Introduction Mythological Context of the Easter Island Tablets

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Long ago, on a tiny island located in the most remote location of the Pacific and perhaps the world, a people migrated who brought with them scrolls of a mysterious hieroglyphics. This sounds like the beginning of a science fiction adventure, but it is a reality and riddle integral to human history. Their original migrating chief‘s name was Hotu Matua and their island, Te Pito te Henua, the End of the Earth. Admiral Roggeveen and his crew introduced the island, today‘s Rapa Nui, to colonial Europe on Easter Sunday, April 5th, 1721 and so they called it Easter Island.

Figure: Rapa Nui in the remote South Pacific from NASA

From perhaps 500 c.e. Te Pito o te Henua grew to a few thousand inhabitants. The Gonzalez expedition of 1770 found a bountiful island with several gardens, one measuring 1.5 miles by 0.75 mile, filled with sugar cane, sweet potatoes, taro, yams, white gourds and more. The islanders were skilled in fishing while casting nets from the shore, cliff diving with spears and deep sea Tuna fishing. There was a vibrant ceremonial culture on Rapa Nui with a yearly Tangata Manu Birdman Egg Hunt. The clan that found the first egg layed by the Sooty Tern would crown their chief as king of the island for the entire year. The clan chose a youthful contestant who was required to swim two kilometres to the island of Motu Nui, the seasonal nesting site. A tattooing rite of passage initiated this ceremony, with a great procession decorated with costume, dancing, feasting and chants. Tohunga priests read the most sacred chants from tablets of this mysterious hieroglyphs, called Tohau rongorongo writing boards. A sample of a Rongorongo writing tablet is given below:

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Figure: Rongorongo writing tablet

Holding these tablets the Tohunga recited their prayers for a successful Tangata Manu Egg Hunt from stone prayer houses in the ceremonial village of Orongo high atop the volcano crater, Rano Kao. Below is an illustration of the appearance inside one of these prayer houses from the perspective of the Tohunga reciting the incantations directly off of a Rongorongo board.

Figure: Stone prayer house atop Rongorongo village.

To understand what is written on these tablets it is important to clarify the purpose of this prayer house and its sacred artifacts. There are four artifacts illustrated. The tablet itself in the lower left contains chants that assist the Bird-man in his swim to retrieve the first egg of the Sooty Tern, called the Tavake by the islanders. Some of these chants are deciphered syllable by syllable, word for word in the chapters below. In the lower right is a stone with a Bird-man carving. He is carrying the first egg and, therefore, represents the winning contestant of the Tangata-manu egg hunt. Painted on the ceiling of the stone 3

house is a depiction of twin birds like a mirror image. One bird represents the deity of the Sun, the Creator. Rapa Nui called this primary bird-deity Tavake, Taha or Taa. Elsewhere in Polynesia this Creator and bird deity of the Sun is called, Tane. The Tangata-manu contestant is called to become the mirror reflection of this divine bird. And in retrieving the first egg of the Sooty Tern laying season, the Tangata-manu is symbolically retrieving the life that the Creator bestows upon the island for the entire year. Curiously, there is an eight-foot-tall moai statue half buried in one of these sacred prayer houses. This statue is called, Hoa Hakanana‘ia, the hidden friend. Are the carvings on the back of the Hoa statue a key in deciphering the Easter Island Tablets? This research will confirm that this statue is a key to deciphering the Easter Island tablets. These back carvings point us to a broader Polynesian mythology in our attempts to decipher the Rongorongo tablets. Notice the two birds with broken wings carved on the back shoulders. In Polyensian lore, Mu and Weka are birds with broken wings that nourish the trickster hero, Maui-potiki.

Are the carvings on the back of the Hoa statue a key to decipher the Easter Island Tablets?

Figure: Hoa Hakanana‘iai

Hoa Hakanana‘ia, illustrated above, is the moai statue Katherine Routledge was looking for when she said, ―(The Bird Cult)… is doubly interesting if it can be proved to have had 4

at least some connection with the great statues.‖ii This statue was central to the recitation ceremony of Orongo village, since it was located in the sacred and tapu stone houses where the Tohunga fasted and prayed for the Tangata-manu who were swimming to retrieve the first egg.

Also connecting the statue to the Rongorongo writing boards are the Rongorongo carvings on the stone giant‘s back. For example, as illustrated there are three power oars on the back of the statue. The princes of the island would carry ceremonial oars, called Ao, during the Tangata-manu procession up to Orongo village. Polynesian oars, called Rapa, are carved onto the Rapa Nui tablets several different times. One such Rapa oar is illustrated below as a Rongorongo glyph on this large Reimiro neck ornament of the Rapa Nui Chief.

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Figure: Reimiro neck ornament of Easter Island chief carved with the Rapa oar.

The Reimiro neck ornaments were worn by early Easter Island royalty. Does the carving on the chief‘s neck ornament identify a Polynesian word or name ending in Rapa? The Maori identify the guardian of ocean migrations as Tuhinapo-Rapa. The syllables of Tuhi-na-po unravel from the appearance of this Reimiro glyph where each section forms a syllable from the symbol it signifies, starting from the bottom two legs: TU (representing to stand); HI/hianga (to stoop or to fall); NA/nao or wha (to feel for/to reveal); PO/poi (a ball) = TU – HI – NA – PO + the RAPA oar as the Guardian of Ocean Migrations as described in the mythology of the New Zealand Maori (Dansereau, 2011; Tregear, 1891). The Easter Islanders have retained enough words in the old Rapa Nui dictionary to confirm: Tu (to crush); Higa (to fall); Naonao (a mosquito or one who feels for); Popo (a ball). Like the Rosetta Stone, the parallels from known history help to unravel formerly unknown symbols. Does the Reimiro glyph with the Rapa oar identify a means of translating Rongorongo tablet syllables and words?

Does the Reimiro glyph with the Rapa oar identify a means of translating Rongorongo?
A similar process is used for the interpretation of all Rongorongo hieroglyphs: the Rapa oar serves as a flag glyph; the study of these flag glyphs lead to Rosetta Stone like parallels in the broader Polynesian mythology; syllables begin to verify themselves as they continuously fit into the words and sentences of these Rongorongo chants. This method of decipherment has identified several chants and enabled the decipherment of significant portions of the Rongorongo tablets in the chapters below. These chants also helps to unravel the remarkable mystery of the Tangata Manu Birdman Ceremony as they relate to the 887 giant statues on this island.

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This map of Rapa Nui illustrates the location of Orongo village beside the Rano Kao crator and close to the island of Motu-nui, where the Sooty Terns seasonally nest. The contestants of the Egg Hunt represent various chiefs from corresponding tribes and clans across the island. The first to find the egg enables his own chief to rule the island for the year. The contestant is then given a sacred house beside Rano Raraku, the volcano crater where most of the 887 statues were carved. He lives at this house, called Orohie, in solitude and prayer. For the entire year the islanders must bring food offerings to feed him like a young bird fed by his parents. Do these Birdman analogies in Rapa Nui ceremony appear in the symbols carved on the Rongorongo writing boards? There is a relationship between the carving of the statues and the tattoo carving at the beginning of the Tangata-manu ceremony. That is, not only the birds, but also the statues themselves are models for the rite of passage of the Tangata-manu. The numerous statues hatch from the volcano quarry, much like young birds. These statues are transported to the coastal grave platforms, called Ahu. The largest of these platforms rests on the shore near Rano Raraku and is called, Ahu Tonga-riki. Upon Tonga-riki stand 15 moai statues averaging 15 feet in height. Together, the 887 moai statues appear to represent a giant mythical landscape. This landscape is found in broader Polynesian mythology again telling of the exploits of Maui the trickster hero and deciphered below in the chapter called, Maui‘s Ball Game – the Tattoo Soothing Chant.

Do the Birdmen in Rapa Nui ceremony appear carved on the Rongorongo writing boards?
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The sacred writing boards numbered in the hundreds and were distributed by the priests to the households throughout Rapa Nui. The sacred tablets were wrapped in hair and then in reeds and hung reverently in the houses. These tablet owners met at the official recitation ceremony of Anakenaiii at the north end of the island. Here a circle of sticks strung with feathers, called maro, surrounded the ahu1 where each rongorongo priest wore a feathered hat and recited his tablet with occasional corrections and elaborations by the elders. If the reader made a glaring mistake a child was instructed to lead him away by the ear with, ―are you not ashamed, to be taken out by a child?‖iv After a good session the chief gave the readers each a chicken (Wolff. 1945. P. 3). From Anakena, the bird symbolism continued up to the Tangata-manu Bird-man Ceremony at Orongo village. Tangata-manu: the Bird-Man Egg Hunt Ritual During the month of September a procession of men carrying the ceremonial oars called, Ao, and woman wearing the ceremonial neck ornaments called, Reimiro, proceeded to the summit of Rano Kao. Rano Kao is the largest and southern most volcano on Easter Island. At the summit they reached the ceremonial village of Orongo Inside one of the stone houses is the moai statue called, ―Hao Hakanana‘ia‖. Routledge gives its name meaning, ―the wave turns over and breaks‖ (Routledge. 1917. P. 342) or the Master Wave Breaker. The most common translation of Hao Hakanana‘ia is the hidden or stollen friend. In these houses, and the ‗house of Hoa Hakanana‘ia‘, the tangata rongorongo2 would fast and pray for the success of the tangata manu3 egg hunt. While the tamariki ao and tamahina reimiro4 prayed outside the orongo houses, the hopu5 swam to the island of Hotu Nui and waited in a cave for the mata tara birds to lay their eggs. This cave was divided equally between the tribes of Ko-tuu and Hotu-iti just as Orongo‘s 46 houses were divided among the Tohunga priests. It is small enough that the birdmen would be huddled like birds while waiting for the eggs. The winner of the egg race was the one who retrieved the first egg laid by the Sooty Tern. The bird-man took his egg and stood on the northern tip of Motu Nui island and cried, ―Shave your head, you have got an egg.‖ Just under the village of Orongo is a cave facing the islet with ‗listeners‘ who can hear the winner. The cave is called, Haka-ronga-manu or ‗Cave of Listening for the Birds‘, which draws another parallel between the recitation of the tablets and the tangata-manu ceremony together with the initial tattooing rite. Do the tattooing patterns carved on those celebrating the Tangata-manu ceremony contain messages found on the Rongorongo boards? It is important to examine the Rongorongo writing boards while answering these questions. In chapters below, it will become evident that the carvings on the writing boards match various tattoo designs just as these carvings appear on the back of moai Hoa Hakanana‘ia.

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Ahu: a sacred mound, burial site and/or the platforms where the rows of moai statues were placed. Tangata rongorongo: man of the listening (boards). 3 Tangata manu: bird-man 4 Tamariki ao & tamahina reimiro: sons with the ceremonial oars and daughters with the neck ornaments. 5 Hopu: the servant of the bird-man entering in the tangata-manu egg hunt. Hopu literally means to grasp or steal.

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This Christianizing of Rapa Nui may have been influenced by the early elder named Rega Varevare a Te Niu of Poike who had a vision he shared with the entire island the day before his death: A wooden house will arrive at Tarakiu (near Vaihu), a barge will arrive, animals will arrive with the faces of eels (horses), golden thistles (poporo) will come, and the Lord will be heard in heaven.‖ Soon after his death the first missionaries arrived and nearly the entire island converted. Hoa Hakanana’ia: the First Bird-man These carvings on Hoa‘s back hidden in the Orongo house help unravel as an organic whole the mystery, the written languagev, the moai statues, the ceremony and the mythologyvi of Easter Island. Therefore this research can explore Easter Island‘s statues, writing and rituals as produced and practiced together within a single cultural framework.vii For example, the winning Birdman‘s head is shaven much like the heads of the moai at the Rano Raraku quarry. When the shaven Birdman begins his fast at the Orohie house beside this quarry his head is covered in a red mixture. Does this red covering also correspond with the red tufa hats placed on some of the moai on the ahu platforms?

Figure: Moai statue on ahu platform with red tufa stone hat

Hoa Hakanana‘ia produces this organic symmetry between the tangata-manu egg hunt, the moai statues and the rongorongo tablets from the following perspectives: i. the moai‘s location in the Orongo village ii. the moai‘s name compared with Polynesian mythologyand language iii. the moai‘s back carvings expressing Easter Island ritual. 9

i. The Moai‘s Location – Orongo Village The location of the moai statue of Hoa Hakanana‘ia rests on Rano Kao high above the crater‘s deep swamp. From this kilometer high location the stone moai was buried halfway in one of Orongo houses of the tanagata-manu ritualviii. The race involved a descent of 1000 meter cliff on the south side of Rano Kao. Once at sea level the contestant would swim a few kilometers to Motu-nui. In the largest cave was a picture of a large power oar or rapa oar, called an Ao (Métraux, 1971, p. 332) carried up to Orongo by previous the winner of the egg hunt. This power or Ao group, would reside at the north slope of Ranu Kao at Mataveri. Also, in the caves there were bones and crypts mostly removed or taken to museums along with a moai statue lying down, called Titihanga-o-te-henua. Métraux adds that this moai statue marked the boundary between Ko-Tuu and Hotu-iti. The Rongorongo elders praying at Orongo were called, koro-hua and divining priests called, ivi-atua. Métraux describes how food was prepared in earth ovens; some food was sent to the hopu; some food was given to the priests to consecrate to the gods, Haua and Makemake, with these sacred words: ka too ma Haua, ma Makemake. The eating of the god ritual may have been the original ceremony at Mataveri, which became desecrated by a way-word group or priest into the malignant rites of cannibalism and human sacrifice.ix The majority of Indigenous cultures had myths and legends disapproving of these corruptions in sacred ritual, Easter Island included, which confirms that cannibalism was not an element of the original rituals. The victory egg was presented by the hopu to the tangata-manu at Orongo. His house near Rano Raraku, was called, Orohie.x Why make statues? Polynesia funeral ceremonies for chiefs and priests involved the raising of their canoe or a great stone, called a Standing Up Rod or tiki (Tregear, 1891, tiki). This funeral stone marked the sacred Standing Place or ahu, is where the spirit could sing ancient incantations learned from the ancestors to protect the living descendants of the land. There was a firm belief in the afterlife, in spiritual beings and a belief in the influence of the deceased and heavenly beings on the living (Fornander, 1969, pp. 83-85). The purpose of the moai was for coming generations to call to mind the ancestor it represented. Once the deceased was remembered with affection by recalling his sacred songs, the living would be protected from evil spirits, evil omens or anyone trying to invade their land (Barthel, 1978, pp. 274-276). The bird became the natural symbol for these spirits that sore above the island to the stars and ever call out their prayers for their island children.

