Wh. and Hence. on leaving the cylmdei falling the watei can 6.

then. + It ). and. the energy of position and the piessure eneigy 7. that the velocitv // v f. then. shows such a stream At Jf. the eneigy ot the position. that it the watet is at iesl. Similarly. the eneigy ^ a n c] ue to all levels a to b. also. the eneigy of a given mass with tefeience to the level b is the same at At the uppei level a. it was shown m Kinematic* and I\nntn\ that a body kinetic N The same weighing W pounds falll "2 and moving with 7' a velocity of v tect per second has a kinetic eneigy of ~^ 2 . the honzontal inteik The diagonal B and B repiesent the eneigy of position cepts between at different levels. In case of a stream of fieely falling watci. while those between I> and B C repie' of eneigy to anothei may be represented giaphically as in Fig 2 (/.) The lectangle in the level a and CD in the -/ B is drawn with A The constant width icpiesents the constant eneigy level b 6. The change from one foim BCD W D AD D D sent the corresponding pressure enei gy eneigy of position EF FG = Thus. with reference to the level b at mass eneigy o f has no longei any eneigy of position. lepiesent kinetic energy o f the body after it has fallen through distance h Then. the weight H MN ' W of a Wh mass of liquid about to fall has a potential foot-pounds. but has acquired energy. piessure eneigy K' and A'/.' body _JL_ fieel Y thiough a distance is equal to the = 2-/i Let V2j>//. respectively. foi the level r. theie is a similar change fiom energy of position to kinetic eneigy In Fig 2. = \V h IT//. until at the level b the entne energy is piessuie energy is diawn. due to the velocity ot its tall Now.6 position equal is HYDRAULICS to 01 36 Wh foot-pounds The sum is. ^ K the . icpiescnt. for the level d. of the two Whi + Wh^ f/'U. passing down\\aids fiom position decreases and the pressme eneigy inci eases. that ///// toot-pounds It appears. theiefore.

liquid hiction- no eneigy is ponded in friction . atiitemerit LAW FOR of FllICTlONLKSS 1'L.s.a.\v The energy Assessed by a mass of liquid mav be expended in two ways 1 ) useful work maybe done by the liquid. (2) woik maj be done In eithei case.536 HYDRAULICS the intermediate level is c. At vater the velocity of the falling: The energy V2^// 11 and the kinetic energy is Wh^ t position is Wh? \V k The total cneigy is Wh. without (tittwn lie [n F'lg '). + 2 (/>) lepresents also this change from eneigy of posi'"'IH Wh t ion I The decieasing intercepts between energy give the decieasing eneigies due to position. tollowb that dm ing flow the amount of eneigy icmams constant. crc is no woik done i othei bodies tui net!. /lule the mci easing mteicepts between -5 Z? and t?iepieto kinetic /} and DD the increasing kinetic energy rS 8. and at eveiy >ss-scction the eneigy of a given mass ot liquid is the This statement is /' }>nnil[i\ Af?t'. that moved assumed is 11 j -. and assume the velocity at that . ovei coming vai ions fiictional lesistances ic loss of energy is juivalent to the urk done In the case of a Bernoulli's juicl merely flowing a pipe 01 channel. no heels ->totis it no and.OW L. as exemplified in Litei wheels and hydiauhc engines. watci flows fiom a tank thiough a pipe of The level b thiough the end ot the ying cioss-section Cons'der ie is taken as the lefeience level or datum plane ? section A of the pipe.

''' +A = 71. height above the icfeiencc level. indicate the gauge masb of watei ot weight IF has energies as follows Energy of position = JK/i. aie heads 01 distances.' //. the vim ot the potential head. "\ a l as //. 01 //. and // that of secIt is convenient to give to a tion B above the same level going equation.. kinetic eneigy ^ Pressure eneigy = ~e> The total eneigy R at B i this section is. this Leim is known as the pi es^ urc head Betnoulli's law may now he stated as follows In the floiv of a constant quantity oi i^altt Unoiigh a pipe ot channel.8 HYDRAULICS ?' 36 section to be denote the mean height of this section above the leference level by //.. to Bernoulli's law. pressure At thib section. the name potential liead The tenn fiom lest in - ~ 9 icpiesents the height that a to body must tall oulei attain the velocity z' 1( this height is called the velocity heart h The teim J-- w repre- sents the head necessaiy to piodnce the picssuie of p. //. pounds per square inch (see Ait 5). and picssio e head i* the wine at all Buttons . a and let /.. with hictwn ili^ chanted. the eneigy at B is the same whence 9. hence. hence. + !. // is the distance of section ^ above the level b. In the foret and h. velocity head.> ^+ 2j/ /J 7i' Velocity Head ami Pie&suic Iloatl //. Smiilaily. theiefoie. at section t E= Accoidmg as at A. + 2j. E= ll'/i.

ilh L 1 Ti H to tin i It \ / t ( i pi ssi 11 1 lu id . is sim 7 t tin u ill fi illsi ill n t t- 1 d li l\ in tu tin ' nit> i phi cl ii tin \ i poti nti.ilih it no] Hi lit \v it tlu is /i 1 th it il pipe u. (In HIM of the i. uid In il tin i il hi. hi ads at a must. 1 suctions nnij) and H tin SIM in It KIN i In t ink ii'. J with n u nc in I '( hi M ' I i il " < /i i> in tin lo( It^ In ul is . level s fie /' \ \MI in II | I.uj iiiVLisclv as the aitas i t mils Ai I IK IH i : . henee. the height <>f tin \cl abo\t' tin. ip|)i ti i. id //. \\ith ie. .o IH id. i M n </ li is IIM i i In in (Mill jiuti nil \ i loi \\\ id 0. 7 X v . II s potential head - H //' s head pit'ssuie head \il<Kit\ = == eneitfy ot position kinetiL eneigy piessme cnei^y .i.' . and/' -.!! 111 .ohsiM\ed that each of the heads hcie defined. //. = !() IL' fl per sec pci sec and r.J X 7 10 = ft .">0 7 ft pet sec uin tlu ( ' li . V<i - H) 11 ft . uluii niultiplud In the weight U r gives eneigy in one foim 01 lllntllel ThUs. 1J ft it. c uid with i.K'feienee 1e\el Tins head // is lalUdtlu hxli o^int K IUM<I. tin in i pi i - u i I lu i nl i il n \l /i i in .36 HYDRAULICS 9 It \\ill lit.'!. U cu pci ste . i^ ( I >( SI . lit (it) III I till SI tlMIlS . and piciMiie heads ai both equal to /cm.IS llf ulinh lilt' ilu C \\ilei / 'I ilist />' h ii^iiv .ul.Un. he ids is tin MM laic levels. ?-.! tin id U . neaily Ans <if tin. Math h< ml hi ni l"i auv sutuni the sum of the thiee.- his tlu 7' o.07V ". hki a sum o! the thiec heads is icadily dctei mined th it shoun m Fi in which tlu liquid sin laet At the.JJ. he. ui\ i . / / "id .. t qual to the sum . i 'I li< I i "I Mil si|ii titmn I tliioii". Tin foi i oust. and tlu sum n! the thici heads is nuiely the he. 01 moie Lonimoiily. \tloi it\ c- l' l ! . /i 10.o. il hi id. t equal tu 1 tlu i i siilu In ad.iiLe to the In (hi 111 I i datum ind i^ //. the.' A 1 1 (n diii" to i ni mill In 1 iu . r .itii at tin . i\ IK I linn < '1 uitliuiit tin il\ . th it * \\ jId IK ni ( N I* i ' /- \'L' ". nit auist.'. t // Id fti t. '[lit i \(l(iiitn ( limit' i ilu pipe v.LI1(1 III H ll SJK i\c IN 111(1 in (1 mi In In 111 iiul II II ISO s<|u IH s-- iiulus lll( In lluw isimifoiiii <I|S( "V (1 l< LssllllH tUUlll l\l(]UIH(l il C|llUltll\ / ll'C ind tin i \ilmitv i mil [in I MIH is -. .() . nnii j* LIU 1 \i f 2.

the watei falls in the tubes Let //. and C. the potential heads at that level are all zero./. A _ That is. which horizontal pipe 10. and r aie inseited in the pipe If no flow. at - //. The section sura of the thiee heads A. the sum of the velocity head and piessuie head is equal to the static head at the level of the axis of the pipe At the sections . the last equation of Art 8 becomes 7'. . as the opened and How begins. theieroie. Ans Ans 40 ft and Z>J _ " 2 10 14= 2~j> X _ ~ L b SJ T. I). />. = 13 6 Et Ans and at section B it is - - 1 = 30 4 ft Ans In Fig: 4. 40 I' 1 - = S 40 - 12 - 14 4. is a Pie^ometric Measurements lepioduction ot Fig 1. is shown a dischargingr mto the atmospheie Taking the axis of the pipe as the lefeience level. tubes a./ be the height of the watet in the tube a above the reference level This is evidently the pressure head at the tank pipe is . however. and.10 HYDRAULICS The corresponding velocity :36 heads S2 Id a. the piessuie head is 40 for all sections is Hence. the \vatei will in the end of the pipe is stopped so that theie is use the tubes until it reaches the m level of the watei As L> X = 14 4 .

A gauge 01 tube inserted in a pipe to called a show sure of the water is piezometer When the presa piez- is to be placed in a pipe through which water is flowing. and cause it to rise higher than the For. and. the tube should always be so mseited as to be at right angles to the cuirent in the pipe. vice versa. the action of the current will force the wdtet into the tube. and in consequence the velocity head is least is and the pressure head greatest. and. if the tube is head due to direction. as shown at a. as at the piessure. and the difference between the level in the tube and the level in the reservoir or tank measures the velocity litad Wheie of flow is the cioss-section has the greatest aiea the velocity least. as shown at $. h = k "- + hj t whence = - hj = h denoting by //" the velocity head at A The same reasoning applies to the other tubes In each case. Fig 5 ometer FIG 5 so inclined that the current flows against the end. the height of the watei in the tube measures the presvue huid for the section. the action of the cunent will reduce the smooth and The end of the tube should be made indicated piessure flush with the inner suiface of the pipe While .$36 section HYDRAULICS A is 11 If the velocity at this section the last equation of Art 8 gives denoted by v a . if inclined in the opposite c. at the smallest section the velocity and velocity head are greatest and the piessme head is therefore least 11.

lespectively. it is VNI) ( DISCHARGE ^ 13. are made at the These ounces aie supposed to be so small. the tnction between the liquid and ihc enclosing sm faces is veiy small in compaiison with the othei quanof watei thiough onficcs. and the static head //. and 10 feet pei the velocity head second.tei in the tube at each section lie ids 11 1. required of \\ n. Flow Thi ougfli pheie. tities that entei the calculation . /// = 20 = 20 - . bein-g. l>. and Fig 4. c 01 ificos. channels.. and .. FLOW OF WATER THROUGH ORIFICES THEORETICAL VKLOCIIY 6.5 'IS = = I'l <>l ft ft lit 02 Ans Ans Ans - 12. //' lib' = T) 14 = (> ft In tube b. and Bernoulli's law must be modified accoidmgly be taken up with the flow of watei and streams This modified form will in long pipes. Renmiks on Uei noullPs is Ijji\v -Bernoulli'*? fo: law without rnction the basis of all the foi mulas the flow In these wens. etc the friction becomes a veiy mipoitant ractoi. it is advisable foi accurate measmements to connect tubes with Results obtained from piezthe sides and bottom also ometer measmements are liable to v/.-In Fig to a Small ()i iflc-o Into the Atmosassumed that the vessel is kept full 01 the level a Openings. compaied with then distances below the sutface. The velocities and height v. some uncertainty z' r .12 it HYDRAULICS is 36 usual to tap the tube nto the top of the pipe. and shoit lubes cases. sti earns. i). JO feet. lu tube c. channels. In the case of flow in long pipes. EXAMPLE 80. SOLUTION The thiee \elocily 2 X 20 >2 1(> In tube a. that their dimensions may be neglected The head on any of levels M.

it therefoie. i< = -\//i (JAM/i Also. is // a feet above the To determine the . whence v = Va^/i (i) This value ot v is called the t heoi eric nl A eloc it\ ot efflux tin on gh the onfice Owing to fi iction and othei resistances.36 HYDRAULICS 13 them may. Flo\\ Ifiulei I*iessnie In Fig 7. o AO r> vacuum through or a distance equal to the head on the Using the \alue 32 16 802 for ^2g.' /'. which produces a pressure on the suiface of the liquid The water flows through the onfice level c o into a second vessel. tial 3 the velocity head I -- must be 2? equal (Art to J)). and. the that static is. t> FIG the actual velocity is a little less than the theoretical. the head // necessary to produce a velocity v 3 given by the foimula h = v' i) 2 t 4 X = 01555 w" 32 16 (3) 14. as will be explained in another place It vu!1 thirmh falling be observed that the theoretical velocity of efflux a small onfice is the same as the velocity of a body tieely in a oiifice for ?. formula 1 ^o\ (Z) is may be wiittcn . head 7z = zf. both the poten and the pleasure head aie equal to zeio. be taken as the distance of any part of horn the suiface If the level ot any ounce whose head is /i is taken as a plane of lefeience. therefore. and the water is assumed to discharge fieely into the atmosphere with a velocity v. orifice in which the liquid. the water at the upper level a is loaded with a weight W.

/_2^_ =. the potential head is zero. head ft is -. = h. as in Fig 6. the dischaige beinsj into the atmosphere . the potential is zero. .. at the level a. and the jet still dischaiges into the atmosphere. be 5 squiie feet.. //' + /i n // and If v = V2 (// + // = 0. the level b is taken as the leference level. atmosphere. 8 02 + ( 1 ) the jet dischaiges into the //. 7i' is //. ind let The oiifice o 's JO feet below equal 1 Ions the level a and S feet below the level i (a] Find the \elou t\ of flow EX\MVLC W through the onhce (t>) Find the velocity of flow at the level /. it is found that. Ait 13. A' + ) fit. the 1 velocity head and the pressiue head where p denotes the pressure pei square inch on the watei surface If is the aiea of the liquid suidue to the weight W F face. if theie is no extra pressure on the suiface at a. applying Bernoulli's la\v.14 HYDRAULICS 36 theoretical velocity of dischaige thioiigh the oiifice. Lei the aiei of the liquid suiface at Fig 7. ?' //.. - /I. = 0+ whence FIG 7 '' = = \7/' + /I. and. the velocity head is . (2) On the othei hand. = 0. and = 8 02 wmch is the same as formula 2. h n V//. and. = // = //. Let h' denote the head that gives the piessme/V. p' is equal to IV w the jet r For emeiging tiom the oiifice. then. and the pleasure head 1g is // 4 Fiom of: the last equa- tion Ait S. h1 - 0. therefore. v = R 02 >///' + //.A..

v (b) :' = 02 V// + ~/r = S 02 Vf2 8 + 12 o Fiom foimula 2.000 X 2 = 'k P ei r~^Ti if" SQ 15 1Q nnd from the equation in Hydtosfatics. L. /. and // = 20 . the piessure heads are both and the potential head at the onfice is zero. while at The last equation of Ait 8 becomes the sin face it is // As 7eto. is obtained as follows of Let a denote the aiea of the at and.aise Onficc in Bottom of Vessel If the dimensions ot the onfice are laige compaied \\ith those o the enclosing vessel. the corresponding . that 7J is. and Fui z- denote the velocity with trier. + - + = + f.8 = 12 S./ the aiea the liquid surface the upper k-xcl (see Fig 8) iluouffh the oiifiee. = Ct 7i 7r a whence A \elocity head at the upper level / The is. 304 ^. = Fiom foi imila 1 . //. let ? the velocity which the watet at the uppei surface descends According to Ait 3. = 20. h = 2 head h' is 2 X)4 X 5 5fi = 12 8 ft />.+ 0.336 SOIUTION HYDRAULICS () The external pressuie is 2. theietoie. theiefoic. or \\hence . the velocities aie inversely as the a'-eas. the formula foi the theoietical velocity of efflux onfice. = 8 02 V/' + /r. = S 02 V12~S"+~~20 8 = = 39 94 ft pei sec pei sec Ans Ans 45 9J ft 15. X in the example in Ait 9.

i denoting the width ol the ouficc by b When h is less than a mine evict foimuia for a rect- orifice is the following Q = $bTfiTg(hJ-lifi (2) . formula 1.% = Vg g h%. gives the int'. i = V2 while at FIG 9 thebottom. and the formula = V 2 g h may be used EXUIPLE A vessel has a rectangular cross-section. the factor A in i the v formula just given may be is 111 the the head is dillerent side of the vessel. 11 m Xl-4 in. and foi a crt aiitful. Q = Fv = F^2~g7i = SQ2F^li For a (1) F = be.c. Ail 13.L I Ai 1 3. angular circulai velocity with sufficient exactness. and the onfi. as shown m Fig 9. F= 4. If the mean head h is moie than about four times the vcitic. hence. hi. the area of Since 154 area of the orifice is 4X4 = 16 sq the base is less than twenty times the area of the orifice. . using the m formula = 802-\/1 Tj7pr (i5~i) = 30 17 ft per sec An^ When the 16. for m diffeicnl paits of the onhcc. 2 and dimension c. and the chschaige is given by the combination of the foimula in Art. c' \ TT 2 .16 HYDRAULICS If 36 A is moie than twenty times > a. and conse- quently the theoretical dilTcienl pai jfice velocity varies at Kof thconThus. al the top. Large Orifice Side of Vessel dimensions of the onfice are orifice. f thus. surface of the \\atcr is and the upper is 14 feet above the bottom IE is an the orifice 4 inches square velocity of efflux? made in the bottom is of the vessel. what SOLUTION The area of the cross-section 11 X 1 = Ifi-i 1 s>q m The 16 = 1 J.

15 63 cu ft } x 3 375 X V/X~3TIo"xl - per sec Ans EXAMPLES FOR PRACTICE 1 The velocities in thiee paits of a horizontal pipe with varying If pie/ocross-section die 3.^36 17. and formula 2. Ex A. assuming that the static head is 25 feet of the watei (24 86 ft Ans { 24 00 f f 1 23 12 ft 2 A weight of 12 2 tous is pHced on the suiface oE the \\ater con- tained m a lectangulai bo\ uhose cross-section is 102 squaie feet Calculate the velocity of flow through an onficeOfeet below the suiface Aus 55 15 ft per sec and 1 squaie inch in cioss-section The aiea of an orifice in the bottom of a lectangular tank is 3 The suiface of the water is 125 feet above the 2 5 inches squaie onhce and the area of the cross-section of the tank ib 125 squaie inches Ans 28 39 ft per sec of efflux the Calculate velocity . and let the head on the lowei edge be denoted by H. Art 16. = 0. K. the top ? edge being at the level of the watei To apply 1-he formula. h = 9 Substituting in fonnula 1. Ait 16.MPLE 1 Cora- pute the theoietical dibcharge fiom a veitical circulai _ _ _____ FlG \/ 10 m onhce diameter whose center (5 inches is 9 feet below the watei level SOLDI ION > /' = 1 frf = X Vi) 7854 X (~hY = ft 19b' sq ft . HYDRAULICS 17 Let the top of the orifice be at or above the liquid level. and 11 feet pei second. since b // = atea ". respectively metnc tubes rue placed at these thiee points. \\e have/r = 4 5 X TV = 3 375 sq SOLUTION ft . becomes // x 3 = S or. Then. detei mine the height in the tubes. = 8 02 X 1 ( )6"5 is = 4 72 cu per sec foi Ans a rectangular EXAMPLP 2 What the theoretical dischaige onhce whose length is 4 5 feet and whose height is 9 inches. /''of orifice.-_ - "' Jr I. h ab shown in Fig 10 H. H= Q = j-j = i ft Substituting m : the formula.

when the is side FIG 11 so thin that it the jet does not touch If beyond the innei edge the sides ot the vessel ate veiy thick. iul oiifice. as sho\\n in Fig 31. foui times the veitical dimension of the oiifice If measuie- ments aie made caiefully. Contraction of a jet issues Hit' Ji*t a . Standard Oi if ices An oiifice is called a '-tuml0. When FIG 19 from stand. as in Fig 12. so that the diair>- etei is least at a distance fiom the the edge equal diameter of the orifice to about one-half Beyond this point the jet giadiully . bide of the vessel. the calcu- lated dischaige should not vaiy fioin the actual dischaige by moie than 1 01 2 pei cent\. though an orifice bottom may be placed The head on the jn the orifice Fie 12 should prefeiably be greatei than. \\.18 4 HYDRAULICS A 2-inch circulai hole is 36 tapped in 20 feet in diameter and 100 feet high If above the onhce.1 d oiifice when the flow through it takes place in such i manner that the jet touches the opening on the inside edge only t A hole in a thin plate. as is also a square-edged hole in tht. a standard oiifice can be made by bevelmg the outei edges. deteimme the velocity of efflux the side of a stand pipe the water lexel is 81 5 feet Aiib 72 4 ft pei sec ACTUAL DISCHARGE THROUGH si AM DAK 1) -18. is such au oiifice. as shown in Fig lo Small quantities of water can be measured compaiatively accuiately by means of standaid orifices These are usually placed in the veilical sides of the tank 01 icseivoir.

^2 and. the area of the contracted section and the aiea of the orifice. F c. the actual 20. it v a denotes the actual and v the theoietical velocity.36 HYDRAULICS 19 enlarges and becomes broken by the of the an effect of the resistance The ratio of the area of the smallest section of the jet to the aiea of the orifice is called the coefficient of conti acand tion. theiefoie. It is found that i n = c.h an onfice much less than the theoietical discharge. then. Let denote. is = c. Let this coefficient be denoted by c. then. and let r. and values an a ing horn 975 to nearly 1 have been obtained An average value usually taken by difreient expenmentets is 98. lespectively. which means that the actual velocity is but 98 percent of the theoretical velocity 21. and. theoretical velocity is called the coefficient of velocity.v toi "teatei high heads than for low. of the conti action of the jet and also because of The ratio of the the diminution of the theoietical velocity actual to the theoietical dischaige is called the coefficient of . because Coefficient of Discharge is The actual discharge throng. it. fnction at the velocity of the less jet at the smallest cross-section is slightly than and 2 the theoretical velocity as calculated by formulas 1 The latio of the actual velocity to the ot Art 13. c. F F denote the coefficient ot conti action. F all The that value of all almost the same for forms of orifice piobable ana for heads The most reliable expenments indicate thib value lies between is 60 and 64 A mean value 62 Because of the slight Coefficient of Velocity edge of the ounce. and also because of the internal friction of the watei due to contraction. therefore.

since Fv is equal to the theoietical clischaige Q. Ail I(>. the last equation becomes = b2 X 08 = (51. X Q. that is. thetefoie... that is.cssaiy to introduce the coefficient < in the second mt'inlci I'iovided the head is at least foui tunes the \eitaal dimension 22. F 7iS. > 'Jrj/^. if X /> or. If the oiifice is a square whose side o* d tctt.\^(h}-h*] t 01 <2o = r . of the onfice.. nemly Foviiiulas Toi Actual J)Iscl)jn<> o The fi)imukis of Aits 16 and 17 give the thc. and c3 the mean values G2 and 08. actual clischaige. X 7. {? intioducm^ .u^L O ioi veitical oiifices Foi the actual chsch (j. = 8 02 12. it is in (. rv c .f//. .20 HYDRAULICS Let 36 = Q = a theoretical discharge.M)2 fl /^/v'// head on the icctanyiiKu </.-. \ve have Q = 802^/^V// 9 (1) il Foi a circulai oiifice of 3 duunetei feet. and If the (p. The = ~ and Q = O " n c t O ~ coefficient of dischai%e n. t. i> = c. coefficient ot clischaige e a c* = Th en.")4 d\ and. )4 r ( 3 d \^ = (5 '200 ..S. equal to tht piodnct of the coefficient of velocity and the coeificnnt ot conti action Foi we have (Ait 2) Q = n /> /' 01. /" ( = |J />//.oienuil discli.\b .. <r V// is (2) r/". / and = soa/^/'V// b (3) Foi a lectangulai oiifice of \\ulth and dtpth is f/. oniKU less than foui times the dimension cj in the mote the dischai^a is found by evict totmula ti. Q = u . whence Using foi r. i = c. substituting the {?o values of and v a (Aits i = tiFXftV = 19 and 20).*-//^ (5) . uc .. in cubic feet pei second. icspectively.

it will to an orifice 1 foot wide Expcuments show that c 3 increases somewhat with breadth. in Feet 8 i o 5 1 J o 2 5 3 o 4 6 o Ho 10 o . apply only to standaid oufkes be obsei ved that values apply only In the table of coefficients for lectangular orifices. so that toi a bieadth much excess of 1 foot advisable to increase the tabulai value the it is m I L 1 3'y 9 . the head II.HYDRAULICS The head // 21 raessuied to the center of the 01 ifice. \\hich are taken fiom hifjh anlhontieb on hydiaulics. and 4 m Tables I. and with the vettical TABLE I COkFFIC IKNIS OF DISCHARGE FOR CIRCULAR VERTICAL ORIFICES Hcul h Feet Diameter of Orifice. 3. 2. and III with the kind ot Experiments show that c> vanes with orifice. and h and all orifice dimensions are to be taken m feet The quantity O. /. ate to be taken from is m formulas 1.20 o I 50 o GO O dimension of the o:ifice The tables.. will then be given cubic feet pei second The values of c.

ind no t nuuc th. The calculated discharge 3. formulas 2. provided the oufke has a height of not mote than 18 inches nor less than 1 inch.22 HYDRAULICS . the value of <-.m Ihicc' significant more th. and 4 may be taken as 615 will not vary by more than 3 01 4 per cent from the actual discharge.m foui figures fioin of the final result should "be used What the is the is tlisiliujjt 1 n mill u oiificc 1 J \n diameter if head 7 fLit- . and that the head lies between 1 m foot and 30 feet In the solution of problems. the value of ca it is that most neaily entuely permissible to use fits the given conditions TABJLE II COEFFICIENTS OF DISCII UtOF VOll MJUAHE VKKTICAI O HI Fit I-s It is useless refinement to keep figures m expressing 1 its value.36 For approximate calculations.

the loc-llu icnt foi fiom o t .\ \Mi'i K 2 stK. 1-1) in such a \\o_j th U the c^ate foi ms a slindaid when opened onhce of rect- FIG 14 inifiil.oLfhuLiiJ: is ft The diainetei of the orifice is 125 found to be <>00 foi an onfice 1 ft .HYDRAULICS 23 TABLE 1 III COr.u (. the in diaraetet under a heul head ">')h t df of <> S ft In the and the same foi a same uaj. fiora Table I. and it is found that the gate is opened 9 inches '.ross-section The \\idth of the opening is 1 fool.FFICIENIS OF DISCHARGE FOR RECTANGULAR TOOT A\ IDJL Head of // on Lenta Onhce Feet 4 6 8 i 1 o 5 2 O 2 5 1 O 4 o 60 So 10 20 SmuiroN (. a F. (> = -")<) X II <> X 12">" X V? 1">I>2 uii pei sec Ans A d mi lei os<. ft . a diameter of ft nciiLi foi 1 ft thin 2 ft From mnl (J n i 2. us the diameter is '>()(). lU 2ft is toSft held Hence.he Lop of the dam uhen the water keeps flush with What is the rate .im ILLS an opeinm> closed by a slunc ijite (see Fit.

= 5 3 ri '> X 61-ri (7 } Q X 53 ) = 72 45 cu per sec Ans 23. mean //. is less than 4d. as shown at a. the is is i contraction of the stream the dischaige educed and inci eased the in- Experiments show crease to be about 3 5 per PlG 16 cent tor a. and from 6 to 12 percent foi These values have not been accmately determined. as shown at b. 5 ft . 13. (3 ft . 8 02 F^fil 8 02 b d v/// ( 1 ) Usiny the mean value 015 f a the actual chsohaige given by the foimuLi is Q = 24. = A. and wheie accuiate measuiements are to be l> . if the center of the opening the surface of the water in the dam-" below SOLUTION Fiom Table III. the 615 X 8 02 bd V^ = 4 932 bd^h* (2) If Reduced Contiactitm onfice is made at the side Rounded Orifices of the vessel. hence. formula -i should be used The substitution of known 1 values in that formula gives 7 r > dischaige thiough a rectangular onhce 2 feet deep and 3 feet \\ide with its.24 HYDRAULICS is 36 6 feel of flow of the stream. or at the bottom. for an onfice 1 ft wide and 75 ft deep is found to be 604 when the head is b ft Since the head is more than foui times the depth. the theoictieal . uppei edge 5 feet below the liquid level O = A 02 X W)4 X X EX\MPLE o Calculate the Vb = 8 9 cu ft per sec Ans Assume^ = bir> SOLUTION should Since the be used Here. head. velocity z^is 8 02 \'// foi the theoretical dischaige we have Q= = for FIG 15 . Suliineigfecl Onfice An example Art of a submeiged 2. + ft 2 = 7 ft Substi- tuting in the formula. foimula ft 5 = - h. Fig 16. the value of c.

the mmeis' inch foi the specified mm = conditions FXAMPT. The Mineis' Inch i The in nets' iuch is an aibi- trary unit for measuung water by its flow thiough an orifice This unit is mainly used m measuiing \\atei foi migation It is the and mining pui poses. Ait 22. as shown in IS. if the head Ans 4 72 cu ft 1 What > of a leseivon measines 2 foot on squaie orifice in the side What is the dischai ge each side. ind the he id on the center is 21 feet Ans 905S cu ft in cubic feet pei second? What is Ihe discharge from a tectangulai onfice 1 foot wide. byjormula 1. and the dischaige is expressed in cubic teet per minute 01 in gallons per day For the dimensions just stated Table II gives 621 as the appioxmiate value of the coefficient of dischaige Theiefoie. horn i standard is 20 feet? tnculai orifice whose diameter is 2^. in cubic feet pei minute. so that the mmeis' inch has not a The onfice is sometimes taken as 1 inch squaie. the coefficient of dischaige is inci eased.540 gal pei day. 25 made Pigs shown m and 13 If the Figs 17 and inner edge of the oiifice is on the upper edge is 2V feet and the depth of the orifice ft is 30} inches? Aus 7 309 cu per sec .36 HYDRAULICS the orifice should always be arranged as 11. FIG 17 Fir IS quantity of water flowing in a ceitam time through an orifice Both the of specified dimensions undei a specified head dimensions ot the onfice and the head vary in difteient fixed value localities. inches. 12. and may edge Fig be is made nearly as 1. if J 2 A the he.ES FOR PRACTICE isthedischai>e. the head as fi inches. n = 24 X 8 Pft 144 X -v \ 12 5/-~ = 0256 cu ft pei sec = which is 1 536 cu per of the value 16. if the in rounded shown 18 25.

the is FIG 20 pressure fact at m less than that of the may be shown experimentally as atmospheie in Fig 20 This If a . the depth 6 inches. if the diffeience in the level of the v\ater is What on the t\vo sides of the orifice is 3-j feet ? Ans IS <S4 CLI ft pei sec FLOW THROUGH SHORT TUBES om a Stamliuil Tube The mannei m which water flows through a shoit tube in the side of a reset 26. and the head ou the upper edge 4j feet ? Use the approximate coefficient of discharge T 615 AHS P> 719 cu ft per sec the dischaige ftora a snbraeiged lectangular onfice IT feet wide and 1 toot deep. but afterwaids expands n^am and fills the tube as it atinospheie emeiges into the That this tesult may requned be obtained. u follows that the pressure at m must be less than that at n Hence. Efflux Fi voir at is shown in Fig- 10 The jet fiist contiacts to a section smallei than that ot the tube. standaid. that not be gieasy is. seveial conditions are (1) The tube must be is.'{) the tube must be uetted by the watei.26 4 HYDRAULICS What is 36 the approximate discharge horn a rectangular gate in the side of a dam when the bieadth is 15 inches. it must be shaip and must the The piessure at section n at the end of the tube is that of the atmos- phere the Since the velocity at contracted section m must be gieatei than at the section n. that the innei LOI nu s the length must not be less than about '2\ times FlG 19 thediamctei (2) The head must not be moie than about 40 01 50 feet The mtenoi of (.

but a mean 82 Foi low heads it uses to 83. the coefficient of contraction is 1. as is in the case of an orifice. be obseived that the mercury rises in the tube to a This shows that the pressure of the air on the height h meiciuy in the cup a is gi eater than the pressure in the tube (>. Conic-ill as Tubeb ami Nozzles in For a conical of shown Fig 21. the coefficient of dischaige is the same as the coefficient of velocity 27.' is the coefficient of velocity The values is 5 01 of // vary slightly with the head.36 HYDRAULICS 27 it b is earned down into a cup of mercury a. the coefficient dischaige Fir 11 PIG 22 teaches a maximum value of 946 when the angle a of the The coefficient of velocity increases jonc is about 331 the same A ith the angle of the cone until it becomes about It the inner edge of is the coefficient toi a standard orifice r . tubo. and for high heads (SO it diops to Since the issuing jet has the same area as the tube. the theoretical velocity. i> given by the formula = velocity at u i> a = The in actual velocity is given by the formula which (SI r. and. therefore. and the excess of atmosphenc piessure over the piessure in the tube at the contracted jet is measured bv small branch tube uill the height // If Bernoulli's law is applied.

28 the tube of is HYDRAULICS discharge 1 36 well rounded. etc 28. and a large peicentage ot the eneigy of the jet is The theoietical height to which a stieam theieby utilized from a nozzle can be thiown is equal to the head that would produce the velocity with which the If jet flows horn the nozzle v is this velocity. the coefficient increased and may be made neaily A nozzle is a kind of conical tube with a cylindrical Nozzles are used when it is debited to dehvei watei Their most common with a high \elocity for any pin pose application is in connection with hose Foi fiie pui poses. and the is denoted by v velocity 23. let Total head at m = = w + *>- V - '2- Total head at n If friction is 2? neglected. Beinoulh's law gives whence . tip By means of nozzles. a \ ery high coefficient ot velocity is obtained. the velocity of the jet issuing fioin a nozzle can be found when the pressuie of the water enteimg the is Fir 2<5 nozzle known In Fig p be the piesstire at the section m as detei mined by a gauge. the theoietical height is 2? ^-- The resistance of the air always reduces this height Undei low heads. the coefficient of velocity for a nozzle as ordinal ily constituted is about 98 29. With the aid of Beinoulh's law. and let \~ be the velocity at this section At the end n the piessure is zero (on the gauge). as is still further shown m Fig 22.

and F" = v<? X -^ From equation (1).= 2j> 2 304^ "^2f + Tiansposing.entiance. from which 2 17 r/ EXAMPLE The pressure on a nozzle is 70 pounds per square inch. the tube 1 beyond the smallest section a is leading./^2304/+!^ (1) the diameters at sections whence I" = z- X .to the minimum section is divergent.. 12 17 x nsxV77J _ = 100 I ft per sec Ans () /. .36 HYDRAULICS is 29 the actual velocity. = 2 = 156 7 ft Ans In Fig 24 is 30.inch (a) Find the velocm of the jet with e .. the large diameter is 1\ inches. then. Divcipfmg and Compound Tubes shown a conical diverging tube with shaip inner corners The tubes shown in Figs 25 and 26 aie compound.' = PS (b) To what height will the jet rise. as called a shown m Fig 25. and the diameter of the tip is 4. This the theoietical \elocity For we have (Art 26) t . respectively.= 2<rr. -. = m n. since the velocities V and v are inversely as the areas at and n (Art 3)." 2 304 /i + -. while the part either a rounded conver- ging. as tube. neglecting the lesistance of the air ? SOLUTION (a] Fiora the above formula. m . or a conical converging The tube shown in Fig 26 is shown in Fig 26 "Ventun tube. \\e have Let and D and d denote.

. the coefficient of discharge c a exceeds 1 Kxpenmenfs by Eytelwein on a Ventnn tube K inches long and with maximum and minimum diameteis of IS iiKlics and "nil respectively.. Using gauge pressures.". tube of the torm found by expenment iimi^ a shown in Fiy 2. oinpf1 respectively.^vhe'nce _ Vt _ z b ' .~) is much in c\tcss u! tin dischai ge thiough . 1 J< . A TI . ^ it H ^. velocity at section /?. } compound tube value c 3 = of different torm. K /i and denote :he ?J a] Jf of .n the ^Sad^of Uion& a and ^. i -Applying JSeinouIh's i\v t.. that is. pressure at section a.(. . ^a p = O. then = ^ ^^^ .HYDRAULICS It is .^ ~"u . P1CSSme tuoe f thC atmo "l' h *" Also. pressure at section b " FIG 2J r . the clistlui^t is that . Fianus obtained the hi^h 2 43 Let ^ = vt A = = = velocity of jet at section a. ga\c f = 1 TM \\'n\ ti I .in oiifu<_ m straight tube ot the same minnnuni diameter In fact.1 the dischaige " =_ ~ Fro 2-1 greater than the theoietical dischaiye due to the head.

/>. pifssiiif at n is 14 7 The ettectne head pioducing the flow ib c meh section u is 8 47 7 pitssuif. the coeHicient of velocity to be 5 at this section.Kinunts (01 the coefficients of velocity and dischaige ht'iny jjfi c. the theoietieal at section a va = 8 02 Vl2 = 28 feet pei second. it is cleai that //' is than //. .nl example will make this point cleai . and /'/. and theretoie v a is greater than the velocity (hu In the head // It is this fact that is. and let // A - I feet -'/. that the piessuie . 01 that the pressure at section a the minimum section is less than atmosphenc piessure th it . 7CJ negative. \\huh is 1-4 //'-/ velocity ^ ' l - I ( S) us = 12 feet. we have whence whcie j^iiMtei //' vr = V2 - *" /i cii As -^.^ 36 HYDRAULICS is 31 evidently v t ative ]ess than v at and the fraction V" ~ -". The V2 7 i. w = 8 02' 2 X -2406^ = _ 8feet 32 16 3 47 8 X 434 = The c'onespondmg.iUiis /'". hence. . the \clontj at section n 8 02 X = 2406 feet per second Plu'icfoic.. the pounds per squaie inch 3 47 = 1123 pounds per absolute.piessuie is The negative sign indicates poi squaic inch suit' it pounds that the pies- pounds less than the atmosphenc Hence. Hit n. = /'}. he 1 and 3 sqnaie inches. IJcinoulh's law is applied to a. \-isumi. we have is v 3 8 02 = 3 1. hence.uci tlidii 1 Let the negf^ This indicates that is ^ w is negative. lespectively. less than atmosphenc pressure the suiface and to no\\. /".tctiuil velocity 11 16 04 X 5 = 8 02 feet per second = Sim i r'. theoietieal velocity at section // b is 10 04 feet per second.'.

whereas if the tube were cut oft at section the theoretical velocity would be only 8 02 \4 = 1604 feet pei second Using the same motionless data. = 8 02 VI = is 4S 12 16 04. and foi the tube shown at (). hence. about 72 is tion .HYDRAULICS nearly. let us shall then assume 16 04 the flow to be entirely 3 We vb have = 16 04. the coefficient of velocity foi the section a of the sectional 16 04 b 3../ = 4 w _ _ 32) = ( ^ = 1604--4812J = _ X 32 16 36 feet. as sho\\n in (/>). v a 2 = X = 32 -18 f 12 /. and v a = 8 02 V36 v. 36 a. Inward Projecting Tubes Fig 27 (a] When into a vessel. which is the ratio = F F and lt areas 31. a tube ptoicUs the coniiac- FIG 27 increased and the discharge The greatly reduced coefficient of discharge for the arrangement shown at (a) is about 5. = 48 12 Without the diverging pait of the tube.

rS 1. and that. as If the height of the section m above usual. Bernoulli's law asserts that the total energy contained in a given mass of liquid at any section is the same as the It has been eneigv of the same mass at any other section shown. as the flow pioceeds. the energy ot the mass its appaiently lost The energy that is merely tianstormed into heat. L. howevei. be denoted by w the tefeience level is h m and the velocity ot flow and the pressure at ui aie v m and p m lespectively.T (pressure energy) AUL RIGHTS RESERVED COPYRIGHTED BY INTERNATIONAL TEXTBOOK COMPANY .HYDRAULICS (PART 2) FLOW OF WATER IN PIPES RESISTANCES TO FLOW IN PIPES BKRNOULT. but it loses availability foi doing mechanical work Let tti and n be two sections anywhere in a system containing flowing watei. . that peilectly fnctionless flow is never attained. the total energy ot \V pounds of watei at that section is of liquid gradually deci eases is . and suppose that the flow is from m towaid n The weight of 1 cubic foot of watei will. flow. Wh m + -f (energy of position) a W X zrWX w (kinetic energy) 2.A\V FOR ANY FLOW In the case of ftictioniess Statement oJf tlie JLaw.