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Figure: Sacred gravesite Ahu platform where moai statues stand

Figure: Ahu gravesite includes a larger ceremonial area

Inside the crater, Raro-Ranaku, are the 46 bald moai, which must confirm the original number of contestants due to the like number of Orongo stone prayer houses (Métreux, 1971, p. 336). Those on the side of the crater have been carved to represent various stages of transformation, lying down or in transit. Others have been set on the platforms, some with the red volcanic tufa hats (Métreux, 1971, p. 31). Some are scattered over the middle of the island much like milestones to help apportion the island to the clans. Also worthy of notice are the eyes inlaid with shells once the moai has been placed upon the ahu platform (EISP, 2010) to signify being enlightened in the afterlife. That is, the tohunga priest who knew the incantations during life, was given a special designation as wananga (lit. knowledgeable one) or spirit guide after death (Tregear, 1891, tohunga, wananga).

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Figure: Moai statues raised up on the Ahu plattforms have eyes inlaid with shells

The location of each moai is significant. There is 887 moai mapped on Island surveys. 288 originally stood on sacred platforms, called ahuxi. Several are scattered on paths, while others remain inside and outside of the quarry crater, Rano Raraku. During the decipherment of the Small Reimiro tablet, the brothers of Maui and Maui-tiki-tiki from broader Polynesian were discovered in the Rongorongo carvings. More amazingly, their names defined the location of the statue moai of Easter Island (see the chart and map below; also see Maui‘s Ball Game: the Tattoo Soothing Chant chapter).
Table 2: The moai statues corresponding to Maui and his brothers of Polynesian lore (Tregear, 1891)

Brother of Maui (Polynesian dialect – English) Maui-mua / Maui - In front of Maui-roto / Maui – Inside Maui-waho / Maui – Outside Maui-pae / Maui – Platform Maui-taha / Maui – Side Maui-potiki/tikitiki / Maui of the Topknot

Location of Moai Statues . Seven Moai in front of the ancient village Moai inside the volcano Rano Raraku Moai outside the volcano Rano Raraku Moai standing on the platforms Moai laying on their side Moai atop Rano Kao buried half-way in an Orongo prayer house. (Hoa Hakananai‘a)xii

The 46 bald headed and unfinished moai inside Rano Raraku correspond to 46 Orongo houses and 111 Bird-men carved on the Orongo rocks correspond to 111 moai statues finished and also on the inside of Rano Raraku. Indigenous worldview regards it no mere coincidence that the number of Rapa Nui survivors of the colonial slave raids was 111. It‘s not about harbouring a grudge for past and present injuries, its about giving a voice to the voiceless.

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Figure: Map of Moai statue and Ahu temple platform distributions

The winning Birdman residing at Orohie was given all his meals by his own clan and gift offerings from all other families (Barthel, 1971, p. 336). He was percieved as the hatchling of the egg he found representing his own identity that is nourished by the community and the land. With his head shaven and painted red, the chick was washed in Rano Raraku‘s crater lake, fed and grown spiritually at the Orohie fasting house for one year in order to become a full grown birdman. This passage rite enabled the apprentice to journey across his own life to better serve his people and to eventually meet his Standing Rod Place at death. That is, the one year fast in the Rano Raraku house can be compared to an incubation in an egg. As this year ends, the Birdman resumes his life as usual and another takes his place. Thus, there is forever a life giving force carved out at Rano Raraku. When he dies he is returned to the Orohie house at Ranu Raraku as if to become the walking stones, which were quarried, moved and set at their Standing Place about the island.xiii The Rongorongo writing tablets offer clear symbolism representing birdmen at their various stages of formation in funerary chants interpreted in the chapters below.

Why is it significant that a mere 111 Rapa Nui survived the colonial slave raids?
This detailed description of the Birdman ritual is given to clarify the relationship of the islander to the Standing Up Rods or moai statues throughout the island. They represent the important ancestors whose lives were to be emulated. As the tradition of placing the standing stones developed, so did the birdman ritual. The egg tied to the forehead resembles Hoa Hakanana‘ia buried in Orongo, which in tern resembles Maui buried in 13

the top-knot of his mother, Taranga. Hoa, then, is Maui-tiki-tiki, which means, Maui in the top-knot (Tregear, 1891, taranga, maui). Maui Potiki‘s mission as Hoa Hakanania‘a is to be our hidden friend in the top-knot of Orongo (the Listening Place) above the Rano Kao crater. He is Maui-nukarau (deceitful Maui) there to trick not humanity, but Death itself (Tregear, 1891, maui). A Polynesian proverb states, Ko Maui tinihanga, Maui of many devices. In broader Oceanic lore, Maui found a way to trick death when he traveled through the Underworld, stole the fire, noosed the Sun, pulled up the islands and finally died at the second door of the Underworld (Tregear, 1891, maui). He died when the goddess of the Underworld was awakened by the laughter of the fairies who watched Maui comically pass through her body. Therefore, it is said, He Maui whare kino, Maui of the evil house. There he is named, Maui-i-toa and Maui-i-atamai, Maui the brave and Maui the kind, who, in Hoa Hakanana‘ia, was still trapped at Orongo inside the House of Death, which was the goddess of the Underworld, the Rano Kao pit.xiv There is more evidence that Hoa Hakananai‘a wrapped in the house of the Orongo, is Maui-tiki-tiki wrapped in the wisdom hair of his own Mother, Taranga. Tregear gives the meaning of taranga as a point or a thorn. Legend tells that she throws Maui into the sea wrapped in her pointed top-knot, her thorn, to be nourished by Mu and Weka. It is possible that this point is the first island, Motu kao-kao, (the needle), that the Bird-men swim past to get to the bird eggs on the island Motu Nui. Motu kao-kao, is the rib or thorn shaped island once the Birdman decend to (weka) and hear the hum (mu) of the sea. Maui‘s mother is also said to throw his son into a thorn bush, not an uncommon plant inside the crator Rano Koa (Tregear, 1891, maui, taranga). The parallels are significant. Since the hopu egg hunt contestant is only a servant of the chief he represents, the race is of critical importance to him. That is, if the hopu grasps or steals the egg, as his name implies, he has been set free by his stolen friend, Hoa Hakanana‘ia, who is Maui, meaning the life. This Birdman‘s freedom to a higher status is confirmed by his ceremonial washing in the Rano Raraku crater lake at the beginning of the year long fast in the sacred Orohie house. In broader Polynesia, the term hoa not only means ‗friend‘, but also ‗to chip away at‘. In early Rapa Nui, hoa means friend, master, to cast away and to confess wrongdoing. The egg hunt winner gives the egg to his chief, called the Hoa manu or Bird Master. Therefore, the freedom won by Hoa Hakanana‘ia is passed to the Hoa manu who gives this freedom to the Birdman contestant in exchange for the new found egg. The Birdman is then cast away (hoa) from the top-knot of Orongo to be chipped away at (hoa) the statue making quarry. The early Rapa Nui have a saying, he hoa I te ta‘u, meaning to confess to a crime committed long ago by writing it on the Rongorongo tablets. The ta‘u is the confession chant found on the tablet itself. Given that there is a Tuhuga ta or tablet reciting priest interceding for the success of the Birdman, his freedom must not only involve a higher social status, but also an expiation from a former fault. The purpose he was a slave of a chief was due to his or his ancestors defeat in battle. Being a former enemy of the chief, he has now won for the chief a new relationship as hoa or friends. All former debts are settled, the war is over. Therefore, the Tangata Manu was an important ritual in maintaining peace on this island that had a

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history of tribal warfare. How do these parallels between Rapa Nui ritual and Polynesian mythology further play out on the Easter Island writing boards? ii. The Moai‘s Name – Hoa Hakananai‘a Hoa Hakanana‘ia as the Hidden or Stolen Friend is the central figure of the central ritual of the egg hunt of Rapa Nui. Given that the entire community is taken up by the chase of a single bird-egg, this springtime ceremony must be a celebration of the fertility of the Earth. In Tregear‘s Maori-Polynesian Comparative Dictionary (1891), it is Maui stuck inside the throat of the goddess of death, named Hine-nui-te-po. Maui is killed by her when awakened at the laughter of the on-looking bird, Ti-waka-waka. Is this Ti-wakawaka (the enduring canoe), the bird laughing at the death of Maui, also the winner of the bird-egg hunt (Tregear, 1891, ti-wai-waka)? He laughs who stole the life of Maui stuck in the volcano of death as the statue Hoa Hakanana‘ia. The celebration is passed onto the chief who as the Hoa manu (Bird Master) begins a ceremonial dance with the first egg. The chief dances and laughs like Ti-waka-waka in the Polynesian myth. Ti-wakawaka literally means Enduring Canoe and is the model for the head of each household on Rapa Nui, since the early houses are shaped like canoes. The Birdman, then, represents every person on the island. This canoe house is represented in the figure of the sacred icons below.

Figure: sacred icons from Rapa Nui ancestral cave

The icons belong in the sacred ancestral cave passed down the generations of a Rapa Nui family. On the right the Milky Way is represented by the Long Fish, Ikaroa. The fish rests on six balls representing the stars. A canoe shaped Rapa Nui house rests atop the fish. The tail of the fish contains the sacred umu oven with an opening for the spirit of the offering to pass through. The fish of Ikaroa or the Milky Way represented the underworld where the ancestors pass through at death as stars in the sky. This is the same goddess of death that Maui passed through and died, caught in the opening at the other end. Polynesian lore speaks of Paekia or One Door House, as the water monster that killed by drowning the priests of old. There is also an ancient deity, called Ruatapu or the Sacred Two Door House. These sacred icons play out the sacred family life of Polynesia in their own daily feasting, where a portion of the umu oven is always offered to the Creator. Maui enters the one door house of death. The family home contains one door as an acknowledgement of the reality of life, where everyone who is born will one day die. At death, the journey with Hoa Hakanana‘ia will continue through the jaws of the Great Fish, Ikaroa. Maui, or the 15

Life, opens a second door when he dies at the laughter of Ti-waka-waka, the Enduring Canoe. The family home is the Enduring Canoe flipped over. Such is the initial means of shelter for a wayfinding clan who have arrived to a new land. The family umu oven daily celebrates the feast of Maui‘s offering. The Tangata-Manu yearly participates in the freedom and life given by Maui as the hidden friend of Orongo village, Hoa Hakanana‘ia. Therefore, when Maui steals the flame from the underworld goddess, he is offering the perpetual torch for the ancestors underworld canoe; when Maui nooses the sun at dawn, he is offering enlightenment in daily family life and for the repose of the spirit at death. The sacred icon on the left side of the above figure is the goddess of death carrying Ikaroa to the offering at Rano Kao, the sacred site that reflects the second door of the underworld. In Rapa Nui lore, an old woman offers the first tuna at the base of Rano Kao. Together, the icons are related in the story William Thompson recorded when Ure Vaeiko was given a photo of Tablet E. A fisherman‘s house was added a fowl house made of 100 crescent shaped stakes. Birds captured in a war of revenge for death of a relative of the chief would be stored in this fowl house. While offering to the sky, the warriors repeated, ―May we be killed in battle if we neglect to worship the Great Spirit.‖ Offering was made to the god of feathers, Era Nuku, whose wife was Manana Take, from the skies. She visited a land shaped like a giant and beautiful fish. Nuku kept the fish and was forbidden to swim in the sea. In that beautiful land Turaki listened to the voice of the fowl and feed them with watery food. ―Where is our ancient queen? It is known that she was transformed into a fish that was finally caught in the still waters. A fish that had to be tied to the rope of heros… brought for food to our Great King…laid upon a dish that rocked this way and that. The same that afterwords formed the corner of the stone walk that led to the house of the Great Chief. (Ure Vaeiko recited Apai, after viewing xv tablet E, Keiti ). Nuku is the Polyensian deity of the underworld who made tunnels under the earth.

Figure: Caves of Rapa Nui formed by escaping volcanic gasses

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Consider how Easter Island lore expands on the legends of Hoa and Maui: There is another trickster caught in a hole and his name is Ure. Ure cries from a cave until the girl, Uka, goddess of the moon, provides rain to the island.xvi Consider Maui‘s fire from below, which caused a deluge and Hine-nui-te-po, the night goddess who floated on the great deluge. Together they helped produce the first man and the first woman (Tregear, 1891, Hineahua, Hineahuone, Hinenuitepo). Ure, the shape-shifter, also changes into a talking yellow root (Barthel,1978, 132), watered by Uta, the moon. The yellow rays of the Sun are called, te taura a Maui, which means, the ropes of Maui (Tregear, 1891, maui). There is an important story of the sacred skull of Hotu Matua, Easter Island‘s original man or migrator. Ure Honu found this skull in his banana plantation. The skull was painted with yellow-root and wrapped in bark cloth. Ure hung it in his new house (Barthel, 1978, 221). Fischer, in Rongorongo – The Easter Island Script, mentions the use of banana leaves and bark to write the Easter Island Rongorongoxvii script. It is possible, then, that Ure, the talking yellow root, was telling the incantations of Rongorongo, produced in part by the fertility of the banana plantation, in part by Hotu Matua, the first ancestor who taught the writing, and in part by the sacred incantations used by the Rongorongo priests, called tuhungu ta. ―One of the most sacred responsibilities of the tuhungu ta seems to have been the chanting of the rongorongo inscriptions at Mata Ngarahu – the sacred precinct at the ceremonial village of ‗Orongo at the outer rim of the volcano Rano Kau – during the annual Birdman cult ceremonies.‖xviii How this Rongorongo applies to the carvings on the back of Hoa Hakananai‘a will be presented in the next section. That is, the connection between Hoa, Ure and Maui is also significant in relation to the mythology of stones on Easter Island. The first moai statues on the Island were placed on either side of the cave of Ure (Barthel, 1978, pp. 261-2). As written above, the stones represent the standing up rods, or tiki, found all over Polynesia. They represented deceased chiefs, priests or artisans (Barthel, 1978, p. 261). If Hoa Hakanana‘ia is in fact representative of the trickster, Maui, then perhaps, the word moai is a dialectic variation of maui (see chart above of Maui and his brothers).xix Taking a look at the broader Polynesian significance of the name reveals more about this hidden Maui, Hoa Hakananai‘a. Hoa means friend, but also means spouse, companion, to divide, to charm the ground over which one is going to pass and it even means to break a shell (Tregear, 1891, hoa). The birdmen are not to break the shell on their journey from Orongo to Motonui where they find the egg and journey back again. The egg is put in a little basket tied to the forehead (Métraux, 1971, p. 332). This egg will then be cracked open and nourished by Hoa, but not at Orongo, the top-knot above the pit of death; at Rano Raraku, the quarry of life where the moai were fashioned (Métraux, 1971, p.337). The birdmen imitate this pattern of carving by tattooing to become like Hoa their companion. Hoa was a true friend of the early islanders, and it was the mythology, tied

17

to the stonework, written on the tablets and shared in the legends, that brought that stone moai to life. Hakanana‘ia means stolen or hiddenxx. But is this Rapa Nui hero, Hakanana‘ia also named in broader Polynesia? His name does transfer to the name of certain Polynesian heros, such as Hakawa, Kanawa and Kanae. Hakawa‘s fame spread after his chants defeated the wooden head talisman, of Puhi a Puarata-Tautohito, the head that killed thousands (Tregear, 1891, hakawa). Therefore, it is possible that Hoa Hakanana‘ia is indeed buried in the head of the guardian of death, and she is defeated by Hakanana‘ia incantations, read by the tungata ta from the rongorongo tablets. Kanawa was a deity who retreated to a hill surrounded by fairies who let him live only because he offered his sacred jewels as utu or payment. The fairies were only able to take the shadows of the jewels, their substance remained. This utu is elsewhere referred to as very sacred incantations found in the Underworld to give great mana or power to the living (Tregear, 1891, kanawa, utu). So it is possible that Maui as Hoa Hakanana‘ia does not die. He continues as the hidden deity, while his chants resound in the yearly Tangata Manu ceremony. In the mythology, Maui noosed the Sun. It is likely that this noosing of the Sun is related to Maui‘s steeling of the fire of the Underworld deity, Matuika (Tregear, 1891, maui, matuika). To escape the Underworld deity, he shape-shifted from a fish into a hawk and burned a path for others to follow and rise. Therefore, the Birdman ritual of capturing the eggs by the mana of the rongorongo incantations, appears to correspond with the broader Polynesian myth of the fairy capturing the jewels (or the eggs) of utu payment along with the incantations of their sponsors who pray from Orongo while their servants swim for the eggs. Kanae is the fish who came out of the Underworld house with the fish fairies, the Ponaturi. All these where killed by the brightness of the Sun, but Kanae stole away and hid in the sea by the mana power of leaping (Tregear, 1891, kanae, ponaturi). Kanae, then, is possibly a type of Maui or Hoa, the first one, to escape death and hide in the sea. Is this power of Kanae to leap in the sea the same power given to the Birdman who finds the first egg and can swim much faster than usual back to Orongo from Motu-nui? Hoa Hakanana‘ia is the hidden stone moai and friend. He is the companion at Orongo, the Listening Place (Tregear, 1891, rongo). Orongo is nearly a kilometer above sea level. This is too high to hear the dangerous wave breakers of death below. This is where Maui, the Life; Hoa, the Friend; Ure, the fertile one; hears only the incantation read off of the Rongorongo tablets, the call of the Sooty Tern. Hoa Hakanana‘ia, the trickster whose charms, jewels and chants burned a pathway through Underworld for all others. iii. The Moai‘s Back Carvings – A Mystery Cracked Open Refer to the diagram images of front and back view of the Hoa Hakananai‘a moai drawn by C. Arevalo Pakarati (British Museum.org.). 18

Based on the mythology and definitions surrounding the place names and location of the moai at Orongo, the following description of the carvings on Hoa‘s back is presented. The carving contains an underworld rope rising from the bottom of the back. The rope is divided, opening into a rainbow with the Sun rising above it. Then twin birds at the back shoulders of the Moai statue, have broken wings, a broom shaped foot and a wedge shaped foot. These birds lift a smaller bird that is calling beneath a ‗W‘ shape flanked by two Rapa oars. There is a third Rapa oar on the left ear. Some of these carvings appear as glyphs on the Rongorongo tablets, such as, the Rapa oars and birds. There are other glyphs carved onto the back of the Hoa Hakanana‘ia statue. Who did this statue represent? Why was this statue hidden in the Orongo village? What do all these symbols mean? Represented is the solar bird deity being raised by two birds with broken wings. As mentioned above, in Polynesian mythology, the two birds with broken wings are named Mu and Weka. The mythic stories tell of Mu and Weka raising and nourishing the widely known trickster hero, named Maui. In the figure below, notice the well nourished small bird raised by the birds with broken wings. These clues encourages a search for broader Polynesian mythology and their accompanying chants on the Rapa Nui tablets. The Rapa Nui writing boards correspond with the Tangata-manu Egg Hunt and the Maui statues by telling the mythical story of broader Polyesnia. This story is expressed in passage-rites and their accompanying chants that weave a person‘s identity into the land. This person and their clan learn to develop a harmonious relationship with all other living creatures even by immitating them.

Figure: Back of Rapa Nui statue with broken wings from broader Polynesian lore

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For instance, the Tangata-manu calls for each contestant to become a bird-person. These bird-people are tattooed at Orongo much like the statue is carved on its back and the tablets are carved with signs sung by the tohunga to give mana power to their clan‘s contestant. If the tohunga ta priests are reading their incantations carved on the rongorongo tablets for the success of the egg-hunt from the houses in orongo, then Hoa Hakanana‘ia, half buried in one such house, is relied upon as their most powerful moai statue medium. We find the brothers of Maui correspond with the statues all over the island. The statue of Orongo is carved with marking directly associated with Maui and his caregivers with broken wings. The statue is buried atop the volcano, much like Maui-potiki is buried in the top-knot of his mother Taranga. Therefore, Hoa-hakanana‘ia, our hidden friend, could be none other than Maui of greater Polynesian mythology. A thorough investigation of the Rapa Nui tablets will offer weight to this theory as the Rongorongo is deciphered in terms of the chants found in Rapa Nui and Polynesian mythology.

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Chapter 1 Background of Deciphering Rongorongo

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Review of Scholarly Contributions The reason we can read these preliminary chants of rongorongo is because we stand on the shoulders of giants. The underlying hypothesis in this research is to acknowledge that the foundations for the initial stages of deciphering Rongorongo have been laid by the work of numerous scholars spanning close to 150 years of dedicated work. My only hope is that this direction also honours the original and contemporary inhabitants of Easter Island, Polynesia and Indigenous communities around the world trying to offer their essential voice in a world facing ecological decline. Credit is given primarily to the priests who wrote the tablets, their ancestors who taught them how, and their children whom they taught.
Table: Scholars and their Contributions to Rongorongo decipherment

Scholar

Contribution

The Early Tohunga Priests: Hotu Iti Hotu Iti is the name of the main character of the contextual narrative in the final portion of this research. He is placed here to acknowledge those Rapanui tohunga priests who wrote these tablets of rongorongo during the near Genocide of their island people to slave-raiders. Those of Easter Island have a voice and any work done here is primarily for the purpose of enabling that voice once again to resound for all the world to hear. The Contemporaries of Tablet Writers: Eugene Eyraud the first to notice in 1866 writing boards in nearly every (1820-1868) house in Rapanu.xxi Bishop Etienne ―Tepano‖ Jaussen Metor Tau‘a Ure the first to compile a list of rongorongo signs in 1871.xxii Bishop Jaussen‘s Rapanui informant residing in the colony in Tahiti. From their important work would come the famous Jaussen list containing the possible meaning of many rongorongo signs.xxiii The first of many to offer a pseudo-decipherment.xxiv That is, he did not leave a verifiable list of sign or syllabic value that could be reproduced with other segments of the rongorongo tablets.xxv Wrote from Ure‘s recitation of five tablets in 1886. Ure recited five tablets without a successful correlation.xxvi Though Tregear did not intentionally work on Easter Island 22

Dr. Allen Carroll

William Thompson Ure Vaiko Tregear

linguistics, his 1891 Comprehensive Moari-Polynesian Comparative Dictionary is among the most valuable documents for deciphering rongorongo. The reasons include, Tregear made an effort to exclude colonial influence on the dialects. As well, Tregear included fragments of contextual mythology and chants. Katherine Routledge the final attempt to decipher the tablets with living Rongorongo informants Tomenika and Kapiera. She was among those who believed the tablets were a memory aid. However, consider the usage of the same chants on four tablets, which suggests a known popular text. The reader giving the impression they know what is on the tablets without looking at them very often may be the result of a memorized use of the syllabic word text, not just of mere memory aids. Tomenika the aging informant was unable to give his knowledge to Routledge.xxvii The Middle School: Vilmos Hevesy

In 1932, he proposed a correlation to the Hindus Valley Script, denounced by most scholarsxxviii. Jose Imbelloni (1885-1967) agreed with this hypothesis.

Fr. Sebastian Englert Fr. Englert lived as a missionary on Rapanui. His (1888-1969) knowledge and passion for the language inspired the the naming of the Father Sebastian Englert Anthropological Museum on Easter Island. His writings are considered valuable to researchers, including one with a record of ancient legends called, The Land of Hotu Matua, 1940 and Island at the Centre of the World, 1970. Alfred Métraux (1902-1963) The works of Métraux include a comprehensive Ethnology of Easter Island, 1940, reprinted 1971. It is a valuable overview of the context of the written tablets. Métraux originally followed Routledge in viewing the tablets as mere memory aids, but then leaned toward a writing system after viewing the work of Knorozov in 1957. An excellent work by Barthel called, The Eighth Land, the Polynesian Discovery and Settlement of Easter Island, 1978, is a study of certain manuscripts written by early Rapanui informants. The work gives a good overview of important parts of Rapanui life in the original language. Barthel also published Grundlagen der zur Entzifferung Osterinselschrift (foundation for deciphering the writing 23

Thomas S. Barthel

of Easter Island), 1958, which offers some important elements of rongorongo transliteration and within this system he offers a list of glyphs used by most rongorongo scholars. Also, Barthel agrees that the written language occurred in ‗telegram‘ form, without secondary syntax. Barthel believed the patterns of the glyphs included the use of logograms, gesture, rebus and partial phonetics. The Russian School: Boris Kudryavtsev In 1940, he found identical rongorongo sequences on the 4 tablets used in this research to verify the Canoe of Rata chant. Kudryavtsev was published in 1947 by D. A. Olderogge.xxix Yuri and Nikolai Knorozov Butinov They found a possible genealogy on the Small Santiago tablet with a linguistic list identifying glyph (Barthel 200) that repeated several times.xxx Irina Fedorova She focussed on reconstructing the ancient Rapanui language and believed that this would help decipher these Rapanui tablets.

Konstantin Pozdniakov He proposes the possibility of finding up to 60 syllables by using statistical analysis in order to draw parallels between syllable and sign frequency. His work is relied upon in order to verify the chant syllables below.xxxi Scholars are eager to view Pozdniakov‘s yet to be published work of identifying a parallel of rongorongo signs with the Apai song of Rapanui recorded in 1886 by Thomson.xxxii More Recent Work: Jacques B.M. Guy

Guy is regarded as one of the leading scholars in the field of the linguistic study of Rongorongo. Guy‘s work on the Lunar Calendar found on the mamari by Barthel is relied upon in the decipherment hypothesized below.xxxiii Guy‘s article on ―Fused Glyphs in the Easter Island Script‖ help to identify the extent of variance among rongorongo words as confirmed by parallel passages.xxxiv Guy also presents a great overview of the Easter Island tablets in ―General Properties of Rongorongo Writing‖ published in 2006. Due to his extensive knowledge Guy makes a good critique 24

to help expose false decipherments and clarify the kind of writing genre that might be used on certain tablets. Which brings us to... Steven R. Fischer Fischer has written a helpful book called, Rongorongo, the Easter Island Script: History, Traditions, Textsxxxv. It takes a comprehensive look at the context of the Rapanui writing system. Fischer also proposed the Santiago Staff list a creation chant with male deity (X) with phallus (1) copulating with female deity (Y) produces some aspect of creation (Z).xxxvi The formula X1YZ appears over 300 times on the Santiago Staff. Fischer‘s agreement with an early Rapanui informant, Metoro, concerning the ‗phallus‘ glyph and the definite pattern in the creation chant sequence lend weight to his arguments sourced above. The contribution of Kaulins is to find the Zodiac on the Easter Island Honolulu 3 tablet.xxxvii His research into his Hypothesis of the Pisces glyph, provided a primer to deciphering the synonymous Maui glyph. The hypothesis presented below is once the Maui glyph was identified it became possible to decipher the tattoo soothing chant on the Small Reimiro tablet. Sproat built upon Boris Kudryavtsev‘s work in finding parallel glyphs on four tablets. Sproat identifies ―String matches over the entire corpus of Rongorongo tablets.xxxviii Sproat as recently as 2010 has published Language, Technology and Society, which clarifies how to avoid Pseudo-decipherment or false deciphering of ancient undeciphered writing systems.xxxix Davletshin continued Knorozov & Butinov‘s list identification glyph work by exploring the context of Rapanui titles and he even presents the syllable ―ko‖, as a subject marker for Barthel‘s 076 list glyph on the Santiago Staff. His research includes the 2002 paper: ―Names in the Kohau Rongorongo Script.‖xl He believes Rongorongo to be a logo-syllabic writing system as ―writing comprised of word signs or logograms – a sign, which spells a word and denotes its meaning – and abstract phonetic signs or syllabograms – a sign, which spells a syllable, but has no meaning.‖xli The research of this work agrees with Davletshin‘s approach, however, considers the telegram element Barthel‘s analysis. For 25

Andis Kaulins

Richard W. Sproat

Albert Davletshin

instance, Davletshin takes the so called ure (phallus) glyph of the Santiago Staff as the subject marker ―ko‖ (used to identify the names in a list), as Rapanui kohio (penis) and producing a syllable, ‗ko‘. A pure telegram might omit a subject marker, unless the marker is needed to clarify an emphasis in describing the subject.xlii Paul Horley He continued the work of Pozdniakov regarding statistical analysis of the Rongorongo glyphs in terms of Guy and Sproat‘s work on glyph variations.xliii

Gordon and Michael Berthin In 2006, they published ―Astronomical Unity and Poetic Metaphor in the Rongorongo Lunar Calendar.‖xliv In their work, Berthins‘ hypothesis rongorongo as a logographic script. Their work is well researched and is used below to confirm the syllables and logograms presented in this decipherment. Though our methods differ regarding Berthins‘ logographic script without the use of syllables, it is significant that similar conclusions were produced independent of the other. Since both our methods are verifiable it stands to reason that the initial stages of decipherment could occur from two separate sources and serve as a proof that the legitimate decipherment of rongorongo is taking place. See the syllable tables below where Berthin‘s work confirms the chosen syllables. (Or is our work confirming Berthin‘s logographs?) Tomi Melka In 2009, Tomi produced a valuable statistical analysis on the Santiago Staff in reference to Fischer‘s X1YZ creation chant hypothesis. Melka points out that only 60 % of the glyphs follow X1YZ (Melka. P. 42) and even offers a different translation of the ―phallus‖ glyph. Where Metoro gave us ure or expanded te tangata ure huki, Melka presents that the phallus expresses ―the act involved in the Old Rapanui phrase: ki ‘ai ki roto ki (―copulated with‖), is a silent determinative, or a taxogram...xlv This work on the Statistical Analysis of the Santiago Staff of Melka is a well researched addition to Rongorongo studies and gives us an edge toward the decipherment of the staff.