'. ) + H'X* "V ?f/X ? '" r // x A / " I " 2 + m //'y ^ in iht / if ?.. uu. that voik tnctioual in i\ l( ous lesistances / i h . MM ' .- o excep ^ J^cicn tei f iiu 1 1 the last.. . theic is in. then. with friction. u/.f at section m. if is the puxluct of the " .'.2 HYDRAULICS The same expressions. lM} il h-j energy expended in doing this woik U... with the subscript If .n ^ " energy is less by the amount Kmn st l(l ).Ki. '" I'C l\\( { 31 .J].n . ijnj't // . CIKI-\ I<.'i. . and the equation flc r..VilVi ' ' may t l. !>. <r <$ -7 !1lC jj u t h].K .iimi. ' ( . f .i.h t head. fiiciional resistances This sUtum-nt be expicssc-d a >J | .(Icnnftd In This eneigy is taken fiom the stock ot enei> tin \\."o. s Jaw. ( .' . _ \ is done in mt. j.. in anothei TIu oici%\> at w n c<]itl /n II \\ay enagy that ha* bun cTcptintttf b (^./. houevei. . . . ' ..' between m and //. tl ih. .-t rr/v A. parts of the total eneigy at n between the two sections. hence.ut Suppose. sections m an d '1 1 " i]. when the watct ic.uhcs st<ti.

mean -velocity of flow. sudden enlargements or contractions in the pipe. and valves 01 other obstructions in the pipe The magnitudes of the losses due to these various causes will now be discussed COEFFICIENTS OF HYDRAULIC RESISTANCE in Pipes When \\atei flows through a meets with lesistances due to the ruction of the particles on the sides ot the pipe and on each other These iesit. bends and elbows.3 " HYDRAULICS 3 water and pipe.000 feet long. expressed by the equation 9Z. the fiiction head Z. and cause a loss in head. which will be denoted by Z{ This loss is called the friction liead Experiments have shown that the inction of watei flowing pipe. a coefficient depending on the roughness of pipe It is customaiy to express every loss of head as the product of a fractional factor. appioximately. ruction through a pipe 1 follow*. _ / / V X l -j d V rV X "' <lg in which / = d r / = = length of pipe.tances absoib eneigy. called a coefficient of liYclianlic icsistaiice. it 3. It and the velocity head - 2^ has been found that / varies with the diametei of the Table I at the end of this pipe and the velocity ot flow Section gives values of / foi clean cast-iron pipes well laid 10 inches EXAMPLE What is = 8333 ft ( the loss of ) m head due to fiiction in a diameter and 1. piopor tional to the length of the pipe neaily as the squat c of the velocity // va)ie\ mmtscly as the diawctct of the pipe // VCD ics Tlic /os\ in fi iction is It i/uuass. if the pipe mean velocity of flou is S feet pei second? . the following laws 2 o 4.. diametei of pipe.s // is 5 with the roughness oi tlic pipe independent of ihe pte^ute in the pipe is In accoidance with these laws.

pipe 1 foot ni diamelei dischaiycs into one 2 feet in diameter. and 4. aiea of ciosb-section of latgei pait. ab shown in Fig 1..J fcc-t per second Calculate the losb of head due to the enUugement SOLUTION > = J -. Za = 5. - 1) X Txl>"ii. Ans of the pipe ib suddenly Sudden Conti action. = 021 i X ^~J X -. the flow ib fiom the smallei to the largei part. the Fro 1 magnitude of which may be calculated by the following formula Za loss of head due to change of: uobb-section. i) velocity in laigei pait Then. AMPLE za = A (/ - D'x. -r -r7 - 2") 434 ft Ans When the ciosstsudden Enlaigemeut of Pipe section of a pipe suddenly changes. made of Pipe smallei. as When shown the section in Fiy 2. theie is a loss of energy due to the loima- Consequently. substituting I.? xi(4 a l Hence. = = J = iatio of tuo aieas. when the velocity of flow is 8 ft per in the foinuila. though this loss is small .it t. losb of head. and the velocity in the largei pipe is . 7 = aiea of cioss-section of: smallei p-. by the formula. 37 the coefficient / for a pipe 10 in in diameter is found to be 02H. Ex. FIG 2 Fir 3 there is likewise a loss of head.HYDRAULICS SOLUTION . Let tion ot eddies theie ib a F! F. From Table Z. sec therefore.

as shovui in Figs 3 Tie 4 FIG 5 and 4 In leduccr. etc . TJOSS of Head at Entiarice When water flows from a reservou into a pipe. Let a = area ot cross-section of smaller pipe. FIG G PIG 7 and this causes a loss of head similar to the loss when water Such resistances flows through an orifice or a short tube I L 1 39910 .37 HYDRAULICS compaiecl with the loss due to an enlargement the As case of the standard tube. contiaction. velocity loss of head due to contiaction m Then. m F F Ci = = = F = j:. The loss of head due either section is traction may be made the change m to an enlargement 01 to a conso small that it mav be neglected if made giadual. a as shown in change Fig 5 in section is made by a G. v b smaller pipe. the jet is contracted as it enters the smaller pipe. but at once expands and fills it = minimum area of contiacted jet. due to friction. that absorb part of its energy. practice. it meets with lesistances. coefficient of contraction.

i. conli. as Figs 10 and 1./.es aie lost at enti in 1 i.u (mn.uh. accoidmg to Wcisb. uu! JMII mcreabe in velocity Foi a shaip bend. tin. The value of ance shown for different ca. in Jfl [ is' . los^ni lu. ihuc HP I I 10 Id head due to shocks and eddies. the loss of head is. - FIG 8 7. and can be expie N/ *'* (> Z c m X^- m which Z = c head .ni of Z = rf ks X j" ( 1 ) 2i> . Elbows and Bends. shown in Whcie 1 tin pipi \\ill lit ^ t l '< bends.HYDRAULICS called and .511 h \ ' " -?' /ikv .tance at entrance.e. the where it enters the reseivon. i which k s is a coefficient depending on tin in^'lc and whose values aie given in Table II I-n bend.

howevei. as the latio ot r to R the ladius of the decreases rapidly Mote R Table III gives the \alues of L\ ten dirfeient values ot . as in Ait 5. by toimula 3. a FIG 11 FIG 12 loss ot this head occms at every obstruction The loss due to cause may be denoted by Z and. f uheie 7 is the bend. deci eases. as usual. R as calculated c5. if it Valves and Obstructions closed by a valve. tend to show that no advantage can be gained fiom making g-ieatei than 5. the loss of head is F 1 F> . the expeiiments of Weisbach sho\\ values of \aiymg values of the latio b d /' i as follows for '/= y I i i -g | 1 J i = 07 26 SI 2 5 5 17 98 In the case ot an toimula 3. The value of j depends on the amount of opening and on the natuie of the obstruction For a gate valve (see Fig 12). where the angle of bend in degi ees and is the empirical formula found from 84 (3) is X. 01 If a pipe is paitly contains any othei obstruction. Fig n ladms of the pipe and J? Accoidmg.5 '" HYDRAULICS a is 7 . c . until this latio becomes 1 10 lecent experiment*. it may be assumed that the cioss-section ot the pipe is i educed fi omits oiigmal area /^to some smallei aiea Then.

lm ' t . the v . ' . Zf = 5 X the^loss 9" = 0)ft .ilne of f pei sec ' & ^ ^ ^^ . that is.. -f Z.f "*>.' SOLUTION diameter is -From n Ce 0259 for v D s ec = 25 ff pe r If ^ = 2 Table ft I. + /'. . K .. no accidental obstructions.1 pi im nas four 90 bends of 2\ feet ladius and two Oi irn M 11 = 40 a The entrance airangeraent is similar to 'I! that shouVin Calculate the total loss of head with a mean vdoc. 0259 . .t pipe is . and may be m^li-ikd I( | ( Z - EXAMPLE -A water main of clean cast-non (H)l) fc. and /'.. it Z.. " and (J2 . and is laid in p./ becomes lar^e 9. .fore From the formula m Ait G. UL m loss at entrance.s. Total Loss of Head The entne loss <>} he\ul / between two gnen sections is made up of the vniious IOSSLS enumerated in the preceding.0249) X 25 = tXXN ( 0259 value of /for a velocitj of 2 25 ft per sec. aic /e-io quently.s foun. per second It I i I '. and if the pipe is veiy long. and /. Z= With friction head both of (Km . tlu is \u\ foimei. the coefficient.iu.. some of these- Zd are pipe is has few bends and these aio o! h>nji i. when /'"' is small com- paied with F. it the valves aic open wide.articles. lt entnuKc .. the ruction he-ad.'!7 foimula it is seen that. a pipe carefully designed partial losses become negligible It the and laid. (hi? latkr small compared with the u /.illy a hun/nru .8 HYDRAULICS From this . i n. and Z'tzre small.I to I.0003 = 0251) Substituting m the formula of Ait The 3. and 6 inches m diameter. the losses leduce to Z. the. fo.actu.ulius. the ot nnifoim st/c. A.. ^' '" ^ ^ - .and tluit it compaiisun with A. f ()1 m V V^ . -f Z + Z + Zd b c -I- Z'd + Z..

as shown in Figs 13 and 14. that is. hence. large that the kinetic energy 7 X = The gauge pressure the at the surface is zero. as in Fig is measured along its axis 14 The length of the The fundamental formula sidei for the velocity m the pipe is obtained with the aid of Bernoulli's law a In Fig so the 13.37 HYDRAULICS loss of 9 The head due Z'<t to curved bends is = 4 v X is. vvheie h is the potential head. LSI loi V X 1SQ v X 2 25= 7^-33-^ 021 - n?i 021 ft ft The total lost head Z = 2418+ therefore. pipe is pipe or into a second leservoir. 039 + 022 + = 24 26 ft Ans due to NOTF -This example shows bends compared with the loss due the insignificance of the losses to friction entrance and GENERAL FORMULAS FOR THE FLOW OF WATER IN PIPES 10. Application of Bernoulli's Law. and the discharge may be into the atmosphere. or the height ot the level a above the level b The mass emerges from the end n with a velocity v. it is assumed that there is full flow. con- mass of water at n is at m (the level m is the reservoir) and an equal mass velocity at II The reservoir m inappreciable. as in Fig 13. the eneigy of position of the mass at m is ll/ /i. that the pipe is filled from end to end w FIG 13 The fed from a leservoir. In the con- sideiation of flow through pipes. and has theietore the kinetic energy WX TJ The pressure . and theiefore level b pressure eneigy WX ~ W t> = If the through the end of the tube is taken as a reference level.

as heroic. as in Art 2. \vhence = W head between (lie- . hence that is. energy that is. by Bernoulli's law. is the lost is sections m and and denoted by Z.- tional resistances. Wh k WX.10 at b is . etc Then. Fig When 14. at m = = energy at n + /. reference level is taken. . The quotient ~.-3^ eneW Wh the of the discharging end n . clue kmefc energy is Wx case whence . the the dischaige is into a icscivon. HYDRAULICS and the enetgy of position ib 37 likewise energy zero Let E denote the energy expended in ovei coming fiic. .it shown Hit m I k-vt . ^ the hydrostatic head on the loss end ?i is equal to i!i< head plus the :vAv//j of head 11. the lesistance at entrance.

the tesult is satisfactory If not. the value of h given in the last to entiance. and the piocess lepeated . Denoting head by /i. as in the * = f+Z 2^- 12.37 and. by transposition. sudden enlaigements. it is first necessary to take fiom the table a mean value of / depending on the gives the pipes. etc stituting this value of Z. each of which coefficient of i the product of and a ^g esistance -- The leading term being the friction \viite head / Z = /X .X f v 1 d . HYDRAULICS 11 The the first difference /i l h~ is clearly the distance between the levels a and b. and then solve foi v approximate value toi v trom which to find a new value of /. valves. Formula for Velocity is The head Z is made rtl up of seveial terms. head that produces we have. aiticle becomes = 802 Table I i~. and this is the effective this flow case. which is unknown. It the last \alue of / is nearly the and solve again tor v same as would be given in the table for the value of v last found. (1) clean of / that may be used for smooth or coated with coal tar Since / depends on v. the last value of v must be taken as an approximation from which a new value of / is to be found. mean values non either This gives an diameter ot the pipe. 2 we may in which c is the sum of all the coefficients for losses due Subbends.

each with a radius of li feet taken as T is 35 feet. foi 25 the eoefhutnt 45 Us -f--.iS. - the djfference in the value of / for a difleiencc ni 10 = b5 ft per sec is --0203 ^ - 0200 65 = 0001 ft 10 ' 5 pei s ft per sec neally GqUal is ^ Ans practically the required velocity Pipes. Pipes m which the length / an about 1. what will be the If the head on the discharge end of the pipe velocity of flow? m m m SOLUTION The loss of head from the bends depends on the ratio between the radius of the pipe and the radius of the bend This icUio /> ls = TJ for -T From Table T. /J f for a latio of '2 is l. we ha\c 35 r = 30 20 >CI ^ per sec is From Table 0203 I. and the formula toi v becomes (2) d EXAMPLE A pipe 12 inches diameter. ami substituting the \alues of the coefficients in foimula 1.000 d aie called !o^ plpe . similar resistances. the -velocity becomes ft 35 f From Table velocity of 10 65 ^T X = = 574 10 05 ft per sec I.12 It HYDRAULICS m has the value 5 given in 37 ot a pipe with a bell end. enters the reservoir ly be The pipe has two 45 bends. Long may written . then c Fig 9 for tne common case and there are no shaip bends 01 5../ end. III. In o velocity head and loss of head at m comparison with the loss due toentrance become so small fncUon that they may be neglected. and the formula for be veloczty 13. the coefficient therefoie. 900 feet long. with a hell such a way that the coefficient . ^ = 5 +2X 148 X ^= [t i 574 Assuming 0223 as an approximate \alue for / foi use in this case. the \alue of / for a \elocity of 10 20 Using this value of /.= 158 -j nence. is and the iatio 14S - Lc = 158.

the value of /"corresponding a velocity of 6 81 ft pei sec is found to be 0217 Since this is the same as the assumed value of /. effect of resistances at entrance mav seen that for long pipes the be neglected without affecting the practical accuracy of the lesult 14.0002 = 0217 therefore. 0003 value of f conesponding to a velocity of 661 ft per sec 0219 . the difference in the value of f coi responding to a = 61 ft per sec is difference in velocity of 6 61 fa 00 6iThe is. 6 81 ft per sec is the required to velocity Ans 2 EXAMPLE if What would "have Deen the value of v m example 1.000 times the diameter. the -velocity of flow is -1- appioximate From Table I. may be used Taking 0230 as a mean value of /. Art 12. A of: Head Required to Pioduce a Given Velocity. Interpolating fiom Table I as before. becomes 1 and instead of formula 1 we have (2) (3) EXAMPLE laid If 1 A that f the head heie is is 150 diameter and 8. formula 2.rT = 6 78 ft per sec Ans 1 5 + 0217 X it is By comparing inese two examples.37 HYDRAULICS in inches. / = 8 02 r-.r. For d formula 2. what is the mean \elocity of flow? SOLUTION formula 1 Since the length is more than 1. Ait 12. formula for the head requued to produce a given velocity flow -v can be found from the formulas given in Art 12 .000 feet long is so practicallj no loss of head fiom bends or valves pipe 10 inches m feet. Substituting this value in the foi FoimuLi v. had been used? SOLUTION v Sitbstituting in the formula.

is llm ] pioduce \elx. b\ solving ot the head Thus. readily found by the formula f) / the aiea ot the cross-sect on of the pnSe^nd *'"* J ~' ~ ' velocity as T ^ I t K is teet per second. in which the effect of the picccding bends disappears and c is taken equal to formula becomes . = 5 therefore. the value - 632 "5.500 feet pipe 8 inches long has bends.It HYDRAULICS for is // 37 1.7854 r/ 2^ (2) . ft is in feet. 0220. the coelliuent A. _ * v "^ ' _ _i_ T~~ 0933 \J^iOO -jiis D7 \J I EXAMPLE three 75 the pipe diameter and 2. between the radius of the pipe ind the ulnis from Table III. foi d in inches. the radius of each being the same as the diameter of If A m the coefficient for f = loss to at entiance i is ut r >. fI v 1 Formulas 1 and 2 apply when d formula 2 becomes /. 2 n = . is When d is in inches.f SOLUTION -The of the bend 294. is i and c = + 3 X 294 X -~ = S6S Substituting in formula 1.. from foimula Air 12. 7 feet what must be the head per second ? ratio 5. A = 64 32 ffiven aie ^' P Ulas f l made use of m D^cliarffe cnac vrin be discharged trom a pine -The formulas just asceitainm ff the quantity of vvatei m given head where cne /* ls mean This is. For a straight cylindrical> of dim .

and the total head at the point of dischaige is 215 feet How many gallons are discharged per minute' The Ait Fust hnd the appio\iraate value of v fiom foinuila 3. ~~~ 2 J? h_ = Zg/id . Sonnio's J Substituting in the formula. if the mean velocity of efflux is 5 6 feet is SOLUTION Q = FX\MPLE 2 Substituting in foimula 4. from a diameter. the velocity is ersec From Table to be 0217 sec pei I. Q = 040S X S" X 21 =214 J gal 21 438 X <>0 = 1. taking the value of /" = 02 >5 . 13. /. nearl> Fiom Table velocity of 7 91 I. the formula for the diametei of a pipe without sharp bends is d = 47 ( )[(1 5rf L + //)^"l /' J is (D as The derivation of this foimula follows From formula 2. 1 ft per sec . Foimulas foi JUumietei and the quantity Q in cubic feet per second.270 feet. gallons per second. is 7854^z/X 1 48 = 5 875^* f (3) (4) in inches. and d m feet 16. . Q= and when d is when d is in feet. Q = EXAMPLE pei second ? 0408 d*v 1 in What pipe 6 inches the discharge. the value of /"foi a pipe 8 ]1}1) 111 in diameter and a ft per sec Olffi is .(00 in 7 f = 0218 With this value for /"used formula 3.286 28 gal per mm per sec Ans With //. in gallons per minute. Art 12. 0408 X 36 X 5 6 = 8 225 gal S 225 X 60 = 493 5 gal per per sec mm Aus length of a pipe is 6.. Art 13. the discharge.37 HYDRAULICS 1 15 Since in cubic foot contains 7 48 gallons. its diameter is 8 inches. the value of / foi a velocity of 8 21 ft pei sec is found This is so near the assumed value foi f that v = 8 21 ft ma\ be consideied coirect Substituting in formula 4.

nnuli 1 _ i Q ou4 I rf" 1 1 11 Table Repeat computation foi d by placing tin..16 HYDRAULICS Q" .c feet pu sc. find the value of 7- fioni "^ tht li.-> and from formula 1. the following formula is moie than l. Ait 15. equating the two values of v' 2 -/i d Q" d* t and. iu-U the term 1 5 d in the second membei of the fmniul. formula t to select tlic the standard maiket sizes pip(' hum . \\ \\\\ value of rf. close approximation to d from which the ./. take the appioxunatc' valiu as 0200.400X718 diametei of the " = lfil74 > hy foimula L l)lp .c. d = / \ 1 7854 s X 64 f ' x 3'J/ = 479 (1 5^/ L + //) (y L // In using this formula.. and compute an appioximate vahu fm .mate 86. fj\* _-- _ 7854* <T Hence. = %^^t X foO-i ) Extracting the fifth loot.. 1 |s ^ = 479/-212LL250X \ . M m devalues of d and / just found in the second UK mix .opo The approx.i the One or two lepetitions of this pioti ss \\\\\ -MX. therefore. In cub.n.appi. s h( may SoL UTxo N -The d isc har g e.i this ut i / tin.l ..Wn be used llim . For pipes in which the length diameter.s _iooo.

inches.250)^^1 = <5 J 469ft The next highei commeicial size is a 6-m pipe.000. _ ~ . Commeicial Sizes diaraeteis. 6m m . that pipes larger than Pipes smaller 48-inch are not made by all manufacturers made than 4 inches in diametet are also seldom to select a In detei mining the size of a pipe.320 feet long must supply a city If with 10. (= 5 ft ) of flow of 10 ft per sec is 0220 and a velocit\ Substituting this value of /and the approximate value of d in formula 1. " 4'4 The velocity of flow coi responding to this diameter is in diameter. hence. hence.37 HYDRAULICS velocity 17 is The corresponding v Z to this J \alue of d (.000 gallons of water per 24 hours under a steady flow head is 120 feet. the coefficient / foi a pipe 20 Since the length of the pipe is is 0193 velocity of 6 ft pei sec nune than 1. formula 2 may be . _ 479 Mjy!* of 8 '= ! 759 ft The next higher a\ailable market size may be used Ans 17.000 times the appioximate diameter. it is wiser size rather than commercial size larger than the computed Foi example. what must be the diameter of the pipe? the SOLUTION The cubic feet pei second. dischaige. of cast-lion pipe commonly found 3 Cast-lion The m the market are as follows 16 18 30 36 54 60 72 4 5 6 It 10 12 14 20 42 48 24 84 the should be stated.formula 1. that size may be taken Ans EXAMPLE 2 A \\atcr mam 17. in Pipes. d = 479 [(1 5 L X 458+ 022X1.40Tx7lS d is. -^ 74 X~4W ~ q 40 9 4 Fiom Table I. and a From Table I.000 _ m is Q The appiOMinate value of 8b. however. theiefore.000.10. m used. Art 15) " 7854 the value of f for a pipe diameter. suppose the computation to give smaller .

md is li an elevation of 312 pipe necessary to feet Determine the commeicuil dianielci of Id [| \\\ ( give this discharge Ans IS.ns per 24 hours. . is taken. in a 1. 4 Frc ff ing against some jesistanuthe case of a water motor or hydraulic engme. 304 p. 06 inches. ^ fl '" . iepiescms discharging under presume the total head and A. as m //.IS HYDRAULICS 30 3 inches 37 is d The market size lower 30 inches. /. Flow Unclei Piessuie In Fig 15 is icpiescntcd a long: pipe If A. = by the foimula head is the difference between these two. feet per second.720 feet long.. >] m wlmh . to What feet is the loss of \\ith head due of 12. \vith a head of 90 feet Ans m 12-mdi ] \ w itci ft pei M. 1 O? -too. . the pipe is suie to give the required dischaige \\hen it becomes tubei ciliated 01 somewhat foul EXAMPLES FOR 1 PRAC/1IC1.400 feet fiom the citj. but if the next larger size. . w . 2 lepresents the pressuie and A. (XX). or h lems where the pipe is dischai ive In mcil)- or pressure. this pressure or lesistance must be converted into the equivalent head. "o c head r 0r . of .150 long a \elocity flow fuction in of 3 feet a pei Id-inch pipe Sr > second? I Ans 2 it mam Determine the velocity.. the depth of the leseivon the efTect- L /?. 000 ^ illi. is the equivalent head EXAMPLE 1 -Calculate the diameter of a pm e 000 . .I 3 A city requires a suppl\ of \\atei amounting to 2. "" a . md \\ould probably do when the pipe is new and clean. the reservoir is located 21.

1 = / ( 02 X 21. eftective head This value of h substituted * m formula 2. gives. Ait 16. Ait rf 10.o HYDRAULICS 46 OS 19 = 23 92 ft . 63 V2 X~32 16"x~7 is = The aiea of a V> 4-m pipe 0873 0873 sq ft . and a long: pipe is one whose length is greater than 1.000) this X -^p- 5474" 1^ = 1 05 ft Ans pipe commercial may be taken size to diameter is a 12-in 19. v = = = = = 7? 73 68 63 60 dischaige from 7 feet is a pipe 4 inches m long with a head of 15 Soi UIION v Here. FLOW THROUGH VERY SHORT PIPES A stantlaid tube is one whose length is not its over A vei> shoit pipe is one whose diametei A shoit pipe length does not exceed 60 times its diameter is one whose length is less than 1. For / EXAMPLE 1 Calculate the diametei and 15 feet = = = 48aT. 4(9 .000 times its diameter. 13 37 ft per sec hence.000 times its diameter Fiom the expeuments oi Eytehvein and others. for the appioximate diameter. a few 2} times coefficients of velocity ha\e been obtained for very short pipes For larger pipes the with small diametei b and low heads The formulas for velocity correspondvalues aie too high ing to thebe coefficients are as follows v = 82 For / = 3 d. we have It is The Hence. d. v 24 36 v v For / v 60 d. d. For For Foi / / / = = 12 d. neaiest this tl ZI coiiespondiug to this value of d = i^liT6D = 192ft persec (1 5 X 1 012 + 0237 X 21.$37 = .000 2 X -^2 = 5474 5 \ j = is 1 012 ft The velocity found fiom the table that the value of /is 0237 for a 1-ft pipe \s ith a velocity of 2 ft Using the approximate value of d in per sec formula 1. from the formula ^ ^ Q = X 13 37 = 1 17 cu ft per sec Ans . the length d = Mj2tr7i = ^Taking the nearest coefficient.

muui = pei JT " R !>tl Stl The area of the p. 01 h\dniull< ^indla betic^.ISSUIM d ti a have an indefinite length. of points t<. mvmuc. hence. _______ ~ * 2 lb x J " v = 77VJJ* = <<^~X is ID turns tin d. ft X UK) = This result . is a line diawn through attached t< water would use in piezometer tubes With a smooth pipi' " through which water flows FIG 1C cross-section flow.-iUin iuU. . Problems such as seldom met with in practice _ 8b 7 cu cent set Ans too h.y dim U 1 the discharge tlus instance SOLUTION -The length .n " Using the nearest = 97 l> is * 3 1416 sq ft . leading fiom a ies<i\<nt . uhuii ent. _ THE HYDRAULIC GHADK LINK 20. and without bends or othei obstiiu tions line L- the hydraulic grade line is a sti.i\ be.s'probabl) data for pipes of this s.20 HYDRAULICS tapped through .ujjht from the reservoir to the end of the pipe In Fig 16 to is shown a horizontal pipe that m.. The hydraulic grade lino. 1- 1 u k .ze 10 pe. B l.f tins 1.ts ni ismi..

as shown m figure. however. little or no water would flow In the horizontal position. the diffeience in the height to which the watei rises in any two piezometer tubes represents the head absorbed in overcoming the resistance to flow in the pipe between the points at which the tubes are inserted In the and m 21. would vary gieatly with the If the pipe weie laid along the line a dig. The flow of water through the pipe /'would be same whether the pipe were horizontal. or the the whether it were laid along the grade line adfg The flow would also be the same if the reseivoir were The presdeepened and the pipe laid along the line a' d i' sures in the pipe. the pressure for any point in the pipe being equivalent to the head represented by the vertical distance from that point to the hydraulic grade line. if the pipe were peifoiated anywhere. through which the water flows by gravity from the upper to of the the lower level line connecting The hydraulic grade line is the stiaight order to cover the the two reservoirs. water would issue fiom the perforations 22. and not from suiface to surface of the water in the two reservoiis. connected by a pipe line of tmifoim diameter. however.37 HYDRAULICS 1 21 stop-valve 5 open so that water from the pipe discharges freely into the atmosphere. m most unfavorable conditions. flows producing the velocity with which the water same way. a it hydraulic grade line utmost importance to ascertain the position of the Let A and B. and. it is usually drawn between the two ends of the pipe line. Fig 17. the hydraulic The distance of the point a below grade line is the line ad fg the valve is When the smface of the water in the reservoir lepresents the head absoibed in overcoming" the resistances of entrance to the pipe. as the level of these I Ll 09911 . different positions there would be little or no pressure in any part of it. and if it weie peifoiated at the top. lepiesent two different levels. at all points. from the perfoiations and still more m the position a' d' I' theie would be pressure 1 '. is line of pipe to connect In laying Position of Hydiaulic Grade Line two points lying.

^ . m .u iisc>s ib. ininuiil. no pat The following the hxdraulic grade line nse above RF considerations will make this point cleat Assume the pipe to be laid above the hydiaulic gi idient.ilion . but ads carry Consequently.> L s below the hydraulic gradient. and the same fonmil is lpl ..h The total head pioducing the flow m a siphnn is tin.m the action of a siphon depends uc explained in matic* It the siphon is kept filled.]] i i distance from the discharge end of the pipe to the- leu 1 . the velocity mci eases with itu> or the sine of the angle of inclination of the pipe to tin is hn i zon It follows that the line of ED.1-. a trough or open channel In oidci that the line flow full.t . From the fundament toi mill along the broken line Q _ 7854^ v. \\l) h t will be t xplauu d i id i 23. a smallei diameter diameter is determined by methods that loim of cmistiuaiiMi selected foi /) /.is K ss tan . it follows that the dischaige (J vuu-b with EDF il i it PIG 17 the velocity It has also been demonstiiile'd that. whose inclm. make this unavoidable.i (I p. which Tlie Siphon is The the hydraulic giadient pait of a pipe th.\t called a sipliou The. s.22 surfaces HYDRAULICS may vary The will slope of the grade line ht> represented by t of it should in ordei that the pipe may flow full. the flow thinu-h /W ] take place accoidance with the laws given f. tin i ntht ' i things being equal. than that D F. /U nu\ U i<l. it must have a smaller diamcLci tlum where conditions exist that is D nun h / /).. cannot dehvei as mudi watei ni F cannot um full.

the next laiger size of even inches should One is then peifectly sine that all losses of head be taken wheic In gieat accuiacy the and fnctional lesistances are piovidecl and varying conditions of pipes and the foi The interior lack of sufficiently extended experimental data permit eirors of from 2 to 10 per cent to affect the most caieful calculations Eveiy effoit should be made to fvoid enors. and means must be provided for its This is effected by lemoval. Fig 17. the hydraulic giadient will be a straight line E F.37 HYDRAULICS 23 If the siphon is of uniform of the watei in the reseivoir section. m is lequired design of watei pipes. in oider to keep up the flow means of an air pump or siir valve. and the pressure in all parts of the pipe that rise above the line will be less than the atmospheric pressure Air always tends to collect in the highest point of a siphon. as will be explained elsewhere Such means of removing the air should be provided for whenever circumstances make it unavoidable to place part of a pipe above the hydraulic giadient. but. . small eirois aic piactically imnnpoitant in solving pioblems relating to tho flow of \\atei pipes Section gieatly facilitates the It is veiy solution of all ptactical problems likely to occur conveniently arranged. and will save much time and labor in Table IV at the end of this It compnses eveiy commercial size of cast-iron water pipe. foi the leasons just given. HYDRAULIC TABLE FOR LONG PIPES In the preceding ai tides have been given all the lules and foimulas necessary to solve any practical problems that may arise. A little ingenuity will sometimes be needed in then application. and only pipes of a certain size are commonly IVhen the calculation calls for some fracmanufactuied tional diameter. fractional diameters are The commeicial sizes of pipe aie cast in usually found even inches. from the reseivoir to the discharge end F. without sharp bends or obstiuctions. and both care and good judgment must the selection of the proper coefficient in cases be exeicised 24.

and indicates the is 1 number 6- of feet of pipe feet. unless - = slope. both in inches and in feet (the value used the foimulas v s in = = othciwise stated) velocity of flow. 01 sine of the h is aveiage inclination of the pipe to the hon/ontal (heie. The quantities given in Table IV aie d = diametei. in feet.b 1 = giade // = length of pipe foi which the head. 1 inch in depth. if 750 guide is foot m 750 feet = dischaigc. and / is the length of the pipe) . and / and 15) x / ft ) (l) ^ = - w (2) .280 - = head. 01 gallons per day of 24 hours Q' = -~-i cone spending quantities / foi exliemely foul pipes \2 The head h and length = slope or the giade is The table has been constructed horn the foimulas (Arts Ic \ aie easily found when either the Gh given. the total head. If /and aie in feet. G is in feet. 01 head per unit of length of pipe.. in feet per second is always in feet. pei mile of pipe G= . or rise. gallons per minute.24 HYDRAULICS is 37 and It equally applicable to wi ought-iron in i and steel pipe. for clean or tin -coated pipes. will not have the same dischaige as a 40-inch smooth pipe Costly and embairassing mistakes have been committed by neglecting this fact 25. the m which 1 the use foot = Thus. since h = /. in either cubic feet pei second. a 12-inch nveted steel annular ring of nvets pipe with a row of nvct heads projecting into the mtenor. = 5. not riveted must be borne mind educe that the piojectmg nvet heads its in a steel iiveted pipe more than by the deciease of the diametei canying capacity veiy much caused by the Foi instance.

as the discharges are proportional to the velocities. in a 16-mch water mam 1. Q EXAMPLE 1 What is the discharge. either smooth coated with coal-tai varnish For extremely rough or foul pipes. the discharge is found to be 3 4208 cu ft per sec Ans Determine the velocity.MPLK 2 SOLUTION -The in the i^p. = f x - = A/2 h 2 and. under diameter 14 inches. m . it is always advisable to detei mine it for both of the extreme conditions. Q' = -Q- V2 In detei mining the diameter of a pipe. and 2 /is used instead of /. it is seen that the . with a head of 54 feet EXA. that is. h which gives fv values of / here used are for clean pipes. in cubic feet per second. j column headed G. and Q' show the extreme limits between which the discharge may vary toul 01 rough Also. and /. 25 Assuming f cm a table similar to Table values of / have been found but more complete Having v. both assuming it perfectly clean and assuming it extremely the values of when the diameter of a pipe is known. I. in Table IV. equation (1) becomes 01 The 2/ Therefore. the value of / has been taken as twice that for clean pipes If the velocity in a rough pipe is denoted by v'.^7 HYDRAULICS values foi v and d. whence. the slope j has been computed from equation (1). under the diameter ratio is or 27 778 16 Looking in the table. 3 2 in the column headed v Opposite this value and in column headed Cubic Feet pei Second.500 feet long. m feet per second. -% Q> = -.= v' V2. d. of a 14-inch pipe in which the velocity is 3 2 feet per second? SOLUTION Find.

" the 4 Ulu value m the . and -X f I ~ if i.000 = 6 89 ft An* By the iormula of Art 3.. the quantity given in the second length or the table.000 teet long. the ruction head (lornmU \\ 3).f Required. t ] . calculation is it sax ed by the use of the table seen thai i gro . pipe will give the loss ol column multiplied by head due to friction Fi om ft Lll( - corresponding to a diameter ot 10 in and a velocity of 2 S . if the reseivoir is situated CH) ie t city and at a distance of teet 15. EXAMPLE o 3 What d. the diameter of pipe necessary to cklm gallons per day ot 24 hours. the difference in v is m 5X1004 2 101 Therefore. is 0034446 Then.26 \alue 27778 ference tails HYDRAULICS between that corresponding to a velocity of 37 125 ft The dil- per sec and that corresponding to a velocity of 13 ft per sec the value of v tor a difference in G of 28 7S2 26 G81 =2 101 is 130 12 5= 5 ft per sec For a difference in G of 28 782 27 778= 1 00 1-. l sec .. the velocity is 12 5+ 24 = 12 74 ft per sec Am. Zf = 003444bX2. ?()() ()(. is 2.300 Ex WIPLE 4 .() I and the req. re d grad e fou C . with the loss of head due to faction a 10-inch velocity of flow ot 2 8 teet per second? J m mpc SOLUTION -Since of Art ^ k V- J-^. Bj a comparison of these two solutions.

itv of flow is 3 ^ feet per second? due Ans 1 60 6 ft Hi qnin jit. links Imitf. by Table IV. (tt) if illdn. therefore.000 feet. in the ftmml Tht'iefore.t liss thin 1 in 500 Ans 20 in The h Hired ' tot il iM V. the quantity Determine the length of 41 840ft ' . calculate the discharge in million it\ tll. the values found in examples 1T> t and 2 uf Ail J '! link.! il.' illitn-- the di imctei of pipe necessaiy to deliver 5. . to fnction in a pipe 20 inches in the \<Jo<.500.000. r = IS pei ft Ans column headed sec Ans v. the requ.8 V This is HYDRAULICS is 27 fun-id In the head per mile of length. \Vli is the hiss of head if di 3 ul 40% X = ft 30 b774 I'-l Opposite J. s 10 million gal Ktquiud d i\ .000 tlu length of pipe ib 8. MI MIX! of flow in A 30-inch pipe. Ans fitt.l) (U\ the diametci of pipe necessaiy to deliver (.LS "> he id for i 24-inch pipe line 07 million gallons pei day was 40 feet. . and the head is in the pipe . pu pi i tli> A . 8 3 miles long.F 1 5? FOR PRACTICE 1 Check. IK id is r>() feet. and \ K uuU' 7 n. is 3 2 feet Ihc.'iST. example it > 1 of Art 16.. by Table IV. the value 1 8 is KXAMPT.000 with i velocity not liighei than 4 feet per second. (/'I the \t..lout> [ (a] 16m "i Tin \tlin If MCI .

2ft .

37 HYDRAULICS TABLE II COEFFICIENTS FOR ANGULAR BENDS a = angle of bend in degrees TABLE III COEFFICIENTS 1OR CIRCULAR BENDS R = tadius of bend r = icidiits of pipe .

O CO >- / s t / O t-.CO 10 30 . 1-1 >i 1-1 "-i PI Pi -t OO ro 10 O 10 CO ooooo O^C^C3^00OO O O O O u 10 M3 a O) Cl -O Cl -i ci oa Os CO l^ \o 10 Oo T 1-1 Cl Cl w O O O O O O u u" Ox ON -t t-i o o- f--O<3VO Pi f-i-q-O-t-O 10 c^ -r Ox 10 vO CO >-i in ci fi r t}- g?i t.

u . rj n . -t n f <u ff o fe u d s<8 S>- c3& ^ O -r -t- <l r *' j (I O ooooo .r. O *~ -C a _.

33 .

5 o .

Sf .

.Ci O O O *) O r<5 t^ >O m 'Ot^OOOO M PI pi MOO f!* oc T o "li M M n O O\ C/5 tt^- O'T O"jf \O \O " -f t . -5^'ft. i' o ^. o Min Gallo er 3* ..C..J T rt y"i()T r/- ri n 5R O O" O n' O vn in O &o~ >/- O M .

87 t L T 39912 .

Oroio M t*o *-o I 1 CO t3 5S 1-1 M O COcffOi'' vf Cl IN^ PJ cs PI Q^ Ci C^ TO o K 5: S ^w i to o H ^ ^ M ^ X u fcg r^cocoo Up. o o"3" -i l O ro O r-^ rt1 HH GO 10 -i oQ o w OOOOw O"OOr^\OO ^i-"MOO4 OiCMrOf^jf^ ^ ^ 'O w WD w^or^OW VQ O\ P< ro OOOOO OOOO O M O\ "^ vo i>- M oO M ("O ^" *< u-)i>.OOOOOO OOOOO OO'-'^OM - OR M t-i h-1 M M _i (i n H O >-iPO^TiO \O J^- 00 ON >-< w ro *1- 10 vo to to t^. ro w M " - Os do in 1-0 O * .

O 00 ro f*5 NO -f M *t *r 10 T 10 NO trh! 89 niiftHH un .