Contributions of ancient Polynesian context on the Rapa Nui tablets, include the works of chiefs and scholars such as: Dan Whata of Te Arawa, Te Rangikaheke, Maurice Bloch, Eric Schwimmer, Elsdon Best and Sir Peter Buck, Louis Bouyer, Bruce Biggs, F. Allan

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Hanson, Michael Shirres and Prytz Johansen. Of the sourcing of karakia prayers, Shirres writes: Te Rangikaheke the system (of Maori karakia rites) is based on the study of about 500 karakia found in the major Maori manuscript collections of Grey, White, Shortland and Taylor. There are karakia from all the tribal areas, though over half come from two areas, Te Arawa and Wanganui.xlvi Perhaps the Rapa Nui tablets contain a form of transferable karakia chants as yet undeciphered. 1915 was the last chance to interpret the tablets from Tomenika, who in waning health was unable to give Katherine Routledge the keys to the rongorongo writing.xlvii What remains are twenty-three preserved tablets containing some portion of rongorongo writing, which leaves us with, as Jacques Guy wrote, ‗very little‘ direct information to decipher these tablets. Something else is needed. In essence, a new interpretive possibility is what this research is presenting. This is an interpretation of rongorongo that considers how Indigenous World-view is culturally played out on the Rapa Nui tablets in terms of their origin stories, language and commonalities with other Polynesian islands. The decipherment of the Rongorongo tablets is a proof that this Indigenous World-view can assist modern scienctific methods in the acquisition of knowledge. Pseudo-decipherment vs. Wayfinding Have you heard of Maro-tiri? It is a point on Easter Island at a certain time of year where the Sun reveals the current from Easter Island to New Zealand. Karl Teariki, Maori musician. Pseudo-decipherment means a fictitious (pseudo) decipherment attempted by amateur researchers in the field of linguistics and more particularly, the decipherment of lost written languages. Richard Sproat identifies three criteria for avoiding pseudodecipherment. First, real decipherment involves teamwork by a community of scholars. Second, to find one translation of one writing system, elimination of ideas instead of generating ideas is necessary. Third, decipherment is a science and involves a hypothesis with verifiable results by other scholars.xlviii Taking these points one at a time, consider the circle of scholars involved in the decipherment of ancient Mayan. Michael Carrasco encourages Indigenous scholars and elders to become more involved in the decipherment of the Mayan writing system even though it is already 90% deciphered. Carrasco writes, ―Information from an indigenous American culture had been overlooked in larger theoretical discussions of the development of writing.‖xlix Carrasco draws a parallel between undeciphered Indigenous writing and understanding Indigenous oral traditions by confirming that the tools used for comprehension are often one and the same (Carrasco. 2004. P.1; Hull 2003).

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This means that deciphering rongorongo requires an understanding of the writing system in terms of its Indigenous6 world-view or at least an attempt to recover those aspects of this world-view that remain and are different from our own. That is, before we even attempt to unravel the clues of the decipherment, we are required to change the way we speak and think about those clues. Carrasco clearly identifies this difference, useful for a community of scholars deciphering scripts: Naturally, the Maya at Palenque and elsewhere were in touch with their own culture so they didn‘t take the time, especially in stone, to explain to the modern researcher the meaning of sometimes-arcane language preserved in glyphic texts. Complex rituals are often named with a single word. For example, the word puluy, used to describe some of the rituals in Cross Group texts, means ‗to burn,‘ but probably refers to a series of ceremonial actions.l (emphasis underlined was originally italicized). It would be a mistake to void Sproat‘s first point of a community of scholars, by referring to his second point on the elimination of ideas. The ideas need to become focused on the correct syllables and logograms, a few of which the community of scholars have already agreed upon (see syllable tables for confirmations from scholars). Eliminating the several pseudo-decipherment attempts on each syllable can only occur if we broaden the circle of scholars to include the Indigenous World-view. To reword Sproat‘s three rules on avoiding false decipherments this research suggests the following: as the community of scholars (of varying points of view) grows, who follow a consensual methodological plan (that does not restrict any pedagogy or world-view) and sort the research material gathered, a clarification of verifiable syllables and logograms is more likely to occur. The onus is on the scholastic community to develop and present the methodology in such a way as to attract compliance from the growing crowd of those attempting to decipher the script. Moreover, it should be a hope that others are entering the circle, as inexperienced as they are, to attempt to learn about this interest of the rongorongo scholars of today. It is also the onus of these scholars to present an ever refined standard of verification open to the fields own methodology of decipherment and not determined by the mood or influence of any particular scholar(s). Lest when the truth presents itself there is no one with the courage to hear it. Moreover, a scholar‘s investment in this field should be weighed against the blood, sweat and tears of the original authors of the Easter Island tablets. These ancestors are the primary scholars of influence in our circle who are choosing (according to Indigenous world-view) when these tablets will be read again. It cannot be overemphasized, deciphering rongorongo requires thinking like an Indigenous person, or at least including this angle of research in the circle of this community of scholars. To do so requires a broader understanding of what even the term
6

Indigenous: those whose world-view involves weaving all living patterns into a natural association with the land. A view of the finished quilt would include Easter Island, Polynesia, all Indigenous peoples and all those adopted into the mysterious story of the Easter Island tablets.

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circle7 means to an Indigenous person. For the past 500 years the dominant world cultures have marginalized Indigenous people to the position of Fourth-World status. Turning against these past genocidal tendencies includes involving Indigenous wisdom in the decipherment of these tablets, which presents an outcome even greater than the decipherment itself. Therefore, a collaboration with the people of Rapa Nui concerning the when and how of presenting a genuine decipherment is considered to honour the sacredness of these artefacts from an Indigenous perspective. There is some vocabulary necessary to learn in order to understand these tablets from an Indigenous world-view. Such a world-view would require an exploration into the Polynesian art of Wayfinding8 in order to assist in the decipherment of these tablets. The seafaring wayfinders found their art form at risk of being lost much like our understanding of the rongorongo tablets has been lost. Wayfinders look at the elements of sea and sky in the same holistic fashion which contextualizes the rongorongo tablets within the framework of Indigenous mythology, ritual and language. A methodology of associating glyphs with mythology is emphasized in this decipherment. This Indigenous mythology is interconnected into the patchwork quilt of Indigenous storytelling around the globe, including a relationship with Rapa Nui ancient lore (see Chapter 2). As well, Rongorongo glyphs are deciphered as syllables by identifying the association of those glyphs across Polynesia in terms of the original migration patterns and common use of terminology. Procedures to clarify this hypothesis of cross-referencing will involve the study of relationships between rongorongo glyphs, Rapa Nui culture, ritual and mythology with that of broader Polynesia. The story of wayfinding is very much like the decipherment of the Rapa Nui tablets. Here we have two art forms. Both art forms were on the verge of total loss. Both art forms had a handful of people that cared enough to restore what would have forever been lost. The fact that you are researching these tablets, means that you also, are among the handful who care, because, and this is the difference, wayfinding has been restored, the tablets have not.... yet. How was the ancient art of wayfinding restored? The Sacred Tree was hewn into the canoe called, Hokule‘a, the star of Hawaii (Arcturus, brightest star of Hawaii). It was hewn by members of the Polynesian Wayfinding Society (1973) and set off from Hawaii with a handful of curious onlookers in 1975. In 1976, after 4,400 kilometres without instruments under the guidance of Mau Piailug9, ten people in the Hokule‘a reached the Island of Tahiti to the cheers of 18,000 people.li They continued on their expeditions travelling over 150 000 km over the Pacific and in 1999 made the ambitious 10,000 km expedition from Hawaii to a tiny island in the South
7

Circle: a place where all have a voice and one is not raised above another. Where even when one leaves the circle, their seat remains open until they are ready to return. Whether present or absent, all are welcome without fear of humiliation. Humiliation is never an option where harmony involves the presence of all. 8 Wayfinding: Travelling for migration, hunt or trade by sea or land with only natural, non instrumental, navigation. For example, using the stars, the winds, the waves, the seasons, the elements, plants and animals and other natural phenomina to determine how and when to move about. Indigenous cultures are known to each have their own wayfinding methods based on the local environment. 9 Mau Piailug: Possibly the last person in Polynesia with the knowledge of Wayfinding.

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Pacific. The winds ensured a tacking system that doubled the distance of the overall voyage. It was not the winds or the waves that determined if the canoe would meet this island of 23 km span only 1 degree on the compass.lii It was Mau‘s protégé, Nainoa Thompson, whose wayfinding knowledge would determine if that island was reached. Perhaps it could be said that the more a Western mind knew about Western seafaring technology and skill, the more unlikely they would believe such a task could be accomplished. Yet, a Polynesian wayfinder is trained to memorize no fewer than 220 stars and 32 constellation houses, their movements in relation to one another and where and when they rise and fall on the horizon. Using eight notches on each side of the canoe they know where they are on the globe all night. In the day they use the sun and moon by following them in the same way they follow the stars, by memory. If it is cloudy they know how to make true course in a way we would only consider magic or miracle. They learn the language of the geometry of the wave swells and can determine over 5 different swells reaching the boat at any given time. If it is cloudy, their use of the wind and waves are enough. The wayfinder sleeps in cat naps to keep the canoe true to course 22 hours a day.liii We would not say that those in the canoe of Nainoa were pseudo-navigators when after 10,000 km they met to the cheers of that tiny island, called Rapanui, on their first pass. We in the West look at them as navigators, in need of a scientific process to succeed. But to call them navigators is a definition that only scratches the surface of their identity. They are wayfinders, wayfinding is an art, even a spirituality, and the artist is so much more than a genius. The wayfinding artist belongs in their element and has been weaved into their environment as the seasoned guardians of all their relations on the water. What happens for wayfinders reading the geometry of the swells of the sea is just as true for a wayfinder reading the design of Indigenous wisdom on the Rapa Nui tablets. You will not initially understand how the wayfinder can succeed by scratching the surface of their skill through the looking glass of Western world-view, but you‘d be lying if you said you would not jump in their canoe if you ever had the chance. And it is the duty of the scholastic community to do so, in order to truly contextualize these tablets. A wayfinder is comparable to an Indigenous storyteller. His memory guides the story, his rudder gives him voice, his destination offers the finest conclusion. He tells his story to everyone who has fit in the canoe. Indigenous wisdom uses story as a means of inclusion, identity and belonging. If the story is being told to you, you belong and so are identified by the story. Its mythic heroes offer the values associated with the local environment you will carry, honour and protect for life. Not everyone can fit into the story of the canoe of wayfinding, but we all belong to the story of the Rapa Nui tablets by way of the ignorance or rongorongo writing we all share. We cannot all enter the wayfinder‘s canoe, but we can all gather into the same rongorongo harekura wisdom school to explore this mystery we all share. Restoring the Rapa Nui tablets differ in one other way from the Wayfinders expedition to Tahiti or Easter Island. Not everyone on the planet was able to witness the ‗cracking open‘ of the 30

Sacred Tree, called, Hokule‘a. But the entire world is primed to hear these moai stones groan as they crack open and cry out the message of these Easter Island tablets. It is because the human being is first a living being and, together with all our relations, are waning and dying until we begin to restore the world-views that play a necessary role in our ability to honour our ecosystems. About the restoration of the art of Wayfinding, the chief of the Hokule‘a canoe, Nainoa Thompson, had this to say: That‘s why we sail. So our children can grow up and be proud of whom they are. We are healing our souls by reconnecting to our ancestors. As we voyage we are creating new stories within the tradition of the old stories, we are literally, creating a new culture out of the old.liv About the restoration of the art of rongorongo, it is the business of everyone on the planet, because Easter Island remains a symbol of how fragile our ecosystems have become and how humanity could literally lead itself to extinction. Indigenous philosophy view individuals in this way: all relations belong. If one is left out, it will be to the detriment of the whole. Chief Standing Bear noticed this principle when he said, The American Indian is of the soil, whether it be the region of the forests, plains, pueblos, or mesas. He fits into the landscape, for the land that fashioned the continent also fashioned the man for his surroundings. He once grew as naturally as the wild sunflowers; he belongs just as the buffalo belongs. Luther Standing Bear (1868?-1939) Oglala Sioux chieflv Deciphering the Easter Island tablets is a clue subject to the embracing of a world-view that this decipherment requires. Indigenous world-view involves story-telling and since the tablets have become a mystery to the world, we are all wrapped up in the same story that unites us to this Turtle Island.10lvi

10

Turtle Island: the universal Indigenous mythological mountain or island where the first relations (human beings, animals, plants and earth) were first formed. Easter Island‘s current native name is, Rapanui (the Great Oar), after the smaller Rapa Island of the South Pacific. Rapanui was given to the explorers and missionaries as Te Pito te Henua, which has been translated as the Naval of the Earth. Here henua for Earth can also mean turtle, honu. Since the island‘s shape resembles that of a turtle, Indigenous world-view would consider Easter Island a candidate for the fulfillment of the Ojibwa Seven-Fire Prophesy that begins, ―Look for an island shaped like a turtle that will help restore the Earth.‖ Te Pito te Henua, with Indigenous world-view context, means the source of the turtle mountain story.

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Three Proposed Rongorongo Chants and their Corresponding Tablets
Table 1. Rongorongo tablet names of three deciphered chants (Barthel, 1958; Fischer, 1997:393).

Barthel (1958) J C L A H P Q

Fischer (1997) RR20 RR2 RR21 RR1 RR9 RR18 RR17

Tablet Name London Large Reimiro Mamari London Small Reimiro Tahua Great Santiago tablet Great St Petersburg tablet Small St Petersburg tablet

Chant Decipheredlvii Tuhinapo-Rapa, Guardian of Ocean Migrations used as a sample decipherment The Falling of Hina Moon Calendar Maui‘s Ball Game, Tattoo Soothing Chant The Canoe of Rata: Rowers Timing Song and Funerary Chant present on these four tablets

Tablet J is used as a sample introductory tablet, to offer a brief understanding of the order of syllable decipherment and a small gesture of hope and gratitude in true Polynesian form. Tablet C contains a Moon Calendar confirmed by the scholastic community. Tablet L contains about 30 glyphs of extreme importance to Polynesian studies once they are understood. Tablet A, H, P and Q contain many similar glyphs. They tell of the importance of the Mythical and Mystical power chants used by the priests on the tablets. Tablet H, P and Q contain a very close Canoe of Rata script. Tablet A appears to summarize the Rata chant. This is not evidence of a development of the writing system, but rather the priests hurried attempt at sealing the important incantations on the tablet. The decipherment could not have occurred using Tablet A's abbreviations. The expanded text was required.
Figure 1: Large Reimiro J – 2 glyphs: Tuhinapo-Rapa, Guardian of Migrations with Power Oar

This Large Reimiro neck ornament used as a sign of authority for royals and priests during important ceremony was carved in the crescent shape of the moon. It appears in the image of a stylized boat to carry souls through their Underworld migration journey. Such a boat would belong to Hina-nui-a-po, guardian of the Underworld. The two heads on each side would represent her turtle twins also found on the Falling of Hina Moon Calendar. 32

Hina and the Moon
Figure 2: Portion of Marami tablet (recto) containing the moon calendar

The glyphs of the moon calendar are found here in a portion of the Mamari tablet. They are written in bustoform, which is the way an ox ploughs a field. Therefore, the timo or person designated to read the tablets, turns the tablet upside-down at the end of each line to recite the line below. The myth called, ‗the overturning of mataaho‘11 would easily come to mind to recall how the first humans were rescued by an island during the great deluge. Hina‘s role in the great deluge was to transform into a bird whenever Tangaroa12 needed a messenger to survey the receding flood waters. Maui and Tattooing Rites
Figure 3: Small Reimiro L – Maui‘s Pohi, Trickster Maui‘s Ball Game, Tattoo Soothing Chant

13 In this reimiro tablet is the secret of Maui who glyph is seen here: The glyph was seen tattooed on the left side of the woman‘s body. The Rapanui word for Left-side is
11

Mataaho: (a window) the sky light that overturns causing the deluge appears to be the moon itself, since this is the cause of the rising tides and its waxing and waning appear much like a turning window. Mataaho was a chief, who with kawa-arero, killed the dog of the Rainbow deity, uenuku-kopako. 12 Tangaroa: (unrestricted, longman or tallman) deity of the ocean. In some island groups he shares with Hina by living on the moon, being food deity and is married to Hina (the Samoan sinaleana). The Eastern Sunrise path on the ocean (the path of life) was called, the Bright Road of Tane, and the Western Sunset path on the ocean (the path of death) was called, the much travelled pathway of Tangaroa or Ke ala nui maaweula a Kanaloa. Perhaps that is why he appears across Polynesian moon calendars in the days just before the New Moon, which is confirmed on the decipherment of the Mamari Moon Calendar. His feats of power coincide with and perhaps make him an aspect of Maui. 13 Maui (as a glyph): variations of this glyph are found carved on stones and moai throughout the island as the komari or vulva glyph. Komari and Maui might appear at first glance as two entirely opposite names.

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maui. He is actually the Moai of Easter Island. The myths were made together with the moai to emphasize their important to the world. Table 2 shares this discovery for the first time: how Maui and his brothers name the location of the Easter Island moai. Each of their number tells a story. This Island was made by storytellers, seers and prophets whose voice is cracking out of these stones today. A beautiful seen can be pictured with the use of this tablet and its Tattoo Soothing Chant of Maui‘s Ball Game. The Royal Princess or tapairu would hold the youth whose face was tattooed on her lap, pouring salt water from a shell on his facial wounds. Then she would sing this Ball Game of Maui and he would fully understand how this rite of passage transformed him into a pure human being. Like maui, the pain of tattooing is the fire one must chase into the one-door house (paikea) of the Underworld. Like maui, the youth transforms and shape-shifts from a fish to a bird. The youth escapes death‘s second door (ruatapu), which maui busted open. The island spirituality was highly refined, using every activity, relation, meal and seasonal change to foster this transformation into the island birdmen (bird people). The volcano of death, Rano Kao, is where they would jump like maui out of their topknot nests from the ‗hearing place‘ of Orongo to gather the first egg of life. The volcano of life, Rano Raraku, is where this hatchling would feast for a year until ready to fly, mirroring himself with the transformation rite of the stone moai, as they grow in relation as the brothers of Maui, from the topknot or komari his mother (birth), to inside the nest (infancy), to outside the nest (childhood), to in front of the path (the rite of passage to adulthood), to along the margin (maturity to death), to on the platform (death to afterlife). And each phase represents a style of tattooing along the face as the youth is taught how to walk on the path of a good life. Rata and the Canoe
Figure 4: Greater Santiago Staff – Canoe of Rata – Chant for timing rowers at seas

The Canoe of Rata is one legend contained in the four like tablets (Table 1) with their accompanying glyphs. In brief, Rata is a legendary hero who strives to avenge his
However, Maui‘s superpowers enabled him to follow Hina who threw herself into the ocean, a name for the Underworld. There Maui captured the fire or noosed the Sun. He defeated the deity of death or the Underworld in her aspect as Hina-nui-te-po, by passing through her mouth. Yet, was killed as on-looking birds woke her by laughing when Maui appeared to be coming out her other end. This birth canal journey relates to Tangaroa‘s ‗feeding‘ of the water-monster of death with giant heated stones that became island of life for the first humans. Komari, is translated not only as vulva, but also ‗the calm‘, ‗the abundant‘, ‗the split‘, ‗the flow‘, ‗the life canal‘, and therefore is a sign of the deity who noosed himself, the Sun, brother of Hina, son of Taranga, Maui, the life.

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father‘s death and retrieve his bones. So he fells a sacred tree to build a canoe for this journey. For two or three mornings Rata wakens to find the tree back in its place. He finally captures these would be ecologists, the woodland fairies and servants of Tane, Lord of the Forest, who teach him a sacred incantation for felling trees. They then make the entire canoe for him overnight. Rata then gathers his warriors and succeeds in his travels to avenge his father and return with his bones. The chants chorus plays over and over ‗a pathway for the canoe‘ and it is these glyphs together with the ‗double-hull‘ canoe, that solidify this correct decipherment. Using the stories of mythic heros such as Rata, Hina and Maui have been essential Rosetta Stone like aids in the decipherment of these tablets. The Polyesnian myths found on the Rapa Nui tablet chants listed above are as follows (from Tregear, 1891): 1. The Washing of Hina in the sacred waters of Tane. Included are Hina‘s parents, Atutahi and Rangi; Atutahi, is Canopus, the rudder of the keel of Carina and Rangi is the Sky Father. Tane is the Heavenly Bird which, with Hina, produces the Birdmen of legend three below. Death is likened to an old woman; in Rapa Nui, the old woman, ruwahine, is appointed to the ceremony of removing a newborn‘s tapu. That is, death is intertwined with life in Indigenous world-view, as something to embrace by making the most of life. 2. The Falling of Hina from heaven. This is related to the washing, but branches into its own mythology regarding the Turtle rescuing Hina of legend four below. 3. The Canoe of Rata myth also finds a home in this moon chart. Here, the falling of Hina parallels the falling of the Kumara breadfruit from the girdle of Wahieroa written as follows: Ka mareretia e te tikitiki o Wahieroa; His wife had a pregnancy hunger for fairy like birds (birdpeople), while Wahieroa went to look for them was killed. His son, Rata, avenged the death to recapture the bones with the help of fairies, birds, animals and bugs who built him a canoe from the greatest tree of the Island. The falling of the breadfruit may point to the falling of Hina, the moon cycle, as all the more, a spiritual rebirth feast celebrated with the maori oven. 4. The Tangata-Manu Bird-person‘s Capturing of the First Egg of Easter Island‘s islet, Motu Nui. Here we have the jumping off of the cliffs of the deep dark crater, which parallels with legend two of Hina‘s fall represented in the waning moon glyphs. 5. The Turtle Twins of Creation is a common myth across the Americas. It refers to the animals the Creator chose to build the island inhabited by the first humans. 6. The Hero Twins is also a universal legend to consider. Here in Polynesia is Ihuatamai, the good twin and Ihuwerewere, the evil twin. Back to back you have the waning or wicked twin lamenting (mihi) the previous full moon and the waxing or good twin anticipating (mina) the next full moon cycle. The Yin/Yang symbol seems a logical parallel. As well, the owl twins, Ruru-

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atamai and Ruruwareware are hidden in the pregnant full moon as Ru is the unborn power of good in the underworld. That is, the twin owls, birds of night, are hidden in the full moon, and so are being anticipated. They only appear on the moon cycle after the fall – it is through the travail that the twins are born. The stories tell of passage-rites of children to adults and of lost soul‘s to the enlightenment of the elders of the land.

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Chapter 2 Method of Deciphering Rongorongo

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Proof of a verifiable growing corpus Jacques Guy‘s article, ―Un prétendu déchiffrement des tablettes de l‘île de Pâques,‖ published in 1999 in Société des Océanistes lists six requirements for the dechipherment of rongorongo:
Table: Requirements of a decipherment of Rongorongo according to Guylviii

1. 2. 3. 4.

A sizable portion of the corpus must be translated word for word The translation must syntactically reflect Old Rapanui language The translation must be corroborated in Easter Island or Polynesian traditions The decipherment must follow the strict rules of logic, not by a premature over-fitting of the data. 5. The decipherment must account for the antiquity of all related traditions of the island. 6. It must constitute an advancement to our knowledge and understanding of Easter Island. The research presented in this document does not meet all these requirements as thoroughly as a perfect and comprehensive decipherment would require. However, it is intended as a reference point to begin a new direction of tentative decipherments that attempt to match the above criteria as near as possible. A reflection on each point in terms of this research is also in order. 1. A sizable portion of the corpus must be translated word for word In these plausible initial stages of decipherment a small, but modest portion of the corpus is considered. There is a minority of the syllables considered here and those that appeared to work in relationship with logograms attested by scholars as plausible that appear in higher frequency in that portion of the script. Therefore, this decipherment yet requires further confirmation of the syllables presented by other scholars who can reproduce the results. It also requires more syllables to achieve a sizable portion of the corpus deciphered. There is a possibility of using statistical computation with the few dozen syllables presented here to offer a confirmation of others. The work of the Pozdniakovs will prove benefitial in this regard.lix Based on a comparison of their unverified syllables in Rapanui writing vs. the Rongorongo corpus their research already has appeared to produce useful results (see the Marami moon calendar syllables in Part iii and iv). 2. The translation must syntactically reflect Old Rapanui language An attempt is made here to include the Rapanui dictionary as much as possible. However, a sound decipherment of the rongorongo corpus is not possible with the Old Rapanui dictionary as it stands. As well, it is unlikely a decipherment would be achieved with the current understanding of the Tahitan element of the dictionary to be considered a ‗corruption‘ and as if a purely negative influence on decipherment. That is, the research is finding in old Polynesian language sources, namely, Tregear‘s Maori-Polynesian Comparative Dictionary, that the Polyesian languages, their myths and traditions provide 38

important transferable clues to Old Rapanui and the Rongorongo corpus to a remarkable extent. Another good source has been used in Chapin‘s 1974 ―Syntactic Typology: Studies in the Phenomenology of Language‖,lx where the Old Rapanui and Polynesian grammar is ordered in Verb, Subject, Object (V.S.O.) sequence. This research appears to find using this grammatical stucture as useful, which should be an expectation. To what extent this order is used across the corpus is yet to be determined. However, the use of this order has already acquired new inquiry regarding the extent to which the glyph word may act as a noun or a verb or may contain an implied preposition if it is an object. It is suggested that someone who can understand Old Rapanui review this research to provide the necessary feedback, as the use of V.S.O. appears to improve the understanding of these tentative decipherments below. 3. The translation must be corroborated in Easter Island or Polynesian traditions Tregears 1891 dictionary has proven invaluable in this regard. He includes mythology references quite often throughout. It was his mythical comments of Maui, Rata and Hina(Hine)lxi that lead to the finding of the Canoe of Rata and Ball Game of Maui chants plausibly deciphered in Part v and vi below. Much can be done to trace the origions of these myths, comprehensively compile the sources and develop an interelationship between the origin migrations and the original Polynesian myths that appear now to be plausibly integral to deciphering the rongorongo tablets. As well, the Maori karakia rituals that are introduced on Michael Shirres websitelxii help to direct us towards the genre associations and chant styles of broader Polynesia plausibly present on the tablets. 4. The decipherment must follow the strict rules of logic, not by a premature over-fitting of the data. Initially, this research utilized a guess and check method of developing plausible decipherments. Such a method is both logical and a premature over-fitting of data. Therefore, one must proceed with extreme caution in this research, careful to be willing not to accept this decipherment as it stands on the one hand. What is required is a thorough examination of these syllables across the corpus with verified statistical tests. One test variable suggested here is the use of the Santiago Staff, where the unique list words should identify the source of that list when enough syllables are presented. On the other hand, care not to prematurely overstep this research is in order as such a sensitive preliminary decipherment can easily be ‗debunked‘ in the imagination of a seasoned yet scheptical scholar. As much as one must attempt to prove this research wrong, an attempt to prove it right must equally be made. All things considered an ongoing dialogue with indigenous Rapanui and Polynesian wisdom keepers suggests that attempting to prove these results will lead to a more thorough decipherment of these important documents. 5. The decipherment must account for the antiquity of all related traditions of the island. This decipherment has found the sources of Barthel‘s 1978 The Eighth Land – the Polynesian Discovery and Settlement of Easter Island lxiii and Fischer‘s 1997 Rongorongo 39

- The Easter Island Script History, Traditions, Textslxiv and the sources listed in Part i, the history of rongorong research. 6. It must constitute an advancement to our knowledge and understanding of Easter Island. Number five and six can be addressed together in that this research has discovered the plausible association of the Easter Island deity, Tavake, as one and the same Polynesian deity, Tawhaki. The ancient Polynesian deity of Maui and his brothers are also discovered to plausibly be associated with the stone moai and their locations are identified in their names. This is a discovery of monumental proportions, which alone satisfies this sixth requirement of a correct decipherment. If not, it certainly means this research is headed in the right direction. The author does not claim to be the ship that will take this decipherment to its completion, however, if you tie a turtle to a ship lost at sea it will point you to the nearest land. The turtle is not asking to be taken into the ship, seated with the captain and crowned king of Spain. It would be expected to take this research seriously on these grounds alone: that it presents the first attempt at deciphering this ancient script, while incorporating Indigenous World-view. From that point of view there is a burning desire within to be given a voice and to have a listening ear. This research is an important starting point for such listening to the World-view that is a necessary foundation in the restoration of our ecosystems. Moreover, the advancement of our knowledge does not scatter our sense of Polynesian culture, but gathers it into an organic whole. This makes sense in terms of Indigenous wisdom where the myths and karakia prayers overlap and intertwine, which is what we might expect in sections of the rongorongo tablets. Shirres notices this organic development of the Maori karakia prayers for the kuumara food offering for the atua, which relates with the canoe karakia ritual. The kumara karakia: Ka noho te rangi nuilxv Tena te kaha ka whiwhi, tena te kaha ka rawe, tena te kaha ka mou, te kaha o Tau, te kaha o Rongo, taku kaha, ko te kaha a teenei tauira. That is the strength which wraps round that is the strength which binds, that is the strength which holds fast, the strength of Tau, the strength of Rongo, my strength, the strength of this disciple

The Wanganui Canoe karakia: Taapatua koe i utalxvi Tena te kaha ka whiwhi, Tena te kaha ka rawe, Tena te kaha ka mau . . . mau ki tenei waka, mau ki tenei tauira. That is the strength which wraps round, that is the strength which binds, that is the strength which holds fast, holds fast to this canoe, holds fast to this disciple

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Notice how the Grand Tradition of Text H (P & Q) recto contains the thread or feather glyph in pairs of three:

....

And then breaks out into a sequence of 9 thread or feather appendages added on making it appear as though the glyph does not likely represent a syllable. From the two chants on the Mauri karakia just above, the word for strength, kaha, is also the word for thread. It is plausible that these glyphs may represent a similar karakia chant. It makes sense in terms of ‗strength‘ used as a modifier for the phrase within the karakia binding fast the mana or power in pure ritual to the deceased. Shirres notes that the kaha meaning of strength may also mean lashings ―understood as the ‗lashings‘ of Taane and Tangaroa‖, where such ‗strength‘ of the gods are represented in the ‗lashings‘ that bind the canoe (Shirres. 1996. Ibid. Website). Therefore, the karakia for the child receives kaha from Taawhiri (deity over wind); the kumara recieves kaha from Tau and Rongo (deities over land); the canoe receives kaha from Taane and Tangaroa (deities over sea); the warrior with war-belt receives kaha from Tuu-matauenga (deity of war). Shirres goes on to offer related warrior chants: Karakia for a warrior - He tamariki raanei koe:lxvii Homai taku tu, homai taku maro, kia hurua, kia rawea, kia harapaki. and Ko taku maro, ko te maro o Tu, Tu kai taua, Tu kai tangata. My war-apron is the war-apron of Tuu, Tuu who eats war-parties, Tuu who eats people. Give me my belt, give me my war-apron, that it may be girded on, that it may be wrapped round tight, that I may join in battle.