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The wetted peiimeter is If. bed 3. then. EXAMPLE the slope? If a canal has a fall of 2 inches m 500 feet. hence. of cioss-section of a channel the part of foi the boundary contact with the water example. conduit differs horn a canal in having an aitificial Flumes and sewei pipes aie examples of conduits A The slope / of a channel is the ratio of the fall fall to the fall. h the and the length in which the fall h occms. as in water-supply pipes. of The term channel is applied in hydraulics to the bed any long body of water flowing under the action of gravity. not. what is SOLUTION The fall 2 in T s = = " = 177 ft . 2. length in which the occurs If is the slope. under pressure An artificial channel dug in the ground for the conveyance of watei and whose bed is formed by the natural soil. a circulai conduit whose diameter . A canal of small dimensions is usually called a ditch. is called a canal. . OOOHi4 Ans the in F)00 4.HYDRAULICS (PART 3) FLOW OF WATER IN CONDUITS AND CHANNELS DEFINITIONS 1.

is. Permanent Flow. v. 9. and p = circumference = n d. EXAMPLE What is the hydiaulic 4 feet in diameter and half full of water? SOLUTION -Here F = X 7854 X 4 2 = . the . . or i X 3 1416 X 4 = 6 equal to one-half 2S32 feet is The hydiaulic radius of a channel is the ratio of 5. i 2832 A Ans ft 6. the area of the cioss-section of the water in the channel to If the wetted penmeter is denoted the wetted perimeter by p. for The mean velocity the is the aveiage velocity of flow whole cross-section of the water in the channel . As shown a in it Hydtaulus. When = /T. the area of cross-section by by r> we have r F y and the hydraulic radius = ^ P The hydraulic radius is sometimes called the hydraulic radius of a circular conduit 6 2832 sq ft mean depth.2 is its HYDRAULICS 4 feet is half full. = v a = z> etc Undei these conditions. etc .. 3 . d 4 a of 7. from the formula in Ait 5. hence. = f t etc flow is the velocity is constant said to be uulfoim and z/.z\ v3 . the flow is said to be permanent that passes or steady. f r 4x3 1416 X 4 = 6 = F = G2S32 = 1 p 7^7. its 38 wetted perimeter circumference.. the channel has a uniform cross-section. and ^ = Therefore. t _F _ _ p \rd* _ 7T JL . When the quantity water thiough any ciobb-section m any and eveiy interval of time is the same as that which passes through eveiy other cross-section. The with water is hydraulic radius for a circular cross-section filled Foi \ d denoting the diameter by d t F= 3 irraf . = F. that Uniform Flow F. and was there shown mean velocities at different sections are inversely as the sectional areas 8. Part 1. = f Q = that F.

and the smoothness of the channel channels. The discliaige is the amount of water flowing through any section in a unit of time. known as reasoning Chezy'b formula. and This foimula is now very extensively used. is the basis of all formulas for the flow of water in channels in which c both on the is a variable coefficient.38 HYDRAULICS to the friction 3 Owing along the sides and bottom. velocity at that cross-section F. and the velocity is different in the various parts of a cross-section 10. the form and dimenIn the design of sions. we have. but must be based both on experiments and on mathematical The following general formula. the area of the cross-section of the water. as in the case of orifices and Q = Fv VELOCITY AND DISCHARGE 11. pipes. depending the values of the character and conditions of the bed and on s hydraulic radius r and the slope 12. the water filaments next the walls move most slowly. it is a simple determine the size and calculate the discharge for any particular case Expei icnce shows that formulas for velocities m channels cannot be derived solely by mathematical investigations. the mean velocity. different diflerent matenals. and v. and is equal to the product of the area erf the water cioss-section and the mean If Q denotes the discharge. When this is known diffeient sizes. toimula moie accurate than any having been experimentally proved It has literature of the many others found in hydraulic I L T 3W 16 . General Foimnla for Velocity The velocity depends on the inclination 01 slope. velocity is the key to the solution of for all problems forms. mattei to and diffeient depths ot flow. Kutter'6 Foimnla A general expression for the investi- fiom the value of the coefficient c has been deduced is known as Kutter's gations of Gangmllet and Kuttei.

25 aiid 300 +(2 X 25) =45 0025. lepresents with fair accuiacy the results of a wide lange of expenments It applies to uniform flow m open channels 01 to flow under formula. to Kutter's formula Oo /o c . n of lougrlmess. all from sewers. condition of the is a coefficient. f the slope Thrupp's foimula pressure m As in is is the hydraulic ladius.. proved applicable large rivers stieams of is . -] _ \ n 5521+234 s .5H- 001M \ v X 0025 / __ . and SOLUTION p 2 2 The 1 slope 5 ft ft = . at the may be used under EXVMPLE 1 What is the value of c for 24 inches wide. called the coefficient whose value depends on the character and bed end of this Section. gives the values that the conditions most often met with in Table practice I.4 HYDRAULICS to 38 sizes. as tollows 1 1 00155 s .7. The Q = 13. and s v m r* sy . proposed by pipes previous formulas. the value of n for unplaned timber be 012. " _ 5521 - _ What W1 + / 23 ^ -f \ (a) -7.-= (b] 12 EXAMPLE SOLUTION v 2 is the velocity in example 1? What is the discharge' (a) Substituting the value found for c in the formula = c^r~s(Art 11) v = 114 7 V 5556~X 0025 = 4 27 ft per sec Ans (6} Substituting the values of /''and v in the formula O = Fv.n47 " V 555 b . I V> In this formula. the wetted perimeter F= is X 1 25 = 45= found 2 5 sq The hydraulic the aiea of the water cross-section radius is. theiefore. following 2 5 X -1 27 = 10 675 cu ft per sec Ans Thrupp's Formula foi Flow of Watei Thiupp. when the depth of the fall 3 inches in 100 feet? water m = a rough plank is sluice the sluice 15 inches. t 2 5 5556 to From the table. therefoie.

foi earth. and the foimula. 5 For 33 y = m = 12 50 Substituting m 118 S3. as illustiated some of the EXAMPLE in applying Kutter's following examples the velocity of flow Compute by Thiupp's foirnula example 2 SOLUIION of Ait 12 unplaned piauk. 00155 '_ __[_ 0225 / ( 00056645 = _0225 74 81 + 11.the value deteimming in to be 1 used the values of other quantiin as approximations foimula. at the end of this Section This foimula is very useful not for . M Xt only of v duectly. 16 Fust. and the mean velocity is. therefore. therefore. = s v/I^Uld \651X225 7 - 1 01. ft = 118 EXAMPTE 2 v X 5558"' X 0025 = 4 A canal or ditch having per sec Aus the cross-section shown m Fig 1 is to delivei 100 cubic feet of water per second What must be the fall pei 1. Substituting the values . = ~ = ~ 2 2 778 ft per sec 16 The wetted perimeter is p = 6+ 'ind A/lM7^ = ft the hydraulic radius is.38 HYDRAULICS of The values m and y for different conditions are given Table II. = 00056645 first This value of s may be taken as a appioximation Now. x = 615. but for ties finding. Q0155 \ X ' \ 0005b(545/ / V 77. 7481-XJg 061S . from Thrupp's formuli.000 feet of length to give this discharge ? SOLUTION cioss-section is The area of the water / = 4 X I X (6 + v 12) = 36 sq ft . with n = 0225. 1 . using Kutter's foiraula.S a V^5 **- Fiom the formula in Art ' - -ri* - ?-.

the wetted perimeter is 3(3 feet. and y. m. - Substituting in the formula of Ait 11. Q and s.000 ft is. both by Kutter's Calculate approximate!} the volume and ft b> . nearly Ans In a stream of fairly uniform cross-section. therefore. 46 64 120 = aud Q 4 X (3-V) " X 001 X 3 77 = 450 cu * = ft per sec per sec nearly . aud the aveiage depth is 4 feet The bed is somewhat EXAMPLE obstructed bv stones and weeds of water fto\\mg. whence and. 7854 X i * { 25) ^ + xl __ 7854 m d 2 + A = Q. 000613 X 1. the fall is 1 foot pei 1. ft v = Q = Fv By Thrupp's v 60 6 A/^~X~OC>1 = 3 5 = 120 X 3 5 420 cu = ft per sec per sec ft Ans formula. . Art 12. using constants for smooth brickwork SOLUTION From the formula of Ait t 1O we have. .000 is to clischaige 70 cubic feet per second when running full the diameter required foi this discharge. t X ( 2 ij r tns y Substituting in this equation the values of those of x. This value is to \ 7W4 ">rn5r^xT29 t 1 X 002 s = 3 ^ ft = 3 945 first - 4 = 986ft be used as a 015 approximation m Kutter's formula The value of n 16. the surface width is 30 feet.6 HYDRAULICS The fall 38 per 1. v = ^ Writing 25 d instead of in Thrupp's formula. 3 77 Neithei result can be legaided as more than a lough approximation EXAMPLE A circular buck sewer laid with a grade of 2 feet in Find 1. we have x ( v = m 25 d} / Placing these two values of v equal to each other. the 120 sq appioximately = = Kutter's = 3-j ft s = Foi value 03 may be taken From formula. taken from the table. therefore. Thiupp's formula ? SOLUTION F= 001 30 X4 = n. together with d= Then.000 = 613 ft = 7f 3 m .000 feet.

- 4 = 095 this \alne of t in Kutter's 1 .. Q = 3 X 7854"c'sd s d = A-^ s 25 X 7854 ^ftt c* s Substituting numeiical values in this equation. (c) the value of c from Kutter's formula. d - ^-25^r^4^iof^roo2 = 4 34 ft Ans EXAMPLES TOR PRACTICE 1 A length of 2. Q 7854 . d = <! 25 X i 7854^9 = 4 380 25= X 1 = 002 ft * 380ft From Using this value of d. whence. Squarmg. and writing 25 d instead . using the value of n for fouled sewers. (d) the mean velocity of flow.= 25 c V 25 ds . 015 002 02 -^- = 9925 Equating the value of v Art = / oiH u of :r " to that given by the foimula of 11. (b) its hydraulic radius. foimula. when the . 00155 ~015 uio Jl 095 Substituting this value in the equation for d.38 HYDRAULICS Substituting in Kutter's formula. (e) the discharge in cubic feet per second (a) 4 7124 ft Ans (6) (c) (e) 75 80 9 ft (d) 2 71 9 58 cu per sec ft per sec 3 A flume is must be the slope What 4i feet wide and of rectangular cross-section foi a dischaigeof 56 cubic feet per second.500 feet circular brick sewer 3 feet in diameter falls 3 75 feet in a Ans 0015 What is the slope' 2 The sewer in example 1 flo\\s half full Calculate (a) its wetted peiimeter.

in connection with nver impio\e- ments. 15.HYDRAULICS depth Eoimula is 38 2 8 feet ? The walls are of unplaned plank Use Thrupp's Ang f 108 OOlOfi or in 92<) 4 Calculate. meter. water-powei plants and iirigation woiks. a weir forms one of the most convenient and accuiate devices When measuring the discharge of streams rectangular in form for The notch to is usually Many careful experiments have been made determine the quantity of water that will flow over diffeient forms of . by petmitting it to flow into a tank or into a tank resting on a set of Lai gei wheie the watei may be accuiately weighed use of a Pitot tube. floats and. The hydraulic engineei is called on to measuie the volume of flowing \vatei in making tests of hydiauhc machmeiy. bv Kutter's formula. in designing. cunent while meters must be employed of known dimensions. 01 wen. quantities involve the for very large streams and a dam or obstruction placed across a stream for the puipose of diverting the water and causing it to flow through a channel of known dimensions.000 GAUGING STREAMS AND RIVERS 14. which channel may be itself A a notch or opening in the obstruction properly constructed and caiefully managed. scales MEASUREMENT OF DISCHARGE BY WEIRS DEFINITIONS AND GFNERAL. etc The quantity o water to be measured determines the A very small stieam may be method of measmement measuied. in investigations concetning the supply obtainable fiom sti earns. DESCRIPTION Welis weii. the diameter of a longh brick sewei to dischaige 35 cubic feet per second with a fall of 1 2 feet oei Use 11 = 017 Ans 392ft 1. or gauged. in deteimraing the discharge of sewers or ot 1 water-supply pipes.

and is commonly In a weir of this class. Weir With End Contractions In a weir with end contractions. consequently. two classes of weirs. and should proFig 2 ject a slight distance beyond the ciest Means for admitting . Weii Without End Contractions. and.38 HYDRAULICS conditions 9 the result of wens under varying As these e^penments. those with and without end contractions. notch is as wide as the channel leading to it. as shown in Fig 2 (a) This causes a contraction at the bottom and FIG 2 The end issuing stream contractions of a weir are said to be complete when the distance fiom the end of the notch to the side of the channel at the two ends (sides) of the at each end ot the weir is not less than three times the depth of the water on the crest of the weir 17. A weir without end contractions is also known as a weir with end contractions suppressed. the called a suppressed weir. the notch is nai rower and shallower than the channel thiough which the water flows. have come into general use those 16. the issuing The sides of acted at the sides. as shown in tt stream is not con(/>). but at the bottom only such a weir should be smooth and straight.

Head. The head the veitical distance H small weirs to 6 or 8 feet for very large ones 20. so that. a paitial vacuum formed tending 18. it should have no It is often necessary to velocity place one or more sets of baffle boards or planks acioss the stream at right angles to the flow. as shown in cioss-section at a. and. theoretically. and at varying depths from the surface. is called the ciest of the weir weirs. crest of the weir to the The distance from the bottom of the feeding canal or reser- voir should be at least thiee times the head. as shown at (d) notch must be stiaight and set perfectly level. in The passing over it. but foi ordinary work the edges of the which the notch is cut may be chamfered off. Standaid Dimensions. the edges of the notch should be made with a thin plate ot metal having a sharp inner edge. The edge of the notch over which the water flows. the inner edge of the crest is made sharp. the distance fiom the vertical edges to the sides of the canal should also be at least three times the head The water must approach the weir quietly and with little velocity.10 air HYDRAULICS under the falling sheet of is 38 water must be made. otheivuse. Crest of tlie Weir. to reduce the velocity of the water as it approaches the weir . to an The top edge of the angle of about 30. as lepiesented by 'in Fig 2 (c] and (d) It must be measured to a point in the suiface of the water so far up-stieam that the curve assumed by the flowing water as it appi caches the weir will not affect the measuiement This will usually be at a distance of from 2 or 3 feet for is 19. the watei touches only along a line same statement applies to the inner edge of both the top and the ends of the notch in weirs with end contractions For very accurate wotk. and the sides must be set carefully at right angles to the top shown m boaid in that produces the flow ovei a weir from the ciest of the weir to the suiface of the water. to increase the discharge. with a weir having end contractions. In all Fig 2 (c) and (d]. as Fig 2 (c}.

and may measured by an ordinary square or 2-foot the figure rule. as shown in This is a very simple way of measuring the head. owing to the fact that it is impossible to observe the exact height of the water surface on the side of the square . but it does not give an exact measurement. as shown stake is driven until its top is at exactly the same level as The head is then the vertical distance from the the crest a be top of this stake to the suiface of the water. Fig 3 shows a simple form of weir placed in a small stream at right angles to the flow. with its face in a vertical plane plank dam is constmcted across the stream at a convenient point.38 HYDRAULICS MEASURING THE HEAD 21. care A being taken to pi event any leakage under or around the dam The length of the notch has been calculated to provide for the flow with a head of between 02 and 2 feet stake b is driven fiimly into the ground at a point about 6 feet A FIG 3 The up-stream from the weir and near the bank. Approximate Method.

is the point of the laised to the surface of the lifts When it the surface slightly before breaking through To use the gauge. The beam gauge is at is so set that the scale will read zero when the point of the hook the same level as the crest of the weir hook water. and gauging sewers.s ment is fastened secmely to some a solid and substantial object.HYDRAULICS 22. which is shown in Fig 4. and where the surface of the water is quiet and protected from wind or eddies. 38 For accurate weir measurements. start with the hook below the surface of the water and raise it slowly until the slight elevation caused by the lifting of the surface appears over the point. a hook a is sli- attached to the lower end of a ding scale b The scale is giaduated to hundredths of a foot. the head on the crest ib measured with an instrument called a hook gauge. by means of which it can be read to thousandths The scale and hook can of a foot be raised or lowered slowly by The instrumeans of the sciew . at a point over the watei a few feet up stream from the weir. The Hook Gauge. and is provided with a vermei. In this instrument. as or piece of masonry. such as are made in testing the efficiency of waterwheels. the development of water supply. the reading of the scale for this position of the Pis 4 hook gives the head on the ciest .

and is so made that when in position on the squaie its upper edge is horizontal In measuring the head.38 HYDRAULICS greatest erroi 13 1 The the head on that is likely to occur in determining the crest is in setting the point of the hook at means 23. the observer raises it gently until This will be indiits upper edge just reaches the surface cated by a slight rounding up of the surface of the water . so as to leave Water Surface (a) (b) PIG 5 a point on the end of the uppei edge. illustrated in Fig 5 has a Y-shaped notch cut out of its tipper part. a reasonably close leading of the depth of the water above the stake can be obtained by means of a substitute for a hook gauge. and the height of the watei surface is measured by means ot the slide used in the manner of a hook Having placed the slide on the square a short disgauge tance below the ^uttace. impiovised from a small piece of tin or metal. the when the squaie is vertical square is held vertically on top of the stake. shown at (a) in the figure. the level of the crest. in the position shown at (b). but this can be done accurately by of an engineers' level An Improvised Hook Gauge. as The slide. and the method described in Ait 21 is used. When for ordinary water measurement it is not necessary to measure the head with the greatest possible accurac}'. bent so as to form a slide on the square.

the theoretical dischaige O foi a rectangular ounce with its upper edge at the liquid level is given by the fol- lowing general formula Q = %b-^H* = Evidently. the length of the wen in feet. As as usual. and the effective head is h H+ . resulting// head Let v the water moves in the to the H = v* = 01555 v' 2g be the conespondmo- from then. Art 24. the velocity v may be consideied as a fall /z. Foimula 2. holds good whenever the velocity with which the watei appioaches the weir is inappi eciable This velocity is called the velocity of approach. Fig 6. shown Fig 2 and 25. and this must be added denote the mean velocity with which channel. and let velocity head. theiefore. a i-x 802^/7* is wen = 5347/>//* (1) such a rectangular ounce. (c] and H. Q = ix or.14 HYDRAULICS 38 immediately over the point of the slide. is however. Part I. 8 02^ 3 bH s l . thus. also (rf) in feet. gives the theoietical dischaige of the ordinal y weir 01 lectangular notch The actual discharge Qo is obtained by introducing the coefficient of discharge c 3 in the right-hand membei. and this formula. Theoretical Discliaige As shown in Hydi aultcs. Effective Head. this velocity consideiable. that is. is the head. If. = 5347^/>// denotes the width of the orifice. since the point \\ill always lift the smface slightly before breaking through The head on the crest of the wen will then be shown by the top edge of the slide in contact with the square DISCHARGE OF WEIRS 24. b in (2) Q. there is an point at which // is appreciable velocity head FIG G at the measmed.

sidered piefeiable in many cases. Art 25. Two tables of the values of c for wens are given at the Table III applies to wens with end conend of this Section tractions. theie- or. and 1 4 for wens without end contractions 26. con- 27. Art 25. and the effective head is given by the expression H+nfi The Eore. ical investigations of Fiancis's Formulas Accoiding to the theoretProf James Thompson. Ait 24. first neglect v and calculate the dischaige by formula 2.3 38 HYDRAULICS 15 therefore. If. and Table V to wens without end contractions 3 Values of c3 foi intermediate values of H and b can be obtained by interpolation Weirs with end conti actions are more often used than those without.6(H+?iJi)* 3 a (2) Accoiding to Hamilton Smith. final formula for the actual discharge becomes. Q = ib^(ff+/i)* = On 347 b(Pf+ 1 /i} (1) account of the contraction of the stream due to the esistances of the edges ot the wen and to their number. Q = $c bJZg(H+nh}\ Q = 5S7c. that is. howevei and foimula 2. In . i educes to formula 2. though the latter aie. Calculation of Discharge Foimula 2. an smpmcal constant factor n is introduced before /i. h ~ 01555 v*. the formula for . Art 24. h can be computed from the formula A. k = 0. Art 25. the velocity of approach is taken into account that velocity is inappreciable. nstead of H alone The theoietical discharge 5 is. may be used when the calculation of a discharge. Knowing v. the value of n is 1 for wens with end contractions. and the effective head H+nh determined A more exact value of Q can then be found by using formula 2. This appioximate value of Q divided by the area A of the cross-section of the whole channel gives the velocity of approach approximately. v = =-.

is = = 2 1 n When the velocity of appioach taken into account. weir with no end contractions. Table IV. H experiments at Lowell. the following foimula. The constant Q = 3 33 b H* (2) n denotes the numbei of end conti actions. and Q. n ti for a weir with one end contraction. Fig 7. the formula becomes -^ in (3) which h = 01555 v*. proved expeumentally that the FlG 7 does not vary with the head as much as with rectangular weirs. b. hence. and has become standard or. given at the end of this Section. as. in Art 25. which has the same form as that proposed by Piofebbor Thompson. A notch of tnangulai foim. Massachusetts. when there is no velocity of approach Q = m(b-cH}H in l which m and c are constants to be detei mined by experihave the same significance as in ment. and a mean value has been determined . and J B Francis deduced from his the formulas of Art 24. for a weir with for a two end contractions. was fust proposed by Prof James Thompson It may foi be conveniently used small flows wheie the head lies the limits of 1 between 02 and foot It has been coefficient <.16 HYDRAULICS 38 the discharge of a weir of rectangular section should have the following form. when n = o. is a veiy convenient table by means ot which the discharge for a given head can be at once obtained 28. Tuanffulai Weir.

when expressed in feet H Q = 29. head. (5 = 3 33 X 3 In -fV X 872 ) X 872 * = 13 85 cu t P er sec Ans example 1. as just stated. the slope being 4 to 1. as It is claimed for shown this form of weir that the extra flow thiough the triangular spaces at the ends makes up for the end contractions foi all heads F^TC S within the lange of the weir. SOLUTION Qt = 5 3-17 2 X 603 X 5 X 872* = 13 13 cu ft per sec 1 Ans by Francis's E AMPLE foimula Calculate the discharge in example SOLUTION Substituting the given values in formula 1. instead of being vertical. Ait 24. Art 27. The total depth of the channel is 25+ 872 = 3372 in ft . which may be less than h in Fig 8 EXAMPLE A is wen with end 872 foot measured head long and the Calculate the discharge on the assumption contractions is 5 feet that the velocity of approach is negligible For the given length. c 3 is 604 for a head of 80 ft and 60S for a head of 90 ft Hence. we may take c a = fc>03 Using formulas. are inclined. and in consequence the coeffiThe formula for the discharge is cient c remains constant in which b = H= 1 width of weir at crest. 2 54 ff- A form of weir Cippoletti'a Trapezoidal Weir devised by the Italian engineer Cippoletti is shown in Fig 8 The sides. a right-angled triangular weir with sharp inner edges has the lollowmg is expression for discharge in cubic feet per second. the channel leading to the weir is 8 feet Calculate wide. and the bottom is 2 5 feet below the crest of the weir the velocity of approach and the effective head Art EXVMPLE SOLUTION This example is solved in the manner described 26.38 HYDRAULICS 17 Within the limits of H.

Art 27. example 2 bj Fi anus's foimula '2 f) Ans 4 cu ft per sec Calculate the discharge from a right-angled triangular weir with a head of 8 inches Ans 92 cu ft per t=ec 5 Calculate the discharge fiorn a trapezoidal wur 2 feet ft wide per at the crest and with a head of 7 foot Ans 3 1J4 cu bet. that it Determination. And the head is 25 foot Calculate the discharge. using the value of // given in example 3 4 EXAMPLE SOIUTION ? (a) Substituting the given value in formula 2.nd mean velocity v ~ . by measuring the . if the water appioaches the \vtir \\itli the \eloutj of 1-j feet per second.0037 ) = 13 17 cu ft per sec = U Aris NOTE Exam pies 1 and 4 s>how that Francis's fonnulas give results agreeing closely with those obtained from the loimulib in Aits *-J<l and -it> EXAMPLE effective 5 is Calculate the dischaige of a tuangular 9 inches. head SOLUTION Substituting the given values in the [oimula of Ait Q = 2 54 X 75 1 = 1 24 cu ft per sec Ans ES FOR PRACTICE 1 A is \\eii head with end contractions is 5 feet long. Att 25. (b) by formula 3.18 Hence. suppose desired to gauge the small stieam whose ciossin section shown Fig 9 Suppose that. Ait 27. 30. = -j-TT^r "J 87 ft P er sec 4S7 a equivalent head is h head is 872 + 0037 = 8757 The 01555 ft X = 0037 ft The effective Ans Calculate the discharge for the weir of example 1 (a) by formula 2. ^. Att 25. 3 = = 5 347 (b) 24 cu ft pei sec X bOT X 5 X ( 872 + X OOT7) Ans Substituting the given values in foimula 3. what is the discharge? Ans 2 7 ( -i l cu ft per sec weir without end contractions is 6 feet long. neglecting the velocity of appioach A Ans 3 2 'j-t cu ft per sec Calculate the discharge in. 3 333x(5--fuX 872) X ( 8757* . the area the HYDRAULICS of the cross-section is is 38 o ]72 X 8 = 26 97b sq ft . or 75 foot wen whose 28. of Dimensions is is As a ptactica] illustration of the use ot the preceding formulas. and the me inured 55 foot.

and its height foot plus. to provide for an ordinal y rise in the stream Thus. such as a. 19 the depth area of the cioss-section if found to be about 10 2 squaie feet a suiface float. d. the end conti actions may be This simplifies neglected. by substituting values in the preceding equation^ b = --^-5 3 33 Xr 1 = 46 feet is established. Ait 27. to pass down stieam a distance ot 30 feet in. c. and formula 2. say. and the dischaige Q is 10 2 X 1 5 = 15 3 cubic feet per second The next thing. by the conthe weir pi oper 10 6 feet struction of the necessaiy planking. used the opeiations. this depth must be at least 3 feet The second condition is.across the stream. such as a block of wood. the appioximate velocity of the stream is 1 5 feet per sec- ond. the depth below the crest must be times the head on the 1 wen As the head assumed was foot. is found Now. is b. the length of the notch 1 will be Two end contractions at least thiee other conditions remain to be satisfied for a weir with Fust. we have Q 3 33 H l 1 Any head on the weir may now be assumed Let it be foot.38 HYDRAULICS of the stream at different points. 6 inches. is to deteimine the size of the notch in a weir with end contractions that will peimit the flow of this amount of watei. 20 seconds. the water level will use above the weir until it forms a pondage that i educes the velocity of approach to a point where it may ordinal ily be disiegaided I L T 39917 . that the distance fioin the vertical edges of the notch to the sides of the stream must be equal to at This will add least thiee times the head on the weir 3 feet to each end of the notch. then. and gives a sufficiently close result Solving that formula for b. making the total length of It will be seen that. the head on the weir not being less than 2 nor more than 24 inches For the purpose of determining: the length b of the weir. say.

with the weir placed at the end where the discharge is measured The dimensions of the flume or channel depend on the quantity of v\ater to be measured. the weir has no end contractions In this class of . ab the reading will be a little higher than the head on the weir. discharge of a pumping engrne rnto a reservoir. and the length of the weir is usually the width of the flume. so that no water can find its way around the ends of the planking or undei the bottom Gauge readings may now be taken In Fig 9. discharge of sewage rnto a stream. the water level of the original stream is shown. that is. the shaded portions showing where the planks aie embedded in the eaith 31. and in all up the velocity of: apptoach. In cases where larger volumes of water are to be measured by a wen such as in rrrrgatron work. leading the gauge at this distance up stieam will eliminate all necessity foi calculating The hook gauge should be located some stream.20 HYDRAULICS 5 or 6 feet 38 still water In but the most accurate woik. the fulfilled conditions foi the are outlined in the cross-section Imtio wen in question The wen planking bottom and now extended and firmly embedded in the Original Wafer Surface FIG 9 banks of the stream. and measurement of the drscharge of driven or a rectangular flume is usually constructed artesian wells 50 feet 01 more long. making the constiuction peifectly tight. which difference will closely approximate the value of h In Fig is 9. as well as the constructed weir. out of the way of the curient.

000. or. we have b = 7 7 . 6 inches of lunnmg board. is water level thus determined In flume measurements. = 2 31 feet.000. let it be required to determine with exactness the number of gallons of water pumped daily from a The amount is battery of diiven wells into a leservoir roughly estimated at 5. the hook gauge is placed in a box about 18 inches square. wheie. head on the deduced weir. the head on the weir is assumed. the watei level being quiet. But to determine the height above the bottom we must add to this the head on the weir. and if we assume a head of 1 foot on the weir and substitute in the foiegomg equation. the can be lead to iVn foot ~ gauge 32. and the width of the flume is determined by the formula b = Q 333/7* For example. 4 feet 6 inches. velocity of appicach.000. 1 foot. we have d teet for the height of the wen crest of the flume. and general dimensions It . and. 2 feet 4 inches 3 33 X 1* As the depth below the ciest must be at least thiee times the head on the weir. say. in use When all as care should be taken that the conditions are as nearly from which the formula was possible identical with those This refers to length of the crest. Gcneial Remarks Other Weir Foimulas A carefully constructed weir of piopei dimensions than ably located gives more accurate lesults and tavor- measuring device now any other necessary piecautions are taken. to provide foi any excess of the estimated 5. say. the discharge given by the weir formulas will be within 1 pei cent of the actual discharge When any foimula is used foi the discharge ovei weirs.000 gallons per 24 hours is about 7 7 cubic feet per second. outside the flume.38 HYDRAULICS 21 work. and 3 or 4 feet A small auger hole permits the water to back of the weir entei the box.000 gallons Now.000 gallons and foi fluctuations in the The height of the flume. 5.

the distance from the bottom of the channel to the crest of the weir being 1 5 feet . Fteley and Stearns made some expenments in 1879 over weirs wheie the length of the crest was 5 and 19 feet A section of the and the head vaned fiom 1 to 1 foot Sudbury conduit was used to measure the dischatge. which is the channel to the ciesi- In this formula. the results of his numerous expeuments of discharge ovei weirs having a length of cre^t varying from 1 5 to 6 feet. (6) by Bazm's formula. and the other letters have the same signification as in Fiancis's formula.138 cubic feet of watei when filled to a depth of 9 5 feet the weir was measured by two hook gauges. Bazm published. in feet all dimensions aie supposed to be the expiessed EXAMPLE Calculate the discharge over a weir 8 feet long. and the head varied between 5 19 inches. all dimensions being in feet 34. if head on the ciest ib b inches (a) by Fteley and Steams s formula the velocity of approach being 5 foot per second. 6 feet up the stream. under the following conditions the measuring tank was a canal lock. which contained The head on 12. in 1888.22 HYDRAULICS 38 be well to state the conditions obtaining: when three of the most popular formulas weie constructed The many and caieful experiments made by J B Francis in 1852. and had a capacity of 300. and a head ranging from about His formula for weirs with no end contracheie given. takes into account both the velocity of approach and the distance p from the bottom of 2 to 22 inches tions.000 cubic feet for an increase of 3 feet in depth follows Their formula for a standaid suppressed weir is as Q = 3 31 b (H + 1 5 *--\ + 007 b whete v is the velocity of approach. from which his standard foimula was deiived. with a width of channel of about 14 feet and 33. were His weir was 10 feet wide.

ft Ans 2 (. 007 Substituting the given values in the formula of Ait = + 33lX8x(5 + 15X -^~) To apply the formula of Art X 8 = 9 58 cu ft per sec Ans (f>) 34 we ha\e p example \ 5. calculate the discharge. tance from the crest of the weir to the bottom of the channel 1 foot and the is dis- 8 feet (b} *. (b) by sec 3 67 cu ft Aas f(a) 3 69 cu ft per sec per i (6) .j g * g-^ A weir is 1 feet long and the head is 6 inches The velocity of 5 and the distance from the crest to approach is 75 foot per second. inches is Assuming the velocity of per second. the other values being the the formula. by formula Ans ( j. using Francis's formula Ans 11 47 cu ft per sec head and the measured approach to be 1 5 feet 3 The length of a weir without end contractions is is 10 feet. the distance from the crest of the weir to the bottom of the channel being 5 feet b4 49 cu ft per sec (b) b6 b4 cu ft per sec !(a) 62 42 cu ft per sec (c) 1 A wen The without end contractions is 12 feet long and the head is velocity of approach is 1 25 feet per second. Calculate the discharge (a) by Fteley and Stearns's formula. calculate the dibcharge (a] by Francis's formula. 23 5 ft SOLUTION H = -^ = 33.u per sec A weir without end contractions is 5 feet long. and is the measuted head 1 5 feet If the velocity of approach 2 feet per second. (c) by Bazm's formula.38 HYDRAULICS (a) In this case. Calculate the discharge (a] by the bottom of the channel is 2 feet Bazm's formula Fteley and Stearns's formula. (6) by Ft ley and Stearus's formula. same as in the preceding Substituting m 55 X ft ry-g per sec X Ans 8 X 5 X V6 = 9 97 cu EXAMPLES FOR PRACTICE 1 A is 1 weir with end contractions foot is (3 feet long and the head on the crest that the velocity of calculate the dischaige. by Francis's formula Assuming approach 19 3 is negligible.

and counting. and then multiplying the velocity as thus determined by the area of 35. and and n If m is the the other. or by the use employed The method by floats and by the Pilot tube will be explained fuither on 36. somewhat like a gas meter the wheel electric circuit in the single-revolution dial. and n the hundred-revolution dial. the curient metet. where. end o' of the axis it The enclosed in small an chambers or boxes is of such foim that at eveiy i evolution of comes in contact with a spung and closes an wnes wic. to be clesciibed presently. the . previously established relation or table giving the velocity of flow conespondmg to any numbei of revolutions of the wheel The foim of instrument trated in Fig 10 Its most commonly used is that illusmain part is a wheel on the circum- ference of which are placed four or five conical buckets b. by which a cm tent is sent to the box e. is the most convenient and the one most commonly of floats. and whose axis. Geneial Desciiption. which consists in immersing a wheel in the stream whose velocity is to be deteimmed. b. the numbei of i evoluThe velocity is then found horn a tions in a certain time .watet. rivers is that cioss-section The velocity can be ascertained either by means of special instiuments Of these instruments. by means of an electiomagnetic aiiangement a. revolves in bear- ings o. or otheiwise ascei Liming. of tlie Cuvieut Molei There aie seveial types of cunent metei They all work on the same geneial plan. hundreds. which is a vertical lod. o''. the number of revolutions is recorded on the dials m One of these dials records single revolutions.24 HYDRAULICS 38 MEASUREMENT OF DISCHARGE BY THE CURRENT METER DESCRIPTION OF INSTRUMENT The discharge of laige streams and usually deteimmed by first measuring the mean velocity at a cross-section ot the flowing. Inti eduction.

or 5. pointer on the total numbei of revolutions recorded is. which means 5. which means 86 revolutions. This assumes that the dials were 5.HYDRAULICS number of i 25 evolutions indicated by the instrument shown the figure will be ascertained as follows The pointer on n points to number 55.586 m . therefore. the m FIG 10 points to 86.500 + 86.500 revolutions.

General Description of Method known velocity. consisting of a rod that is in line with the longitudinal axis of the wheel frame. and meters are usually rated by observations m still water A course from 100 to 200 feet in length is measured off and a boat is staited at a sufficient . on which it can both turn and slide To the tiunnion is also pivoted the indder . reading thousands of revolutions give the tions Some The frame canying the wheel bb is pivoted to a cylindncal piece t.?. however. the meter required RATING THE INSTRUMENT In order to determine the velocity of a cm rent from meter observations giving i evolutions per second. which is number of revolutions dm ing the observainstruments have a thud dial. called the tumnioii. which fits loosely on the rod f>q. it is necessary to know the i elation between the i evolutions per second of the wheel and the velocity of the cm rent in feet per second The determination of this relation is called iatmg the metei This may be done by holding" the instrument in a current of 37. is sufficient to take obseivations.s. and will not necessary to set the dials at a reading before and one after the to take the difference between them. like the vanes of the paits attached to it can be kept at any desired height on the lod by means of a sliding ring r. or by moving it thiough still water at a uniform speed and noting the time and numbei of i evolutions for a given distance Few opportunities are had to apply the former method. weighing about 60 pounds. otheris simply suspended by a brass lod and lowered to any point of the stream wheie the velocity is is used only in wise. in the direct line of the current a windmill The tiunmon and deep rivers where velocities are high. and carries fotu vanes v m two planes at right angles to each other The purpose of the ruddei is to keep the instrument it acts rust. which can be set anywheie on the rod The weight B \\ith its ruddei of wood.26 HYDRAULICS when the count or obseivations were it 33 both at zero it begun Usually.

two pages of a field book being icpiesented The fust five columns on the left-hand page record the for an actual field operations They show the the direction taken by the boat. so depth of about 3 feet that the ludder of the instrument will contiol its direction An assistant with a stop-watch notes the exact time of enterThe observer reads the ing on and leaving the couise number of revolutions foi this distance fiom the dial Fiom ten to forty obseivations are made.38 HYDRAULICS 27 before entering the couise the distance fiom the course to acquire the desired rate of speed The instrument is attached to bow of the boat. a table is piepared braic equation that will give at a glance velocities in feet per second for any numbei of revolutions of the wheel 38. Field Note<=. and immeised to a Fir 11 The boat should have no rudder. giving the boat speeds that will appioximate the highest. and mteimediate current velocities foi which the instrument is likely to be us'd The di&tance tiaveised divided by the time gives the velocity of the boat. and the number of levolutions divided It by the time gives the rate of i evolution of the wheel will be found that the numbei of revolutions per second of wheel is not ^xactly propoitional to the velocity. but beais a i elation to it that can be expiessed bv an algethe metei Fiom data thus secured. the dial readings. as shown in Fig 11. lowest. the numbei of observations number . The field notes of the observations metei rating ate shown here.

28 HYDRAULICS 38 - o I ( o o D oo .

having been tabulated. the observations are plotted by coordinates measured from rectangular axes. date. the time. as given in the sixth column. during each observation is determined by dividing the length of the course. the number of revolutions per second.38 HYDRAULICS and the elapsed tune 29 of revolutions of the wheel. in seconds. for each observation m seconds be computed later observer and the assistant should be noted. as given in the fifth column. and more convenient. Reducing tlie The lesults of the observations velocity Two general in feet per second is determined the methods may be used for calculating this relation The graphic method is graphic and the algebraic method shoiter. in feet per second. taken to make each observation. the wind velocity. and y. as the abscissa. by the numbei of seconds taken to make the obseivation. and by denoted by y The aveiage values of x and y are denoted by x and y The value of x is obtained by adding all the respectively is a . in feet. values of x. The seventh column contains the and is designated by A This velocity. and dividing by the number of observations Results by the Giapliic Method. . as given in the fourth column. and for practical puris poses sufficiently exact. the value of y is obtained by adding all the values of y. and the names of the The sixth column shows the number of revolutions per This is determined by second elm ing each observation dividing the number of revolutions dm ing the observation. and any other details relating to the local physical conditions that may be deemed important The sixth and seventh columns may The locality. simplei. taking x. which should be very low. and dividing by the number of obseivations Likewise. as given in the seventh column. a reduction table should be made from which the relation between the number of revolutions per second and the 39. and under the head of Remaiks should be stated on the right-hand page the length of the course. but it is not so accurate as the algebraic method In the graphic method.

30 HYDRAULICS 38 feet per second. . each obseivation being In each case. that is.i and y at the problem is to draw the most probable stiaight line. considering each laige square of the cross-section papei to represent one unit It will be observed 10 that the points thus plotted in a he nearly straight line. and the vertical distance above the horizontal axis represents the velocity in feet per second as given -SSff in the seventh column. all though in a set of in prac- observations as com- monly taken found that deviate FIG 12 tice it will usually some be of the plotted points will moie from a Having plotted the values of x tions including the mean values . the stiaight line on which all the points may be assumed to he with the 4 straight line than is shown in the figure and y for all the obseiva- least probable eiror Such a line may be called a line. in each case the velocity Cross-section papei is the most convenient for plotting the m The obseivations given in the table of Ait 38 observations are thus shown plotted in Fig 12. the horizontal disindicated by its number tance from the vertical axis corresponds to the number of revolutions per second as given in the sixth column. as the ordmate.

\\hich are the mean values of a a . but abo\e the hori- intersects the vertical axis a shott distance The shoit length O in interzontal axis. as indicated by the line mf The equation of the lating line w n may be wiitten a % + b y In this equation. the most piobable single value of A fine thread may be sti etched thiough this each quantity point and swung caiefully in either dnection until it occupies a mean position through and near the other points. The the values of the constants can easily be deteimmed approximate value of the constant b can be lead at once fiom the plot. which is slight and is assumed to be constant foi any number of icvolutions per second. as shown In many cases it will be found that a numby the line m n ber of the points he in a straight line that includes the and that those points which do not he in the point x y When straight line he as much on one side as on the other such a line can be drawn. the value ot i By can at once be deteimmed . to the lespectively. and a is b the latio of y b to x. as at the point m cepted on the veitical axis represents the effect of friction. conespondmg observed values of ji and. and consequently.'.i OJ . it does not pass through the oiigm 0. Determination ol Constants probable position of the rating line m n has been found.$538 HYDRAULICS in 31 Considerable assistance locating the position of the rating line is derived from the fact that it must pass through deteimmed by A O and y and y foi all the plotted points. x and y aie the abscissa and the ordmate. straight line When the line will is it be found that drawn in its most piobable position.j'o whose position is u . it can be taken as the most probable the point . as is evident from the figure. and a and are constants for the given meter The constant b repiesents the effect of friction. . respectively. or by AJ h writing the equation in the form x = a When the most 40. or Om. and the values of y and x a for y and x. since it is represented by the mteicept Om substituting in the equation this value foi b.