Hoa-hakanana‘ia is one such hidden friend who becomes warrior on our behalf at the ‗calling‘ villiage of Orongo. This friend Hoa wears a girdle or war apron (see figure of Hoa Hakanana‘ia in the Introduction). The eating concept merely means to destroy the enemy. As suggested in the Introduction, presented is Hoa Hakanana‘ia, burried halfway in the sacred rongorongo calling house of Orongo, a representation of Maui Potiki, the child stuck in the topknot of his mother. Maori children have karakia for cutting hair 41

and Shirres offers that the top-knot ritual completes the rite in order to serve as a standing up rod (fashioned from the sign of wisdom, the hair). The chant below weaves it all together into a funerary karakia. Ihenga‘s hair cutting rite for his father‘s funeral – Purea te pure:lxviii
Note: Part vi. – the Canoe of Rata, plausibly contains a pathway for the canoe verse with Rangi appearing to accompany in glyph form. The boldface may relate.

Purea te pure Whaiwhenua ika te pure E unga ai koe i nga mana hauhau aitu mai o te Po, I nga kanakana mana mai o te Po. Tatai mai te waka, e Rangi, Ko te waka o te hinga noa, e Rangi, te waka o te mate noa, e Rangi Po-ki-tupua Te Po Po-ki-tahito Te Po Kei runga nei tetahi Ao Kei raro nei tetahi Ao Ao ki tipua te Ao Ao ki tahito te Ao Ka hapainga te uwha He kopi, he kopa Tainaki no Tu.

Complete the pure, make fast the pure, by which you cause the powers to go forth, the weakening powers of the night that come towards you. Set the canoe in order, e Rangi (Father Sky), the canoe of the chance fall, e Rangi, the canoe of the chance death, e Rangi. The world of darkness, darkness given over to the tipua (with their dark powers), The world of darkness, darkness given over to the long since dead. There is some light above, there is some light below, Light for the tipua, the world of light, light for the ones long since dead, the world of light. The cutting comb is lifted up, a gathering up, an enclosing. Protection from Tuu.

Shirres gives uwha, as the hair-cutting comb. Perhaps this is what glyph B132 represents. It is such cut hair that is used to wrap the tablets, as if protected in the topknot of Taranga, Maui‘s own mother. The wining birdman is shaved bald to start fresh in learning the wisdom of these tablets. His hair will grow, just as his knowledge (hirohiro) of the tablets grows. The most sacred item on the island was the hair wrapping the tablets, and this was given as a gift to those who were truly loved by the Rapa Nui. It is therefore, with the greatest respect, admiration and diligence that these tablets are deciphered below. The following steps have been attempted throughout to make plausible tentative decipherment inroads in the Rongorongo corpus. 1. Study the sequences presented by various researchers (see below, Melka, Guy, etc.) 2. Study the Jaussen List and Easter Island ethnography (see Barthel, Fischer, Metreux, etc.) in order to develop logographic possibilities. 3. Study the early migration patterns as they relate to Rapanui. 42

4. Study the broader Polynesian mythological and linguistic context as it relates to Rapanui. 5. Use what is known in the Mamari Moon Calendar and attempt to broaden this understanding (see Part iii and iv below). 6. Look for ‗flag‘ glyphs or logograms that stand out and are more obvious. Ie. Consider the Hikurangi, Holy Mountain plausible decipherment below: it was chosen for a tentative decipherment because it is a sequence where the decipherment of very few glyphs would result in a preliminary understanding of the chant. The flag glyph is the Sun with a tail. The logograms are attested by the scholars as plausible, which sets a foundation for a more likely decipherment. 7. Consider the plausible genre. A thorough examination of genre has led to the belief that the tablets contain funerary and related power chants across much of the corpus. 8. Attempt syllabic tests of the logograms with tentative translations, keeping in mind the genre, mythological and linquistic context. 9. It would be useful to become as fluent in Old Rapanui as possible and perhaps necessary to move beyond the tentative to support a confirmed decipherment usable by the Polynesian wisdom keeper as a source literature. The research is subject to the hesitancy of scholars when it comes to claiming a decipherment of the Easter Island tablets. The preference is to keep silent about what the glyphs might say until the evidence has mounted enough to make it safe to proceed to understanding the script or portions of it. Others claim that the corpus is too small and a decipherment unlikely. Indigenous World-view believes in science, but it consists of a ‗life-force‘ and trickster element in all matters and theories ready to surprise us at every turn. Therefore, to an Indigenous person, even if the talbets are scientifically undecipherable, this does not mean that this will always be the case. An example of this Indigenous World-view surprising us occurred when someone from the West first held an Easter Island tablet. The Rapanui were Christianized under the shepherding of Bishop of Tahiti, Tepano Jaussen. The islanders sent him a gift of rope made out of human hair. At first glance the reader might think this is odd. Indigenous wisdom matters in developing an understanding of the context. The gift was not only a sign of deep respect, it was a highly valued ornament to the people of Easter Island. What makes this gift even more unique was that it was wrapped around a piece of wood which ontained strange hieroglyphic writings that the world had never seen.lxix Indigenous Wisdom looks at hair as a sign of wisdom and that such a gift was wrapped around the wood of an expression of that same wisdom, not by mere coincidence but as a sign. This sign is that the life-force of the Creator, present in all things wants us all to see the gift of these tablets intimately wound about and adorned by the people of ancient Rapanui, by their descendants and relations throughout Polynesia with the understanding that they represent a most precious gift of wisdom. Proof of a decipherment involves this foundation of respect expressed with a meaningful gesture and sign of our own yet to be imagined. This expression of respect is not a judgement, but rather a charactersistic of the intent of all involved. From this foundation the inquiry is everpresent that leads us to 43

wrestle with our similtaneous desires to awe and caution: what will we learn from these tablets if and when they are deciphered and will it change us? Indigenous World-view beckons us to awe at these as great signs of the time toward a greater societal harmony and ecological sustainability. Presented in this thesis is the Rapanui use of rongorongo as a mixed syllabary semiotic script of about 120 syllables and perhaps ten times as many logograms. Proposed below in Part iii, iv, v. and vi in chart form are 20 syllables found on the Falling of Hina Moon Calendar Chant of the Mamari Tablet, 22 syllables from the Small Reimiro Tablet‘s Tattoo Soothing Chant and in this thesis, two other chants and their accompanying syllable charts will be combined to form a larger accumulative chart of syllables. Beyond this paper an exploration of a further seven chants will occur once the following foundational elements of decipherment have been developed: Proof 1: primary syllables will recur in every chant. Proof 2: a larger syllabus will develop with a continuous confirmation of the earlier set of syllables. Proof 3: there will be confirmations from previous scholarly decipherment attempts in relation to the definition of the rongorongo symbols, syllables and words. Proof 4: a weavable pattern of mythology, spirituality and linguistics will broaden the understanding of the early Polynesian migration network and the resulting harmony offering common roots will help clarify why this ancient wisdom matters. Proof 5: Scholars outstanding in the field will share in the yield of this harvest of the definitive decipherment of the Easter Island Tablets.
Indigenous wisdom is logical by following the patterns that can be taught and repeated to obtain the same results over time. An example of this proof is the use of this sequence of syllables forming words used over and over in the chants below.

Each chant on the Rongorongo tablets has a group of primary syllables which are used in conjuction with semiotic logograms. When a syllable or group of syllables shares the look of a logogram, the context of the sentence and the original author‘s intent determine whether the glyph is read as syllables or logograms. In order to decipher these chants, it must be determined which symbols were intended by each glyph. Then a logogram can be named from the symbol or likewise a syllable can be chosen from a portion of the name of the symbol. It is not necessary to know the exact Rapanui word used for the logogram, unless the logogram is also required to produce a syllable. Below is a list of over 46 symbols plausibly found on the tablets. This is the original list used early in 2007 to begin decipherment attempts on the tablets. As an understanding of the context of tablets grew, the symbols were adjusted or expanded to meet the demands of a plausible growing translation of the tablets. The expanded list of symbols is demonstrated by the syllables‘ detailed meaning and context charts below.

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Table: The First 46 Test Symbols to Use as Potential Syllable Identifiers on the Tablets. Table of Glyph Morphemes

Strong – assembly – house - hand/twisted threads – foot - man on side – hang – hair – breath - head of bird – peg – water – weapon – straight – divide – reed – surround – open – closed hand – dwelling/cloud – open hand – thumb – staff – kindle – water – cover/thatch – fish/seed/sprout – sit – thorn – descend/stoop – eye – breath/word – mouth – food – man on side – split/bend down – Sun (on horizon) – jaw – head – pillar – two front teeth – thumb – cross sticks – twisted threads – window - rock Using such symbols requires refinement in terms of Rapanui ethnography, literary context, genre, former research and local vs. broader Polynesian mythology. Upon developing an understanding of how the rongorongo glyphs appear, the research tends to lean towards symbols that appear more universal, such as, Sun, hand, star, reach, etc. That is, when a glyph on a logographic level can plausibly appear to symbolize both a star and a sea urchan, the star tends to develop a more plausible meaning not the local sea urchan. However, there are glyphs that appear as pictographs of local organisms with details that suggest no other explanation. The universal symbols tend to direct toward syllables (see Appendix). Each chant found on the tablets contain 20 or more primary syllables. These syllables may be used as logograms, depending on the context. The syllables make sense. That is, the glyphs look like the symbols they represent and accompanying logograms occationally confirm the syllable named. Proof that syllables are used on the tablets is given by Davletshin who writes that when the rongorongo glyph portions ―form sequences ABAB, BABA, AAAA and AAA strongly suggests that the sign has a syllabic (phonetic) value‖ and ―such word combinations, for example, ‗fish fish fish fish‘ mean nothing in any language (compare with TB700=700=700=700, Small Santiago Tablet [verso], Line 5; Atua-Mata-Riri Tablet, (Side b, Line 4).‖lxx

Figure: Reimiro neck ornament of Easter Island chief carved with the Rapa oar.

For example, the Large Reimiro neck ornament contains the four syllable word, TU-HINA-PO with a logographic RAPA oar as described in the Introduction above. Not only is a potential syllabus being formed, but the manner and order in which the syllables fall is also confirmed. 45

For this glyph, Tuhinapo-Rapa, section 1, contains the one syllable, TU/to stand, which appears in the bottom of the glyph; section 2, contains three syllables, HI/to stoop + NA/to grasp + PO/ a ball, which may be designated as 2a upper centre, 2b upper left and 2c upper right; section 3 contains the Rapa oar on the right side of the glyph; section 4 contains a cut off appendage with no syllable used. This type of syllabic sequence will be explored in the chapters below. Genre and Statistical Analysis The context of the writing on the rongorongo tablets based on Easter Island ethnological research, falls under one of seven categories:
Table Context or Genre of Easter Island Tablets
lxxi

Rapanui Text Genre kohau kiri taku ki te atua kohau tau kohau ika kohau manu kohau pare Lists of ancestors koho timo

English Translation

.

hymns (to deities sung at festivals such as Orongo's tangata manu, birdman egg hunt). chronicles (of yearly events) list of fallen warriors magic songs (to lure migratory birds to the island or to lure the enemy) tattooing songs (to sooth those being carved) genealogies vengeance songs or kokau o te ranga, a song to capture the enemy.

Amazingly we are able here to explore the relevance of a history that teaches us how to unite two worlds, one grounded on writing systems and another by Indigenous oral traditions. This Indigenous context of the tablets based on their decipherment expounds upon ethnological research acquired thus far for Easter Island. Moreover, in deciphering the tablets and finding how much they correspond with broader Polynesia, a breakdown of the use of chant context across Polynesia will assist in further understanding the ethnology of the culture groups who wrote the tablets. Tregear (1891) lists no fewer than 26 kinds of chants (songs, incantations laments and dirges). An investigation into these kinds of chants will only assist in understanding Easter Island ethnology. For instance, an oriori is a kind of song involving shaking that may be used in soothing a baby. Does the list of the seven ethnological elements on the tablets exclude such possibilities as lullabies? As well, if the rongorongo tablets are indeed being deciphered, they now have the capacity of expanding the list of seven kinds of writing genre on the island. For example, on the four tablets listed below is the ngaringari or rowers canoe timing chant 46

called, the Canoe of Rata found on four tablets. The myth of the Canoe of Rata is also a chronicle or tau and a hymn to the deities, kohau kiri taku ki te atua. On the small reimiro tablet is a tattoo soothing song or pare, which also agrees with the research. Yet, the Ball Game of Maui is also a power song related to the manu, but more of an invocation or prayer for energy, like the Polynesian, whaka-hirihiri. Moreover, the term 'magic' to define the manu song leaves room for doubt that its true meaning was understood by those recording the Easter Island data. Manu is about receiving gifts from the deified ancestors under the benevolence of the atua manu tane or lord of the birds or birdmen. Magic is to play tricks and about illusions. The table below helps to clarify this expanded context and growing understanding of Easter Island ethnology in terms of what categories of writing and/or speech are included on the tablets. In short, column two is what the tablets teach us beyond what we know in column three. This growing confidence about elaborating on Easter Island and Polynesian history is an important sign of a true decipherment as if opening a window to a real and amazing world honouring the original authors.
Table 1. Rongorongo tablet names of three deciphered chants (Barthel, 1958; Fischer, 1997:393).

Tablet Name with Barthel letters (1958) and Fischer numbers (1997) J; RR20; London Large Reimiro

C; RR2; Mamari

L; RR21:London Small Reimiro

A; RR1; Tahua H; RR9; Great Santiago tablet P; RR18; Great St Petersburg tablet Q; RR17; Small St Petersburg Tablet

Proposed Chant deciphermentlxxii. Underlined is an expanded context of the chant. Tuhinapo-Rapa, Guardian of Ocean Migrations used as a sample decipherment and a power song or karakia/whaka-hirihiri repeated over and over for greater energy with gifts to or from the gods; as well, an earth charm or hoa. The Falling of Hina Moon Calendar, Cosmological hymn and wayfinding song Maui‘s Ball Game, Tattoo Soothing Chant, a pohi or ball-game song and a myth The Canoe of Rata: Rowers Timing Chant (hari/ngaringari); Funerary keka/uhunga, pihe/pioi or ngare song for launching the canoe of Rata for the deceased to travel safely through the Underworld; and a tititai canoe chant

Easter Island Context of chant (from list of 7 above) manu (magic songs)

kohou kiri taku ki te atua (hymns) pare (tattooing songs) kohou kiri taku ki te atua (hymns) kohou kiri taku ki te atua (hymns) koho timo (vengence song)

Refer to figure 1 to 4.