Ans and solving foi b. extends across about and. the values of the constants a and b can be detei mined The operations for detei mining. = 1 >% a. it is which represents the value of b. the values of i and y calculated from each observation. closely Ans From and the value of the table. and the mean values A and jo derived therefrom. which can readily be solved for the two unknown quantities a and b in EXAMPLE mean values number IP SOLUTION What jr are the values of a ami b is cakul. gives two equations. the line m ?i exactly prefeiably one of the highest or lowest points and the values of the coordinates i and y for that point substituted This. 1 unit. and also to any other obseivation foi which the plotted point lies . 1 5 small squares. as in the table given in Ait 38. whence Substituting this value a = = 1 S83 149 m b equation (1). whence a gives a 1 882 Ans 41. it becomes 3 384 1 718 + 15. Ans Tlie Algebraic Method If the obseived icsults meter rating are tabulated.32 HYDRAULICS EXAMPLE .itul from the as and y a and the values determined by obseivation give the equation (1) The mean 3 384 values & a and y a = 1 71S a +6 + ( Observation number 11 gives 7 143 = 3 714 a b (2) Subtracting equation (1) 3 759 from equation (2). for a O 42.the constants algebraically are shown in the table on page 33. the equation of Art 39 can be applied to the point x a . and may be descnbed in detail as follows . what are a x SOLUTION Fiora Fig 12. In order to verify the values of a and b as thus obtained. the value equal to 1X15= = = 15. the value of y a is found to be 3 S84 ft per sec and r to be L 718 rev per sec B\ substituting these values the value of b in the equation of Ait 39. since the width of each small square represents of b is seen at once that the inteicept O /.-J8 For the values of table in Art 38 and the lating ? the values of b and and y n as determined fiora the line as shown in Fi? 12.y a and the values of r a and j' substituted.

w a c. a S ^ o O 00 I ( IN 33 .

} (y together. the values of x x and y m all obseivations. as in the graphic method. as wiitten the ninth column. -x n }\ and (x- . what aie the \alues of a and b as determined algebiaically? The values of x . as wrrtten in the eighth column.. the remainder is positive. and from the values ot x and y m the fourth and fifth columns the mean values x and y a are calculated. the values of (. as shown in These values aie calculated by subtracting the value of A from the value of t as given by each observation.. Having determined the value of a by this foimula. a the same as in the graphic for method The value ot x in _t rs then calculated each observatron and wrrtten the column ot velocities. it is always advantageous to plot the observations on cross-section paper.r 0) y -y a . are shown m the table of .34 HYDRAULICS The first five 35 columns of this table are the same as m the table of Art 38. as aie also the values of j'J.tor in the squared and the square written table Also.i ). the value of b can readily be determined by substituting this value of a in the formula of Art 30. by formula the operatrons thus described in detail. howevei. in order to make an intelligent study of the lesults series of observations EXAMPLE SOLUTION For the shown (x m the table of Art 38. the value ot y negative y a is calculated tor each observatron and wiitten in the seventh column of the table The value of r x a foi each obseivation is then eighth column of the y. having due legaid for the sign of the remainder column following the sixth column the O Thus.. and the values of y a y. but if -T greater than %. is if the value of x u is is less than that of 3.r ) X (y ya ) . In rating a meter by any method. = ^^ JiV be denoted by 2 ] Then. and the sum of the latter is divided by U m the sum of the former The quotient is the value of the constant a In order to express. briefly. let the values of x x be denoted by 11. are added x. the lemamder Likewise.. tor each observation are multiplied together and the product wiitten the last column of the table _i Finally. as calculated for each observation.






T 39918


and the sums

of the last


sets of values are


of the values of


23 832

as thus found, is 12 679, and y ) = u s, as also thus found, is Hence, b} applying the foimula, the value of a is found to' be 23 832 - 12 679 = 1 880 Ans




of the values (r

A a )(v

By wilting the formula of Ait 39 in the form b = y and substituting in this equation the value of a, and also the values A O and y a as found in the table of this article, for r and y, lespectively, the value


of b







3 384










referring to the results obtained in the example solved in the preceding article, it is seen that the values of the constants a and b, as obtained by the moie ugicl algebraic method, are 1 880 and 154, respect-


Reduction Table.


which values vary but slightly from those obtained in 39 and 40 by the less laborious graphic method, which is usually piefened By substituting the values of these constants in the equation of Ait 39, which is the metet rating, it becomes fundamental equation for y = 1 880 x + 154 This is the equation to be used for tating the meter with which the observations weie taken By means of this equation, a reduction table can be made that will show the


velocity y of the current for any observed rate of revolution x of the meter wheel within the limits of the tabulated


on page 35 shows part of a reduction whose rating has been described, as calSince this table is given merely culated by this equation for the purpose of showing the form of a reduction table, and is of no value except foi computing velocities fiom observations made with this particulai meter, only the The velocities upper one-fifth of each column is shown given correspond to every two-hundredth part of a revoluFor smaller fractions tion per second of the metei wheel



table foi the meter

of a revolution, the


corresponding velocities can be found by desired values within the limits of the observations can be computed from the equation of Art 39 and tabulated in this manner






To Determine Velocity by the Cuneiit Metei


velocity of the water at any point below the surface in the cross-section of a stream can be determined by holding the metei at that point and obseivmg the number of i evolutions a given interval of time The mean velocity during
vertical line of the cross-section can

m any be determined directly

by moving the meter vertically at a unifoim rate from the surface of the water to the bottom, then back to the surface,

and obseivmg the reading of the register before the meter leaves the surface and when it returns again, and the interval of time that elapses between the two surface positions If the tegistering mechanism is above water, and is operated means of electricity, the bottom reading can also be by The mean velocity thus obtained will observed and timed not be strictly accurate, since the meter cannot be run very close to the bottom, but if the observation is made carefully and the meter is lowered and raised at a uniform rate, the results should be reasonably satisfactory, and will be valuable for

comparing with

the results obtained

by mid-depth
have been


the rates of loweting and raising the meter

exactly uniform, the number of re\olutions registered during the descent should be equal to those registeied duung the Then the number of revolutions registeied during ascent
the descent or the ascent, divided by the time in seconds taken to lower 01 laise the meter, will give the inean number of revolutions per second foi the vertical section of the

The number of revolutions registered during the stieam descent and ascent will not usually be exactly equal, however, and the total number of revolutions registered during the descent and ascent, divided by the total time in seconds
taken to lower and raise the metei, is taken as the mean rate of revolution The mean velocity of the water in a stieam can be determined by passing the meter at a slow and uniform rate over


paits of the vertical cross-section of the stream

It is

usually best to cross-section

make moie than one observation for a given A good way to use a cuirent meter for determining the mean velocity is to move it slo\vly across
from one side
of the



the othei, holding





a vertical position, and



up and down

so as to subject it to the action of the cuirent at all parts of This opeiation is repeated by moving the the cross-section


in the

same manner back

to the starting point





evolutions and the time

obseivation are noted

seconds tor each the icsults ot the two observain

tions aie leasonably close,







much diffeience between them, be made

a third

observation should

In making the observations, the observer may stand on budge that crosses the stream with a clear span, that is,

without obstructing piers,

such a



available in


If no bridge is available and the stream suitable position is not large, a temporary platfoim may be constructed over

from which



the meter observations


the stream

shallow, the observei

can make the observa
tions by wading across with the meter This



not to be

commended, however,
accurate results
are required, since the

observer's body will some obstiuction

to the current,

and will somewhat afreet the registration

the metei

The ordinary and perhaps
as follows







of uniform cioss-section is selected in straight reach to locate the discharge section, and a lange is laid oft

The term "reach"


u_,ed to describe

A Cor B D,

a straight section of a





across the stream at right angles to its axis, as shown at A B The range is located near the lower end of the in Fig 13
reach, because the flow
it is


is more umfoim at such a place than just below a bend in the stream, and there is less liabilof ci oss-currents, eddies, or other local distuibances


the cui rent

The range may be maiked


any way that


most con-

venient, but foi small streams the most satisfactory method The is by means of a wne stretched across the stream

range is then divided into any desired number of parts, and the points of division ate maiked by means of tags 01 otherSoundings are then taken along the points of division, wise



from which a cross-section of the stieam is plotted, as illusThe area F of each division is calculated trated in Fig 14 by multiplying its width by its mean depth 45. To Determine the Discharge. Having thus determined the dimensions and area of each division of the
cioss-section, the

by means

making; the

mean velocity of each division is found In of time observations with the current meter obseivations, the meter is held in each division

rate from the of the cross-section and moved at a uniform and the numsurface to the bottom and again to the smface, in the manner that ber of revolutions per second detei mined corbeen desciibed The velocity in feet pel second,


lesponchng to the number of levolutions per from the rating table 01 cletet mined by calculation,




as already

The mean

ot velocity of flow in each division

the cross-section

thus found and lecorded

The discharge




each division of the cross-section is then determined by substituting the values of the area and mean velocity for that The sum of the pardivision m the formula for discharge tial discharges thus obtained is the total discharge of the stream

EXAMPLE If the current meter for which the table of Art 43 was prepared recorded 2 15 revolutions per second, what was the velocity of the stream?
4 215
2 15
2 14


reference to the table
2 16



found that

2 15


The corresponding

velocities are 4 177


difference in velocity corresponding 2 14, or 01 revolution per second is


a difference of


- 4177

xoi =
2 15




4 177


revolutions per






4 196

per sec



The values

of ,r


deduced from a record of a senes

v given in the accompanying table were of observations made foi the purpose

of rating a current meter Determine the values of a and b


be used

in the formula of

Art 39.



fa \a \b

= =

2 884 88-


Determine the


ively, of the

corresponding to 1 00 and 1 08 revolutions per second, lespectinstiument leferred


m example 1


ft ft

13 300

pei sec per sec

interpolation, from the results obtained in the preceding example, the velocity corresponding to 1 07 levolutions per second Ans 3 271 ft pei sec

Deteuume, by

4 Calculate, by the formula, 3 38 revolutions pei second




9 933

corresponding to ft per sec




Surface Floats

The measurement

of velocity


which, traversing a known distance in a certain time, indicate more or less accmately the velocity of the watei Surface floats give but loughly approximate results, as they are easily




be effected by the use of


affected by winds, eddies, and cross-currents A block of a tin can weighted with sand, a long-necked bottle
01 any object whose nearly equal to that of water, which exposes a smface easily seen, makes a good

with water and corked,

specific giavity can be





47. Making the Observations Foi making the observations, a base line is laid off parallel with the axis of the stream It should not be less than 100 feet length, and, except for streams of less width than this, need not


exceed the width of the stream, length maybe less than the width


very wide




of the stream,

and a length

of 400 feet is piobably sufficient in any case At each end of the base line, and perpendicular to it, a range line is laid off
as shown in Fig 15 (a) Each range line is thus, as neaily as possible, perpendicular to the general If the stream is not too wide, a direction of the cm rent wire should be stretched across the stream on each lange

across the stream,

A.t comenient intervals, tags of tin or pasteboard should be attached to the wire, each tag beanng a number that shows its distance from the left-hand bank Instead of numbered tags, pieces of cloth may be tied to the wiie and the distances indicated by different colois Thus, at a distance of 10 feet



may be marked with a stiip of red 20 feet with white, at 30 feet with blue, etc The float should be put in the stieam at some distance, say 15 to 20 feet, above the upper range, so that it will attain its full velocity before it ciosses this range The time required
the bank, the wire


the float to traverse the distance

between the ranges can

"be determined by two observers, one at each range, with




stop-watches, or by an obseiver with a watch at one range, preferably the lower, and an assistant at the othei range, who


Cross-Section Upper Range





Cross-Section Lower Range
10' to'





signals the





start his

watch when a


crosses it, or the observer passes the upper ranee then

Another method is to have a transit on each range with an obseiver at each transit. float walk A 48. the opposite end of the base line. but also to locate the exact position where it crosses each range The method of obseivation is as follows Let B. by caretully tmnmg the transit in azimuth The transitman at A obseives and calls out ot signals the instant the float crosses the upper range At that instant the transitman at B stops turning the transit AD and reads the angle. who notes the instant each float ciosses the veitical cross-wire This method is to be preferred. the telescope is directed and the instrument is is An angle of 90 clamped in this position on the honzontal circle. be the measmed base. the telescope of the transit at B is lange directed toward on the float. which is recorded by a recorder.38 HYDRAULICS quickly to the 43 lowei range. and assume and another at B that one tiansit is set up at The vernier A AD A of the transit at to A is set at zeio. it. since the transits can be used not only to observe when the float crosses each range. the telescope directed to A and the instrument clamped. especially for large livers. and note the time when the passes stop-watch is prefeiable for timing the obserbut an ordinary watch may be used vations. and the line of sight is kept as the latter appi caches the range. Fig 16. B. and the telescope the range then turned off directed along is AD ready to observe when the float crosses this The veinier of the transit at B is set at zero. when the two instruments are available. who . and and B C the uppei and lowei range lines. respectively. and the The float is then put into the water vetnier then undamped above the range A D.

and that the dotted line fa b repreAs it sents its path as it floats down to the lowei range crosses the uppei range at a it is observed by both transits. and R the length of the base. that is. \\hich is recorded with the time Suppose that the float is put in the water at /. the distance d along the range from the other end of the base to the point whet e the float ciosses the range is given by the following trigonometric formula d = It R tan S should be observed that. as shown in the figure Then. and clamps the instrument in this position. he directs the telescope toward the float. sights again at B. they are not necesused for the triangles sanly equal. some point above the upper range. m and one below to recover the floats after they have passed the lower range. and as a check notes it the vernier reads zeio. when the tiansitman at A ceases turning the tiansit and leads the angle. the transitman at A unclamps the this range vernier. the angles denoted by 5 and the dis- A tances denoted by d may not be equal Two boats are usually required making the observations. B ABa AB ABa it transits as transit at B is C In this case. with the vernier undamped. m readiness to obseive the instant the float crosses Meanwhile. the transit at A is sighted on the range A D. one above the upper range to put the floats in the water. the crosses the lower range duected along the range and the transit at A B measures the angle B A b Let 5 denote the measured angle at eithet end of the base. although the same notation is Bb and B Aa.44 also notes the time HYDRAULICS 33 This transitman then directs his telescope along the range B C. and by tinning the transit carefully in azimuth keeps the line of sight on the float as it still The transitman at B observes approaches the lower range and calls out or signals the instant the float crosses the lower range B C. the transit at B This a and measmes the angle sighted on the line foi the distance A a is equal fully locates the point to the length ot the base multiplied by the tangent of The float is likewise observed by both the angle is . then. .

as explained in These soundings and distances on flydiogtaphic Surveying each range are plotted. will be divided into a number of divisions corresponding to those of the crosssections on the uppei and lower ranges The mean of the areas of the two conesponding divisions of the cross-sections on the upper and lower ranges is then taken as the mean soundings at the two points of division cross-sectional aiea of the division of the course in which they aie situated The observations are repeated as many times as may be considered necessary. by the requned for the float to tiaverse the course the relative velocities aie represented graphically by means of arrowheads. as shown in Fig 15 (a]. In Fig 15 (). the couise. the course. a coefficient of reduction is applied to determine the mean velocity of the division. in seconds. in feet for each division by dividing the time. length.38 HYDRAULICS 45 The aiea by of the cross-section on each lange is determined taking soundings at the points of division. as shown in Fig 15 (b} and (c) If the division points between corresponding divisions in the upper and lower ranges are joined by stiaight lines. which in the several divisions are located at distances from the upper range proportional to the observed velocities Having found the velocity of float in each division of the course. thus determining the form of the crosssections on the upper and lower ranges. or part of the stream over which the measurements are to be taken. in computed of The velocity of flow. feet. as shown in Fig 15 The area of each division of the cross-section (b) and (c) is then computed by multiplying its breadth by its mean The mean depth of depth as determined by the soundings a division is equal to one-half the sum of the depths of the between which it lies The aiea of each division is marked on the division in the plot of the cioss-section. and the average of the lesults observed in each division ti is taken as the tiue time required for the float to averse that division is per second. as will be explained fuither on lated The dischaige for each division of the course is then calcuby substituting in the foimula foi discharge Q = Fv .

as shown The immersion of eachiod should be at least Fig 17 nine-tenths the depth of the watei in the division in which it floats The velocities of the rod floats are detei mined m the m same manner as described The velocity of a rod foi surface floats float is appioximately the mean velocity of the vertical section of the stream in which the float moves The closeness with which the obseived icsults approach the actual mean velocities will depend Lugely on the smoothness and legulauty of the channel and on how neaily the immeised length of each tube approximates the full average depth of the water in the division in which it floats.46 HYDRAULICS 38 division the values obtained for the aiea and the mean velocity of that The total dischaige of the stream is the sum of the paitial dischaige thus found 49. how near to 'die bottom of the stream its lo\\ei end floats .at any point. with just enough above the watci sin face to be plainly seen The lowei ends ot the tubes aie filled with sand or shot until they float at the requued depth with then lower ends only a shoit distance above the bottom. as shown weighted at the lowei end so as to float neaily veitical as neat the bottom The rod should float with its lower end possible. Rod Floats Rod floats consist of wooden icds Fig 17. dbout 2 inches in diametei. that i*. as m and in if it is to be used it deep water should be of adjust- abl e length or airanged so that it can It is best be spliced to use a FIG 17 numbei of tin tubes. or hollow tin cylmdeis of unifoim size. without touching. and of such different lengths that each tube will be of suitable length to float in to be some division of the cioss-section whose velocity is measured.

as at is shown in plan small weight attached to the bottom C A D to assist in keeping the the float in a vertical position.HYDRAULICS 50. and will in some surface to some degree afreet th^ velocity of the lower float 51. since the velocity of the lower or submerged float will be to some At extent affected by that of the upper or suiface float considerable depths the cord will piesent the action of the cuirent. of floats. in pioportion to weight. floats heavy enough to sink and The submerged float should be same time piesent as laige a biuface to the watei. The velocities streams are sometimes observed by means of double each of which consists of a submerged float connected Such floats aie called subsurby a coicl at the to a sui tace float face. Floats. 1 fastened together at right angles. or Double. and in some cases sheets have cylindrical cavities an along then upper edges The by sinking the lowei velocity of the current at any depth can be detei mined float to that depth and observing the This time required toi it to pass over a measured couise determination will be only appioximate. as possible It is maintained at the required depth by means of a fine coid. howevei. . attached to a suiface float Such a that should be of minimum surface and resistance combination consists of 18 The submeiged float A is shown in Fig two sheets of tin or galvanized sheet metal. aie not the mean velocities of the sections floats m of which the move To determine the mean velocity any section from the observed velocity of a float in that section. preterably of woven silk. 47 Subsurface. it is necessary to anply a coefficient of reduction. or double. as deterby floats. Art The Coefficient of Reduction It was stated ir 48 mined that the obseived velocities in a stream.

c = 80 floats. In the column shown the number of each sounding. c = 98 = 90 EXAMPLE in 2 Two rauges on a stream are 200 feet apart that a subsurface float travetses the distance It is found between the two ranges minutes aud 35 seconds What is the mean velocity of flow in that part of the stream' SOLUTION The The observed closely velocity 9 time. the ft X 1 29 = 1 161 pei sec mean velocity Ans equal to EXAMPLES FOR PRACTICE surface float tiaverses the distance between two lauges that aie 150 feet apart in 1 minute and 40 seconds What is the mean 1 A velocity of flow in that pait of the 2 stieam 5 Ans 1 20 ft pei sec mid-stream. or subsuiface. expressed in seconds. A rod placed in Ans 3 1 72 ft per sec The velocity of a division of a stieam. per sec is Hence. Art 47. what 78 feet per second If the mean cross-section is 107 2 is the discharge for that part of the stream' Ans 152 6 cu ft pei sec 52. = coefficient of reduction = Then. is 2 is found to be 200 155 to the X = (>0 1 +^= 29 ft l >5 r sec . tiaveiset. = observed velocity of float in that section. 2 03 feet per second What is the mean ] flow for that part of the stream ? 4 Ans 83 ft velocity of pei bee sur- The velocity of a division of is 1 a stream as detei mined by a face float square feet. as detei is mined by a sub- surface float.48 Let z> HYDRAULICS v' 38 c = mean velocity ot any longitudinal section. No 1002. the the ranges first AD is and BC of Fig 15 (a). Recording Observations are a recoid The of accompanying soundings on field notes. r Foi double. according formula. Foi lod floats. the formula for detei mining the mean velocity trom the observed velocity is v cv' For suiface floats. the distance between two tanges 300 feet apait m 2 minutes and 50 seconds What is the mean velocity of flow in that pait of the stieam? float. in the .

and in are shown The the fourth column the depths of soundings distances to the division points are made .38 HYDRAULICS 49 second column is given the distance from the watei's edge to each division point of the cross-section. in the thud column the distances between adjacent division points FIELD NOTES No 1002 SOUNDINGS ON UPPER RANGE A D BEAR CREEK SOUNDINGS ON LOWER RANGE H C BEAR CREEK are given. as meastned from the bank of the stieam adjacent to the base line.

in feet pei second. adjacent to the farthet bank In this case.50 the HYDRAULICS 38 same on each lange. consequently. the number of the division of the cioss-section is given m the fust FIELD NOTES No 10(H FLOAT OBSERVATIONS. rod float was used in these is observations. BJEAR CREEK column. it is assumed that rod floats aie used The accompanying field notes. feet pei second. aie a lecord of the float observations For each observation. and. a between the lang-es the second column. the Eoi which in the the in coefficient of reduction 98. and the mean velocity. in. distance the time taken foi the in float to pass ovei the the velocity of the float in each division. as has been stated. except the last division. in the fourth column Since. No 100. in the thud column. the coi responding divisions on each lange aie of the same length. mean velocities column are obtained by multiplying those the third column by 98 The velocities are earned fouith to only two decimal as is places.3. as this is conbideied to be as floats close justified by observations made with .

a w g g e G 1 LT J99 1 .

it is moie acciuate to apply it to the aiea and velocity as observed foi each separate division of the cioss-section. for rapid approximate determinations A and hanchrough sketch of the instrument is shown in Fig 19 It consists of two communicating glass tubes A and B. and the discharge in each division of the cross-section is calculated as shown in the table on page 51. and later modified by other hydiaulicians. works two valves. The Pitot tube. and at then common upper end they communicate with a short tube J. as shown at P extremities. TUBE Geneial Description. it is very convenient. the values aie tabulated. which will be readily understood ftom the explanations that have been given The values written in the tenth column aie the discharges foi the several the cross-section. invented by Pitot in 1730. 7. while the other. if these can be detei mined. the discharge can be calculated by means of the general formula Q = Fv be applied to the total aiea and mean velocity of the entire stream. which can be opened or closed by a cock S Another cock S. one in e ich . is an instrument used for determining the velocity of rivers and other streams Although not adapted to very accurate work. one of which.52 HYDRAULICS 53. in which case the total dischaige of the stream is equal to the sum of the disThis formula may charges of the several divisions From the field notes of the soundings and of the float obseivations.. it. and their sum is the total discharge of the stream. B. owing to its simplicity ness. for the purpose ot determining the total discharge But. undei the usual conditions of discharge measurement. in cubic feet per second divisions of THIS PITOT 54. and the mean velocity of flow in that division. is straight and of uniform diameter. and is drawn to a fine Both tubes aie open at then lo\\er point. bent at its lowei end to form a light angle. 38 Calculating tlie Discharge Having determined the area of any part or division of the cioss-section ot a stream.

38 HYDRAULICS 53 Both tube. so that. valves Si are then closed. which can be opened or closed simultaneously tubes are graduated in inches and fractions. and the heights of the columns in the t\\ o tubes . the water will rise to a point whose height depends on the velocity of flow Theoretically. and the mstiument. the valves 5 and 5i are opened.. if theie weie no lesistances. the velocity would be equal to X ba In order that the difference ba between the elevations of the water in the two tubes may be conveniently lead. and the point current P of the bent tube \\ ill face the in the The watei will then use stiaight tube to a height that is appioxithe stream. and ^ in the tvso tubes. the smface of the water in that tube will be practically on a level with In the water bb in the stream outside the bent tube. Operation and Tlieoi-y. The distance b^a^ being equal to da respectively. deteimme the velocity at any point of a stream. the operator sucks and J3 by out some air fiom the tubes applving his mouth at the small tube /. the water rises to a. the of the graduations being near the lower ends of the tubes. is immeised in the water so that the straight tube B will be vertical. he then closes the cock S Owingf to A the formation of a paitial vacuum. the mstiument is taken out of the water. 01 in tenths and hundiedths of a foot. mately that of the \\ater m that is. the height ba is the head due to the \elocity v. as shown Movable verniers Va\& used in connection with these graduations To 55. which is attached to a fiame. or in any other convenient units.

.'. he again immerses the instrument.. are respec and a. and m the d = i a.-fli + g fli' -*/ _ + a.. then. That is. For greater accuiacy. both tubes opens the valves until it reaches its S and observes the watei in the tube A least height. .. the and will fluctuate noticethe opeiator observes Before closing the valves l} m the tubes A B S A until the water reaches its maximum height. lespectively. and dj = a-J / The mean difference of reading. .'. and reads After this./ and the sum of the readings tube B 56. fl.54 are HYDRAULICS lead 38 the The difference between tube A and that ot the tube to slight variations reading of the gives the height due to the velocity Owing ably the tube columns of watei of velocity in the stream. aJ. and b and />/ represent the coiiesponding heights of the water in the tube B. he then closes the valves 5^ takes the instrument out. l di and d! represent the respective differences readings of the two tubes. when he closes the valves S 1} t and takes the leadings as before If a. a. or velocity head A lt is given by the equation h 1 . a. etc ively represented by If the number of observations . 2 (bi + /) . d^ 1 .LJjL " 2 Substituting the values of d> and . the value of the the difference between the mean head h^ is equal sum of the readings in in the to one-hal the tube . for made at different times. etc a. and the mean of the resultm difteiences taken as the value of h to be substituted in th tube formula tor velocity greatest and the least readings for the tube A. and / repiesent. several obseivations at differ ent times should be made at any point for which the velocit is to be determined at Two readings bhonld be taken for eac 1 eveiy obseivation. the gieatest and the least height of the water in the tube A.

)] - 2 ?z the mean value for the head to be used in the formula for velocity.. 2 A. . . . the Fovmitla for Telocity is given by the equation z = ^2g/i. . average head h for if the numbei all the obseivations denoted by n. b & 3 etc and <V. b. . . B by 2'.. B . Substituting the values of Ji a etc just found. thtis given by the equation h = kl + h' + /*.' + h. = <*>+**'- A. That is. the quantity velocity is.'.38 the HYDRAULICS 65 corresponding readings of the tube by .. from equation (1). ka + . Art 55. this does not give V2^/! must be multiplied by a constant coefficient c whose value must be determined The formula for experimentally for every instrument to fnction the tine velocity. (b. but. then. divided by twice the number of observations is denoted by If the sum of the leadings of the tube A and the sum of the leadings of the tube the velocity head by //. owing and other resistances. <V. then. is equal to the sum of all the readings of the tube A minus the sum of all the leadings of the tube B. .. .. v = c^g'h (1) .i a. and h = 2"- ~ b 57. = 2 of observations is Then. + b. as usual. theoretical velocity As previously stated. etc and the mean heads for the obseivations by /i l} k a /i 3 etc then. + <V + b. + ' + /.

'.'. substituting the HYDRAULICS value of h from the preceding $33 article. the ((iiiespoiidintf Kadiiu'.. leadings aie taken. . in the mannci iheuly desciibcd.s of tin It is lequued to had the constant c foi that tube tube.1 b - I ) f- -T + 52 4& = 2 94. and in columns /) ami //.ihu's . in a sticam whose velocity is known. etc. .nt accomplish tints. v = c (2) in As 58./ )1 = - .56 or. etc in column a 1 the \. 2 04 . ^a= 65+ + 53 The equation of Art 5(J (>8+ (>9+ (il + <iU+ dti -f is applied !i in finding 1 /r llui 17 \ = '11. Rating tho Justi umeiit the ease of a cunent mctci. the opciation of detei mining the constant foi To any instalment is called lilting the mstiumi. and the value of// drtei mined by substituting the values of the leadings in the equation of Ait 5(>. t the tube being moved at a given velocity velocity v being known./? .-! Then. 01 in still . the value of i is icadily dctei mined fiom foimula 1. . watci The Ait 57. and S ( . which solved for c c ~~- gives v V'2 t> h in / and />' of a Pilot tube hoM n stiuun wlinsc velocity is known to be !$ 'J fiul pit snoiid \\M<> and lecoided as slio\\n in the uioinp UIMIU' ilili '1'lu numl^ei of the obsei vations is rocoidctl in tolunin // In tuluniii a K 1 Readings on the tubes taken t aie recorded the values a lt a. .

taken at a certain point in a stieam.. Ib m 52 33 formula 2. To determine r. c 8 23. and g = 32 16 Then. and the lead- and B. the read- ings on the tubes A and B being as given in the accompanying .able Ans 98 . Art 57 34 _|_ 57 In this 5Q + + 132 55 + 3 53 = = = 98. j? = 32 32 16. are ings of the tubes gnen in the accompanying.38 HYDRAULICS is 57 applied In this case. ^ = 40 38 + + SO + + = 2 07. 23 X (3 - 2 07) =3 46 ft per sec Ans 1 A Pitot tube EXAMPLES FOB PRACTICE was held m a stream whose velocity was 2 8 feer per second Determine the constant c for this instrument. and = 16 + Then.table It is required to determine the velocity of the stream A SOLUTION _l_ The 50 velocity v is found by substituting known \alues case. k = lt>->. c = \'2 --- X 32 16 --"^ X c _ 162 of a Pitot approximately tube is EXAMPLE 2 The coefficient 9fi. the formula of Art 58 = 3 2.

reterence. taken at the accompanying table a certain point in the stream. Discliaige Table. the heights of the diffeient of water stages are assumed to vaiy by intervals of exactly 2 feet. are given Determine the velocity of the sheam m Ans 3 08 ft per sec THE DISCHARGE TABLE AND RECORD GAUGE 59. volume. which would seldom. and It a series of discharge measurealso its average discharge m ments have been made lated foi in a at different stages of the given cioss-section of a stieam watei the results should be tabu. it is usually necessary to determine the discharge of the stream at the highest and lowest stages of the water. or any other purpose. there is a corresponding increase water surface If the water of the stream is or deciease m the discharge to be utilized for water-power. FlG 20 and the be 45. be the case in observations The bottom width of: the canal is assumed actual to be 10 feet. water supply. The coefficient c of a Pitot tube is and the readings of the tubes A and B. or 1 horizontal to 1 vertical slope of each bank to This causes the width to increase 4 feet for each 2 feet increase of depth The areas cf the cross-section of the water at the successive stages are therefore as follows.-58 HYDRAULICS 2 '38 97. tf ever. with a record of the mean velocity. . and gauge reading for each measurement Fig 20 shows the cross-section of a canal with five stages Foi convenience. With the rise and fall of the a stream.

can be plotted on cross-section paper with the depths of water. F= t 12JL26 2i x 8 = = For a depth of 10 feet.38 HYDRAULICS a 59 For For depth of 2 feet. feet. The Discharge Cui ve The results entered in the dischaige table. the discharge is calculated. as thus calculated for the vanous depths. = X x 2 = = = 24 square feet 56 square feet.BLE FOR CANAL SECTION These areas. F K = .<. ^~ F. a depth of 4 feet. connection with a dibchaige table 60. 96 square feet 144 square feet 4 Foi a depth of 6 F = 3 1 A "_j99 x _i_ 2i 6 For a depth of 8 feet. which is The mean velocities for the called a discharge table vanous depths aie given in the fourth column From the area of the cross-section and the mean velocity foi each stage of the \vatei. the Such a result being written in the fifth column of the table table is useful for detei mining the discharge at any depth within the limits of the obseivations is The recording largely used in gauge. or gauge heights. = ^~ F. as described in the preceding article. as ordmates and the discharges as abscissas . are shown in the third column of the accompanying table. x 10 200 square feet DISCHARGE TA. which will be described later.

the ganging of the \\ater at fiequ< intervals is of great importance Foi this puipose. stream at different heights will lepiesent the discharge of the Such a curve is called the dis- charge cuive foi the stream in which From this cuive. but not pi ence to the table in Ait 59.uge. si as the flow of \\atei thiough oiifices. called a recoidm^ #a.2? 6O IOO IBO 2OO 260 < 30O t 35O Ditcliaiyct in Ctibio JV Pic 21 jx r ti<r<iml by merely detei mining the depth of \vatei fiom the gang reading and finding that point on the discharge cuive whos The abscissa ordmate represents the depth of the water i the curve at the same point will represent the dischaige ( the stieam at the given stage The inciease 01 deciease in the dischaige per unit of rr or fall is a variable quantity depending on the velocity ai the sectional area of the stieam It will be seen. is v in determination of . ovei weirs.60 HYDRAULICS is 38 is This illustrated in Fig it 21 If a curve drawn through these points as plotted. The Recording Gauge In the piactical and lej questions constantly confiontmg the hydiaulic engineer. diul the fl streams and livers. an ing lous and accurate device. the pov pumping engines and motors. Since this is tuie of any stream. by lefe that the velocity mci eases decreases as the depth increases 01 decreases. the discharge taken the observations aie of the stream at anj stage within the limits of the obseivationb can be ascertained . it may portionately stated that there is no method for accurately determinn the dischaige of a stream at different stages except witr the limits of observed values 61.

1 w. FIG 22 .

the point of the hook is set at exactly the same elevation as the crest leading is then taken of the \wilei le\el in Assume this the float box. winds on the lollei /?. a pencil/ that rests on the cylinder C and travels in one duection or the is It will be seen other. located directly under the mstiument Through a hole in is let down on the water in the floor of the room. water from the body of water to be measmed to a still box 6" 5. by means of the hook gauge leading to be 5 foot. when the water sinks in the box SS. although it may be used for determining the variations of flow foi any stieam for which a A hook gauge J. accoidmg as the float Arises 01 sinks that all fluctuations of the water level in the still box aie lecorded on the revolving loll. between the wheels IV. usually 100 feet long and for the purpose The loose end of the 2 feet wide. by means of an engmeeis' level. discharge table has been constructed set at zero. or 6 inches. and carries a weight Q F The float at its other extremity and weight Q are so adjusted that. a float This float is fastened to a chain 01 rope cc. as it unwinds toll is passed ovei a drum or cylinder A pipe Pleads the from the roller R. unvfortn rate by clockwork so that the papei. the float /'"will diop 2 inches. is wound on a roller A R C and fastened to The cylinder and rolleis are moved at a anothei roller R. and the pencil point P will move to the right 2 inches Let it be assumed that the lecoidmg gauge is used in connection with a wen. if the water level falls 2 inches. the still box which passes over two wheels W. \V. thib shows that G inches of of the wen A distance flowing ovei the ciest of the weir is then measmed along the cylinder C to the of the position occupied by the pencil P at the time right watet is A of 6 inches . the float sinks with it and pulls up the weight. and the weight sinks To the chain or lope 3 fastened. W. thus. and when the watei rises. is secuiely fastened to a side of the still box or float box and.62 extensively used It is HYDRAULICS 38 This instrument is represented in Fig 22 usually placed on a table in a small house 01 shed built roll ot paper. the float rises F with it. the chain cc will move on the wheels 2 inches.

respectively 62. the float pencil would have described the line a. and another pencil point clamped to an independent lod that will hold P l is fixed or As it the cylinder revolves. a day. 14. A (bee Ait . the point is obvious that the distance of P-. and. ab the clock would have tolled the paper the distance ab. the float would have lemamed stationary also. 17. 12. it in position describes a line. and 11. if the height on the weir had remained stationaiy between 3 and 4 o'clock in the morning this recoid was taken. or a month may be easily detei mined from the gauge If it is desned to ascertain the number of gallons that have passed over the weir from 6 o'clock in the moinmg to noon of the day on which this record was taken. the 11 regular line a^c.been previously piepared GO). 16. the oidmates numbered Let these ordifrom 6 to 12 inclusive ate measured nates be 21. and P tiom this line at any time indicates the height of the \vatei above the head h over the weir In Fig record roll line the weir.38 HYDRAULICS 63 of the obseivation. 115. b l} but. as the stream was falling. was described instead discharge curve having. or 23 is shown a poition of a sheet taken fiom a veitical ordinates lepiesent the elevations The irregular of the watei at each of the 24 houis of a day The tiaced by the float pencil Noon P enables the observer to at deteimine the exact stage of \\ater 12 123456 789 1011121 2 3 4 5 G any given period by No n 78 9101112 Fio 23 For using the coi responding oidinate to the cuived line example. the dischaige foi an hour.

as they give a much closei approximation to the mean velocity . as scaled from the roll divide the sum by the numbei of elevations used. it is cheap and convenient. but adapted to rapid woik when great accmacy is not lequiied. to which must be added the uncertainty as to the position tit the lowei float.64 then. it is inconvenient to handle in vaiying 01 consideiable atti depths. the ^" HYDRAULICS mean of the heights at 6 and 7 o'clock is 38 taken. 01 that = 19 Consulting the dischaige curve has been constructed from the wen foimula. 01 in million gallons per 24 houis. the appaiatus The paper comes in lolls needs attention but once a week long enough to last 1 month GENERAL REMARKS COMPARISON OF METHODS Method by the Pitot Tube The Pitot tube is not much used at the present time As already stated. it is \\cll 63. foi each succeeding hourly penod. and capillaiy action makes close leadings difficult 64. may be advantageously used. but are expensive when many observations aie to be taken. but closely appioxiis to add together the vaiymg elevations. and the sum of these six aveiage homly dischaiges will give the total aveiage dischaige foi the 6 houifa Another method. and gives fanly approximate lesults Double floats give closei lesults than sin tact lloaLs. Rod on account of the action of the cmient on the coid floats are greatly to be pieferied to othei floats. the aveiage dischaige is observed foi this 1-houi period Pioceeding. It a clock with an 8-day attachment is used. an average houily discharge is detei mined. and find from the discharge cinve or table the discharge coriesponding to this aveiage head 01 height mate. the surface float Method by Floats Foi a lough dcteimmation. sumlaily. a little less exact. wheie the cuive gives the dischaige in gallons per houi.

and that a velocity of at least 1 foot per second is necessary for accurate results The meter should be rated frequently.38 HYDRAULICS 65 They should be adjusted to um as neat to the bottom as They possible and pioject slightly above the water level may be used foi streams of any depth The floats used by Francis in his Lowell experiments weie tin tubes 2 inches in diametei. dischaigmg about 200 cubic feet a second. it has its limitations of construction often toibtds its use. the mean velocity can be determined by placing the instrument at different depths over the entire crosssection Foi veiy accmate woik. and as large as the foimulas so far pioposed can be safely followed 66. it is only necessaiy to measure one cross-section of the stream. is as large as is usually bmlt. on account of the diameter of its vanes. so that it is not necessaiv that a high degiee of accmacy be attained in the meas- urements. the One rods were made to sink to nearly the desned depth advantage ot the lod float is that it is unaffected by floating giass. Method by a Wen Although the wen is the stand- aid of measuring deviceb. and a 20-loot Expense wen with a 2-toot head. 01 other substances 65. . and both field book and of flowing water. soldered together and \\eighted with lead at the lowei end By the addition 01 removal of a little lead. the ideal instrument the measurement beyond the piacIt measures the velocity of a stream in a much simpler manner than can be done by the use of floats. seveial readings should be taken at each of seveial points and depths It should be bome in mind that. Cm rent Metei The current toi at the piesent time. silt. particularly tical uses foi which the weir can be used It other computations are less than when floats are used the stream is small and unimportant. the cunent metei can be held no nearer the surface or bottom than 6 inches. metei Method In the is.

66 HYDRAULICS VARIATIONS OF VELOCITY IN A 67. the thread of mean velocity is fiom 50 to 55 ot In broad streams fiom 1 to the depth below the surface 3 feet in depth. in any vertical line. by holding the center of the meter 58 of the depth below the surface. The velocity of flow in a stream vanes both from the sides of a bed toward the center. the thread of mean below the sniface " This \alue. a shoit distance below the middle of the deepest part of the cross-section 68. as a iiile. according to Mi Mivtphy. the thiead of the depth From a series of careful The Mean Velocity E C Murphy concludes that "the distance of mean velocity below the surface increases with and with the ratio of the depth to the width " This distance vaues. As a rule. 65 of the depth "from 3 to 12 inches in depth and having a sand or fine gravel bed. The all-important factor to determine m the measurements of flowing water is mean velocity From the pre(1) that a fairly approximate mean ceding it appears velocity of the flow of a stream may be determined from a single reading in the deepest part of the cross-section at a . from 50 to "In a broad shallow stream. howevei." he adds. have been obseived in which the maximum The least velocity occurs velocity is the surface velocity near the bides of the bed. rs velocity and having gravelly beds. and at a short distance from the surface Cases. the thread of mean from 55 to 60 of the depth below the smface single-point method of measuring the velocity. experiments. where the depth will give good results The varres from 1 foot to 6 feet. the maximum from the sniface to the bottom velocity occius in that pait of the cioss-section where the depth is greatest. obtained as a mean of 378 observed values. and. Velocities at C 38 ROSS-SFCTION Different Point*? of a CiossSection. In ordinary streams. can be taken to represent the average depth of mean velocity under the conditions that are most likely to occur in practice about 6 velocity is 69. and the average velocity.

a number of leadings must be taken along different verticals of the cioss-section. I L T 39920 . Not only does same velocity change from point to point in the ates cross-sec- but its value at any one point is not constant. it should be placed at each point for a considerable length of time say tr hour or 1 hour before taking the reading.38 HYDRAULICS 60 below the surface. beginning at a distance of 6 inches below the surface and ending at a distance of 6 inches above the bottom The mation may be sum of all the readings divided by their velocity. vertically and horizontally Readings should be taken along each vertical line. for very accurate determinations. (3) that where absolute accuiacy is desned. tion. 67 depth of (2) that a closer approxiobtained by finding the mean of a number of readings taken at 60 of the depth. it fluctubetween values that are sometimes noticeably different from each other Such fluctuations are very plainly shown by a current meter held foi some time at one point of the stream It follows from this that. or. number gives the the required mean 70. several readings should be taken at each point. Fluctuations of Velocity. if a cunent meter is used. so as to cover the entire cioss-section in both directions.

well iron pipes and ordinary sewer pipes laid undei Rough the usual conditions Dressed masoiny and well-laid brickwork Good rubble masonry and ordinal y rough ot fouled brickwork Coarse rubble ruasoniy and firm compact gravel Well-made eaith canals in good almement moderately good order and perRivers and canals and weeds fectly free from stones canals in rather bad condition and someRivers and 009 010 Oil 012 013 015 17 020 0225 025 ' m what obstructed by stones and weeds with Rivers and canals in bad condition. ordinary cast-non pipe. and for very clean. n Clean well-planed timber Clean. laid and thoroughly flushed pipe seweis. 030 according to condition 035 to 050 TABLE II CONSTANTS TO BE USED IN TIIRUPP'S FORMULA . smooth cast-iron pipe and selected Unplaned timber.68 HYDRAULICS TABLE CHARACTER OF I VALUES OF THE COEFFICIENT OF ROUGHNESS CHANNEL VALUE OF . overgrown with iatones and other detiivegetation and strewn tus. smooth. glazed non and stoneware pipes Masomy smoothly plastered \vithcement.

:38 HYDRAULICS 69 TABLE III COEFFICIENTS OF DISCHARGE FOR WEIKS WITH END CONTRACTIONS NOTE velocity of The head approach j>i\eii is is the effective head. // H+$ h When the small. is neglected .

70 HYDRAULICS W * h O ^ h I ! tt H "2 W rK @5 S ^4 I25H MM S ^S ^ M DH n P ? ^ en ^* PH O -5 &^ ^n S gB ^ J" .


//+14// small.72 HYDRAULICS TABLE V COEFFICIENTS OI< DISCHARGE FOB WEIRS WITHOUT END CONTRACTIONS NOTE The head given is the -velocity of approach is the effective head. // may be neglected When .

without doing any work. numerically equal to the expressed either by this 1 product or by the product velocity of the water. HEAD of AVatei Let a weight of water be at rest at a height // above any plane of reference Then (see Ktnemalics and Knieiics^ and Hydraulics. the W total energy E of the water. and (= 32 16 feet per second) 2^ denoting by v the final by the acceleration of gravity In general. Part 1). its kinetic energy is 2^ and the watei can. its potential energy is all transformed into kinetic 1. by virtue of its position. the weight ity z/ and is at a distance h above a plane of reference. WORK. EFFICIENCY. with respect to that plane of ALL BIOHTS RKSERVED COPYRIGHTED BY INTERNATIONAL TEXTBOOK COMPANY 39 . and may be . Energy and Woik W energy potential The latter energy is energy Wh. with i aspect to that plane. by losing all its velocity.WATERWHEELS (PART 1) INTRODUCTION ENERGY. if a weight of g W water . at any instant. is moving with the velocity v. an amount of potential energy equal to Wh If the water falls freely through the height //. the water possesses. perform work (although not necessarily useful work) equal to this kinetic energy of water has a velocIf.

is energy. the velocity of the water after the latter has fallen through the distance h TT U Therefore.326 (9D* 2.. all losses. being included SOLUTION Here and v . as otherwise the pressuie energy must be taken into account (see Hydtauhcs. 2 denoting by z/. is equal to the difference between the original total energy and the This lost energy is equal kinetic energy left in the water If. its potential energy. . = -Ib 20 ft per sec . . 2*or.2 reference. ft* \ 5 ft Ans of Water. or WATERWHEELS equal to the 39 sum of the potential and the kinetic It is here assumed that the water is not under pressure. + f~Q2^) = 1. to " to L -^--'-. discharging per second. such as a water motoi. may be (3) written in the more convenient form EXAMPLE with a velocity A mass of water weighing 62 5 pounds enters a motor of 20 feet per second. the total work U done. As explained Kinematics and horsepower is equivalent to 550 foot-pounds of work performed m 1 second If a stream of water falls conKinetics. and leaves the motor at a point 16 feet below the point of entrance with a velocity of 8 feet per second Required the work done by the water on the motoi. including all work that is not useful. (2) If v. is greater than z>. by formula 3. per second.p j_^ WvS . . is W pounds Wh foot- . 1 Power m tinuously through a height of h feet. replacing the value of E from formula the formula 1. Part 1) while falling through the distance //.8 ft per sec t W= 16 62 5 Ib // = 16 ft va Therefore. such as those due to friction. the water is made do work on a machine.

the horseof the water is given by the equation powpi pounds H H Let . As this is per second. in pounds. and the discharge m cubic feet per minute is 60 Q. in falling through the distance //. it is customary to This value will be used here. given in gallons per discharge Let G be the discharge so expressed Then. Art 2. and w the weight. and formula 3. obtained by multiplying 1 250 of the fraction -8.Wh 550 (a) cubic feet per Q be the discharge of the stream. second. we have. unless take w as 62 5 pounds anothei value is expressly stated formula 1. Q = 12. and equation () becomes Then. ~ m formula A The 3 of the prece- ding article gives.3S WATERWHEELS the work 3 that the water can perform. since cubic foot = 7 48 gallons. of 1 cubic foot of water w Q. Q h = 125.400 gallons the theoretical horsepower of a stream disper minute through a height of 120 feet' is . the ^ oo often more convenient (3> is minute 1 Sometimes. gives 2 //-^X188 X125 =1706H P Ans EXAMPLE 2 What charging 5. after eduction. whence G = 60 Q X Q = substitution of this value i 7 48. // = 0002532 the theoretical horsepower of a stream discharging 12 cubic feet pei second through a height of 125 feet? EXAMPLE 1 What is SOLUTION Here. is a= 3. that formula becomes Replacing w by 62 5 in H= -L by = 1136 Qh (2) the two terms The following foim. ~ Q h _ 02 w Q h 550~ ~~lT~" m W H _w In nearly all piactical computations.

the following definitions are convenient elevation between The total head is the difference Head. and the formula 1 article gives H 4. h = 120. of a water the ratio of the energy that the motor can transmit or deliver.400 X 120 164 H P Ans In connection with a watei motor. The motor total is gi-oss efficiency.400. Efficiency. and includes whatever pressure and velocity heads the water may have on entering the motor The stream of water leaving a motor 01 its accessories is The effective head the name applied also to the channel or conduit by which the water is carried away Sometimes. m the surface of the water in the source of supply and the surface of the water as it leaves the motor or its accessories is that part of the total head of which It is equal to the total head motor actually makes use minus the head lost in friction and otherwise in the headrace. flume. By the efficiency of a water motor is ordinarily meant the ratio of the energy that the motor can transmit or deliver to other machinery. in a certain time. = 0002532 5. it is not convenient or advisable to place a motoi so that In any its lowest point will be at the level of the tailrace called the taili-ace. or penstock. to the total eneigy due to the head of the water acting on the motor during the same time This is properly the efficiency of the whole plant. rather than of the motor Efficiency (eta. in a certain time. a case. 39 in this G = X 5. is called the the water is brought directly headrace. the total and effective heads are measured to the surto the face of the tailrace The conduit by which motor 5. is customarily designated by the Greek letter r t pronounced "ay'ta") . to the energy actually supplied to the motoi in the same time The latter energy is the energy due to the effective head of the water This efficiency is often called the net effi- ciency and the commeicial efficiency. or total efficiency.4 WATERWHEELS SOLUTION Here.

horsepowei developed by motor. 88 (Art 3). and the head are given. water tf is --=- * X v\ so that the energy spent on the motor is . The - total gioss efficiency hoisepovver of the water. if = 81. water supplied to the motor in cubic feet per H= q ff second. by w the weight of 1 cubic foot Let the water leave the motor with a velocity of watei of v feet per second Then. net efficiency of motor. the efficiency is expressed as 81 per cent This q mode of expiession should be borne in mind in all applications of the foregoing formulas It is 88 customaiy to is total energy of the water Q entering the motor denoting. due to the head h. and the horsepower due to the head is -g-^ Therefore. in feet. as usual. the hoisepovver is obtained by solving foimula 1 for ff When t which gives S8 express efficiency as a certain per cent of the power or eneigy supplied to the motor Thus.39 WATERWHEELS = hi = Q = = = total fi Let h head on a motor. o o il /-\ 7 I I ^/~vx->/ V-1-' i -t I \ I 88 yjf 88 It will be observed that r/ = ? x I (3) the efficiency. in feet. effective head. the energy carried away by the 6. yn -^ J~l . the discharge. is //. The w Q hi.

and the power developed by the motor. by formula 1. Art Therefore. which the pump utilizes only 65. Q = 66f) 50. and. ' = T(f^F The = = 6(j 9 P er cent Ans efficiency of a motoi being 72 per cent (rj = 72). gives fi . Art 5. 50 cubic feet per second. Ait 5. the ideal efficiency of the motor would be No motor equal to. etc . as well as the actual efficiency. nor even this value This ideal efficiency. is greater the smaller the velocity v (an otherwise evident fact. and the turbine having an efficiency of 75 per cent is used whose efficiency is 65 per cent The effective head supply of watei 325 cubic feet per second (a) the horsepower developed by the turbine. head 20 feet. and tr ff (b) (a) To apply formula 4.6 WATERWHEELS A great deal of this energy 39 is lost in friction. there is usually some water lost by leakage Assuming the ideal condition in which none of these losses would take place. w to a Q = EXAMPLE 3 Q O y Of) j~^% = 4 8 89 cu ft per sec Ans A to operate a pump being 10 feet. = 25 Therefoie. besides. = 1Q 5. what must be the supply of water in older that the motor may develop 80 horsepower? EXAMPLE 2 and the effective SOLUTION Formula 1. X X ot) 125 X 10 QO = 10G 53 H l rj P Ans 01 Since the horsepower developed by the turbine is 10G 53. (b) the horse power developed by the pump. can have an efficiency greatei than. 75 h. the less the velocity v. eddies. SOLUTION Here O D H y = QC 95. (c) the number of gallons of water required per minute that the pump 10 can raise height of 100 feet Q SOLUTION = 125. the less is the energy carried away by the watei ) EXAMPLE 1 The effective head on a water motor being 25 feet. we have rj = 75. the water supplied. the power of the pump is H 65 X 106 53 = 69 24 H P Ans . and //. since. 95 H P what is the efficiency of the motor? .88/7 Substituting given values.

may be used Replacing by //. 01 else auxiliary in bieam engines.39 WATERWHEELS 7 Since the power developed by \\ater falling through a certain (c) height is the same as the power requned to raise the water to the same height. find the horsepower delivered by the water to the motoi 2 Ans 184 68 H P the efficiency of a motor that develops 270 horsepower with a supply of 80 cubic feet per second and an effective head of 45 feet? Ans 66. The amount is made which the supply is drawn is variable. while others. of which 10 per cent the If the net overcoming resistances in the headrace motor is 72 per cent what is the gross efficiency ? . we have H l G ^ ~ 0002532"^ ~ 0002532 EXAMPLES FOR PRACTICE 1 \vith 8 feet at the rate of 50 cubic feet per second a velocity of 15 feet per second. can utilize irregular power stantly available. or 69 24. efficiency of Ans 64 8 per cent WATER SUPPLY FOR POWER of water power available at a given site proportional both to the head and to the quantity of water If the yield of the stream from supplied in a given time 7. the formula in Art 3. gaugings should be to determine the proper basis of development If it is necessary that the power shall be constant in amount.. must be used It often pays to develop a stream beyond the limit of neces- sary rate permanent power. and to sell the surplus at a reduced .000 gallons pei the theoretical horsepower of a =tream that discharges minute through a height of 100 feet? Ans 4 lost in 633 H P is The total head on a motor is 20 feet. solved for G. arid h by 100. the development must be limited to the least flow that is con- powei in some form. such as wood-pulp grinding. or 66 per cent is What 3 What is 25. as periods of deficiency Some industries require permanent power. and leaves it with a velocity of second per Assuming that the water falls through a distance total Water enters a motor of 30 feet.

so that a ot large volume of water can be impounded during peiiods surplus and drawn off at will during peiiocK ot deficiency. the power Pondage called poiulage. the permanent powei of a stream can be increased beyond the limit of the minimum flow ot the stream It the pond above a i dam that supplies. only a slight depth at the surface can ab a rule be because drawing out the impounded water the m head 8. where p is a pond and m shows the location of the motors. water supplied by the stream to the pond. FIG 1 stored while the motors are idle being utilized during the woikmg hours Referring to Fig 1. in cubic feet per second.WATERWHEELS 39 Where there is storage or pondage available. a watei motor is utilized as a storage utilized. is reduced Stoiage of water for power is usually and is most commonly employed in connection with motors that run in the daytime only. eservoir. average area. m square feet. of horizontal cross- section of pond. . let N= number Q = A = of hours that the motors run per day.

the weight of the available The potential energy of this water. = most feet. is equal to the work from the level / to the lequired to lift the weight w 4 D position ab In the lattei position. or 600 A7 seconds. D. or h above t Therefore. // The horsepower due to this water then (see Art 2). economical depth of draught. 88 . that the power of this watei is the if same as the quantity Q fell thiough the distance is. the work required to raise the water fiom t\. the average quantity used pei second AD is ^~^^.600 N must be added the power due to the inflowing: It can be easily shown by means of the principle of stated above.oab is (see Kinematics and Kinetics] h-^ 11 2 This can do is the same as the work that AD 3. m m h = maximum feet. with water is w A ff D refeience to the level of the tailrace /. or head betoie draught begins. that 9 D= pond is diawn down during work01 ing houis.. in feet. cubic feet of water in falling this thiough the distance h " As the motors use water in A" hours. this therefore __ To water kinetics this ioxf.xU-) __ " 88 104 88 X 3. the center of gravity of the water is at a distance ~ above b.39 WATERWHEELS depth.7 water cubic is feet The hoisepower represented by (Art 2). depletion. average horsepower obtainable from the water (not fiom the n?otofi>} Before the draught begins. __ head.

is given by the following formula. -^..600 be written N Q oo Since h (2) Z>)] . therefore. thetefore. the greater will be D the available volume -5-. It and the least head available (see formula 2 shows that the average power obtainable the depth appears from formula 1 of Ait 8 that the gi eater to which the water is drawn. the value of h cannot be may happen that the flow of the . Q o. from the water is the same as the power due to the total available water and a head that is a mean between the greatest and the smallest head used 9.. = i X [A 4.800 which H A./v l But. as an increase in D .10 WATERWHEELS For the power //"we have. It is obvious from this formula that. then.^ is necessary If the value of D l is to it assumed arbitrarily. and. 39 88x3.o(Ju. 600 TV 88 \ t ~ - f If the average quantity of water that the is motors use per second denoted by Q. causes a corresponding decrease in the average head h 1 the It horsepower H does not always increase by increasing D can be shown that 1. as be used. . the greatest Fig 1). no storage (.. yi n = AD and formula 1 may 3.(A and A and h D are respectively. the value of D for is greatest. if // is equal to or less than jCl .

39 1 WATERWHEELS 11 stream during the (24 N] hours that the motors are idle not sufficient to make up the depletion The proper of h is determined as follows value Assuming that the inflow duimg (24 houis is just sufficient to make up N] for the depletion D^. what will be the average developed by the motors.800 sq ft Formula 1. uith a full pond is 20 feet.80020-1^^-) + 200 = 3.800 Ql = 217. the power developed by the motors 75 is (20 \ - ^) X 221 X Z-JL Oo = 344 H P Ans t 1 T 39921 .600 (24 equal to DA. losses due to evaporation should be deducted from Q It is assumed in the foimulas all motors is sufficient to utilize that the capacity of the the flow resulting from the depletion D^ EXAMPLE 1 What should be the mean rate of draught through the order to obtain thegieatest amount of power during 10 hours a day at a mill where the head //. gives Here A = 20 5 X 43. ~ 1|8Q X 10 200 _ 47ft -^ 217. (2) cases.600 (25 when ce In all k = ^00 (48 . and. 3. if their efficiency is 75 per cent ? 2 SOLUTION By foimula rr 2. (20 \ - ^) X 221 1 / 88 As the efficiency 10 is 75. 1.800 value of Z>. the flow 3. arid the mean inflow Q being 200 cubic motors m feet per second? SOLUTION Art 9. the area of the pond being 5 acies. n ^'Therefore (Art 8). D N} Q must be at least must not be greater than 3.560 = X 217. we must have is D l (24 or.600 xlJT 221 cu ft per sec Ans EXAMPLE horsepower In the preceding example.600(24. replacing the -JV)x 3. NQ.600 Q = D^A. therefore.N)Q = hA JV) g A from foimula 1. Art 10 8.N)Q A In applying the foregoing formulas.

and cu N = 200 ft Substituting = 250 + 2 QO(30Q-250J = obo ^ 4 per gec ^ 11. of days of full supply in the year n Qa - 365 1 365 365 a plant having turbines whose capacity is 300 cubic feet per second. would yield a constant supply of ~ cubic feer 365 per second This quantity is called the distributed flow mean flow for the given period The average available supply is the sum of the distributed flows corresponding to the full capacity of the plant during: periods of sufficient supply and the distributed flow during resulting from the the period of deficiency Let Q. in cubic feet pei second. = = 250. and (2) the deficient water supply power available during periods of If the mean flow of the stream days is Q cubic feet per second. in cubic feet per N Then.12 WATERWHEELS 10. 39 Disti-ibuted Flow If the capacity of the waterwheels exceeds the minimum flow of a variable stream. in cubic feet per second. and averages 250 cubic feet per second during the remainder EXAMPLE In of the year? Here Q. as well as the When a stream is to be used Stream minimum and its maximum flow should be posed development A average available flow for the progauging record covering several . = mean flow. both its determined. what is the average available supply in a >ear when the flow of the stream exceeds 300 cubic feet per second on 200 days. if distributed uniformly throughout N the year. the during any period of same amount of water. = capacity of the plant. the total amount of hydraulic power that can be developed in any year may be considered as made up of two parts (1) the power available when the plant operates at full capacity. 0. Q. Flow of a for power. Q Qa = average available supply. these values in the above formula. SOLUTION 300. on days of t deficient supply. = number " second.

attendance and management. or failuie to produce owing to unforeseen causes. together with the cost of the necessary land and water rights The value of the power and the returns that may be The net return represents expected should be estimated the difference between the gross return and the sum of the operating charges. insurance. stone. supplies. and incidentals for transporting mateiials. which as a lule have steam-powei plants already. owing to inadequate recoids. usually for In estimating cost. or power at low rates developed. dry. Estimates of Cost. after all these expenses are met. breakdowns. facilities each of several possible plans and the location of available timand other materials should be considered. an assuied profitable market for developeis at least a part of the power is a prime requisite may be offeied as an inducement for the location of or the industries. sand. Use to be Made of Po\vei- The power. bei. . raceways. An estimate of the cost of construction and development should be made. mapping the lands required. and to msuie against accidents. Survey made of Site A in the topography of the dam site and reservoir flow. should usually be started Incorrect estimates as soon as the investigation is begun of the yield of a stream. financial depression. or the shifting of the business center 14. and other structures Such a survey usually includes taking should be 12. aie a frequent source of commercial failure of water powers complete survey of the site order to deteimme the best location and foirn of construction for the darn. cost of lepairs and renewals. there be a considerable margin to cover the cost of promotion and financing. power house. may be new power may be utilized by its owners or In most cases.& 39 WATER WHEELS 13 years and including: wet. It is must still evident that. if not previously made. taxes. when sold to existing industries. and ordinary years is desirable Gaugings. which include interest on investment. and making borings and soundings to determine the chaiacter of the foundations for structures 13. such as bad management.

Fig 2 (a). square feet. then (see Hydtauhcs] v' and. the kinetic matics energy of this weight and Kinetics} . of water Then (see Kine- K= If h is Wv* orifice.14 WATERWHEELS ACTION OF A JET ENERGY OF A JET 15. be a vessel that water in such a of the vessel is way is supplied with that the head on the orifice o one side constant Let v be the velocity m m feet per (a) FIG 2 second of the water issuing from the orifice. of a cubic foot of water. 39 Let a. = c'/i This value substituted If 111 K= ^v equation (a) gives (b] *'WA the jet. then. W. therefore. . /4 is the area of m w is the W Av = w Ac *fagh these values of Win equation (a) and the second in equation (3). (a) the head on the and c is the coefficient of velocity. in pounds. in pounds. and weight. the weight. of watei flowing out in 1 second. and K. the following formulas an Substituting the first of obtained .

the a time t. the velocity of a necessary to change. . = 62 5 X 10 X 25 X 98 5 >/64 32 X~25 K __ 62 = = 25. is given by the following equation. // (1) EXAMPLE --What 1 square foot. moving a velocity v. Fig 3.39 WATERWHEELS AT 15 -2 K= The weight area is w (2) will. be taken as 62 5 pounds is wAhc'^gh _ 5. by formula 2. with PRESSURE OF A JET ON A FIXED SURFACE Geneial Formula. c = ft 98. the kmetic energy per second of a ]et whose if the head on the orifice is 25 feet. -Ib and 2g per sec = 64 32 5. as usual. Let jet j. the will be is assumed perfectly _ that suiface smooth. P this pressure velocity one perpendicular to the direccomponents. w= Therefore. direction changed. and the 98 ? coefficient of velocity is SOLUTION Here A - 1. which is equal and opposite be the magnitude of Let by the watei on the sin face If the along a b is resolved into two At a. and the effect of eddies and other resistances will be The water will neglected therefore ^ ^^^^i-. one parallel and is the value of the former component X'X of the tion jet. being the weight of the body F m W gt direction the velocity of the water is changed in a b on the This change is due to the pressure of the surface to the pressure exei ted water. angle is M with the direction its it of the jet When the jet strikes the surface at a. impinge on a fixed surface a b making an a.897 Ans 16. body from v to z. _1 ^ FlG its 3 move along m unshed force velocity v undiLet the aiea of the ounce thtough which the jet the vane with issues be denoted As shown in by A Fundamental Pi maples of Mechanics.

and formulas 1 and 2 of the preceding article become. p= Since . we get _ w Av t(v v cos //) or. but the jet must be confined at the sides to pieflat spreading. respectively. = Igh. except in the case of a plate at right angles to the jet 17. wAv X /. During this time. y. as shown in Fig 4. P=1wAh Now. g The velocity v a may be pioduced by a v* head h equal and to Therefoie. cos to the Jet M= Piessure on n Fixed Flat Vane at Right Angles Tf the angle //is 90./4 z. in equation (a). F by P. and v-.. ^! (l_cos //) (1) is by the jet in other form 1 the volume <2 (cubic feet) of water delivered second. with a coefficient of equals h is wAh . at the point a. then 0.16 v cos WATERWHEELS 39 the velocity M Therefore. direction X' X is changed fioin v to v cos M m t the Let / be the Repla- time in which this change takes place the weight of water passing through a is cing. transforming. by v cos M. (3) the weight of a column of water whose cross-section is equal to the area of the jet and whose height It therefore follows that. f'Fby iv AvX v a by v. the value of P may be written in this p tion of l^yJL g the original (i _ C os M) (2) This formula will give the pressure of a jet m the direc- independent of the vent its motion of the jet The pressure is form of the surface for a given angle of deflection.

and mulas 1 and 2 of Art 1(3 become.under a head h is twice the hydrostatic pressure that would be produced by the same head 18. or turned through an angle of 180 Since cos 180 = . the direction motion of the jet is entnely reFIG 5 versed. . = 25 62 5 A g X 2// in = sq = Jf-j- Substituting these values in formula 1. Art 62 5 17. as of shown m Fig 5. Art cos 60) = 20 4(1 . the pressures on the sides no c and tfof the vessel are equal and opposite. Ans REAC'JLION OF A JET When Definition and Value of the Reaction the orifice a. the pressuie equals four times thpt due to the velocity head h EXAMPTE 1 To find the pressure that can be exerted on a fixed flat surface by a jet 1 inch squaie issuing from an orifice under a head of 25 feet. Fig 2 (a).-) = 10 2 Ib 16. P= EXAMPLE 2 X T *T X 97 s X 2 X = 20 4 Ib Ans pressure can the jet considered exert on a vane inclined at 60 to the direction of the jet? What m example 1 SOLUTION example to The value be 20 4 Ib 20 4(1 of wA was found m the preceding P= - Therefore.cos Af = 2. the pressure exerted on a flat surface by a jet issuing. is closed. = 97 1 5 X sq 2 X ft We have also.39 WATERWHEELS 17 velocity equal to unity. Press. 1 .1. the duection of the jet being perpendicular to the surface. and there is If the orifice is opened. ure on a Fixed In the case HemispheiiC'il Vane of a jet - X impinging on a hemispherical vane. for- P= 2 w A v* s (1) (2) P = IwQv In this case. and the coefficient of velocity being 97 SOIUTION 97' The equation 25 v = 97 if V2r/ gives Ib . and the stream motion of the vessel 19. by formula 1. respectively.

Fig 2 (). moves with a velocity Vi in the same direction as the jet. in such a way that a very slight pressure will produce When the water issues from the orifice. must react on the vessel the plate b is lemoved. ) g g . Fig 3. and the pressure on the vane in the direction of motion may be found by substituting (v z/. the vessel motion If the vessel will begin to move in the opposite direction is prevented from moving by a spring s. The effect of the and pressure of a jet may be shown by experiment Let the vessel be placed on rollers. and tends to move This force R is called the reaction the vessel backwards of tlie jet 20. Fig 2.18 is WATERWHEELS allowed to impinge on a plate as 39 fastened to the vessel. the force P is no longer exerted on the vessel. and For this conthe stream.) That is (Art 16). as shown at a. this spring will as follows 2 show 7fJ j^i 1) a pull equal to of the reaction R g . - v lt the \ane with a relative velocity equal to v quantity Q of watei striking the vane per second will be A(V VI) cubic feet. the pressure acting on b is IwAh. If the surface or vane a b. reaction Experimental Verification. at light angles to the direction of shown in P Art 17. the vessel will still remain at rest dition. When equal and opposite to P. as shown in b. for v in the foregoing formulas strike the 1 g For a plane surface at ngbt angles to the p)' _ w Q' v V* ( jet (Art 17). the condition is the same as if the vane were at rest and The water will the jet were moving with a velocity v a. a force R. Formulas foi Piessnre. which is the value PRESSURE AND WORK OF A JET ON MOVING VANES 21. or l-wAk. the force R becomes unbalanced. In order that there may be no motion.

the front vane while the water is impinging. for all the amount intercepted between each two vanes flows over. g S 22. done on the vane by the jet is equal to Pv lt or. replacing the value of P from formula 1. jet is Work to made of a Jet on a Senes of Vanes When a impinge successively on a series of suifaces or vanes that come into the path of the jet one after another. the maximum work by we have } = ?^(i_cos^/) (2)' . rr U= Avi(v -TV - v^Y ti 1 ( cos n *\ M) 23. or A v. all the water m the stream can be made to perform woik on the vanes. on the other vane Under such circumstances. = It L2lli*ZLl!i)(i_cosj*/) g can be shown by the use of advanced mathematics other things being equal.) 19 For a hemispherical vane (Art 18). Woik Done by tlie Jet on the Vane. feet every second. Since the vane moves in the direction of P through a distance of v.. and denoting /. the work /. per second.39 WATERWHEELS p= _ v y. as in the case of a waterwheel. the work v l U is a maximum when = 2i Substituting this value in formula 1. and the work done per second is obtained by replacing in the preceding article Q' by Q This gives u = wAW'te-vj g (1 _ mM} (1) hat. the quantity of water striking" the svsttiti per second is the quantity Q. and does work on. Art 21. T. issuing from the jet per second.

theiefore A V* u O Tf I This represents one-half ot the total energy of the water see formula 1. a motoi with vanes cannot yield an efficiency of that deflect the jet through 90 more than 7. For flat vanes at right angles to the water leaves the vanes at right angles to its which the M = 90. 77 S X 30 (77 8 .30) (1 . owing to several resistances and other conditions not taken into account in the deiivation of the A very high formula. A = 21. in this case. so high an efficiency is not obtainable efficiency. and so. as in Fig 5.cos 180) " 32 16 X . = 0. = If direction of the water 1 - the vanes are hemispheiical cups. made with hemispherical vaneb working on the which are principles just explained 3 inches EXAMPLE 1 What is the maximum work done per second by a jet square impinging with a velocity of 50 feet per second on a waterwheel having flat vaues placed at right angles to the jet? SOLUTION U= EXAMPLE 2 By the formula (-iM* in 3 Att 24. 32 Itt X 100 Vl = 30 ft . cos M initial direction. M .20 WATERWHEELS jet. and formula 2 of Art 23 becomes This to 1 is the total energy of the watei (see Ait 15). and impinging on a waterwheel with hemispherical vanes moving at a speed of 30 feet per second. and. . however. 3 796 ft ' 625 X X50 the 4X3216 is -. Ait 15) Theiefore. the efficiency of the cup is theoretically equal In practice. 1 cos i\I cos 180 = 2. in 39 24.291 ft -lb per sec Ans. in which the is reversed.= " lb per S6C Ans from an orifice What work done by a jet issuing 3 inches in diameter under a head of 100 feet. or 50 pei cent 25. is obtained fiom impulse watei wheels. the coefficient of velocity being 97? = SOLUTION Here v = 97>/2 7854 X (&)' = 0491 sq ft Substituting these values 62 b X 0491 X m = = 77 8 ft per sec = 180 per sec and formula 1 of Art 23.

icspectively. making an angle with the tangent a b at a The absolute linear 26. M velocities of the vane at a and a' are denoted by v t and #/.020 ft -Ib per sec 1 is What area is 15 square foot. impinges on a hemispherical cup that is moving with a velocity of 40 feet per second. The relative velocities of the water. and the angle that it makes with the The direction of u' is the same b' is denoted by It is required as the direction of the face of the vane at a' to find the work done by the water in passing along the vanefld/ The data to be used are the velocity v. that is. tangent a 1 M 1 M . Revolving Vanes. given by the formula . the radii r and r'. and impinges on a fixed What pressure its dnectiou of motion Ans 132 3 Ib a jet of water 10 square inches in cross-section. the and z// and// The velocities velocity z>. are u and u' at a and a'. and L' with the tangents at those points making the angles The absolute velocity with which the water leaves the vane L at a' is denoted by v'. therefore. and the angles are to each other as the radii r and r'.. the jet of 70 feet pei second. the weight /^delivered to the vane per second.39 WATERWHEELS EXAMPLES FOR PRACTICE 21 the kinetic eneigy per second of a jet of water whose if the head on the orifice is 50 feet. r (1) is evident that the velocity v the resultant of the velocity Vt of the vane and the velocity u that the water has This is plainly shown by the par with respect to the vane allelogram of velocities of vj abed Similarly. in foot-pounds per second. and. moving with a velocity of 80 feet. 2 The moves with a velocity plane surface at right angles to does the jet exert? 3 If cross-section of a ]et of water is 2 square inches. what is the pressuie exerted? Ans 431 9 Ib In Fig 6 is shown a curved A jet impinges at a with vane a a' rotating about an axis o an absolute velocity v in the direction shown. with respectively icspect to the vane. and the coefficient of velocity is 9S ? Ans 25. / It is = -X. v' is the resultant and 11' The work is /done on the vane.

which need not be derived here u' = TJ V * / _|_ 2. t _ 2 v cos M (4) The triangle v' #'6V ^u'" gives Vi* 2 u' vS cos L' = + (5) . and will here be dispensed with In order to apply the formula.WATERWHEELS -Z/VCOS/J/') (2) 39 g derivation of this formula is rather complicated. it is necessary to determine The it and M' The triangle relative abc by u velocity u(= be] the formula 3 is computed (3) from the = Vzj + i" 2 z*' z> The relative velocity is computed by the following Vl formula.

When been the once formed. the piopoitions must be such that the construction of the wheel will be simple and practicable In order to accomplish these lesults. it is desirable to adjust the velocity v of the vane to that of the jet m such a way that the work done by the water in moving: It is necessary to take into the vane shall be a maximum account the loss ot velocity of the jet in passing over the surfaces of the vanes and. line of particles moving in the same path is called a filaIn 27.over the forward vane The perfoi mance of work will thus be made a continuous process. as in is a system is of rotating paiticles called a an eddy vortex. as a lule. be found by making flowing from the jet in 1 W equal 1 wQ l INTERNAL. MOTION IN WATER smooth flowing water the paths of adjacent particles may remain paiallel through considerable distances A. If the filaments strike a firm object. in friction may travel a long distance in a stream. OR VORTEX. the It is also necessary to design the effect of centiitugal force wheel so that the water will enter the vanes without shock or impact. If M* = !jmZ/ v (6) the vanes are closely spaced around the circumference one vane aftei another will come into the path and the water intercepted between each pair of successive vanes will do work in passing. the jet. the deflected currents often take a rotary motion in which all the particles forming a definite mass Such of water revolve about a common axis. ment. a vortex not. of water to the weight second In the application of these formulas to vvaterwheels.39 WATERWHEELS sin 23 Also. and the amount of work done per second may of of a wheel. and leave them with the least possible velocity Finally. they are dis- torted and deflected. and expended broken up until its energy has between its particles and those of surrounding water . the formulas must be modified by the introduction of constants determined by experiment. in some forms of watei wheel.

If runner revolves in a vertical plane. however. bieast. that the terms vet ttcal turbine and horizontal turbine are at present very commonly used to indicate. if the shaft is vertical. a useful work in a waterwheel considerable percentage of the energy of a stream ot water may be converted into voitex motion with a corresponding reduction in the useful energy This frequently occurs in the action of watenvheels. should be observed. 39 all that the paiticles in a vortex rotate . and undershot wheels. In geneial. the It motor is called a horizontal watei wheel. so that the runner revolves in a horiis the shaft honzontal. so the zontal plane. a turbine in and one m which the shaft is which the shaft honzontal is vertical. . presently to be described There being classes 29. which is mounted on a shaft that revolves with it. the motor is called a vertical wiitei wheel. Waterwheels are furthei divided into thiee main The first class comprises overshot. is usually called the that runner. and in this way the energy carried away in the tailrace may be more than double the energy represented by the mean linear velocity of the current Vortex motion can be easily observed by watching the motion of a small drop of ink let fall from the point of a fine pen into a tumbler of water. respectively. a wtirei wheel is a motor or machine whose principal pait is a rotating wheel operated by the action of water The wheel proper. or by noticing the swirls that boil up and spread over the surface of a tailrace when turbines are running ORDINARY VERTICAL WATERWHEELS CLASSES OF WATERWHEELS 28.24 If it is WATERWHEELS assumed z/. with a velocity the kinetic energy of the vortex is where H^is the weight of the water contained in the voitex The energy contained m a voitex cannot be converted into Under suitable conditions.

the reduction of their efficiency and often the mation of absolute impossibility of operating them. that many wnteis include impulse wheels in the turbine class The wheels here defined as turbines and impulse wheels are called by these writers reaction turbines and impulse turbines. the teim "waterwheel" is understood to refer It is to be eithei to ordinary vertical or to impulse wheels remarked. steady-flowing streams Spi ing-fed streams are preferable because of their fieedom from ice and freshets The water supply Pioneei mills were usually located where such streams border live 1-5 or highways The sites thus chosen often determined the location of impoitant cities are their to ordinary vertical waterwheels ge sire and weight. wheels belongwill here be called orcliiiaiy veitical watei- wheels The other two classes are impulse wheels.39 WATER WHEELS name to it 25 no satisfactory ing' to distinguish this class. which are moved by a jet of watei impinging on vanes distributed over the circumfeience of the runner. their slow motion. which necessitates expensive and cumlai The pnncipal objections brous geanng to transmit the propei speed to the machinery they operate. in \\hich the buckets around the circumference of the runner aie all simultaneously filled by water that continually flows into them thiough conduits called clmtes 01 guides Geneially. and tturbines. caused by the forice in the buckets. however. finally. and. which make them unwieldy. then lack of ndaotabihty to variations in the head of water During periods of high water. respectively Ordinary vertical waterwheels have been almost At the by turbines and impulse wheels present time they aie raiely used except in new countries wheie tm bines are not obtainable A few examples of oldtime wooden vertical wheels may still be seen in the Catskill mountain legion and elsewhere An overshot wheel 72a feet m diameter that was built about half a centuiy ago is still in entirely superseded 30. the water rises in the tailrace (see . use in the Isle of Man for vertical waterwheels is usually drawn from small.

connected to the axle by radial arms n. which motion of the wheel This difficulty may be and to "wallow" in the tailrace obviated by placing the wheel so that it will always be above high water. as a rule. the loss caused by the resulting reduction of the total head is greatei than the loss caused by the resistance of back water when the wheel is allowed to wallow Formeily. series of . at least two circular crowns or shroudings and a ." OVERSHOT WHEELS 31. its buckets dip into thus offers a great resistance to the the wheel is then said to be "drowned. n. and.26 WATERWHEELS 7). if the 39 Fig the wheel back water.<:. but. these wheels were often mounted on floats or pontoons designed to keep the axle of the wheel at a constant height above the surface of the tailwater. is low enough. an oveisuita- mounted on FIG 7 ble journals. General Featuies shot watei wheel consists Referring to Fig of an axle a a 7.

an overshot wheel with curved iron buckets should not exceed 6 or 8 inches In an overshot wheel. Action Water. the wheel is called a middlesliot wheel. this may cause rubbing and a loss of power by friction Fig 7 shows two views of The water is brought to the top of the wheel by a trough or sluice /. Fig 11. called or floats. however. / aie used in very wide wheels to The vanes divide the give added support to the vanes space enclosed by the crowns and sole into compartments called buckets.39 WATERWHEELS vanes 27 curved partitions p. even under the most favorable impact circumstances. is added. second. and should be so placed that the water will enter the fast. Aprons are moie commonly added to middleshot than t6 overshot wheels For an apron to be effective. the water in each bucket doing work while it descends from the top to the bottom of the wheel As. a small part of the Since. such wheels are called pitcli-back watei*wlieels. the watei acts mainly by its weight. 01 third bucket The supply of from the vertical center line of the wheel water to the wheel is regulated by a gate m. or ctiib. Sometimes the water is admitted below the top of the wheel by a sluice passing over the wheel. only one-half of the energy due to the velocity of the entering water can be utilized by impact. confoimmg The closely to the circumference of the wheel object of the apion is to prevent the escape of the water from the buckets before reaching the bottom of the wheel A wheel supplied with such an apron is called a breast wheel. the water enters the buckets with work some velocitv. extending The sole ce forms a cylindrical surbetween the crowns face to which the inner edges of the vanes are attached Intermediate crowns z. which may be cuived toward the wheel. which is generally operated by hand. Sometimes an aproii. If the sluice is lowei down. but may be operated by an automatic The thickness of the sheet of water in the trough governor of tlie 32. the head that is due to I LT 39922 . there must be little clearance between the wheel and apron.p. about midway between the top and the bottom of the wheel. cc.




produces the velocity of the entiy is made small, and the greater part of the fall is taken up by the diameter of the


The first point that should be design of an oveishot wheel is the This varies with the diamvelocity v-, of the circumference eter of the wheel, and ranges from 2| feet per second for the smallest diameters to 10 feet pei second foi the largest Wheels of this class are well adapted to heads varying between about 8 and 75 feet, and to dischaiges of from 3 to 25 cubic feet per second They give then best efficiency with heads between 10 and 20 feet The diameter of the wheel is fixed by the total fall k and the head h-, necessary to produce the required velocity of The entry v of the water into the bucket (see Fig 7)
Practical Values



velocity of entry is always greater than the velocity of the circumference of the wheel, varying between liz*, and 2z>,


to the frictional losses in the sluice

required to produce the velocity v

and gate, the about 1 1 times

the velocity head





The diameter


2*of the outside of the Awheel








and the clearance

required between the wheel and trough

of revolutions per minute is fixed by the and the circumferential velocity v l} and is given by the formula