Therefore, sourcing Tregear‘s broader Polynesian types of chants helps to expand upon the textual genre which might be present on the tablets. This liberal approach regarding pure Rapanui sources is unavoidable, due to the Tahitian influence on the Rapanui dictionary and the socio-linguistic parallels across Polynesian, particularly in the East, 47

which substantiated an exploration of comparative mythology in Part i.d above. Butinov himself suggests moderation in our reliance on the Metoro-Jaussen catalogue stating that the direct readings of Wolf and Lanyon-Orgill were too extreme.lxxiii As well, the broader Polynesian cultural patterns and spirituality is something shared in many respects with early Rapanui. Therefore, it is essential to explore the relationship of Rapanui to the other Pacific islands in order to fully understand Rapanui linguistics and ultimately the decipherment of Rongorongo itself. One type of prayer in particular that is applied in various ways across Polynesia is called the Karakia. Tregear defines the Karakia from the root, kara, meaning to call, as follows: An invocation; a prayer, a charm, a recitation; to repeat an incantation or conduct a religious service. ... Tahitan – cf. ara, to importune the gods, and make much of them by presents... to gain their countenance in war. Hawaian – cf. alana... a present made by a chief to a priest to procure his prayers; a present made to a god; a sacrifice; to offer a sacrifice; a crying out; a voice of suffering or complaint; kala, a public crier; to proclaim. Tongan – cf. gala, to cry, to raise the voice above that of others.lxxiv The late Michael Shirres of New Zealand has a website called Maori Theology, most of which describes the role of the Karakia.lxxv His work and sources have been a valuable source in relating the use of karakia to better understand the context of rongorongo in this research. Under the title of ‗A Traditional Threefold Structure‘, Shirres outlines the major Maori ceremonies performed in karakia prayer ritual: The Setting Up of the Rods ... the ritual setting up of the rods which symbolize pathways between earth and heaven and abiding places for the atua and the ancestors which are then invoked to come down and abide in the rods. In the ritual for the dead the rods are set up at the end of the ritual, one as a pathway for the spirit of the dead person to go "into the night", and the other as a pathway for the living to return to this world. In the ritual for the canoe, the canoe itself is the pathway, te ara o Taane, 'the pathway of Taane'. The Loosing and Binding ...the loosing from what is destructive and the binding to what is life-giving.... the loosing is expressed by ... water to wash away anything destructive.... (or) in the ritual for the canoe...by a ritual beating of the canoe with rods, to drive off any destructive spirits.... In the haircutting ritual for a young man the binding is expressed by the binding of the young man's topknot. In the kuumara ritual a special kuumara has its shoots bound round it. In the ritual for a canoe, there is a ritual binding of the adze ....for warfare ... binding ... girdle and belt. In the burial ... binding of the corpse. The Whakanoa Rite ...consists of a ritual offering ... and eating of the food.... made to the spirital power invoked in the karakia to acknowledge that it is the source of life and strength, the source of tapu, the source of mana, for the subject of the ritual. The food offered was usually kuumara or fernroot.... a whaangai (karakia offering) was ritually eaten, by the chief and the ruahine, the old woman.

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Only after the chief and the ruahine had eaten were the people allowed to eat.... a taumaha (offering is)... said as a way of 'lightening' the food. As a conclusion to the whakanoa ... is often a command ... expressing the favourable outcome of whatever has been asked for or rather ordered by the karakia.lxxvi Shirres work from a New Zealand Maori perspective relates across Polynesia (see Tregear‘s karakia, above) and is highly plausible reflective of the purpose of the Easter Island statue moai as Standing Up Rods of deified ancestral mediums. Moreover, the context of karakia used on Rapanui might expound upon the year long feast of the victorious birdman as an extended Whakanoa rite and the Loosing and Binding rites occuring in chant form on the rongorongo tablets themselves. Shirres further defines three portions of a typical karakia prayer being invocing a deity, a loosing and binding (pure) and a final act required to put things in order (Shirres. 1996. Ibid. Website). Shirres expresses how Maori karakia rites use various symbols and images integrally linked to ancient myths and tribal histories, ―So we frequently find references to Hine, to Rupe (Mauimua), to Tawhaki, to Rata and to Maui.‖lxxvii Therefore, the genre as karakia prayer on the tablets might very well identity the above deities and their common Polynesian stories (see Part iv., v. & vi.). According to Shirres, the best way to classify the karakia prayers is the same way the early Maori classified them, into the differing rituals. Thus, karakia for the child (after conception, birth and haircutting); warfare; the offering and eating of the kuumara (for planting, weeding and at harvest); the canoe (for cutting the tree and its roots, separating the canoe from the tree, taking it to the river and launching it); and for the dead (at death and at bone scraping). More simple karakia prayers can be used in virtually every aspect of daily life.lxxviii Stages of the karakia rituals exist within each classification. For instance, in the Karakia for the Child, there are three stages: 1 - in the naming and at the dedication of gendre roles (tohi, tuuaapana); 2 – in the pure rite to fill the person with mana; 3 – to remove tapu (horohoro, whakanoa) from the community in relation to the ceremony.lxxix A list of new flag words that may appear on the tablets can be drawn up from the karakia. For instance, the pure (loosing and binding rite); tapu (sacred or restricted); whakanoa (to make free from restriction; mana (spiritual power or life force); turaki (to overthrow, referring to the trampling of the rods; taangaengae (breath strongly – used at the karakia‘s cutting of the umbilical cord) (Shirres. 1996. Ibid. Website). Using the approapriate sources can assist in learning how these words related to each other among the karakia chants. How these words might then appear in rongorongo logograms would assist in finding key flag glyphs and phrases throughout the tablets. Genre might be identified on the rongorongo text as the study of glyph variations occurs. Melka sources Guy (Melka. 2008. P. 174) in his codifying of a potential mythical chant or incantation in Guy‘s research of the ―Fused Glyphs in the Easter Island Script‖lxxx found on tablet Text Br1:

49

ABCDEF A B C D1 E F G H I J ABCDEF A B C D1 E F G H I A1 Another kind of chant appears on the Greater Washington verso line 2 as:
Note: the letters represent the pattern only. The above sequence glyphs differ from these below.

A B1-2 C D ECD FCD GCD HCD G C D x3 I C D x2 J K L ... (next glyphs are warn away) Pozdniakov speculates that such parallel passages in chants are of the genre of magic formulas, timo or kaikai (Pozdniakov. 1996. P. 299; Melka. 2008. P. 174). Melka boldly requests ―new lines of inquiry‖lxxxi for finding known parallel passages to decipher such chants (See Combining Genre and Sequences on the Greater Washington Tablet below). Glyph variations in parallel passages present clues to decipherment and sign limitations by the study of allographs, or signs of the same meaning with minor form variations (Melka 2008. P. 172; Fedorova 1983. Fischer 1997. P. 206. Métraux 1940. P. 401). Butinov clarifies the usefulness of Barthel‘s amendments to the Metoro-Jaussen catalogue:
Table: Butinov‘s Rapanui Amendments and Peculiarities in the Metoro-Jaussen list:lxxxii

Amendment 1. Tahitian words to Rapanui

Word/glyph in Question vaha (mouth) taha (frigate bird)

Addition haha tavake

2. Proper Rapanui translation hura (not a small net) a sling It is possible that hura might represent any such hunting or netting tool. pakia (Sperm Whale) ivi heheu Rapanui pakoo means to bite. Paikea in Polynesia myth is the watermonster whose mouth is as a one-door house of death. Pakia may be representative of any large sea creature or ‗biting‘ water-monster. hoea (tattooing instrument) uhi Rapanui hoe means an oar or knife, so hoea and uhi may be synonymous as tattooing instruments. The tattoo soothing chant proposed on the small Reimiro below finds ta-ta-tau as the tattooing instrument from Tregear (1891). This is another plausible synonym taking into account the section above on Rongorongo and Comparative Mythology.

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3. Proper Sign identification

mataa (sign 7 – knife) ka-hi the word denotes a spearhead Tregear maripi and karipi correspond as synonymous with knife. The root usage of ma and ka appear to be two possible syllables for the glyph in this research.

4. Elaborating the context rutua te paku (sign 8) gourd-earth Metoro‘s rutua te paku means to beat a drum. The gourd-earth drum (a buried large gourd full of grass beat upon to time dancers was used on Easter Island). The grass offering of Kui the Blind associated with the buried Hoa Hakanana‘ia (see above) on Orongo, may be intended. It is also a plausible parallel to Rapanui as a turtle shell motif from te Pito te Henua (Honu – earth/turtle). 5. Synonyms and double meanings raa (sign 4 as sun) also star (hetu) and fire (ahi) ua (sign 5 as rain) wave (ngaru) tangata (sign 6 as human) father (matua) tangata (sign 7 as human) Hotu Matua Hotu Matua was the first father or founding migrator to the island. rima (sign 8 as hand) to grasp (mau) ika (fish) also offering vae (sign 9 as foot) to walk (oho)

6. Metoro‘s single sign list does not account for Rapanui double signs. paepae (a boat), riva-riva (good), uri-uri (black) The amount of rongorongo double-signs are representative of the number of reduplicated morphemes in Rapanui language (Butinov. 1957. P. 13). This double glyph/morpheme parallel might be grounds for further study through statistical analysis incorporating Rapa Nui vocabulary and Tregear‘s (1891) dictionary.
Table: Glyph Clues Based on Scribal Errors (Horley 2009): lxxxiii

Glyph Clue 1. Minor scribal corrections

2. Pre-incision too soon

Outcome towards Decipherment Glyph 670 with long beak may be a fusion of 630.678 (found on Tahua-Aa1). (since the first portion of the Moon Calendar presents a rounded pre-incision on the neck of glyph 670 from Mamari-Ca6). Glyph 670y on Mamari-Ca7 stoops to the ground to the left instead of to the right. It is pre-incised too early (under moon glyph to left). The pre-incision excludes the long neck. It is plausible that the elimination of this final syllable is a literary norm of an 51

3. Inserted glyphs

4. Forgotten glyph squeezed in

5. Gradual sign improvement

abbreviation of the same word. Mamari-Ca6 and Ca7 has the two glyph sequence (glyph 670 + ra – ure – ika(hi)) placed on the side of the tablet after it was forgotten and there was no alternative or room. Every glyph is important to the sacredness of the chant. Mamari-Ca7 and Ca8 has two unusually small moons. Horley notices this is the third moon in that position forgotten and two appear to be squeezed small into place. Yet, the decipherment offered on the Mamari Moon Calendar (see Part iii.c) accounts for the ‗eye‘ addition (Ca7) producing ‗daughter‘ in syllable translation where the first small moon occurs. The next moon is large over the pre-incised 670y and with lines on the glyph offers Hineahua, on the deluge waters (see Part 4, note 78). Here the full moon is presented as a deluge and reminder of rising tides. Hina‘s parents are then produced surrounding the second small moon, Hina Iti, or Little Hina. Tregear offers Itiiti as a name for Hina. Mamari-Ca6i-Ca8i has glyph 315y with several variations. Horley attributes this to scribal accuracy improvement when carving repetitive glyphs (Horley 2009. Pp. 258259). This research offers Tangaroa as the glyph meaning, which develops to this status later in the Moon Calendar in sink with Polynesian Moon Calendar placement of Tangaroa. Perhaps suggesting an intended transformation of the glyph to ‗produce‘ Tangaroa.

Concerning scribal error 4 above, these expressions of glyphs (daughter, Hineahua, Atutahi, Hina Iti or Itiiti and Rangi) are plausible due to the excessive cross-references to mythology found in this section and, as supported by scribal error 3 (Inserted glyphs) above, that every glyph is important. Horley presents scribal error as the cause of these two small crescents, yet in the end admits: ―Additional research is required to clarify the meaning of these small crescents.‖lxxxiv He also describes variations in glyphs and their improved consistency toward later stages of repetitive sequences are the result of scribal improved accuracy with practice. Without disagreeing with what appears plausible across the tablets, care does need to be taken in finding the balance in defining unique 52

attributes of certain glyphs vs. discarding those attributes altogether. Horley admits in the mind of the scribe the variance in repetition was ―acceptably accurate ... and all of them intended to appear in the inscription.‖lxxxv Horley presents a significant variation in a sequence of glyphs identifying the same meaning yet written in several differing formslxxxvi:
Table: Horley‘s 001.009.005 Deliminator
Note: Barthel‘s numbers accompany glyphs unless otherwise posted. A refinement of Barthel‘s system though out of the scope of this research would be useful for the purposes of organizing glyph relationships. Guy offers some important amendments to Barthel‘s system (Guy 2006. Pp. 55-56).

Tablet Aa7/8 -Ab1/2/7/8 Tablet Ab4 Tablet Gr3 Tablet Ra6 Tablet Sa5 Tablet Bv4

001.005.009 or 001.015.009 (note: 005 appears to represent a combination of 015.062) 010y.599d-005b? 010(or 004).5952.005? 590.005b?.010(or 004) 001-062b?.009-005b? 001.006b?.004?-009.006b-005b.006b

Then Horley writes: ... the sequence 001-009-005 (appears) appended with a body in two cases (Ra6 and Gr3); the third case it is written as the ligature 010y.599d (...Ab4) and probably was intended to look like 001.009.005, but its lower portion was carved in a too small a scale to house the vertical line of the glyph 005, rewritten immediately in the full size.
Table: Tentative Logographic Interpretation of three glyphs from Text Sa5 lxxxvii

Glyph

Barthel’s # 001 009 005

Logographic Appearance toko or tiki, a pole or pillar

Metoro/Jausen Listlxxxviii henua, land* tahonga & ahi, sphere and fire** rutua te maeva***, beat a rhythm to chant the tablets or pray

ura(kura), a torch (notice the ball on Sa5) ara + po, a pathway and a ball

* Metoro chose several glyphs for henua or land. Possibly expressing the dominant theme represented and

53

not necessarily the logogram or syllable produced. The pillar that raised up the sky was associated with a specific place on the land. Being a student of the script with only a vague recollection of his training might suggest the ability to recall vague themes when specific glyphs were forgotten. ** Jaussen‘s list uses the ‗torch‘ sign for ragi, the sky or also as a fire being held as shown here in the

Jaussen list diagramlxxxix: It‘s similarity to the ra‘a glyph might be an indirect confirmation of glyph 8‘s association as rangi. Torch as rama and flame as ura or ahi, might apply. Metoro may have recalled ragi or sky with the possible use of the ‗torch of the sky‘ as a plausible name for the Sun, moon and/or stars in sacred incantation. *** ru is considered the Underworld deity of earth-quakes and volcanoes. The use of the Earth-drum in early Rapanui, might draw a parallel between the drum beat and the Underworld pathway.