The number




N = 60^ xD
The number The depth d
of buckets







given by the formula

Z =
The breadth

made between 10 and

of the buckets is





the buckets

made between


-~~ and 4




the supply of water in cubic


per second, and d


the depth of the buckets expressed

in led



The form

of buckets should be such that

little shock, and will be In Fig 7, it the wheel is not long as possible provided with an apron, water will begin to spill fiom the buckets at some point j, at the bottom of the wheel, it will all

the vvatei will entei freely

and with

have been dischai ged The effect is the same as if the water weie all discharged at a point q about midway between j and the tailrace level k, the head g X below the mean point of disThis loss may be pi evented by the addition charge q is lost The depth a? of the buckets should be small, of an apron ss so that the water will fall the shortest possible distance in The breadth of the buckets is usually made entering them
such that they are only partly filled, in this way, the discharge begins lowei down on the wheel and the loss of head is With a given discharge, the quantity in each decreased bucket will be decreased as the speed is increased If,

however, the speed

is great, the head required to give the addition, velocity will be large, and, the centrifugal force will tend to throw the water out of the buckets



non buckets

Fig 8 shows a good method of laying out wood or The description for an overshot waterwheel

given applies especially to iron vanes, as shown at (a) wooden vanes may be made to approximate this form In Fig 8 (a), more or less closely, as shown at (b] CEFG is a section of the crown of the wheel, and A is the Let d be the depth of the crown ring mouth of the sluice of the sheet of entering water First draw the center line


This curve will be a parabola, and may be constructed as With the axis explained in Rudiments of Analytic Geometry of the wheel as a center and a radius R = iZ?, draw the

CE, cutting the parabola in a, so that the distance e is equal to one-half the thickness of the sheet of entering water, plus the thickness of the tiough, plus the clearance From the between the ciown of the wheel and the trough




with the radius center, draw the arc d, this From the point b, gives the surface of the sole of the wheel arc cuts the parabola AB, diaw the straight where this





A b,


b as

cutting the radius of the arc


and maik the point a' where A b cuts the arc CE a cen-tei and a radius equal to d, draw the arc me, in c, and draw cf, which is a prolongation of



the outline a' f of the bucket


with the radius r


a' b


center of this arc


be found

by erecting a perpendicular

at the

middle of

f and inter-

secting this perpendiculai with a radius a b from a' or / as a center Lay of! cg=}l,l being the distance between
rtanda', draw gh parallel to cf, and, finally, join the curve a'/ and the \\x& gh with an arc whose radius is equal to / This The pitch / is found by gives the outline for a bucket

dividing the circumference of the wheel by the number of buckets The pitch /' of the buckets at the sole of the wheel


dividing- the circumference of the sole


found by
It will

by the

in the

of buckets

be noticed that,

wooden construction shown in Fig 8 ()

the points a', h, and g correspond to the points The <?',/;, and^- in (a) parts gh and ha! in (b) In are made straight all cases, the outer edges of the buckets should be

sharpened so
will offei as

that they

little resist-



as possible to the of the water

Fig 9 shows an overshot wheel made mostly of wood, and Fig 10 one




entnely of iron

The power may be taken from the axle, as shown in Fig 9,
it may be taken from gearing on the rim of the wheel, as shown Fig 10







overshot waterwheel


high, ranging from 65 to 85 per cent in well-

/ constructed wheels A When the supply of
is small, as during a drought, the buckets

are only partly hence, the loss



water leaving the




buckets too early is increased

reduced, and the

efficiency of the


waterwheel to head of 25 feet

To compute
utilize 10

the principal dimensions of an overshot cubic feet of water per second with a total


per sec

If the circumferential velocity v t of the wheel is made per sec and the velocity of entry is made equal to 2 z/ M or 16 ft the head hi required to produce the velocity of entry is







4 38 ft

Since this coi responds to the maxi-

value of v for the assumed velocity v 1} a value of /i l somewhat less, say 4 ft may be used for the head at entrance, and the diamh l = 25 of the wheel may be taken equal to h 4 = 21 ft eter The number of buckets may be taken as 3D, or 63, this makes the









the depth


of the buckets 12 in



1 ft


the breadth b of

the wheel



made equal










3 75



order that the water will enter the buckets freely, the width of the trough should be a little less than the breadth of the wheel say 3 5 ft The number of revolutions of this wheel, with the for this case

assumed velocity

19 1






7 28





37. shown

General Featui-es. in Figs 11 and 12 As

BREAST WHEELS A rmddleshot

breast wheel


m an overshot wheel, the water
enters the buckets


impulse, but does the greater part of its

work by gravity These wheels are
used for
falls ot


4 to 16 feet, and dis-

charges of from 5 to 80 cubic feet per secFlG n ond The water may be admitted by a sluice or oiifice, as shown in Fig 12, or it may enter over a weir, as shown at a in Fig 11 The weir




board a can be raised or lowered to regulate the supply The weir is the more efficient form of inlet, because a larger portion of the

head is utilized by gravity and less by impact than with the form of gate shown in Fig 12 If the water enters at the top of the apron, and not at some higher point, flat floats,
in Fig 11, may be used Curved vanes give better and exit conditions, and are more efficient than flat floats The buckets of a bieast wheel should be ventilated, to piovide



enti y



for the exit of air while the bucket is filling the sole for this purpose are shown at z,

buckets of a

pletely filled The the capacity of the wheel, for a given width, is greater breast or cuib ct, Figs 11 and 12, is made eithei of wood or
of masonry, the lattet being lined with a cement to make it fit closely to the wheel

Holes through The Fig 12 wheel piovided with a bieast can be more comthan those of a wheel without an apron, so that

smooth coating of

A wooden


likely to swell

and rub against the crown of the wheel





should be clearing space of between f and I inch the wheel and the breast




Curved vanes

for breast


may be

laid out according

to the following method, which applies

especially to n on floats Draw the center line

Fig 13 (), of the path of the for overshot wheels, entering water in the mannei explained so that it in n of the floats, then, draw the center line diaw aics of the outer and is nearly tangent to A B, and




From A, draw the inner edges of the floats, as ac and be radial line A f, and, from the point of intersection g of this line and the inner edge beol the floats, draw a line g k tangent
to be

radial line

an angle of 30 with OP, then, join the line zj and the tangent gk by an arc whose ladms is \d As in Art 35, Ms the pitch of the

Through the point OP, and also a





mn, draw


zy at




may be made




form, as

Fig 13


Practical Values.


6 feet

ferential velocity


In breast wheels, the circumusually be made between 3 and

per second, the best value being about 4 25 feet per As tor overshots, the best value of the velocity The of the water at entrance hes between 1 5 i\ and 2 v, depth d of the floats is made between 10 and 15 inches, the


the pitch

D of




made about

twice the total head,




equal to

01 a little smaller,


the breadth of



be made between





having the same meanings as m Art 33. The angle M, Fig 12, that the direction of the entering water makes with the radius at the point of entrance should be about 15 (it may vary between 10 and 25) The efficiency of middleshot wheels is less than that of overshot wheels it usually vanes between 65 and 70 per cent though, in exceptionally well-made wheels, it may run
the letters

as high as 80 per cent


Confined Undershot Wheels. A confined underwatervvheel with radial floats is shown in Fig 14 The
in a

wheel hangs

channel but


that practical 1\


the water strikes the vanes

wider than the wheel, so The water


be admitted to the wheel by a sluice gate a, or, if the Whether with or without is small, the gate is omitted

a sluice, the wheel operates wholly by the impact of the water against the floats According to Art 24, the maxi-


thcoietical efficiency that such a wheel can give is 50 per cent Piactically, however, the efficiency of these wheels seldom exceeds 40 per cent and ordinarily it lies

The depth of the floats for the between 25 and 35 per cent best effect should be at least three times the depth of the There should be as little clearance as approaching stream possible between the wheel and the sides and bottom of the

Foi the best efficiency, the velocity of the circumference of the wheel should be about 4 of the velocity of the Wheels of this kind are usually made between current

15.36 WATERWHEELS 39 10 and 25 feet in diameter The pitch of the vanes is made between 12 and 16 inches The depth of the water on the up-stream side of the wheel should be about 4 or 5 inches. Fig. the number of floats should be gieat enough to allow two of them to be immeised continually FIG 15 . or Cuirent. but their efficiency is very low usually between 25 and 30 per cent In order to obtain the best effect from paddle wheels. Paddle. X FIG 14 41. is an undershot wheel that usually has a small number of relatively large floats and is operated m a river or channel m which the water is not confined in the direction of the axis of the wheel There may also be con- siderable depth of water under the wheel The velocity of the circumference of a paddle wheel should be about 4 that of the current These wheels are cheap and convenient. Wheels A paddle wheel. or current wheel.

and v = 20 20' Therefore. second. of the water below the wheel is equal to the velocity of the wheel Let A= = = H= v 37 Q = volume area that a vane exposes to the current. Q = 3 28. reducing. is usually the case of with gearing. wA %g X 550 rr H= 62 5 for horsepower ff Also. and the velocity 20 feet per second? The losses through clearance are neglected SOLUTION mula 2. or. (2) EXAMPLE What horsepowei can be obtained from a confined undershot whose efficiency is 30 per cent the flow of the stream being 28 cubic feet per second. by for- H = 00177 X X 28 X = 6 H P Ans TRANSMISSION OF POWER The powei developed by a waterwheel In transmitted by means of gearing or belting 43. of water acting on the wheel per second. a toothed which the machinery is operated. and the work The velocity v^ it performs is due to its kinetic energy Fig 14. Here r/ = 3. and pound. the available energy water acting on the wheel 7U ^4 is "J* t foot-pounds per second (Art 15) Thi This is equivalent to Therefore. and = QQlTiqAv* (1) Q. the water acts by impact. horsepower of wheel of the Then. the units being the foot. efficiency of wheel. velocity of approaching current. ~ H= 00177 qQv* . the watei wheel itself is sometimes provided teeth that engage with the teeth of another wheel through other cases. . since Av X 550 w and 32 16 for^-.39 WATERWHEELS 37 The efficiency of an undershot wheel is increased by using a breast or curb like that described for breast wheels 42. substituting- m ~ . Power of Undershot Wheels In the undershot wheels just described. m .

replacing the = FVl 550 value of F. since the two wheels have the same angular velocity. respectively. therefore.38 WATERWHEELS is 39 wheel ing is mounted on it is the shaft of the waterwheel When belt- used. itself being represented by be the velocity of bb and B B. denoted by H. let the resist- ance /''(as the pull of a belt. the on the shaft Whatever the of transmission may woik of the water- expended in overcoming ceitam resistances is wheel In Fig 16. the horsepower of the waterwheel H or. after When H. we have then. the watei wheel b b Let Vt and V. the pressure of a gear-wheel. F. and formula 2 becomes. H = FRv. lutions is = 0001904 (3) and R are given. and r and R their respective radii Then. ^ dO . from formula 1. or F 550 is horsepower If. (1) The work of F is F V* foot-pounds per second. and. passed either around the waterwheel itself or around a pulley mounted method be. 550 r If the (2) number * of revolutions per minute is denoted by A7 . this gives H NFR . then z/. the required number of revo found by solving formula 3 for JV. or the pull of a rope by which water point Fie 16 is raised) act at the T of the transmitting wheel B B. = = bU reducing.

the work done on the wheel is all due to FIG all 17 the velocity and quantity of the water. as F includes factional and other prejIf the resistance Fis applied at the run udicial resistances of the waterwheel.39 WATERWHEELS 39 FR It (4) should be undei stood that the work done against Fis not all useful woik. the Impulse wheels are peculiarly adapted for use m mountainous regions. how many overcome a resistance of 250 pounds acting necessary of 10 feet fiom the center of the shaft? revolutions per minute are at a distance SOLUTION = 10 ft = 15 X 60 Here Therefore. free General Features is the water jets In an impulse waterwheel. H = 9 H P . and R N= 5. supplied to the wheel in the form of one or more spouting jet strikes from onfices or nozzles The a series of rotating a vanes in nearly tangential direction Impulse waterwheels are also called tan- gential wheels and jet wheels. R should be replaced by ? EXAMPLE whose to With an available power is of 15 horsepowei and a wheel efficiency 60 per cent . by formula 4.252 1 X 10 9 250 X = 18 9 rev per mm Ans IMPULSE WATERWHEELS GENERAL DESCRIPTION AND THEORY 44. As in undershot wheels. F= 250 Ib . and with a small supply of watei under high heads energy of the jet being kinetic .


an end ele- Pelton water- wheel Thib wheel may be taken as the standard type of wheels Amencan impulse The essential parts are the buckets a. and known as the rouet volante. ner was placed on a honzontal shaft a wheel having flat vanes a primitive shows can develop only one-half of the eneigy of the ]et The pimcipal impiovementb impulse wateiwheels have been in methods of legulation and in developing more forms of buckets efficient m 45. an early form of impulse wheel developed in the western mining regions of the United States. of a Fig 18 shows a side elevation. but is placed on a vertical shaft and the supply stream is an unconThe spent water from an impulse \\heel falls away fined jet fieely and is not confined in a race or carried along with the buckets as in an undershot or bieast wheel In the liurcly-gurcly. which serves to confine the spent water The wheel is shown mounted on a timber frame such as Where conditions can be built where the wheel is used . (a) The P e (/>) 1 1o 11 Watei wheel and Fig 18 vation. which aie mounted on the nm bb. the feeder nozzle c FIG 19 (sometimes two 01 mote nozzles are used). It resembles an undershot waterwheel. the frame d^ and the housing ee. a. the vanes weie attached to the nm of the wheel instead of radiating fiom the hub as in the rouet volante.WATERWHEELS 17 41 form of impulse wheel used for Fig many centuries in some parts of Europe. and the runAs shown m Art 24.

the edge toward the centei or near the mnei edge 46. or made with a steel rim consisting ot an I beam bent into a circle and connected with the hub by iodb forming tension spokes Fig 19 buckets is a perspective view of a Pelton wheel with double ets BuckBuckets for American Impulse Wlicels aieof two principal types. but for veiy high heads it may be made of bronze or built tip from plates and lings of annealed steel. and the Cassell. the Cabcade.42 WATERWHEELS permit. wheel Fig 20. FIG 20 The Pelton. aie examples of side-disAll these buckets have flat o: else nearly charge buckets In many wheels. and those which discharge at that is. Fig 27. separated by a central partition that splits the of the . namely. a frame and housing of cast non 01 steel plate may be used The runner of a Pelton wheel is usually made of cast non. Figs 18 and 19. each bucket consists cylindrical bottoms of two cups. those which discharge at the side when in full action.

has ellipsoidal cups. and in impulse waterwheels of Swiss design the front wall is cut very low In the Cascade lunner. Fig 21. but are placed staggering. Fig 20. tangential Since the bucket is m rotation and some time wheel elapses between the entrance and the exit of the water. both paitition the partition are omitted. the buckets are not joined in pairs on the rim.WATER WHEELS The form and the action of entering jet (see Fig 19) the bucket are frequently modified by raising 01 lowering the 1 edge and the the hont wall and front In the Kniglit bucket. Exit Angle ami is Number of Buckets. it follows that the direction of the jet as it leaves the bucket In will not ordmauly be paiallel to the entrance direction to the direction of to the side-discharge buckets. it is impracticable to make the exit direction exactly tangential to the dnection of motion of the bucket I L T The 399 2J issuing jet is given a small velocity at right . that is. the of the jet relative to the earth direction of the jet on leaving the wheel should be opposite motion of the bucket. and the lip is cut away to allow the jet to remain in full action over a longer aic of rotation of the bucket Pio 21 47. The object of the bucket to reduce to nearly zero the final velocity To accomplish this. to msme a more continuous action of the water The Doble bucket.

mean meant the radius mean circle e Fig 23. of the jet varies with the speed of the jet and In order to of bucket and amount of water it is desirable that . the smaller may the angle M' be made The thickness with the form make this thickness as small as possible. at the mean depth of the buckets FIR 23 The smaller ness of the the number of buckets and the less the thick- jet. proximate value of this angle jjP ap- may ^^il^^^^1"J. between the duection of the water at exit and the direction of rotation is The called the exit angle.WATERWHEELS angles to the direction of motion of the bucket. of the bucket. in feet. in feet. in order to cany the spent water out of the way of the succeeding buckets The angle M'. of and of the side wall in the jet at exit. _ FIG be found fiom the formula tan m 22 M 1 where n r t = numbei of buckets on wheel. = mean radius of wheel. Fig 22. = combined thickness. as indicated of the Fig 22 i-aditis is By the b.

and (c) the bucket is viewed in the dnection of In (</). and sidewise and inwards at the entry and exit of the jet 49. while that of the bucket conparallel to The position of the changes wheel should be so adjusted that the jet jet iclative to the will be the entry edge of the bucket when the latter is in full action Fig 24 shows the action of a circular jet in a Pelton bucket In (a). the cluection of the jet should be parallel to The the front wall or edge of the vane at the enhance position of the jet tinually is fixed. the bucket is enteung and receives one-half the In (d) and (c). together with a section of the bucket on the line //' (a) and (rf). the bucket is m full action. In order that the jet may glide smoothljr into the bucket without shock or the foimation of eddies. The nozzles should be of such form as to convert the pressuie head of the pipe into velocity with . Fig 23. a 6-foot Pelton wheel has by experiment twenty-four buckets 48. befoie it returns to the The direction of dischaige is side wise during full hp h action. it cuts oft the supply of water fiom the bucket B All the water not entering A must reach B before If the pitch of the the latter bucket reaches the point C buckets is too laige. uniform stream.39 WATERWHEELS 45 a thin. and (/) aie shown side views of the the jet^ In jet. comes into the bucket smface the path of the jet. Entrance of tlie Jet. (6). some watei will not be intercepted by It will be seen that the either bucket. while in (c) jet and (/) it leceives only the louei half of the jet. Nozzles. the If the remainder being cut off by the preceding vane t buckets aie close together. (<?). but will be wasted pitch of the buckets should be between the maximum and the jet should spread out m minimum The exact limits defined by the consideiations just given pitch of the buckets that will give the highest efficiency with each set of conditions can be best determined As usually made. and that but little velocity should be lost by the friction of the jet on As the bucket A. the entne jet will be cut off after passing its position of full action.

howevei.46 WATERWHEELS 39 A tapering nozzle with circular but little loss of energy cross-section meets this requirement. when only partly opened. because the valve. are often used Regulation of the flow ftom the nozzle by means of an ordinary valve is objectionable. and also gives a form that encounters a minimum factional resistance from of jet i PIG 24 Nozzles of rectangular cross-section. distmbs the smooth flow the air .

or when it is FIG 26 not necessaiy to run the wheel at The power of such a wheel is piopoitional to full capacity the numbei of nozzles used.39 of the jet WATERWHEELS A valve is 47 to usually placed back of the nozzle be Ubed only when the water is to be completely shut off FIG 25 mci eased or decreased by means of a swinging lip. as shown some when of which may m Fig 20. and the water supply can be regulated without loss of efficiency by completely shutting off some of the nozzles . an impulse wheel is sometimes furnished with a set ot nozzles or tips of different sizes is When this method of used. as shown in section at a. the size of jet varies A flat cap with the water supply metal hinged to the nozzle in such a way that it can slide over the nozzle tip forms a cut-off device that is easily operated but which changes the form of the jet and the position of its axis as the position of the cap is changed very good A wav of adapting the wheel to variations in the water supply is to have several nozzles. Fig 25 The position of the lip may be controlled by hand or by an automatic size of the jet is The governot tion of Each change the lip in the posi- changes both the the position and the direction of axis of the jet When the water supply is van- able. be turned off the supply is low.

thus. 39 by The flow through a single nozzle may be controlled a regulating needle. it is impracticable to regulate the water supply to accommodate sudden changes of load by varying the size of orifice One method used for regulating the water supply for an impulse wheel in which the load changes quickly consists in deflecting the jet in such a manner ets. or 70 7 per cent . the area of section of the jet varying. the original diameter be Vi. as shown in Fig 26 The position of the conical ping a is controlled by the hand wheel b By the use of this device. where long closed pipe hnes are used. Regulation of the Supply for Varying Loads Water hammer and other objectionable results that may follow sudden reduction in the size of an outlet ounce in a pressuiepipe are described in connection with the legulation of turbines Owing" to these conditions. a deflecting nozzle is commonly used in connection with needle or multiple nozzles. that a part of it does not strike the buck- but is is the load wasted. by is A shown . a solid jet of uniform velocity is retained. Fig 18 position of the nozzle is automatically controlled by a govThe quantity of water used is the same whether the ernor wheel is operating at full or at part capacity In ordei to regulate the speed with sudden load changes and at the same time reduce the waste of water.48 WATERWHEELS 50. when decreased with ball-and-socket joint deflecting nozzle The at c.with the size of the opening This nozzle causes but little fuction loss when The diameter of a jet varies as the paitly closed square loot of the dischaige. when the dischaige is ]et will reduced one-half. of its 51.

in (eb. Foimulas for Impulse Wheels. etc the head available to oveicome the resistances at the nozzle itself and impart the velocity v to the jet Watenvheel manufacturers often base their tables on effective It should be remembered that the effective head h. in feet. D h v c vt = mean diameter of the wheel. the pairs of cups forming the buckets are on sepaiate disks a. = velocity of jet. Fig 27./^ = 2*all When the effective instead of the nozzle head is the following formulas can be used given. diameter of jet. vanes between 94 . Fig 23) of d N= Q By A = square feet. c = 1 and putting the effective head for // by making The velocity v v is given by the usual formula ( = c V2jrZ. for The and 98 coefficient c. the wheel. such losses The head h is really being due to pipe fnction. stated below. b.39 WATERWHEELS 49 which the water supply is regulated for as nearly as possible the aveiage load at all times In the Cassell impiilse wheel. = linear velocity of mean cncumference = wheel. which may be separated or brought together automatically by a shaft governor fixed between the disks A varying volume of the jet is thus allowed to pass between the disks without striking In the formulas the buckets 52. = net head on nozzle. heads on the wheel is the head due to the velocity of the jet. that is. in cubic feet per second wet head on the nozzle. = 8 02 c Jk n 1) good nozzles. or the nozzle head. is meant the total head available minus the losses that occur between the source of supply and the nozzle. in feet per second. area of cross-section of jet. in feet. in feet. in feet per second. = coefficient of velocity for the nozzle. bends. number of revolutions of water supplied to the wheel per minute.

the diameter computing the value of v. and. is formulas. by formula 2 above. Replacing v by A = If -= value from formula 1. Since Q = Av. we have. we have. Vl If = 45 v = \&c*hgh n = 3609cV^ number (2) the head h n and the desired of revolutions are is found from formula 2. found that. [) It ^ = 68 93 ^^ (3) should be borne in z/. A = 4 jt . n = 60^i from formula 2. owing to resistances and other conditions not taken into account m the theoretical however. the energy available is the kinetic eneigy of the ]et or jets acting on the If wheel is the energy of the ]et. (2) the nozzle tip is circular. when Q A = & (1) v its and v are given. mind is that formulas 2 and 3 apply only when the velocity equal to 45 v 53. ( 3 ) 54. the best value of v l is 2i Practically. Art 52. therefore. therefore. after given. - .50 WATERWHEELS Theoretically (see 39 Art it 23). replacing the value of ing the operations indicated. the value of v^ for the best efficiency is about 45 v Using the value of v given by formula 1.. and performor. otherwise. thus D (see Art 33). in foot-pounds per K . Kffieiency and Power of Impulse Wheels In computing the efficiency of an impulse wheel. Art 33.

. v then 550 represents the horsepower of the r. and. and formula 1 becomes If the efficiency is known. usually. well-made wheels. give The makers an efficiency of between 75 and 85 per cent often guarantee 85 per cent but this limiting efficiency can be obtained only by very careful installation . and ical operations. howevei.39 second.//the is VVATERWHEELS horsepower 51 of the wheel. If the nozzle is circular. jet. K _ 550 H Now K= (Art 15). 5. n c* wAh -&gh n = 62 5 A c* *&g //* _ (5) Substituting this value in (a). therefore. there results i peiformmg the numer- The effective head on the wheel is Substitiiting this value m formula 1 of Art. and y the efficiency. according 1 to the data The results aie as follows H = QlU^V/i? 88 (4) _ is The d*c*-JhS (6) efficiency of impulse wheels of the Pelton type gen- eially very high Wheels have been tested whose pei cent efficiency was moie than 90 These. if properly installed. there . are exceptional cases. t \ (22. A 7854 d'. is EXAMPI K 1 If the net head on the nozzle of a 5-foot Pelton wheel 900 feet. what is . results T) ' 88/7 = --c*Q!i. the horsepower may be found by solving one of the foregoing formulas for H. and the coefficient of velocity of the nozzle is 95.

- d = (b) X ^ = 95V961 i 6 42 ft = 1 97 in Ans Since the combined area of the three nozzles must be the same as that of the single nozzle. gives d =\l (6) Formula 2. impulse wheel is second.52 WATERWHEELS wheel? (b) the 39 (a) the best circumferential velocity of the number of revolutions per minute' SOLUTION v.-19 1 X 95 V956 = 102 9 ft per sec Ans Ans C . L Ans gives. > What must the coefficient of velocity of the nozzle being Vi = 45 v It is assumed that SOLUTION Foimula 3. c must be made equal to 1 (see Art 52) Here. what (b) If must The coefficient of velocity of is used. Art 52: D EXAMPLE 3 = 68 9S -X 4UU If 98V225 = 2 to 00 533 _ . 393 rev per mm 98 ? is EXAMPLE 2 to make 400 be the diameter of an impulse wheel that revolutions per minute under a nozzle head of 22 feet. Q = " 839 '0 cu ft per sec and formula 4. 3332 ft = 4 in 1.= \ 3 . what must be its nozzle (thiee nozzles of equal diameter) is tuple be the diameter of each tip? (a] a single noz7le a SOLUTION (a] Fotmula 4.5 V3 = _ . = . (b) the efficiency of the wheel d Id* d = \ -^ = . 3 609 (b} Formula 2. 1 14 in Ans SOLUTION (a) Since the given head is effiectne head. A Ans . 3 V3 EXAMPLE 4 A maker's catalog gives 540 35 as the horsepower of a 6-foot impulse wheel working under an effective head of 400 feet and using 839 20 cubic feet of water per minute Determine (a) the size of the nozzle used. Art 52. . (a] Formula 2. f] = 8 8 839~9Q V400 r==~ = = _. Art 53. Art 54. l 1 97 ^ . = . making c = X 540 35 85 = _ 85 P er cent. Ait 33 N . Art 53. with a nozzle head of 961 feet the nozzle is An use 5 cubic feet of water per 95 diameter ? used. we have. ft t Ans . . X - 102 9 = o on . denoting by di the diametei of each tip of the triple nozzle whence .

placed one above the other. from which it spouts on the vanes are distributed either around the whole circumference of the crowns.a' b'. the water enteib the wheel on the inside and flows outwards. The guides or guides. c crowns.flowwheel In the orate more of elab- foims the Guard wheel. When. the water enteis the wheel on the outside andflowsmwaids. are properly seemed to a shaft s The ring's. turbine and an impulse tm-bine. as in Fig 28. substantially an impulse wheel in which the mam part of the runner consists of two equal flat ring's ab. the Fir 28 supply pipe discharges into specially constructed conduits. or which case over only a segment of the circumference. is called also a Givaitl A Giravcl wheel. 53 55. doing work accoiding to the principles exa' plained in Ait 26. the wheel is then called an iuwaicl.f low wheel Sometimes. fiom the end of which it spouts on the vanes. Fig 28. the wheel is called an outward. g m guides aie always filled. The water or is brought to the wheel thiough a pipe A. so that all the vanes are acted on simultaneously.33 WATERWHEELS The Glrard Impulse Wheel. the spaces between the vanes z/. v . only a few vanes aie under its action at the same time While the Fig 29 shows a wheel a b with guides g. the space between them being- divided into buckets by curved vanes c.

f(fl) 283ft = 3 4 in \(d) 89 per cent What horsepower can be obtained .435 horsepower coefficient of velocity of the nozzle is 95. beyond the scope An exposition of that theory is. of this work The quantities involved aie usually so determined that the direction of the relative velocity u. in which all the buckets are conThe holes h serve to admit air to the stantly full of water buckets so as to prevent the foimation of a paitial vacuum The theory of the Guard wheel is based on the formulas given in Art 26. a 5-foot impulse wheel develops 1. however. on account of the many resistances. is a very good efficiency for a cent water motor or any other machine Theoretically.54 WATERWHEELS 39 are never completely filled. it is EXAMPLES FOR PRACTICE Find the diameter of an impulse wheel that is to make 370 revolutions per minute under a nozzle head of 600 25 feet. very high. (b] With a nozzle head the efficiency of the wheel Ans 3 .024 feet and a supply of 920 cubic feet If the per minute. make u = fied if v^ and ^c = vj (the latter equation is always satisThe entrance angle is usually made the former is) between 25 and 40 and the exit angle L'. from an impulse wheel whose of if a 3-inch nozzle and a nozzle head efficiency is 80 per cent 900 feet are used. between 15 and 30 l M . it being assumed 1 that the circumferential velocity of the wheel is and that the coefficient of velocity of the nozzle 2 -15 of the jet velocity. is tangent to the vane at a. and in this a Girard wheel differs from a turbine proper. determine () the diameter of the nozzle. the efficiency of in practice. Fig 6. in order to avoid at shock FIG 29 the angles and L' are so selected as to M entrance. the coefficient of velocity of the nozzle being 94? Ans 803 H P . is 97 Ans 4 427 ft of 1. however. the efficiency is seldom more than 80 per Even this. but a good Girard wheel is found that.

speed of the wheel. the runner shaft is attached to a brake pulley ?ff. the powei may be calculated from the electrical output of a dynamo driven by the wheel. . a weir is geneially used. the 56. pressure on the scales g. and weight of water used. In testing an impulse wheel. or it may be measured directly The latter method is usually more by a friction brake accurate Fig 30 shows the apparatus for testing impulse waterwheels at the University of Michigan The wheel is contained in a case c. and a pressure gauge / indicates the The spent head available immediately back of the nozzle Where the quanwater falls into a tank //. and is weighed tity of water is laige. instead of a weighing tank. FIG SO The brake ends of which aic attached to the brake lever e Water is conducted to lever bears on a platform scale g the wheel by a. around which is wrapped a faction band jj.80 WATERWHEELS TESTING IMPULSE WHEELS 55 Apparatus Used. head. to measure the outflow In conducting a test. pipe />. leadings are taken at frequent intervals to determine the time.

the zeio equilibrium under the action of forces equal and opposite to P. in cubic feet. friction in pounds it being wheel at acts tangentially to the wheel m. piessuie on the scale g. in feet. Art 43). or head due to velocity v of H= W= T] horsepower developed by the watei wheel. in pounds.ff H= 0001904 NPl h^ (3) Since the available energy \W pounds per second. on the JV = number V= of revolutions pei minute. weight of water used per second. 550 . from the center of the wheel shaft to the center of bearing.5 WATERWHEELS 57. fiiction effective jet. of the biake arm scales. F. the tangential component of the forces acting on the its The F circumfeience its and The other component moment about the center of e is in is noimal or shaft is radial. head on wheel. efficiency of the waterwheel. in feet per second. in pounds. and the noimal component just referred to. we have. (4) plv . FR = PI. volume of water used pei second. Fig 30. y? / General Formulas In the following general formulas. = = radius of the brake wheel m. (1) whence F is R The work done by second. and. 550 or (see formula 3. distance. measmed as shown in the figure. velocity of the run of the biake wheel. in foot-pounds per equal to FV. F= P hi Q = = on the rim of the brake wheel. taking moments about the center of the Since the lever shaft. in feet. therefore. the waterwheel.

c* whence. (b] the horse- power of the wheel.7 7 per cent Ans . (c) the SOLUTION (a) Since v 2 * 62 efficiency of the wheel = c^2gh n W .- X --^__ 62 5 X 7851 (yf) V "' = = 9766. say. this velocity being: determined fiom the quantity Q and the diameter of the nozzle EXAMPLE From a test of an impulse wheel by means of an apparatus similai to that shown in Fig 30. and The head from is the level of the nozzle to the water surface in the tail-pit cannot be utilized in The calculating the efficiency wheel ib usually placed close to the tail water level. (C~) head //i Now. v = c^2gh = tt c -^Ig //. on uozzle = 117 feet t Diameter d of no/zle = 5 inch Weight of water used per second = 7 22 pounds Revolutions per minute = 460 Radius of brake pulley = 6 foot Length of biake arm = 20 feet Pressuie on scale platform =65 pounds Required. 722 s "2 x 78H x we have 722 * c = -JL=. Therefore. or. tl X Zgh n = and. and the nozzles aie placed underneath the wheel in ordei to reduce commonly neglected this m loss to a minimum The effective head //. and. also. the following data weie obtained Net head h. since = 1047 NR t 1047 NPl an impulse wheel. is found from the velocity of the jet. squaring. solving for A T1 ftl = c* h = = 977 a X 117 Formula 5 now * " 1047 X gives 460 X 6 5 X 2 -7 22x~977Txir7- "7 = . (a] the coefficient of velocity of the nozzle. 977 Ans Formula 3 gives (b} // = 0001904 X 460 To hnd the efhciency. arid v ^2ffJt lt _ it X 6 5 is X 2 1 14 H P Ans first necessary to find the effective = __ V2/f /z.39 WATERWHEELS V= bO 57 or.


or wheel pioper bhaft. TEXTBOOK COMPANY 40 I LT 399 Ji . by par- vanes 01 floats The term guides is applied titions. AND GENERAL PRINCIPLES and the guides Principal Paits of a Turbine of a turbine are the runner The principal parts As in other water wheels. 2. called both to the passages by which is the watei brought to the runner buckets and to the partitions passages themselves sepaiatmg those The passages are often called chutes.WATERWHEELS (PART 2) TURBINES CLASSIFICATION 1. called buckets. are Turbines best classified according to the direction of flow of the water in passing through the runner The direction of flow is expressed with icference to the axis of the shaft Turbines in which the duection of flow ot the water in passing through the runner is FIG 1 in general parallel to the axis AUL RIOHTS RESERVED COPYRIOHTltD BV INTEHNATION AL. the runner is is the mam a revolving part. Classes of Turbines. It mounted on and divided into chan- nel^.

type of inward-flow tui bines shown in Fig 3. 40 turbines. and the Francis turbine. Tuibines in which the general direction of flow m the are buckets shaft called is perpendic- ular to the axis of the or runner ladial-flow tuibmes. It the flow is from inside outwards.WATERWHEELS of the shaft are called axial. shown in Fig 2 [elevation (a) . The Jomal turbine. or paiallel-flow. if from outside inwards. plan ()] . is the standard type of outward-flow FIG 3 turbines. is the . shown in partial section m Fig 1. they are called outward-flow turbines. is typical of this class The direction of the water passing thiough the chutes b and buckets c is m shown by the arrows 3. inwardflow turbines The Fourneyion tuibine.

the flow being downwaidb. WATERWHEELS Turbines in which the water changes its direction of flow with retetence to the axis. as in the case of an impulse wheel In a turbine. however. 01 tangential imvaids. McCoi- mick. the pressure head. the total head h is given by the formula // = h' + . it would have a velocity at its entrance to the lunner neatly equal to that due to the head. and outwaids.40 4. the relation between the chutes and the buckets is such that the velocity of the watei as it leaves the chutes is considerably less than the velocity due to the head it follows that theie must be a back pies sine fiom the buckets into the chutes. Action of Water on a Tin bine Tin bines are often called icactiou watei whc'ols. and an equal and opposite reaction on the vanes It i> ib is and //' the velocity with \\hich the water enters the buckets. and "American" tmbines aie typical of this class Fig 4 shows "American" runnei an 5. then. or the head that produces the pressure on the vanes. the buckets expand is at the bottom of the runner. neglecting. so that the water discharged in a direction nearly at right angles to the axis The JLeffel. are called mixed-flow tm bines Nearly all the latest American tm bines belong to this class. In this class of wheel.>wfi(eli>> Pai t 1) is utilized to derive power fiom the watei It the water spouted fieely fiom the chutes to eviction 01 the vanes. in passing through the wheel. the i because Frc 4 ptessure exeitcd on the vanes opposite the outlets of the buckets r (see H' ait. friction.

of the water in the buckets the water leaves the buckets with very little absolute velocity. In an ordinary Speed for Maximum turbine. say from 3 to 10 feet. h. commonly . little energy Efficiency. provided the turbine is pioperly proIf the theory is extended to take into account portioned friction and the lelative motion of the water in the guides and vanes.~namely the The energy of the water consists of two parts. for 40 or 50 to 150 or 200 feet. generally on vertical patterns. the proportion of the head that is utilized by reaction can theoretically be varied at will without affecting the efficiency attainable. Jonval or Francis turbines. from or honzontal shafts. the head and the The type of quantity of water to be used are ascertained turbine best adapted to the conditions may then be selected Practice as to the type of turbine to be used under given conditions varies in different countries The following Selection represents good American practice for very low heads. for of 10 to 50 feet. The kinetic energy is transor energy due to the head h' mitted to the runner vanes by impulse. between 60V2j-Aand 67 -$Lgh of Type of Tuibine Before undertaking the design or adoption of a turbine. while the piessure energy is converted into work by the action of the pressure due to the head h' through a distance lepresented by the path In a properly designed tin bine. kinetic energy due to the velocity v. of the Francis or the specially designed turbines. Francis or heads "American" turbines of stock mounted on vertical medium high heads. that is. shafts. with short draft tubes. and the pressuie energy. and hence with but 6. it is found that the maximum efficiency is obtained when about and it is one-half the head is utilized m reaction and one- Some head is lost in friction in the guides. //' 40 = h . are used.4 WATERWHEELS Also. found that the peripheral velocity of the inlet ends of the vanes at the speed of maximum efficiency should usually be from 60 to 67 of the velocity due to the full half in impulse head 7.

and the Fig 5 shows the outlines of latter as the telative velocity . radial-flow. and same notation may be used to designate corresponding In what follows. or the velocity relative to the eaith. impulse waterwheels are generally more advantageous than turbines FORMULAS FOR THE DESIGN OF TURBINES 8. the Notation. The methods used in designing axial- flow. it is necessary to use quantitieb in them FIG 5 both the "absolute" velocity of the water. and the velocity lelative to the vanes The fonner will be lefened to meielv as the velocity.40 WATERWHEELS ) (Fourneyron turbines have been successFourneyron type For very high heads. and mixed-flow turbines are similar.000 feet. fully used foi heads of ovei 265 feet 300 to 2.

vanes. a radial turbine 6) (a circle of this radius is called the inflow circle).WATERWHEELS 40 an axial-flow turbine. Fir 6 the student should make himself so familiar with the values to recognize the meanIt should ing of each symbol at once when it is refeired to be understood that. the units are shown in the diagrams as to be able the foot. when not otherwise stated. = head on the wheel. for a is radial turbine (Fig 6) (a cucle of this radius the outflow circle). for (Fig (Fig 5). in cubic feet per second. Fig 6 together with the adjacent guides. rt f = mean radius of wheel at outflow. and the pound Let Q = available quantity of water.. = mean radius of an axial turbine = radius of wheel at inflow. with one chute C and one bucket B. h r r. the second. and rims is a similar view of an outwaid-flow turbine Neaily all the defined below are plainly shown in these two quantities Before attempting to follow figures and in Figs 7 and 8 out the formulas fot design it] which these symbols are used. called .

= A/ N= p = numbei of revolutions per minute. absolute velocity of water leaving the wheel buckets. Z= Z' / /! number = number of guides. relative velocity of outflow from the buckets. angle that the relative direction of outflow from the buckets makes with a tangent to the mean outflow cucle. = angle that the relative direction of inflow to the wheel makes with the same tangent. .40 v v' WATERWHEELS = 1 7 velocity of flow from the chutes. this usually equals the width of the outlet edge of the guides. Jlf = A = ./. width of inlet edge of vanes. the angle that the direction of outflow from the chutes makes with a tangent bi to the mean inflow circle. measured perpendicularly to the direction of flow. angle that the absolute direction of outflow from the buckets makes with the same tangent. effective outflow area of guide passages. p 1 pitch of the guides measured on the inlet circle. = = width of outlet edge of guides. of vanes. ji/ velocity of vanes at discharge (velocity of outflow circle). measured on the outlet circle. pitch of the outlet ends of the vanes. measuied direction of flow. it u' z/. M L L' guide alible. distance between the outflow ends of two consecutive guides. that is. of outlet edge of vanes. = width x = perpendiculatly to the x = 1 distance between outflow ends of two consecutive vanes. /. = = = = relative velocity of water entering: the buckets. effective inflow area of wheel passages. effective outflow area of wheel passages. velocity ot vanes at entrance (velocity of inflow circle).

r = ?/ = . or more. an axial-flow turbine. 1 for i may be used as a tual value of Proper value for he Put pose of determining a / is AI /. pait ot the distance x that would be covered by the inflow end of one wheel bucket. for axial turbines. the ratio is usually made between 67 between yy and 1 83. In all classes of turbines. nearly the always less than be as small as \ or i. an axial-flow turbine m m 9. Ratios of Radii and Yane lengths. for inward-flow turbines. about and l . M L> = 10 to 20 or more = 10 to 25. is often made greater than / in order to secure proper outflow area Except for mixed-flow turbines. Cliute and Bucket Discharge Angles The angles yl/and //. /. / = /. 1 54. For axial turbines. For mixed-flow and . if the crowns are parallel. 1 y ~ usually varies rS varies between >/ 50 or more. For out- ward-flow turbines.may /2 turbines. = l a for 18 and 1 mixed-flow turbines.8 / i' WATERWHEELS = = = 40 5 thickness of guides. are usually as follows 15 to 24 For outward-flow turbines. for radial turbines. to be measured in the same d d' = = depth of guide rims depth of runner rims direction as x. Q V7i M M 13 15 to 15 to 20 to 24 L' 13 15 to 16 30' to to Less than 10 Between 10 and 80 Greater than 80 20 20 20 24 10. however. L' = 10 to 25 For inward-flow turbines. the values of these angles depend on the discharge and head thus. thickness of vanes near their outflow ends.. . / is usually made equal to A In all axial turbines. lengths of the outflow edges of the buckets of such turbines .

w'. Ratio of Cliute and Bucket Areas. to Ordinal ily.= ^/ The This. calculated by the formula r The ratio ^** i is A. cos M 95 value of be taken as 92 The m vanes from 90 We have also *. cos 77 i (3) Also. it may = = ^ / A X vS (2) The entrance velocity w is given by the formula i-s. and L 1 should be so related that the absolute exit angle //' is very nearly 90 . Velocity of Discliarpe Circles The velocity v/ formula of the bucket discharge circle is given_by the . 75 to latio - 00 is Al often assumed.= L y The ratio u' ll v 15J^ of the velocity of outflow from the guides to the relative velocity of outflow fiom the buckets is equal to A in The -^_ efficiency vanes but little for a considerable change Al AS ( but is usually a 1 maximum in axial-flow turbines when A. L' . the smaller can be made the exit angle L' 11. The values of '. ' i equivalent to assuming a value for the ratio 't 12.40 WATERWHEELS increased by their curved shape 9 being The smaller the ratio -. taking it between is 5 and 1 5 when M. and -~ have been assumed.

tan The bucket angle L may be computed fiom the formula L = Vi v Sm M greater than v lt tan L will be minus. for large wheels wheels turbines Z Z' 1 Z+ 1 1 to Z+ 2. Z = 24 to 28 t greater than 16. Z = 36 and Z = 1 Z 1 For inward-flow turbines Zto 7 Z. t The usual i to I inch values of and t' are 2 to I inch for cast iron. this being the value used by Fourneyron for his outward-flow turbines The value of L must in all cases be less than 180 2 or It is more M 14. 040 to 052 for cast iron 020 to 031 for plate iron or steel . Number of Guides and Vanes. but Z' is sometimes greater than Z by 1 or 2 15. Z = Z+ 1 2 For outwai d-flow turbines = 2 Z to 1 3 Z. and may be found by subtracting the angle corresponding to the tangent computed The angle L usually by the formula above from 180 increases as decreases Its value varies from 40 to 120 If v cos M v cos M - is M most frequently near 90. Z = 12 6 t to 16 9 j between 2 and 16. Z = 6 3 r to 7 5 For outward-flow turbines Z = Z = Z= Z= For axial 28 to 32 for small wheels 32 to 38 foi large wheels For imvard-Hoiv turbines 12 r to 16 9 t . and for plate iron or steel t t = = f t' = = In feet. but Z> may be less than Z 32 In one of the Niagara turbines. for small 6 3 t 1 to 12 r. ordinarily.-. The practical values of Z and If If If Z' are usually as follows less For a&ial tut bines A A A is is is than 2. and the angle L will be greater than 90.10 WATERWHEELS 13. Thickness of Guides and Vanes. 40 Bucket Entrance Angle.

to 1 5 \Ci for very large heads (5) /w. deep enough to give the water the desired change of clnection without shock or abruptness As a rule. are computed by the following x x> p sin M L' i (3) t> = p' sin - (4) 18. .. *. 11 16.-. or r.40 WATERWHEELS Radius and Speed less than 2. _ " 9549 // z// . then. of Guides and Vanes. . they die made equal. The rims need onlv be made.. The p x. A is greater than r = ^A to 1 = 1 25 ^A = 1 50 ^A 25 to A/ 1 (1) 50 V^ (2) (3) to 2 00 V^ For outw aid. If D' is the diameter of the outer rim and D is the diametei of the inner rim of an axial turbine.4 is If between 2 and 16.flow turbines fl r. ' + ~ +- at / | .' is A/ - 0ji' - 9 549 2rr 1 . and within the following limits . = = l 5 \/<-/ to 2 AW for ordinary heads (4) 90 \U r. r 16. ~V~ ^ " 9 549 Vl r. . If FOT axial-flow turbines A is r If .. values of p.inw aid-flow turbines = 75 ^U to 200 V^ (6) given. Depth <>f Hi ins of Axial Turbines. Uj 17. foimulas Pitch and length.' /. the number of revolutions per minute can be found by the foimula If r. and /. D = > 2 o j > ~ . y (2) /v ^ /j /l j at Jt^cbaige end 19..

Example Design of an Axial Tui'bine. d of = d' = . = sm A. to three significant figures. 12 92. d 16. t Jl \ 12 r-l Since = v u' X 1 = ?. Art 12: = = 1 feet per second = 12 X 21 = 23 5 feet pei second the formula The area A can now be found by A = which gives ^4 = 112 2i\ = 5 33 square feet Also. making > m = = 92 . the principal quantities will be computed for an axial and two radial tuibmes The fiist case consideied will be the design of a Jonval turbine to use 112 cubic feet of water per second under a head of 16 teet. the rims to be paiallel and the vanes and guides to be of cast iron with i = t 1 = 041 foot illustrate the il Here. since A. v> gives. the following Vie be adopted for M and L' M = 1 0.7 = 28 VA values will Then (see Art 9). A " ~ ^ _ A _ TT2 112 = 100 = n2~x"2i -Jf 4 7fi squaie feet 76 . X z.-= = . l = l 12. sin// = According to Ai t 10. A. sinM= 6 5 20.' . 18. . cos L' 1 = 961 = Lf and / l = Then (Art 11).12 WATERWHEELS If 40 A is less than 2. To use of the foregoing formulas.' sin M 1 = JJ09 _ ~ H 276 Formula 1. = d d 1 = d' r - to -~ (1) (2) (3) If X A is between 2 and = = \[to 5 4 If is greater than 16. cosM= 951. L' = 16 We have. -^ ti 276. = 82 ^/ 1 5-yoi = 21 = 22 6 feet per second 22 6 feet per second Formulas 3 and 4. Art 12.

a Fouineyron turbine will be .' = ? 2 89 feet. as given by small as possible Z' Z and foimula 2 of Art t 16. tan / " tanZ values of ___2LO^_39___ -21 OX 22 6 ^ L = 67 o 57. 4 A7 = ?A P_X ^J ?2 6 = 74 7 ! evolutions per minute Oi7 = Foinmlas 1 and 2.041 = 145 foot QO _ ___??_. = ?. X =122 24 24 22 feet 145 Formulas /? 1 and 2. 951' may be taken as follows (Art 14) The Z = 25. ^ 2X3 . we have = 1 25 -V5~33 = 2 89 feet Then (foimula 7. give. Z' = Z + 2 = 27 It is desired to "ive the tuibine as high an angular velocity The radius equal to 1 25 ^A. therefoie. bine Example As of Design of an Outward-Flow Turthe next example. x' / = = _ = .27 X 01 726 673 X X 309 IX Art 17. Ait 17. Art 18.40 WATERWHEELS - 13 From Art 13. give D> D = = = 2 2 2 X X X 2 89 2 89 2 + 89 rf' 1 1 1 = 4 54 feetl 7 = = ate 02 feetj y 4 56 feetl The depths d and r 4 4 of the rims may be made equal to = 2-^ = 723 foot (see Art 19) 21. and Z' = 27 (ic will be taken as 3 142). _____ = 1 24 feet 25 X 183 . give 041 = 183 foot 276 47G 27 - /. since heie ?. Art 16). 142 X 2 89 ^ = 726 foot 673 ^ p = If 2^X_3Jilx_2_89 27 the inlet ends of the vanes are rounded off. be taken as as practicable Taking. s may be taken as 01 Formulas 3 % to 6. Z = 25.

.. is H l (a) 8 \ H= fl 8. Art = Q9 ^ 12x32 16 X _____83 92^ v>= " ' 1 12. 8 = 625 6. Formulas 2. we must have H= 5.250 _ Q ^_> Since . gives. Art 12. we have. taking 135 m = 92.000.. cos L' = 970 The Arts ratio be taken as . give X 72 4 = 60 1 feet per = = 72 4 l"l2 = 970 12 X x 66 6 feet pei second 74 6 feet per second A. 3. and. .' 66 6 = &-. L' = 326. Then (see 10 and 11).250 horsepower This value in equation (a] gives ~ 8&X 6. Part 1 ) . and 4. To determine 88 n r Q = h Since the efficiency therefore.VA X loO 35. Formula / / 1. no 408 cubic feet per second .. = = -42L = Vl35 the angles M and L 1 will be assumed Then.. From the relations A = 57-5 bo b ^-r^ = 111 v we e-et B A = <4i' = 6 13 square feet 5 47 square feet = = . a and develop being of 80 per cent assumed H the necessary supply of watei Q.14 to operate WATERWHEELS under a head of 135 total efficiency 40 feet designed 5.000 horsepower. cos M= 11 946. sin L = 1 242. per = 72 4 feet second second .83 (Art 10). ^ = . as follows (see sm M= ~ will y\ M= Ait 9) 19.000 88 5. being the theoretical horsepower of the water (see Water-wheels.

and 6. 14 \\ill Z = be assumed . sm M= r ' M= L' 20. ) 1 75 feet 22._and = ^6 13 = 2 48 feet s = (see Art 16) Then. Art 17. 5. respectively. cos yl/ 1 = cos L' = 940 The l ratio i will be taken as 3 (see Ait 10). . 2.40 WATER WHEELS in The formula tan r f Art 60 13 66 6 L = gives X 326 "' m 1 .59X13 . that 36. L' = 20 sm = 342. ^ /= 2_X_3H2X2_99 = 32 ^ f /( k = / = ____ Al?_---. will be assumed equal to ^ foot.4 7._ = i 64 feet 32 x 104 / >. gives jy _ L^f 9 -^- - 1 == 231 revolutions per minute Formulas 1. = 104 The radius.32 X 02 = _5. for which = 115 foot. by the formula m Art 11L ' . Z = 32 t' that the tuibine has bronze guides and 02 vanes. /.\ be adopted. and tbe ratio as 59 (see Art 11) Then. blne _A Example Ftancis of tuibine Design of an Inwai el-Flow Tuvwill now be designed for a a head of 12 4 teet discharge of 160 cubic feet per second and and L' will be selected as follows (see The angles Art 9) M Then.= 36 X 115. give./ = -L* = 83 ^ 83 = 2 99 feet Formula 7. p = 2 X_3_142_X148 36 = 433 foot . Art 16. q70 o fi/ The values used tefeired to in Ait It will fot Z and Z' the Niagara turbine is.

and. 40 to 4. Z> = 25. Part 2). equal to infinity (see Plane Tngonomeliy. = 1 3 X 14 6 " ' = W5T940 767 = 19 feet per second ' 20 2 eet per second = O 7y = X 20 2 15 5 feet pei second The relations A ^4 and A now Al = - 76/ give = - = 7 92 square feet AS = The formula in .t. = -^ = 13 = 13 2 31 feet Formula 7. practically Formulas 1 to 6. will be taken as follows / = /' = 02 foot sufficiently thin The edges of the vanes to make s = o.16 WATERWHEELS Formulas 1 ?Y . 4-rtj-* 13 / . Art 16. . L = 90 The value of ^ will be taken equal to 1 1 L -JA = 11 V7~92 = 31 16) - feet. gives N= The (Aits o ^ = 60 5 revolutions per minute /' values of Z. gives 20 2 _JLJ 342 X 19 .Z'. . Art 12. ~ = Q9 /T67 X s32~16'x~T2~4 = 9^A r""7^77 14= b teet per second ft 0. will be assumed Ait 17.20 2 X 940 is As tan the denominator of this fraction is piactically zero. give _ 2 X 3 142 X 3 24 x = 785 X 342 - 02 = 248 foot . say. and 14 and 15) Z = 24. give . therefore. or. 3 feet (see Ait rS Then.= 10 161 33 square feet Art .

tities . if the dimensions of some parts are assumed. simple formula by which the efficiency of a tuibine can be A close estimate may generally be computed with accuracy made. in all cases where empirical formulas aie used. Not all the dimensions and other quan- affecting the opeiation of a turbine with a given head and discharge can be deduced from theoretical considerations There are. however. 1 to 3 per cent 3 Skin friction in buckets. this loss may be 1 to 5 per cent This is the most 6 Shock. however. their usual values being expiessed as percentages of the theoretical power of the water Skin fuction of the guides. 3 to 5 per cent With the dischaige below tail-water Exit velocity 4 level or through a draft tube. eddies. the assumptions may be modified by judgment and experience. and are often simply a matter of opinion. Power TJOSSCS and Efficiency. 1 to 3 per cent Cleaiance leakage. the dimensions of other paits that shall best correspond with those chosen can be calculated Practice differs as to which quantities shall be assumed at The methods here the beginning of a turbine calculation given are believed to be as good as any others.Remarks. or even paits. certain relations between the such that. this loss may usually be kept between 3 and 7 per cent The power consumed in friction can 5 Bearing ruction 1 2 be calculated by methods given in books on mechanical engiFor turbines without superincumbent machinery and neering with ordinary step beatings.40 WATERWHEELS 17 23. by combining the diffeient losses These are as follows. but it should be borne in mind that. of pieference There is no 24. and internal motion uncertain element of loss I The amount of loss depends L T 39925 .

etc 1. Guides for Axial Turbines is The method illustrated in of lay- ing out guides for axial turbines First draw two paiallel lines from each other equal to d Fig 7 A 4' and 1 B B' . . B angle equal to the entrance angle Through 2 draw a perpendicular to l~i and produce it until it meets A A' in />. etc making with . so that the water leaves the buckets with a different angle and velocity fiom those intended If the design is good. this loss may usually be kept between 6 and 14 M per cent Usually. proper relation does not exist between the angles the loss from shock and internal motion may be veiy large In such cases. 3. 2-3. and on the foim of the curved surIf the wheel is not lun at the propei speed. and thiough the points B' an 1-2. 01 if the faces and L'. as plainly indicated the figure .18 WATERWHEELS 40 on the clearance and on the thickness and shape of the ends of the guides and vanes. the loss may lesult in part from the formation of eddies or the accumulation of dead water at some point along the vanes. 2. draw the arc i-l' parallel to M m This gives the form of the front of a guide. with b as a center and bi as a radius. 2-j. then. the back is made and at a distance t from the fiont The othei guides are laid out m a similar manner. the efficiencies of tuibmes vary between about 70 and 80 per cent GUIDES AND VANES 25. etc . draw the lines equal to the pitch p. at a distance On B B lay off the distances 1-2.

making W ith B B 1 an Through 2. draw a peipendicular to 1-e. divide the circle k k' limiting the outflow ends of the guides into as many equal paits as theie aie to be chutes Draw the radius Oc to one of the points of divisions. 2-3. layoff on the line B B Fig 8. 2. making the angle L with the tangent to k k' Diaw a perpendiculai Jig to Oe at its middle point //. . 2-jf. draw also the line en. where and at c diaw a peipendiculat a q to en the peipendiculais eg and hg inteisect. 19 lay out the wheel vanes for an axial turbine. 3. etc . . etc equal to the pitch p' Thiough 1 . a below A A' The vane The centers o'. little making the angle line L with A A' at a point in.WATERWHEELS 26. ing vanes may be found by spacing off successively distances each equal to p' on a line diawn through o oo'. the distances 1-2. 34. the concave surface may be drawn fiom the The remaining guides are drawn center ^ \\ith a radius s^c-t with the ladius ge and centers loaated on the cucle gg' drawn through g with O as a center The mteisections g^g %. angle equal to L' and on this peipendicular produced find by trial a point a. chaw lines 1-c. oo". 1-e-m-l' gives the shape of the etc foi the curved faces of succeed- CO oft as shown at 5" foi Oulwaicl-Flow Turbines Referring Tug 9. Vanes for Axial Tui bines To /. etc The tops of the vanes are usually rounded painllel to 4 A' . at c The pointy.o". S-g. such that an arc drawn with the radius oe will be tangent to C -BT a line l'l". may be taken as the 27. Guides to oentei fiom which to draw the circular aic eef lepresenting If the guides are of unifoim the convex sin face of a guide thickness /. etc .

9 fcxJf^ei FIG 10 .WATERWHEELS |40 Fie.

etc aie spaced at the lequired centers a distance from one another equal to the pitch of the guides 28. at the middle 2. in which case the portion 5 / of the vane be made a continuation of b'2 may To diaw on k1 the innei poition of the vane. At point e of intersection 1-c'... 2-b'. etc with the arc gg' aie The points m lt . making the angle L' with the tangent lines Ia and 2 a' Bisect the angle aJ-b by the line 1c draw a pei pendicular to 2b'. the radial . also.WATERWHEELS etc 21 of radial lines through m^m. draw the lines 1-b. the Vanes foi Outwai-d-Flow Turbines Divide of outflow circle JJ f . into a number equal parts corresponding: to the number of vanes Through two consecutive points of division.. choose a point d so that an arc fj drawn with a lacluib df will be to tangent to a line making an angle equal circle q q' L with a tangent . intersecting 1-c in c'. the lines kc and ke may not intersect within the cli FIG 11 awing. to -2. with the perpendicular c'-2 This part of the operation re- quires very careful and accurate work With L as a centei and a tadius equal 2-/. draw a to its perpendiculat L e. to the inflow citcle at the point of intersection Draw the through k with O as a center. as 1 and 2. draw the arc meeting 1-k at / If 1 the buckets aie widely spaced. Fig 10./.

and the d is to give a drawn AS smooth curved so same time keep the thickness of the vane at least as great as t' at d The foim of the back pitch is usually so designed as to give the bucket nearly a uniformly decreasing cross-section The vanes shown m Fig 11 are cored out in casting to decrease the weight surface of the desired form and at the The convex surfaces of the guides in Fig 11 are diawn with a smaller radius than the concave surfaces.. by spacing off tiom d distances dd^ d d. m-n^ etc may be found by the outer spacing off fiom k distances kk^k^k^ etc. 2) foi drawing i t equal to yy' 29. each equal 1 The centers </. etc for di awing the inner ends to n etc may be found on the circle G G' drawn ns. the centers /. Thickening Vanes show neyron sections Back Pitch or of the Figs 11 and 12 of Four- turbines having the guides and vanes laid out by the methods given above Both figmes show the vanes at / so as to diawn thicker keep the crossThis thickthe section of the bucket neaily constant ening of called vanes is back pitch. etc each Ont. in order to . any two consecutive points of division Then.. through d with O as a .</. ..22 lines WATERWHEELS Om t 40 and on the outflow cucle ends of the vanes 1-n. The c center of an arc that will give the desired form at the inlet end may be found by part PIG I2 b trial.

40 WATERWHEELS 23 increase the thickness near the center and so keep the area of the chutes nearly uniform In Figs 9 and 12. draw a peipendicular c-1 to the into as Divide the cucle to be guides. as c. shows Guides for Inward-Flow Turbines. the inner ends of the alternate guides are cut off in order to prevent the reduction in area of the inlet ends of the chutes that would result if these guides were prolonged toward the centei to the full length of the other guides This construction is adapted for use with sheet-metal guides of uniform thickness 30. and nn many line rVdiaun thiough the next point c and on this perpendicular choose a point 1 so that an arc drawn with 1 as a m' center and the ladius 1-d will meet the circumference 1 '. equal parts as there are at each of the points of division draw a line From one of the making angle Af with a tangent to nn 1 points of division. a Fig a 13 method of laying out the guides of simple Frr V? inward-flow turbine Draw 1 the limiting circles mm' and nn'. m This gives the form of a guide c'dd'. tangent to its ladms The other guides may be drawn from centers located on the .

Vanes for Inward-Flow Turbines. Fig 14. circle x t . and on this perpendicular choose a point 6 so that an aic 4-5 drawn with 6 as a center and with a radius 6-4 will meet the inflow circle gg' in such a FIG 14 direction that a tangent to this aic at 5 will make the angle with a tangent to the inflow circle The other vanes may L be drawn from centers located on the circle h h' passing The positions of the centers m.)'!. etc spaced at a distance p'. and each maker claims especial advantages for the The same general rules peculiar form of bucket he uses . The vanes of mixed-flow wheels are made in a great variety of forms. Guides and Vanes of Mixed-Flow Turbines. 4. 3.24 WATERWHEELS 40 The position of the centers circle gg' passing through 1 2. etc are found by drawing radial lines through the points Xi. as 3. etc may be through 6 found by drawing radial lines to h h' passing through the points y. etc spaced at distances equal to p on the nn' 31. and through each of the points of division draw aline Through one of the making an angle LJ with the tangent line 3'-4 points of division. Divide the outflow circle kk'. y. draw a perpendicular 3-4 to the through the next point. beginning at y on the inflow circle kk' The curved portion of the vanes should terminate at the cucle q q 1 drawn through 4 from as a center 32.. into as many parts as there are vanes. m'.

from the smallest employed These patterns leading features of each make of tuibine have been developed from experiment or from tests. or in accordance with personal opinions. and embody featuies that violate the necesroi good efficiency The better class of American tui bines. have nevei undergone any iiUhentic tests. gates. and outflow areas of chutes and wheel buckets apply as have been given and illustrated for the The length of the path of the water in passing through mixed-flow wheels eater and more crooked than the case of usually gi simple axial or ladial turbines. there are still on the narket many patteins of turbines that. angles ot buckets. however. whtn operated under the conditions far ary conditions . and turbines oE the Jonval type are still so built to a small extent. the former the loss simple foims of radial and axial turbines is m m by friction and shock is usually greater. turbine buildei makes a set of eveiy patterns. having inward and downwaid flow. they usually embody the maker's own ideas. usually increasing umfoimly in size to the largest diameter commonly 33. every turbine is usually designed for the special conditions for which it is intended In the United States.s a wide vanety of foims of limners. and aie seldom based on definite calculations or thoiough theoretical analysis are geneially as neaily alike as they can be made. have been developed after epeated experiments to determine the best form of each art. hence. TURBINES BUILT FROM STOCK PATTERNS In European countries. and large ladle-shaped buckets There .40 WATERWHEELS the velocities of inflow 25 regatdmg and outflow for the wheel. although high results lave been claimed foi them. differing only size. all peculiar features being neaily always patented The m 34. but most of the stock-pattern turbines now on the market are of the American type. A few Fourneyron turbines have been built from stock patteins. and cases As i result of the manner of development. and these turbines.

it As the weight sufficient for the gieatest and strength of a turbine must be head to which the turbine is adapted. and most stock-pattetn turbines much greater are specially adapted to heads of about 16 feet. but represent modifications of the standard patterns 35. the small size of such turbines greatly simplifies the setting. Vent it When turbines in scroll cases were exten- to express the discharging capacity of the turbine in terms of the size of an orifice in the side or bottom of the flume which would sively used. special wheels. for which The parts are made strong they give their highest efficiency For very large enough for heads up to 40 feet or more heads. they are not designed according to theoretical principles. and has made possible the excellent forms of horizontal and double wheels enclosed in and connected with a draft tube This makes it them above the tail-water in a position where inspection and repairs are easily made. are made. was found convenient theoretically turbine discharge the same amount of water as the under the same head The discharging capacity in expressed this way is called the \ent. and the power can be taken from them in a simple and direct manner iron casings possible to place 36. often with bronze vanes. The head used in testing turbines at this Massachusetts Mo^e tuibmes are in flume is usually about 16 or 18 feet use with heads of from 10 to 20 feet than with heads either or much less. at Holyoke. and their bines consequent high speed They are cheaper than specially designed turbines of other types. and is usually . both on account of their smaller size and because their construction does not require special patterns Besides.26 WATERWHEELS 40 which they ate best adapted^ usually give efficiencies as high as those obtained with turbines of special design Nearly all these turbines have been tested at the testing flume of the Holyoke Water-Power Company. follows that stock-pattern turbines are unnecessarily heavy foi use undei tui American diameter in low heads The principal advantages of made from stock patterns are their small proportion to their powei and capacity.

40 given WATERWHEELS 27 is When the vent z (square inches) square inches in cubic feet per second given. in feet capacity of turbines and the water rights of mills are often expressed in teims of the vent in square inches Fre- The quently. 37. so sq ft is 144 sq m . the owner being allowed to utilize the water under the greatest head available EXAMPLE to How many calls for 1 whose deed SOLUTION Sinre 1 theoretical horsepower is a miller entitled square foot of water under a head of 16 feet? the value of * is 144. Power = bo ^ = 58 H P . can be computed by the formulas m Q '. Manufacturers' Tables of Powei Speed. such lights do not specify any head. V2~yxf 16 Q = Then = 8 02 X 4 = 32 08 cu ft per sec (see Watet wheels. a constant efficiency of about 80 per cent is used as a basis in computing. the speed m revolutions per minute. and that the conditions there obtain- ing are as a rule a gieat deal 1 more favorable than those . although such is not really the case In nearly all catalogs. the quantities for different heads have usually been calculated from those determined at the speed of maximum efficiency for the head The efficiency is usually under which the wheel was tested assumed to be constant for all heads. showing the discharge in cubic feet per minute. the discharges Q and and cubic feet per minute. for For turheads vaiying from 3 or 4 feet to 40 feet or more bines that have been tested at Holyoke. and Dischai'ge Nearly all Ameiican turbine builders publish rating tables in then catalogs. Part 1). = that-j-rr 1 By formula 1. respectively. and the horsepower of every size of wheel they manufacture. Q = Q' -z 144 v/2^% = 0557 z-v (1) (2) = 600 = 334zV7* where h is the head. nearly Ans .the horsepower It should be borne in mind that the Holyoke tests are made under rather small heads.

of water issuing fiom chute. in feet. denoting the efficiency by TJ (see Watet- wheels. denoting the constant- 9 by B. Art 12. Pait. a turbine does not usually yield practical work the horsepower at which it is rated in the maker's catalog 38. 10 /j Qh Q = Av = 802Ac^l7t (b) 10 X 8 02 y A c h V7* _ 802^ Ac ~ 88 88 88 X rm (c] 9 Formula 7. N= v discharge of turbine.' replacing the value of from formula 3. in cubic feet per second. or supply of water.28 WATERWHEELS 40 which can be expected where the turbine is to do its actual Therefore. be the horsepower given in the maker's c Let. let N c be the revolutions (c). aggregate outlet area of chutes. = A = H= Then. per (a?). let = Q = h head on a turbine. corresponding number of according to equations and = ^21^x802*:^ . now. H Q c. minute Then. In the following formulas. in square feet. 1). in feet per second. or. also. horsepower of turbine v = c -&g~h = 8 02 r V7z (a) where c is a coefficient that is piactically constant for the same tuibme Also. catalog foi a wheel woikmg undei a head h e and with a discharge (b). N= z// Bv. Art 16. revolutions per minute. absolute velocity. gives.

188 cu ft per mm and Nc = 745 lev pei mm Formulas 1.188 ~= -^~~ = 1. the power is The inflow area factors. give.188 cubic feet pei minute. and Discharge to the stock patterns of a tutbme builder are of similar foim. and 3 . respectively. instead of pei second Foi a head of 56 feet. and it is found . Size Relation of Powei Speed. and angular velocity for heads not given in the manufactuier's catalog In formula 1. 2. for a given head. and solving for H. = 190 5 H P Ans Ans = 745 921 G rev per mm 39. the capacity or discharge of most such types of turbines is pioportional to the inflow aiea. dividing (t) by (c'). power as 100 6 horsepower.: = 100 (j H P Here h = 85 7 ft h c = 56 ft Qt = 1. the depm of the buckets and the circumference of the inflow cucle both vaiy in proportion to the diameter Wheie propoitional to the product of these that. Q= 1. (2) Dividing (d) by (rf')i and solving foi N (3) Fotmulas 1. and 3 serve to compute the discharge. the discharge of a certain turbine in the manufacturers catalog as 1. . or to the square of the diameter. Q and Qe may be discharges per minute Many catalogs give the discharge in cubic feet per minute. horsepower. and the nurabei of revolutions per minute a& 745 What aie the corresponding quantities for a head of is EXAMPLE given the S5 7 feet? Sor UTION //. . 2. . c (1) Similarly.470 cu ft per mm Ans H= A? 100 6 \.40 WATERWHEELS 29 Dividing (b) by whence Q _V/ Q = Q<\\T \A.

having a diameter D and a speed N. then. arbi- but made differing from this are used by some The capacities of turbines of the same diameter. the calculated size is not a stock size. the formula gives this size JV. for example. in revolutions per minute. = 1 1. the nearest larger stock size should be used. the speed would be given by formula 3. and the speed computed by formula 2. the later designs have the larger capacities should De the diameter and speed of a single turbine to replace two 18-inch turbines that are of the same pattern make 100 revolutions per minute? and EXAMPLE What SOLUTION If Prom formula D. however. by a single turbine of the same pattern amount of power Let /?. whence or. = -J-f- X 100 = 66 7 rev per mm Ans . D A/2 = 1 41 D (1) D. and the angulai speed is inversely pioportional to the diameter These relations can be utilized to determine the number of wheels of different sizes that would be required to furnish a given Suppose it is desired to replace. or of the circle surrounding the inflow ends of the vanes trary size builders However. 41 X 18 = 25 4 in were used. Usually. or to the square of the diameter. two tuibmes. a 27-m turbine is used. we must have D: whence Also.30 is WATERWHEELS 40 proportional to the capacity. differ greatly numbers As a rule. since M = ~N D D V2 size (2) N.. of the single turbine Since the power of the single turbine must be twice the power of each of the two turbines of diameter D. A= D V2~Z> T = N. = 707 N (3) The listed of a turbine should be the same as the diameter of the inflow 1 circle of the runner. without change of power. from the patterns of different builders. If. angular speed. Nj. = = diameter of the single turbine. D' = 2 1. N= D ~ .

its efficiency at both full gate and pait gate must usually be considered. Classes ami Requirements of Turbine Gates. and the freedom from sharp angles and abiupt changes of direction should also be considered Authentic tests have been made of most of the reliable types of stock-pattern turbines. esciibed piesently . freedom from obstruction. the total cost of a plant will in general be lower if large-sized tui bines instead of a larger number of smaller turbines aie used The speed must also be considered. and it may be better to use small turbines. but rfearly all modern urbmes are provided with gates and guides. and ease of In the absence of authentic tests. smoothness and legulanty of the guide and bucket passages. the length. the probgate operation able full-gate efficiency may be judged from a comparison of the relation of the guide and entrance angles. ACCESSORIES GATES 41. so that stockpattern turbmes of such sizes are both the cheapest and the most reliable When the cost of flume and setting is considered. than to use larger and slowet-runnmg tmbmes requiring ]ack-shafts to attain the desued speed In selecting a turbine.40 WATERWHEELS Selection of Turbines -* 31 40. The devices by which the admission o( water to a turbine is Formerly. with those given in connection with formulas fot the design of turbines The geneial construction of the wheel. the speed and the exit angle. greatest Manufacturers build the number of turbines of medium sizes. The (vlmdei three principal kinds of gates used are icgistei ind pivot gates They will be fully Bail's. turbines were set in egulated aie called grates >pen flumes without gates or guides. and in addition its probable dui ability. and are enclosed n cases ate*. if the desired speed can be obtained directly by this means.

If ten turns of the gate stem are required to open the gate fully. and should be so designed that they will move quickly. and smoothly The total weight of the moving parts should be as light as Without these features is consistent with these conditions it will be difficult to goVein the speed of the turbine There is a gieat difference in the of different tui bines. an opening of five ruins is spoken of as five-tenths 01 one-half gate. adapted to the Jonval type of wheels and to plain inward-flow turbines. currents. the 42.mechanism The gates should not stick in any position. Gate Opening. thieefourths gate. is When wheel or that it is giving one-half. Register Gates Register gates may be of the plate or of the ling type. weie named from common hot-air register In a registergate turbine the guides are thickened so that they have a width at the gate end equal to the width of the chutes The their similarity to a . easily. register gates are sometimes used outside and sometimes inside of the chutes Outside register gates. on account of unbalanced weight or water gate should be as nearly pressure. etc are sometimes used to indicate that the wheel is using one-half. according as they are applied to In each class of parallel-flow or to inward-flow turbines turbines. and so on The teims one-half gate.32 WATERWHEELS 40 Turbine gates should change the water supply with the There should be no lost least possible loss of efficiency motion either in the gates or in the operating. three-fourths. or eddies balanced in all positions as possible. and many powei lequned to opeiate gates gates have a strong tendency to open or close. spoken of as operating at part gate. so that. etc as much water. because the power and water used by a wheel when operated at part gate are not generally proportional to the width of gate opening 43. an opening of six turns is spoken of as six-tenths gate. etc as much Neither of these power as when operated at full capacity meanings is stnctly correct. in moving it friction will be the only force to A overcome the gate is not fully opened. three-fourths.

the bucket of a registei-gate tuibme maybe only partly filled. they have been almost A ring entirely superseded by cylinder and pnot gates If so constructed registei gate is nearly self-balancing that it does not rub. so that the enteimg veins of water can expand and The water will then entirely fill the chutes and buckets enter the buckets at pait gate at a bettei and more uniform angle than if inside leyistei gates aie used^ \Vhen running at part gate. it will open and close easily. the covers In Fig 15 is shown a section of a slide back over the guides turbine with legistei gates Half of the guides c aie replaced by fillers a against which the gates b he when opened Owing to the thickening of the guides in a register-gate turbine. which prevent the gate fiom closing until the watei is drawn In both from the penstock and the obstiuction removed Jonval and Amencan turbines. it is only necessary that the covers should lotate about the axis of the turbine They are usually through a distance equal to their width I L T 39926 . it is best to place the register gate outside of the guides The chutes should be made long.40 WATERWHEELS in 33 width gate consists of alternate openings and covers equal to the chutes When the gates aie closed. however. the covers lie over the chute openings As the gates aie opened. Register gates are easily blocked by obstructions. usually moves hard gate at pait FrG 15 Ring of the legister gates were formerly much used on turbines As. its only bearings being on the turbine shaft American type 44. especially near the outer side In order to open 01 close the gate. owing to the gieat friction to be overcome. water can be admitted to only one-half the inlet suiface of the runner A plate register gate supports the pressuie due to the head directly on its surface is It is difficult to counter- balance. they greatly decrease the water capacity of the turbine. likely to stick \\hen closed. and.

that slides inlet portion of the lunner. Francis. Cylinder Gates A cylmdei gate consists of a hollow ring. in this cylinder is a piston OO that selves to balance the weight of the gate by the action of the pressure of the water under it The wheel shaft V\* suppoited by the wooden step V and the bearProjections D. called gaiuitmes.34 WATERWHEELS 40 operated by a segment of lack secured to the gate ring meshing with a pinion on the gate stem and 45. operated by a hand wheel or by a govFlG 16 ernoi acting through The U-shaped pieces F. and American-type tui bines Fig 16 is a general view and Fig 17 a section of a Risdon is tuibme This American type an of wheel with an inside cylinder gate C that works in a space be- tween the runner A and the guides B The gate is raised and lowered by means of a rack and pinion Af. like down around the the watei supply a short section of pipe. are cast on the ing K . F the shaft J^and the bevel gearing support the crown plate E> and lest on the guide vanes There is a stationai y cylinder P supported by the crown plate. up and and so regulates Cylinder gates aie placed eithei outside of the guides 01 between the guides and runner moie fre- quently in the latter position They aie used on Fourneyron.

they they increase the part-gate efficiency somewhat. if fill the i miner. but also cause a strong downward piessuie that tends to close the gate and is difficult to counteibalance may When a cylinder- gate turbine opeiates at part gate. one pait has about onetull third and the othei about two-thirds of the capacity For . then becoming piactically an impulse wheel 46.40 WATERWHEELS 35 it cylmdei C and move up and dovui between the guides \\ith Various fonns ot gamituie^ have been devised As a rule. the water is shut out of the uppei pait of the A paitial runner vacuum may be foimed. 1* Division The a lutes of run- ner cylmdci- gate tuilnne is sometimes subdivided by paitition plates into scpai ate sets of com- paifmtnls These rr 17 compaitnu watei is nts foim \ntnally sepaiate runners fiom which the The 21 is an outside cyhndci-gate wheel divided in this manner Fig IS shows a iiinnei of a Tones Little Giant tuibine subdivided into successively shut off as the gate is closed Niagaia Foumeyion turbine shown in Fig two pai ts by the division plate a. caubing the water to n^e and neaily 01. the gate opening is small. the tui- bine may act almost wholly by impulse.




When the ordinary conditions, the larger division is used head is i educed by backwater, the water is admitted to both compartments, thus increasing Good efficiency the capacity


oidmary conditions is in thib mannei without

the necessity of maintaining an

extra wheel

keep up the


periods of reduced The device is useful in

cases where variation in speed





used, the surface-friction loss through the runner is greater

than for a runner of the same


The pacity without partitions water probably leaves the wheel




average angle of



where the channels through the runner are small than single deep bucket is used

ot the


much wider lange

divided runner gives nearly full efficiency through of gate opening than an undivided runner
If the efficiency ot any one part of a capacity is the same as that of an undivided wheel at

divided wheel
full gate,


then a wheel with one division plate will give the efficiency at half as at full gate, and a wheel with two

division plates will give full-gate efficiency both at one-third

and at two-thnds gate Let fj, = full-gate efficiency of either the single runner or of one part of the divided runner,


efficiency, for a

propoitional discharge


of one

part of the divided runner

When the divided lunner has n parts full-opened and one partly opened so as to discharge the proportional amount q, the total efficiency q is given by the formula





+ Qfi~ +q




PXVMPLE 1 If the full-gate efficiencj of one pait of a divided turbine is SO per cent and the one-half-gate efficienej is 65 per cent the efficiencies ot au undivided turbine at the same proportional dis,

charge being the same, what
of t\vo division plates



the turbine

be the gain in efficiency by the use is running at one-half gate?

The divided runnei will contain thiee parts At half gate, one part \\ill opeiate at full discharge, another at half discharge, and the third part will be closed Heie, 11 = 1, q = ^, r/t = 3 65,


and the above formula gives









65 per cent

efficiency of the

undnided runner being

the differ-

ence, 10 pei cent


the gain in efficiency


40 per cent

EXAMVLF 1 What \\ill be the efficiency of the divided turbine at thiee-fourths dischaige if the efficiency of one put at 24 discharge is and at tluee-fourthb discharge is 79 pei cent ?

thiee-fourths dischaige, two parts will mn full (>7 dischaige, and ( 75 67), or OS, of the full The capacity capacity of the uinnei will p iss thiough the thud pait tif one This thud pait will p ut is one-thud that of the whole runner theiefore opeiatc it '] X 08, 01 24, of its full capacity Heie, ?! = 2, 10, and the foimula gives q = 24, rn = 7!) /tl

SOLUTION At capacity, making





7M -h





= K|0 = M8


<4 8 pei



48. In oulei to accomplish the same lesult as if a division plate weie used, the Case National tuibme is const! acted as

shown in Fig If) The chutes, which fillers coveimg an

This is an outside iegister-gate wheel are in gtoups, of foui, are sepaiated by aic of the cncumference equal to that of

the group of gmcles The coveis b of the legister ring slide back ovet the filleis, opening one aftei another of the chutes The course of the watei thiough the chutes is well legulated,

but the buckets mn T be only paitly filled at part gate, as in the case of an undivided cylinder-gate wheel

49. I*I\oi, oi Wicket, Gales. In pivot-^ute tin A bines, the gates are so aiianged as to toim guides also common \\ay of doing this is bv using gate leaves pivoted between the guide nms Fig 19 is i section of a Smith

The gate leaves a Success tin bine showing the pivot gates The gates are shown full-opened swing about the axis b

If the inner

x will
deciease, and, with sufficient


ends of the leaves ate swung outwards, the width

of the chutes at

of the leaves, the chutes will be closed

movement The gate leaves are opened and closed simultaneously by means ot a cnculai

ring connected to then outer ends and bearing a rack operated In the Leffel and by a pinion connected to the gate stem

new American

tui bines,

the pivot gates aie operated by linkages connecting the gate leaves to a collar

on the main shaft of
the turbine








pinion above described



Fiom Fig




be seen that the angle of outflow from the
chutes lelative to the

runner is greatest when the gates aie
full-opened, and decreases as the gate

opening is decreased follows that the proper relation between the guide angle and the velocity of the enhance cncle can only be obtained for one position of the gates usually when full-opened while



at other gate

eial devices

openings theie is interference and loss of eneigy There are, however, sevimpact and eddies at entrance by which the change of enhance angle is at least partly avoided

50. Turbines with pivot gates contain more parts than those with cylinder 01 register gates, and aie otten moie liable to obstruction, leakage, and breakage than other In oider to pi event leakage and secuie the best forms
conditions of entiance of the water, the crowns as well as the top and bottom and the outflow edge should be finished






Pivot gates usually give the entering jets better foim and avoid the sharp contraction common with register gates when paitly closed They do not shut the water entirely out of
the upper pait of the buckets, as may be the case with a turbine having a cylinder gate, when operated with the gate For a given diametei and depth of wheel, the paitly closed

enhance aiea obtainable

and hence the capacity of the wheel larger than for a legistei-gate turbine, but smaller than for a cylinder-gate turbine
Pivot gates, unless propeily balanced, usually have a strong to open when partly closed

For wheels on vertical shafts, Foot -Step Sealing the weight of the uinnei and shaft, and of the gearing, pulley, aimatuie at its uppei end, is usually supported or dynamo by a Toot-step bcuing at the lovvei end ot the turbine A common foim of foot-step beaiing ib shown at U, shaft Fig 17 it consists of a block of lignum vitae whose upper end is eithei conical or made in the foim of a segment of a sphere, and whose lower end tests on a cioss-bai T, called The lower end of the turbine shaft is the biulge lice. tuined cup-shaped to fit over the uppei end ot the foot-step This end has sometimes font giooves ladiating beaiing


fiom the

centei, to give the watei access to the bearing for The thrust ib taken on the ends the purpose of lubrication of the fibei of the wood, and the block is usually adjustable

vei tically so


wear can be taken up

As wear



the uinner tends



the case than

original position

If this is

mciease, causing leakage,


not corrected, the clearance may the innner may rub on the case

pressuie, 01 thiust, on the beaung includes the weight of the attached parts, and the hydiauhc pressure In an caused by the water in passing thiough the wheel



axial or Jonval tut bine, this piessure
a radial turbine, theie




In is relatively great or no hydraulic thiust aid-and-downwaid-flow turbine, there is first an

maj be





upward pressure on the vanes due to the deflection of the water from an inwaid to an axial direction, and then a downward thrust due to the deflection of the water from an axial
to a radially

outward direction



addition, there


be a

downward piessure on

leaves the wheel In the runnei




due to water passing through the clearance between The resultant of these pressmes this disk and the crown When the wheel is mounted is usually a downward thiust on a horizontal shaft, the thrust due to the weight of the parts disappears, but the hydiauhc thiust remains the same,




and what have been described as upward and downward thi usts become piessmes m the direction of the bottom and top of the rnnnei, lespectively

53. Wheels placed on horizontal shafts are commonly mounted in pairs discharging m opposite directions, and by this method the thiust is neaily neutralized A collar bearing:

should, however, be provided to take care of inequalities
collai thiust bearing; placed

of piessure


on the shaft above the turhave the advantage that they are readily accessible for inspection and lubrication, and that they can leadilybe kept free from grit contained Grit is often carried into a bearing- placed on the the water bridge tiee, causing- the bearing to cut and wear Fig- 20 shows a collai beanng used to take part of the weight and piessuie of a 5,000-horbepower turbine at Niagara


sometimes used




weight to be supported is great, a large beanng necessary in oider to keep the pressuie per square In order to accominch on the bearing- within a safe limit plish this, and at the same time keep the diameter (and hence
Falls, as the



also the


possible, a series of ten

of friction and loss of power) as small as nanow bearing rings a was placed

Oil or one above anothei, on the mam driving- shaft bb The water to cool the bearing- circulates in the chambei cc weight of the shaft and suspended machinery is carried on the girdei dd which rests on the I beams e, e


Wtitei -Balanced


Fig; 21

cioss-section of the double


shows a parturbine used in

the fust installation of the Niagaia Falls Power Company It This tuibine is operated undei a head of about 135 feet



a cast-iron penstock similar to that



England practice, with the exception that two wheels aie u-.ed, one being placed at the top and the other As shown in the figure, the at the bottom of the penstock




are attached to the veitical shaft k

The chutes

and buckets are subdivided
partition plates ee,
e e'

compaitments by The discharge is legulated by




The gate rings for the upper outside cylinder gates /, /' and lower wheels are connected by lods, one of which is
at j

The gate nngs

/, /'

are raised and lowered


shut off the outflow from, or to open, the

The The

cylindrical penstock

compartments one after another, as required is shown by cross-section lines or drum, g forming the lower end of the penstock
solid, and holes //, h provided in the lower runner to let out any water



that inay enter between the lowei dium % and the lower

runner thiough the clearance Holes ;, / are prospaces
in the


to allow

pressure of the

upper penstock water under full head to pass




against the uppei runner L' In this way, the veitical pressure of the great






neutiahzed, and a piovided to counterthe





long, vertical shaft and the armature of the dynamo at

upper end



These turbines dischaige 430 cubic feet per 250 revolutions per minute, and aie lated at

5,000 horsepowei. Where a single vertical uinner

is used, a. piston is sometimes placed on the shaft revolving in a cylinder placed either above or below the runner Water under flume presis admitted underneath the piston The upward pressure of the water supports the weight of the rotating paits






Diaft Tubes of Constant Diametei*
a turbine

Let D,

a tight vertical penstock A, which connects the leseivon B with the taihace C This vertical

22, be


is called a cli aft tube The total head, or difference elevation between the suiface of the water in the reservon

and the surface of the tailrace, is denoted by //, as shown This head is made up of the head 7^ above the turbine, and the head // between the ^ turbine and the level of







acting on the surface of the watei in the icservoir,

and also on the





equivalent to a head of about 34 feet, this head will be denoted by //




the tin bine







watei can pass through the piessure on the top
evidently equal suie due to the head


to the pies//,

Fir 22

atmosphenc piessuie,

and the upwai d pressui e on
the unclei

equal to the pressure of the atmosphere minus the piessuie due to the head /i s

that tends to produce flow through the wheel according to the pi maples of hydiomechanics, the difference between the piessure on the two sides of the tuibme,

The piessuie

hence, it tot the piessuies aie substituted then equivalent heads, the head that tends to produce the flow is












5<> the

Tin bines aie sometimes placed below the surface of \\atei, as shown in Fig 23, in which case they arfc

said to



difEeience h in level

work "drowned Here, the effective head is still the between the surface of the water in the reseivoir and the smface of the tail-water, as will be made cleai from the following With the notation shown in the
figure, the total

head on the top

of the


is h^



the head on the under side of the turbine
fore, the resultant head




and There,

It will


Aa )




// = )






be observed that, by the use of a draft tube, the turbine can be placed fai above the tailrace, without any
loss of head, and this


the wheel
sible foi


easily acces-

inspection and



theoretical limit of the



22, that the


may be

placed above

the surface of the tail-water

never greatei than 34 feet, since that is the limit of the

height of a column that will be supported by the pressure
of the atmospheie



// for the prespression // sure head undei the wheel

FIG 23

that this



less than the


of the atmospheie, and is decreased as //, is made greater
is a


to this

reduced pressure, there

tendency for the

from the water that passes through the wheel If the tube is veiy long, this an may collect in the upper end, thus leducmg the head 7; and, consequently, the total effective head 7z, + h, Foi these reasons, tmbines, unless they are very small, are seldom placed more than 15 feet above the level of the tailwater

air to leak into the draft tube, air will also separate




58. The diameter of a draft tube is generally fixed by the design of the wheel Draft tubes are best made of cast iron or riveted plate, and, in all cases, must be thoroughly air-tight


tubes aie sometimes made, but are not to be recomof the difficulty in preventing leakage

mended on account

The lower ends should extend at least 4 inches below the surface of the tail-water at its lowest stage, and mast open into the tailrace in such a manner that the outflow will be free Any obstruction to the flow from the draft tube causes a loss of effective head, and a consequent loss of Cncumstances sometimes require that draft tubes efficiency should be made curved or be placed in inclined positions,
straight, vertical draft tubes aie,

however, piefeiable, because shoit bends or unusual lengths cause an appreciable loss










tuibine in which the absolute velocity of discharge from the wheel vanes is high may be inci eased by the use of a draft

tube whose cross-section increases gradually with the disA tube of this kind is called an tance from the wheel

Such tubes aie usually made form of a tube of uniformly increasand are often called conical diaft tubes. ing diameter, The area of the tube at the wheel should be nearly equal to the discharge area of the wheel buckets, rn order to prevent a sudden change in velocity in the entering water, and its section should be gradB ually enlarged toward the

expanding diaft tube
steel plates in the




The Boyden

fu&or, shown in Fig 24, is i a device used on outwardflow tui bines for the



same puipose

as an expanding draft

It consists of a stationary annular casing C which surtube rounds the wheel, and into which the water from the wheel The area of the passages through buckets B is discharged




casing gradually increases from the wheel outwaids, as The result is a decrease in the velocity of the outflowing watei


Tile value

of a diffusei


of an

expanding draft

tube depends on the absolute velocity of flow tiom the wheel If this velocity is small, the watei carnes veiy buckets

eneigy with it, and there will be little gain by the use any device intended to check the velocity of the spent It sometimes happens, however, that, with a given water diameter of wheel or a given numbei ot revolutions, the velocity of outflow from the wheel cannot be made small, and then a diftuser or a draft tube is of much value


Variations in Speed load on a tuibine is subject



classes of work,

to constant




especially the case with tutbmes that drive electnc generators It is, however, advisable to keep the speed as neaily uniform as possible This end may be attained by vaiying
the gate opening,

which can be done


by hand




of a device, called a



opeiated by

and works, theiefote, automatically Variation in the speed of a waterwheel may be due to changes either in the load or in the head, or in both Usually, changes in the load are sudden, while variations in the head
the tuibine itself, are gradual

The ease

01 difficulty of

governing a \\atei-

(1) the cause of speed variations, accoidmg to whethei they are due to changes in the load 01 in the head, or in both, (2) the magnitude and frequency of such variations, (3) the \\eight of the gate mechanism and the force required to move it,


is chiefly

controlled by the following factors

and kind of flume, (5) the kinetic eneigy stoied uinner and other revolving parts connected to the turbine shaft If the head did not vary, a certain gate opening would always give the proper speed for a ceitain
(4) the size
in the tuibine

load, but, with a varying head, the piopei gate

opening for

given load and speed






All water63. Classes of Watei wheel Governors wheel governors are equipped with centrifugal weights similar a belt fiom to those on a steam-engine goveinoi, dm en by A change in the position of these the watei wheel shaft weights, lesulting trom a change in the speed, starts the mechanism that opens or closes the gates Watei wheel goveinoi s are classed as Eiict ion-gear, ratchet-<.ind-pa.wl, diJTeieiitial-jyear, electrical, and

hydraulic, accoiding to the means employed to open or In hychauhc governors, the gate is operated close the gates either by watei under a piessuie due to the head in the flume, 01 by a piston chiven by oil kept under a constant pressuie In most other classes by means of a pouei-diiven pump
of go\ernorb, the water\\heel gate powei fiom the tin bine shaft



closed by

fiom the noimal

In the simpler toims ot governors, at which the wheel


the speed vanes intended to inn, the



centntugal weights connects the gate

mechanism with
or close, and
until the

the waterwheel, and the gates begin to open continue to do so, usually at a uniform rate,
to the

speed letuins


64. shows

a geneial

The Snow Watei wheel Governor Fig 25 view ot the Snow waterwheel governor, and

diagiam showing the pimciples of its action diiven fiom the wheel shaft by a belt on the The shatt and chives the spui wheel c by a pinion pulley to which c is keyed caines a bevel wheel d and a ciank e Two pawls /, /' on the aims / aie given a rocking motion b> A cam, means of the crank e and the connecting-iod foimed of two aims n, n, and opeiated by the governoi When the wheel is balls, acts on the pawls as follows miming at the noimal speed, the cam is held in its central position, as &ho\\n in the diagiam, and holds both pawls away from the ratchet wheel o If the \\heel runs too slowly,





the goveinoi balls drop and move the cam to the light, thus allowing the pawl / to engage the latchet wheel, and turn it
to the left

The motion

of the ratchet




to the gate shatt



thiough the bevel geais g, and as the

tatchet turns the gate is opened, thus admitting If the wheel inns too fast, the cam to the wheel

moie water





bringing the pawl


into action this turns the ratchet

to the right, and paitly closes the gate


spui \\heel




through a pinion on the latchet shatt to operate a stop that disengages the latJiet / when the gate it, tally opened

In order to stop the wheel, the pawl /' is disengaged by hand, thus leaving the gate shaft fiee to be turned by the

hand wheel k


The Replogle Governor.





shows the

Replogle waterwheel governor

centrifugal balls



by which the waterwheel gate is closed If. and by its attraction throws a pawl e into a latchet wheel /. the speed decreases. by which another pawl h is to open the watei wheel gate and completes the electnc circuit tin own into gear. the lever b comes FIG 2G in contact with the screw . and one-quarter ot the load I L T 399 2. on the contiaiy. Tlie Lombaid Goveinov A veiy desirable feature of a waterwheel goveinoi is that it should make the necessary change in the gate opening as rapidly as possible Some time is lequiied for the wheel and the connected mechanism to adjust themsehes ib to the for example. change of load opeiatmg at full gate. the wheel has been If. electric magnet forming pait of the gate-operating mechanism. which opeiates 66. becomes energized. which forms part of an electric in contact with the screw d. the speed will . suddenlv taken off. an circuit When the a.40 WATERWHEELS A fall fall 49 in in driven by a belt from the mam shaft rise or the speed of the shaft causes a coriespondmg rise or the levet levei b is b.

devices. the gate This lag in the gate mechanism fi om the di iving shaft When Fu this ib 27 done. means are employed. and will remain above the normal for some time. second. the speed of the governor will begin to change fiom the normal. and -vice versa closed or opened too fai before the governor speed ictuins to normal and disconnects the the wheel shaft. the requned to legulate the speed gate will continue to close as long as the speed remains above It follows that the gate will be the noimal. and the gate will again begin to move In order to preThe process will again be earned too fai vent this "bee-sawing" or "lacing. or returning:.50 WATERWHEELS 40 increase. even if the gate has been closed by the proper amount In most governois in which the gate is operated by power from movement is comparatively slo\\ gate legulation prolongs fuither the time In most simple governors. fiist." as this is called. . to stop the opening or closing of the gate before the speed returns to noimal Rapid gate opeiation is accomplished by the use of or hydraulic piessme 01 by quick-acting clutches to open The stopping of the gate movement in close the gate advance of the return of the speed to the normal is accom- soon as theie plished by what aie called compensating. to open or close the gate very quickly as is a change of speed. and.

and thus restonng the valve in the chest c to its middle position. the governoi balls raise or lower the valve stem 0'. necessary to contiol the pressure cylindei d. and drives the main lack c forThis lack lotates the pinion / and the gate shaft m. geai cdii mo\e backwards or forwards a shoit distance between the lack above and the pinion below. it the vahe stem k The valve in the chest c. which a. but thib. hydiauhc governor with compensating device to prevent racing. 51 is 67. which controls the admission of oil from the leserand and to \oira The piston in cylindei b then forces the rack h backwards or forwards. and d is called a velay cvlmdeis and valves is to i educe the size of the valve that must be controlled by the centrifugal balls. to be opeiated by the piessuie caused on the valve . a. operated by this stem. the latter being a simplified sketch of a pait of the mechanism The same letteis refei to similar patts in oil The tank a contains both figuies kept undei constant piessure by means of an an chamber and power pump This oil acts as a reseivon of power that used to operate the pistons contained in the cjlmdeis d.40 WATERWHEELS The Lombard \vatei\vlieel goveiuov. the theieby opening 01 closing the gate pinion/ lotates the floating gear.gear g is not fixed. controls the admission of pressuie to the mam cylindei d Considei the lack// as having moved forwaids shaft oil which is under gate The and pinion / have not moved. moving itbackwaids. wards m At the same time. and preventing The system of cylinany fuither motion of the gate shaft dei s and valves b. canymg with . is b The flyball open or close the waterwheel gates As the governor n is driven by a belt from the wheel shatt speed changes. and the duplicate thus enable the large valve. is shown in Figs 28 and 29. and hence the floating gear^ and valve stem k are moved foiwaids at the same time The oil under pressuie is admitted from the as the lack h chest a to the main cylindei. The object of c. cutting off the admission of oil to cylindei d. accoi cling as the speed is to be increased or deci eased The lack // meshes with the floating gear which in tuin meshes with the pinion /on the tuibme gate shaft m The axle of the floating.

j.52 WATERWHEELS o' 40 stem The by a small change in the speed of the governor balls manner which the motion of the rack // is stopped m automatically at the same time that the wheel gate is being moved will now be considered The rack h is connected to the valve stem oo' by a system of levers and linkages similar PIG 2S to t. 1 wards and forwards ot the lack h.u. which meshes . Fig 29 The lever j is connected at one end to the rack h by the link z. and is pivoted at p lo the fiaine ot the governor The other end is connected to the link q q' which contains the dashpot . The link g q moves back.g.t. and it in the m opposite dnection to the motion turn rotates the nut t.

01 the dashpot itself of the piston. and forcing the rack // forwards. and also the \al\e The dashpot will. this will in turn move the link q q' backwards. fall of the upper valve stem o for example. and thus stopping the movement of the racks h ande FIG 29 consists of a closed cylinder filled with oil The oil allows the and containing a loosely fitting piston either dnection without gieat resistpiston to move slowly ? The dashpot m may move and the piston remain The oil is not compressible.40 WATERWHEELS 53 The with a thread cut on the lower part o' of the valve stem rotation of this nut raises or lovveis this part of the valve stem independently of the rise or It. and. it lesists any sudden movement ance. permit the valve stem .28. owing to the stationaiy small space thiough which it must flow past the piston \\hen any movement takes place. is it the right-hand portion of the link q q' quickly moved. rotating the nut / and lowering the valve stem o'. however. laismgthe valve stem. it \\ill cany the dashpot and the left-hand sudden movement of the poition g of the link with it A rack h will stem o' move both piston and dashpot. the speed changes. so that. shutting off the oil supply from cylmdei b. Fig.

this due The power of a waterwheel backwatei. Regulation Wlieie is is Heart Varies. and the governoi is then It. so that it will make very nearly the proper change in gate opening at the first movement tlie 68. the pressure reservoir. thus preventing racing The dashpot is so adjusted as to allow the valve stem o to leturn to the position coiiesponding to the normal speed by speed is 1 the time the speed is readjusted. while the speed vanes as the square loot of the head If the head is reduced by greatest. an intermediate 01 auxiliary shaft. in order that both sets may operate It the head tui bines may . and in addition The sudden movement of the rack h lesponds duectly to any use or it lesponds to any mechanism 1 is so adjusted that a movement of the valve stem o ttom the latter cause can occur only after the former movement.54 to return WATERWHEELS slowly to its 40 cential position under the action of a spring The lower valve stem fall of o' the goveinot balls. the available head the discharge in the tailrace least in times of freshet. foi example. however. a second It is desnable to adjust smaller movement will take place ' the governor so that it is as neailv dead beat" as possible. may be necessaiy to maintain the proper speed is subject to large variations. called a jack-shaft. separate sets of be installed. to the In wost streams. the requisite power can be maintained by the use of additional units 01 tuibmes If. and is in The relay. the fiist gate ready tor anothei change movement is not exactly the necessaiy amount. that is. is when use of the watei vanes as the three-halves power of the head. one for ordinary use and one for use during periods of reduced head The tui bines should be of different designs. the same turbines are used when the head is reduced. the opposite diiection and the compensating device working together enable the gate to be changed almost instantly to the full amount required to maintain the speed constant. and at the same the gate opening is stopped befoie the time the change m leadjusted.

while for heads exceeding the minimum for the high-head turbine. are suddenly opened. while in Fig 31 is shown a waterwheel of the same size and capacity set in a closed penstock and supplied by a long. In Fig 30 is shown a watei wheel set in an open flume.40 at the WATERWHEELS same speed undei their respective heads 55 One low- head and one high-head turbine may conveniently be mounted on the same shaft. and works under a head // the gates of wheel A. the Q water will as soon as begin to flow thiough the wheel to its full capacity the foice of gravity can impart the necessary . Effect of a Jjonf? Penstock on Regulation. part gate minimum 69. Fig 30. the latter is used at tin bines. but they should have sepaiate gates The capacity of the lowhead tuibine should be equal to that of the high-head tuibine under the least head at is which to the latter opeiate foi the For heads betw een the two FlG the lowhead tuibine is used at part gate. cylindrical flume Suppose that each wheel has a capacity FIG 31 of If cubic feet per second.

and least for a tuibine set in an It is open flume impossible for a govemor to operate the turbine gates It follows that. expressed foot-pounds pei second. an inciease or decrease. an the turbine is . there will be a coirespondmg lag or lapse of time befoie the velocity in the flume C is changed. a ceitain amount of time will elapse between a change of load and the readjust- ment of the turbine speed During this period of lag. Fig then. are suddenly opened..56 WATERWHEELS to the 40 motion wheel water lying immediately over and around the 31. and to rise too high if the load on the turbine has been decreased in Watet wheels. the kinetic water column in the flume C. before the water can slow down to the velocity z/. in the gate opening of the turbine B. As explained of the energy K m Tr _ W A 1? wheie If w ~W 31. in order to supply the wheel to full capacity. Part 1. in the case until the load begins to change of a turbine supplied with a long pipe. so that the velocity in the flume required to supply reduced to some amount v^ which is less than ?'. If the gates of wheel B. closed flume. S~L denoting by A the aieaof cross-section C The time required in the to impart a given velocity in direct water contained proportion to the ratio of the penstock C increases length / of the flume either C to the head h Whenever theie is any change. the speed will tend to fall too low if the load has been increased. is the weight of 1 cubic foot of water are suddenly closed the gates of the tuibine B. Fig in pait. the entire the conduit Cmust be set in motion with a column of water m velocity v equal to of the flume to the --. and hence also a lapse of time will occur before the turbine begins to operate at the proper The amount of this lag will be greatest for a capacity turbine supplied by a long. then. is given by the formula 70.

and a corresponding mciease m the speed of the tutbme 71. the water level will rise in the standpipe. Water Hammei The sudden is increase in pressure called following a sudden change of velocity watei ham- This pressuie may be pi evented from pioducing injurious results by the use of a standpipe connected to the in Fig 31 flume neai the tuibme. the pressure from A similar result may inci easing to an undesiiable amount be accomplished by the use of a pressure-relief valve or by placing an an cliambei in connection with the flume or The pressure-ielief valve consists penstock of the tuibme of a \alve connected to the flume and ordinarily kept shut by means of a spnng. 1 K '. m m must be expended Hence. it opens and permits some water to mei D waste whenever the piessure rises above the propei limit Its action is similar to that of the ordinary safety valve used on steam boileis In determining the necessary strength of long. closed flume will cause a temporary increase in the pressiue in the flume and in the turbine itself. allowance should be made for the pressure that may result from water hammer . the pressure must It follows increase until ihe suiplus energy is expended that a sudden i eduction in the gate opening of a turbine supplied by a long. as shown at The standpipe should have an overflow E at about the same level as the water m the pond G When the tmbine gates are closed and the pressure begins to rise.40 WATERWHEELS 57 amount contained of energy the energy equal to the difference the water before and after the change in velocity. The energy of the \vatei contained in the flume is expended by the exeition of pressiue on the moving vanes of the turbine. permitting some watei to overflow and preventing. when the velocity is decreased. closed pipes.

as shown in the figure FIG 32 The extended upwards to the floor of the testingThe room. showing place foi testing 1 Fig 32 is a cioss- section of the a turbine D in the wheel pit A with Turbines aie usually tested with the shaft in a vertical position. by the method descubed in connection with the testing of impulse watei wheels The spent water shaft is . and carries a biake pulley B at its upper end power is calculated fiom the readings of the scales F and the speed indicator E. 40 The Holyoke Testing: Flume Holvoke flume.58 WATERWHEELS THE TESTING OF TURBINES 72.

column 5 head (column explained in 4). in the manner t The speed ratio given in Waletivheds. Tabulation of Kesults The table on page 60 shows the results of a Holyoke test of a 36-inch Hercules tuibme at full gate The measured head and the revolutions The per minute ate given in columns 4 and 5. both above and tests below the speed of maximum efficiency A set of observa- and gate opening coveis from 3 to 5 minutes. Part 1 ) be determined fiom the brake hoisepower (column 8). and fiom readings of these gauges the head acting on the wheel and the discharge are detei mined Each wheel is tested at at a several widths of gate opening A series of given gate opening usually comprises sets of observations at several different speeds. and the means of the readings are used in pertions at a given speed forming the computations 73. and the spued given in (See the testing of The efficiency may impulse wheels in Watet wheels. the conespondmg discharge and power undei a constant or standard head are determined The head coi responding is to the speed of maximum full- gate efficiency usually chosen as a standard head The . Part 1 column 11 is the latio of the circumferential velocity v of the inflow circle of the runner to the theoietical velocity *fagh due to the head 74. 59 it discharged into a tailrace from which passes over a weir Hook gauges are used to determine the elevation of the water surface in the flume and in the tailrace above the weir. the diametei of the brake pulley. The head usually vanes In order to compaie the operation of the turbine slightly during the tests at different speeds and gate openings.40 is WATERWHEELS C. respectively discharge in column 6 is calculated fiom the readings of the tailrace wen. and is coirected toi leakage. duung the test. and from the length of the brake lever. and discharge (column 6). readings of all the gauges and of the bieak scales and speed indicator are taken at frequent mteivals. if any occuis The biake hoisepowei in column 8 is calculated fiom the weight on the brake scales as given in column 7.

60 .

standard head. and Q = 153 5 Then. ?. at standard head. the ge of a tuibine at a given gate opening usually decieases as the load deci eases. are standard shown in column 9 of the table The proportional discharge given in column 10 is the ratio of the discharge reduced to standard head for any speed to the measured discharge at full gate for the speed oi maximum efficiency Let Q = Q = a full-gate dischai ge at maximum efficiency. 01 as the speed increases An overloaded turbine will as a rule use a little more water than one running at its normal load under the same head and gate . = By formula 153 5 = \j-gq 1 cu ft per sec Ans 2. As portional dischai ge manner at full be seen from the table on page 60. will = = 732 Aus 75. since the discharges are proportional to the velocities. Q. // Q Jh \ (1) (2) on a test when the head is What is the discharge at standard head and the proporper second tional discharge for a speed tnal at part gate for which the head is 15 26 feet and the discharge 153 5 cubic feet per second ? full-gate efficiency of a turbine is found 14 01 feet and the discharge 201 cubic feet = 14 01. 7 '- V//. reduced to the head. h = 15 26. we have _ = = = = corresponding dischai ge propoitional discharge. by foimula 1.40 WATERVVHEELS 61 discharges for the different speeds. the provaned with the speed in a nearly regular This is round to be the case at pait gate as well as dischai For the ordinary lange of speed variation. and the velocities to the square roots of the heads. Q = V/r. =- -' EXAMPLE The maximum SOLUTION Heie. q //o // actual head in the trial considered Then. actual discharge foi any speed trial. Oa = 147 201 0. whence 0.

the efficiei at the constant speed at which the wheel is intended to ] must be taken into account Usually. the Testing Tin bmes 111 Use. the great fraction. it is desired to mamt the speed constant at various gate openings. the amount of opening is expressed as a decn 76. which often is a mi mum when the wheel inns at part gate. the efficiency efficiency The wheel gives fiom that at its maximum hoisepower efficiency is a a different speed which the maximi Tables similar to the one on page 60 can be c is only partly open Usually. generally. use. the proportional dischaige being somew This is ger greater than the proportional gate opening ally tiue of American-type tui bines For example. for a 75 and although it is sometimes piopoitional opening of betwi a much smaller open If a tin gives the maximum efficiency bine is to be opeia at part gate.62 WATERWHEELS . and tabulated the " Although efficiency occuis 1. a wh generally uses more than one-half the when operating proportional at one-half gate The gate opening and the amount of wa between discharge vanes \\ full relation the type of gate used 77. as in the case . or else. and is usually gieatest at full gate. power is either measured by of In testing turbines a friction brake or some other form dynamometer. the discharge is not duectly proportional to gate opening. structed for tests in which the gate as "Pioportional gate opening horsepower of a tuibine increases with gate opening. S The maximum full-gate efficiency for this gate opening bine is about 85 8 per cent with a speed latio of about The efficiency decieased but little for a \anation of seve pei cent t when the speed ratio was below ab The hoisepou decreased moie lapidly which is affected by both the discharge and the efficien vanes with the speed somewhat more rapidly than in speed. desnable to secure as gieat an efficiency possible at the gate opening at which the wheel is mtenc to run If. as is usually the case. but 64. the sa is not always tiue of the efficiency.

and a draft tube to or taihace. the data obtained and the general methods same as those used at Holyoke 78. and containing one or Waterwheels aie often set in open wooden more wheels The words flumes \\ithout the use of separate penstocks ihnne and penstock aie often used with the meanings here An non or steel penstock is often given interchanged called a case. Definitions TURBINE INSTALLATIONS A tuibine plant usually includes a dam the impound the watei. but . or both. and many case. when wet. form of conduit consists of a canal dug along the side slope of the stieam valley In order to prevent loss by peicolation through the porous soil.40 WATERWHEELS it 63 turbines driving electrical generators. may from the recorded electrical output duimg the test be computed The discharge is usually measuied by a weir. is likely to slip and yield. A loamy mixis the best Sometimes. the water is taken bank-forming material dnectly into the penstock from the pond or head-race. canals dug m m eaith may have their banks puddled by thoioughly mixing and com- pacting a wall of wet. although floats or The details of the current meters are sometimes used methods of conducting the test vary gieatly with the conditions to prevent place of reducing the results are about the Great care must be taken to insure accuracy and unmeasmed losses of power or water from taking As a rule. as sand 01 gravel. a conduit to carry the water to turbine.s the cheapest. a compaitment foi the tui bines. Conduits The simplest. 01 casing. this use of the woicl should be avoided 79. but. to letuin the watei to the stieam below The word flume will be used here to describe the pipe or channel that leads the water from the dam or power canal to the compai tment containing the waterwheel penstock is A a compaitment sepaiate from the flume. and for this leason the entne banks should not be built of clay tuie of clay with a firmer soil. plastic clay in the center of the dikes Clay. as the waterwheel itself has a case.

they aie not very durable Open rectangulai aie cheap. and are cheap and very durable They can stand very heavy pressures. on account of the growth of a vegetable slime on their inteuoi sin faces. being very smooth. there should be an an valve at each sum- when the pipe is Caie should be exercised to allow the an to being filled enter the pipe freely in case the head-gates at the entry er d mit. the velocity in power flumes is not usually allowed to exceed 4 feet per second mean 80. A drain valve should always be provided at the lower end. see Water Supply. so that the imprisoned air can escape . and can be run up and down the n regularities of the ground surface. or buried at a sufficient depth to prevent Stave pipe has. the advantage that its freezing inner suiface.64 frequently a WATERWHEELS wood or iron flume is 40 wooden flumes rot easily. or where it is desired to make short bends or connections For light piessuies. so that the water can be diawn out of the flume when the waterwheels aie shut down It a closed flume passes over hills. Pait 2 Riveted non or steel pipe used for short flumes under high pressures. which greatly increases the loss by fnction Conduits are often made of lemforced concrete their interior sui faces being usually washed with neat cement to render them smoothei and water-tight In order to prevent excessive loss of head by friction. it can be purchased leady made in suitable lengths to be put together with slip or flanged joints All toims of iron and steel pipe should be coated outside and inside with asphaltum or coal tar to pievent lusting The carrying capacity of such pipes decreases with time. spiral riveted pipe may be used. besides. butj as they Power canals are used sometimes lined with cement to prevent seepage and to decrease the triction and consequent loss of head Circular wooden flumes of stave pipe aie often used They are commonly made of cypress 01 of California redwood. and easily constructed. causes little faction loss For fmther particulars regarding stave is pipe.

in that the wheel. worm-gears. penstock. of a flume 01 penstock The gate is raised or lowered by means of a rack and pinion and a lever that can be insetted in the capstan head // of the pinion shaft A pawl p serves to hold the gate fiom running clown Various combinations of screws. and the pressuie of the atmosphere on the outside of the pipe may be sufficient to cause the pipe to collapse 81. so FIG 33 may be drained for Fig 33 shows a simple foim of headgate. consisting ot a plank gate g that slides over the inlet end . Head-Gates Head-gates that will close the inlet end of the flume or penstock should always be provided. and flume inspection and lepairs place of the L T 39923 I. a vacuum may form in it. and tiains of spur wheels are also used foi operating head-gates.40 are closed WATERWHEELS when the drain valve is 65 opened A standpipe having an open end rising above the hydraulic gradient answers this purpose If the air cannot enter the pipe. simple levei arrangement shown in Fig 33 .

66 WATERWHEELS (t>) 40 of an iron gate steel pipes An elevation (a) and a vertical section valve. This neces- dome sary. be protected from stances that Turbines must and similar submight clog them by catching between the wheel sticks. prevent- ing leakage The \ alve seat is usually made of biass 01 bronze to prevent the gate from rusting and sticking When the valve is opened. Racks and Screens. in orclei to piofault mon are duce a back pressme on the valve. and thus enable the gate to be opened more easily 82. and the bars and washets ate held together by long bolts passing through both Fig 35 shows a single bar of . fish. be protected The agatnbt heezing force lequiied to start such a valve is ically much greatei than that to requited FlG 34 operate it attet staiting A com- valves is the use of operating gears that When enough sometimes filled with gate not stiong used under heavy piessuies. such as is often used with iron penstocks. and Booms ice. are shown in Fig 34 and and The wedge-shaped gate a fits closely against the valve seat c when the gate is closed. leaves. A lack made of thin bais of non is usually and guides The bars in the placed in the flume ]ust above the penstock rack must be fai enough apart to allow the water to flow thiouoh treely The bars are usually separated by non washeis. the into gate is diawn up d if the dome should. the flume is through the by-pass valve />.

and both adhere to the object with which they come in contact Scieen racks and tin bine vanes very quickly become blocked if needle ice is allowed to enter them Needle ice does not form in deep. but it will not usually give trouble where there is a deep. the finer and is the non rack the placed at entrance to the penstock log or A floating to logs chained togethei torm a FlG 35 boom may way also be stretched acioss the entrance to the race01 This will usually pi event floating logs trom entering the head-race 1 cakes of ice 83. frozen pond. which aie cooled below This form is known as fieezmg tempeiatuie by ladiation anclioi ice On warm and cloudy days. or fia7il solid cakes. masses ot anchor bieak loose and rise. if the water is taken riom the pond into a closed flume or penstock at a depth . otten canying stones embedded in The two foims of needle ice lesemble each other closely. scieen racks. wheie the watei is cooled to 32 having time to fieeze solid. and not Needle ice is fonned in two ways entnely at the suiface without (1) in rapids. and tut bines are often obstiucted in winter by a form ot soft. still ponds nor under a ice them covei of suiface ice tance nndei the It is sometimes carried for some dis- suiface ice.40 WATERWHEELS 67 The end b is bolted to the floor of a platform good foim on which a workman stands to remove the trash with a short tooth rake having teeth spaced the same distance apart as the lack bars A coarse is wooden lack at sometimes used entiance to the race. spongy ice resembling snow slush. and (2) on stones or other daik objects in the bed of a stieam. Anchor Ice Power canals. This ice does not foim and called needle ice. Needle Ice and. but floats suspended in the water.

with the result that their apparent efficiency will be low the 85. shown in Fig 30 All the water entering the wheel passes 1 the section a a' Half of the water passes the section b b There must be a considerthrough the center of the wheel able space at each side of the wheel as well as a suitable depth at the top. while those farther removed will receive a deficient supply. and in addition the head due to the draft tube may be lost The lack of owing to the suction of air through the wheel sufficient access room around the guide inlets has been the many failures. fed m It may happen that the wheels nearest from the same flume the entry end of the penstock will receive abundant water. Fig 36 shows method of setting a turbine in an open wooden flume. the watei must make a very abrupt turn to get into the wheel. which causes low efficiency. Penstocks.68 of several feet late in a WATERWHEELS below the surface If 40 once allowed to accumu- power canal. Veitical Wheels in Open Flume. a careful study of the course that the water will take in reaching the wheels should be made. as a penstock In older to secure the advantage ot the entiie fall. . is order that sufficient space may be piovided This especially true when there aie several wheels in line. and the water coming fiom As a result. especially cause of where steel penstocks are to used Such failures are often wrongly attributed the watei wheels themselves In the design of penstocks. the wheel opposite sides may form an eddy buckets may be only partly filled. and may prevent the use of the power for some time as 84. the floor of the penstock must be low enough for the discharge opening ot the wheel case to be always submerged m the tail-water This method of setting is cheap. and usually provides sufficient watei space around the wheel Several wheels are often placed in the which also serves same flume The disadvantages of this method are the necessity of stopping all the wheels and drawing the water out of the flume in order to make repairs or inspection. Consider a wheel set m an open flume. needle ice is hard to remove. otherwise.

40 WATERWHEELS 69 tic 36 llfi'l tin In FIG 37 .

shows Wheels in Cylindrical pairs of wheels can conveniently be placed side by side in the provided at the enhance to the flume. from which the dratt The tube c conducts the spent water to the tailrace a runners face in opposite directions. so that the wheels are accessible toi inspection and repair same powei house A head-gate e is . shows a pair of turbines Horizontal Wheels in Open Flumes mounted on a horizontal Fig 37 shaft and discharging into a central draft chest d. and a manhole is provided in the cylindrical case.70 WATER WHEELS :40 If it is desired to utilize the wheels together. the gates of one pan can be closed if necessary in the FIG 38 Penstocks Fig 38 wheels fed by a steel flume b and mounted in a cylindncal steel penstock a a The runners discharge Irom the ends of the penstock into the diaft tubes c and d Se\eral a pair of 87. and thus a very large power can be obtained on a single high-speed shaft During low watei. and the end thrust is Two or more pairs can be set in line therefore neutralized same flume. they are usually connected by means of bevel gearing to a horizontal shaft running along the top of the flume 86.

Tailiace. which wheels by backwater will wheie it may i educe the head on the v \ i * / \. . directly under the flume may flow from the tail-pit directly into the stream or into a taihace tailrace is necessaiy where the power plant is located at a distance from the stieam. The spent \vater from turbines is disThe water charged into a tail-pit. the downward discharge fiom it the turbines mav stn the soil and deposit in the tailrace. if this is not done. the tail- In velocity should not be so low as to If the bottom ot the tail-pit is soft permit ice foimation material. fonn a bainer 01 dam.40 WATERWHEELS 71 88. in ordei to pi event watei fiom flowing through or over it into the tailrace excavation in oidei to ot this taihace will usually reqmie educe the loss ot head by slope and The fiiction. and to give the spent watei a free outlet amount that can be economically expended in excavating a taihace depends chiefly on the amount of head to be gained. it may also be used to increase the head by carrying the water down stream past lapids or shoals to a point \\here the surface of the In some cases. and the value of the powei lace may be usually between 2 and 4 feet per second cold climates. the length of lace. it snould be floored with timbet 01 concrete. the chaiactei of the mateiial to be excai The bottom The velocity in a vated. stieam is lowei than at the foot of the dam the tailrace is A constmcted by walling a off a portion of the natural stream channel with masonry or timber breakthe high-water water The breakwater should extend above level of the stieam. and should be nearly water-tight.

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