Given the ball modifying the bottom of 009 on Text Sa5, consider the following logographic storyline expressing the mythology of Polynesia: The pillar that separates the earth and sky is the sea lit by the torch of the Sun after it has travelled through the pathway of the Underworld at dawn. This logographic attempt may be part of the intended meaning of the glyphs, yet putting the syllables together may form more clues to their intended meanings:
Table: Tentative Syllabic Interpretation of three glyphs from Text Sa5xc

Glyphs

Barthel’s # 001-009-005

Syllabic Outcome tiki-ura-arapo

Tentative Translation the pillar torch of the pathway through the Underworld

What happens when the po, ball is passed to the front? Po-tiki-ura-ara: Potiki is the name for Maui who was nurtured in the top-knot of his mother Taranga. Potiki stole the flame in the Underworld and made a flaming path which set the world ablaze.

Using a former plausible syllable sequence a plausible decipherment is charted below:
Table: Tentative Syllabic Interpretation of three glyphs from Text Aa7 xci

Glyphs

Barthel’s # 001.009.005

Syllabic Outcome ara-ura-po-tiki ara-po-ura-tiki

Tentative Translation the pathway ablaze by the child, Maui Po-tiki the pathway Underworld torch pillar

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The order depends on whether you include the syllable PO as a portion of the bottom Section 1, read as arapo, the Pathway of the Underworld; or whether PO is taken as the right Section 3. Horley views that these 001.009.005 glyphs in combination are probably intended to represent the same meaning of the separated glyphs 001-009-005 (Horley. 2007. P. 28). If so, the ordering of glyphs from left to right appears to contradict this attempted order of syllables. More analysis will be required before conclusions are drawn (see Chapters below). A view of the surrounding glyphs in the table below show some sequential parallels.
Table: Horley‘s 001.009.005 Deliminator with surrounding glyphs (ie. the most common phrase)

Ab4 ------------------------------------------------------Tablet Ab contains Horley‘s deliminator one phrase after 067s ‗the most common phrase‘

Tablet Gr2/3 / -------------------------

--------------------Tablet Ra6 ---------------------------------

----

Tablet Gr contains Horley‘ deliminator one phrase after ‗the most common phrase‘

Tablet Ra contains Horley‘ deliminator immediately after ‗the most common phrase‘

Tablet Sa5 -------Sa1 Tablet Bv4 ------------Tablet B is the only tablet to contain 001-009-005 without ‗the most common phrase‘ Sa contains ‗the most common phrase‘ 4 lines before 001-009-005

These sequential parallels form an interplay between three forms of repetitive glyphs.

Deliminator 380.1(003,052)(Horley 2007. P. 30) appears in its various forms: with some 001.009.005 deliminators, but not others. Together with glyph 55

067 in sequence with the ‗most common phrase‘ (see below), the trio produces the following table for contrast:
Table: Plausible genre for three sequence deliminators

Sequence deliminator(s)
380.1

plausible genre (sources and conjecture) priest reading tablet (kohau rongorongo, Barthel 1958. Pp. 25, 310); sitting man holding a stick (Horley 2007. P. 27), ie: staff of genealogy (scholars agree that the glyph introduces such a list) (most common phrase) palm tree/fish produce offering; reimiro glyph (scholars agree) might point to Reinga, theUnderworld and a corresponding funerary offering. chief holding a staff; priest holding a tablet; stone moai about to be detached from face of Rano Raraku volcano query. See separate glyphs and logographic appearance table above.

007-067.0102?-067.470?.001-670-580?

001.009.005 (005.009.001?)

Given the logographic appearance in terms of Polynesian mythology, a plausible genre for the glyphs can be explored. As well, these three glyphs appears together or apart depending on certain criteria listed in the tablet below:
Table: Comparison of Deliminator 380.1; 001.009.005; 067‗most common phrase‘ 380.1 001.009.005 067 most common phrase

Aa7/8 Ab4 Gr2/3 Ra6 Sa5 Bv4

X/// X/// */// **///

X+/// X+ X+ X+ XX-

** X X X **

*Deliminator 380.1 does not appear to occur but it may be in an unknown form or as a single 001 pole. ** this deliminator occurs on the tablet, but two or more lines away + Deliminator 001.009.005 occurs as a single glyph (or with one detached mini-glyph) - Deliminator 001.009.005 occurs as three separate glyphs. /// they occur as an apparent list separated by a long word or phrase

If Horley is correct in considering all forms of deliminator 001.009.005 to be glyph variations of a common meaning, then the table above may express that the one ‗word‘ has many different uses. The glyphs appear too similar for this not to be the case. But there may be an indication here that Text Sa5 and Text Bv4 contain a separate meaning for deliminator 001.009.005 when it becomes separated (001-009-005). Either way, what is useful about Text Sa5 and Text Bv4 in context with deliminator 001.009.005, is that the surrounding glyphs appear to offer the same phrases (see table? above), yet present variations that may help eventually decipher unknown logograms. To what extent tablet Sa5 and Bv4 are similar is out of the scope of this investigation, but would be a useful 56

pursuit. The same can be said of the relationship between texts Ab4, Gr2/3 and Ra6, in terms of the ‗most common phrase.‘ An overall assessment of the table above might consider the following: Texts with deliminator 380.1 may be a title as scholars agree, that expounds upon 067‘s ‗most common phrase‘ and deliminator 001.009.005. However, these latter two, especially deliminator 001.009.005, which forms its own list or chant chorus on Text Aa, can occur independent of the 380.1 list marker, much like a deity can be named with or without atua occurring in the phrase. So what is with Text Aa7/8‘s deliminator 001.009.005 and why is it the only one of its kind in a sequence? In this case, the sequence covers over one third of the large tablet A in these three forms: 1 2 3
001.009.005

Arching pillar right Straight pillar no ball Arching pillar left

001-009.005

001.009.005

A tentative decipherment from Tablet Aa7 (glyphs 1-3 below) preceding the first 001.009.005 with arching pillars vs. straight pillar is presented below to suggest the purpose of the arches and the missing ball. Given: Glyph 001.009.005 tentatively appears as Potiki‘s torchlit pathway through the Underworld; a variation of the glyph occurs with list/genealogy deliminator 380.1, which means it may represent a portion of a name or title. Hypothesis: a deity of the Underworld with an arched pillar may correspond to the glyph (Maui Potiki). Procedure 1: identify plausible genre for the following glyphs of Tablet Aa7 .
048-0223.025-001.009.005

Table: Plausible genre for two introductory glyphs and their deliminator Glyphs plausible genre (sources, mythological constructs and conjecture)
048

Also found on the Small Reimiro perhaps representing Maui‘s snare (see Maui‘s Tattoo Soothing Chant below). This may be Maui‘s snare to noose the Sun. This glyph appears to contain a canoe, perhaps used to pass through the Underworld. The second part of the glyph presents two bent pillars. They together appear to represent the Underworld 57

0223.025

passage of the canoe held by the deliminator as single pillars arching left and right used in opening and closing the phrases. Perhaps a sacred house or whare/hare is intended here, given that Easter Island‘s ancient houses were in the shape of a giant canoe, yet with one door. Here the canoe house has two doors.
001.009.005

Therefore, glyph three might represent the deity in charge of the canoe of the Underworld and the sacred Wharekura (Maori) or harekura (Rapanui?), being the sacred house of spiritual instructions, such as, tablet incantation, carving and chanting.

The missing ball might represent the inside of the house where the Underworld ancestral stars are visible. That is, the ‗straight pillar no ball‘ version of 001-009.005 is meant to represent the pillar raising the restriction of the house or whare/hare of the Underworld deity whose incantation for the ancestral stars is contained within the arching pillar glyphs. The ball is absent to signify that there is no Sun during the night and the incantation is a lament calling upon the gift of ‗enlightenment‘ that will provide the eternal Sun and ‗sweep‘ the stars with the rays of dawn to the tenth heaven of rehua. The myth of the Ponaturi relates. It is plausible then to consider the following tentative translations of these three glyphs: Procedure 2: Attempt a tentative translation of glyphs based on logographic genre.
Table: Tentative Syllabic Interpretation of three glyphs from Text Aa7 xcii

Glyphs Barthel’s # 048

Syllabic Outcome Tentative Translation koro-iti a snare (see 115, the plausible snare of Maui?)

0223.025

waka-ruatapu the canoe of the two-door house Wananga-ruatapu* the deified ancestor who, while living, knew all the incantations of the sacred whare/hare or prayer house. Ara-ura-Po-tiki Taiura** Deity of the pathway to the dawn. A living shaman who knows the incantations of the Wharekura.

001.009.005

*wananga from WA/waka, canoe + wanawana, bristles. **taiura from tai, a rib + ura, a torch.

Wananga, or deceased and deified shamans, and their living counterparts, Taiura, were the Polynesian priests residing over the temples and were disciples in the sacred houses of incantations. Ngatauira was Tawhiti‘s Fifth Heaven where lived the servants of the priests of Rehua‘s Tenth Heaven (Naherangi or Tuwarea are the Great Temple of the 58

Tenth Heaven) (Tregear 1891. Alphabetical) The mythological context may involve the following: Tiki, then, represents the high priest of the sacred house of the tenth heaven. Po-tiki may be the name of Tiki as he nooses the Sun and rests in the topknot rays of the Sun, his Mother. The purpose of noosing the Sun is for Maui-potiki to have the light to enlighten the learners of his two door house, Ruatapu. These learners are the dead, since, the water monster Paikea, also known as the one door house, has been transformed by Tiki who opened the second door. Here, 001.009.005 represents a sacred tapu marker or door. Therefore, these are pure or tapu raising incantations within the ‗doors‘ or ‗ribs‘ of the defeated Paikea, representing powerful funerary chants.

59

Chapter 3 Rongorongo Chant – Harekura, the Sacred House

60

Once a plausible decipherment is made from these three glyphs the surrounding rongorongo glyphs are taken into account. Consider the closing of the door in the end of this tapu removing chant: Procedure 3: Apply procedure one to the glyphs ending with arching pillar left.

Tablet Ab2
600- 004-7002-670-004.064-001-014-651-011-381?(741?)-001.009.005

1 2 3 Tablet Aa3

4

5 6 7

8

9 10 11

600- 004.?.064-600.004.064-001.063-014-680.001?-011-381?(741?)- 7002?-001-005?

1 2b-c 1b Tablet Ab1 10b-d

6b 7 ....

8b

9 10 11b-d

755-381?(741?)- 381

7552-382?(742?)-381

10e-g

Table: Plausible genre for section ending ―Arching Pillar Left‖ or 001.009.005 Note: These numbers, 1 to 11, are used one time only for convenience sake. Refer primarily to Barthel‘s glyph numbers listed throughout in 8 font.xciii

Glyphs 1 2 2b-c 3 4 5 6 6b 7 8 8b 9 10 10b-d/e-g 11 11b-d

plausible genre and logograms bird or bird deity (scholars agree). Devotion to sacred bird deity? Related to tanga-manu bird man ceremony? knife, offering or purification instrument (see 1 and 5) The glyphs appear to be surrounding the bird. If it is a deity, perhaps they are adjectives of honour. fish (scholars agree) bird bending or diving knife with palm up glyph (syllables required) pole or board (scholars agree) pole with second syllable? cross, crossroads, territory marker two headed bird, extended wings, stooping, extended with open mouths (plausible syllable identifiers) two headed bird, stooping, extended beak with extra syllable between the heads. pillar with dividing lines (plausible syllable identifier) Person with wide mouth (plausible syllable identifier) three deities, one a water monster, perhaps human, one with ball or fist. Pathway glyph with pole arching left. Fish (scholars agree) perhaps an offering. Pole and pathway with ball.

Procedure 4: Identify syllables and words from the above contextual genre. 61

Table: Plausible Pure Ceremony Chant Syllables and Words of the Tahua Text A Tablet Note: These numbers are used one time only for convenience sake. Refer primarily to Barthel‘s glyph numbers listed throughout in 8 font or labelled.

Rapanui/Polynesian 1. Tavake/Tane 2. ma 2b mana 2c Tane-mana

3. ikaroa 4. tahi 5. mana 5b (as 2c) 6. toko/tiki

English Translation: bird deity (logogram) purify (logogram of maripi, knife; syllable MA) power (logogram of maripi, knife + naunau, to feel for a Rapanui mosquito; syllables MA + NA) Tane-manawa? The heart of Tane. Considered the ocean beneath where the souls of the Underworld reside (as above). Milky Way (the ancestors) (logograms of ika, fish + roa, long) to sweep (logograms of tavake, frigate bird + hianga, to stoop; syllables TA + HI) with power (as above)

a prop of heaven, standing up rod/deity Tiki (logogram of tiki, pole) 6.b. tiko high up (to the heavens)(logogram of tiki, pole + koke, limp; syllables TI + KO) toko a prop of heaven 7. ripeka marking of territory, (logogram of peka cross) 8. Tangaengae /Tagaegae + deity who resides at the lowest part of the Underworld, the Papa Root of all Existence. Papa means the Earth, a wide expanse. Perhaps the Essential Root of all the Earth. Also, tagaegae is the core of the Aka root. (logogram of tavake, bird; pa, wing; gae, to breathe 8b Tahiti/tawhiti homeland in the Eastern Sunrise; also to cross over, as those who travelled to the Underworld and return as guides (logogram of tavake, bird; hianga, to stoop; tiki, pole; syllables TA+HI+TI) 9. tohunga priest (logogram toko, pole + hua, to heap up, pile in divided portions; syllables TO+HU) 10. tangata whanui human; wide or Morning Star (logogram of a person and a wide mouth, wha, wide + nui, large. 10b-d b. Whanui from wha/whanui, wide + nui, large = wide or Morning Star; c. Takawaenga from ta/tahi, side + nga, breath + wae, foot = centre, mediator; d. Tawhaitiri from tahi, side + wha/whanui, wide + iti, small + ri/ringa, hand = deity in underworld that, with Tuapiko, are two giants guardians of the Underworld prevented souls from passing. Heavy souls are caught, light souls escape. (logograms and syllables appear in first 10 glyphs) 10e-g e. has the tail to verify it as a whale or water monster. That is, Paikea/Ikaroa, as the Milky Way, is were the deceased 62

11. Taiura - ara-ura-Po-tiki 11b-d Ikaroa Tiki arapo

ancestors reside. Therefore, it has been likened to a wide mouthed water-monster preventing people from passing into ‗a new dawn‘ or the heavenly rehua; f. Waenganui-po from wae, foot + nga, breath + nui, large + po, ball (fist glyph) = midnight. Here the Centre or Mediator is called, Midnight, akin to the one dwelling at the Root of the Earth, perhaps reflected in the New Moon motif or the 001009.005 missing ball straight pillar glyph. The priest, Potiki, of the bright road (of tane) (logogram of tai, a rib + ura, a torch) The Milky Way, the deity Tiki; the Underworld pathway.

Procedure 5: Putting it all together. The result is the following plausibly deciphered rongorongo funerary and origin chant: The Wharekura Pure – The Sacred House Rite of Passagexciv koro-iti Wananga-ruatapu Taiura-Tiki-arapo-ura
?- 048-0223.025-001.009.005

Tavake ma Ikaroa Tahinga mana
600-004-7002-670-004.064

Tane mana Tane-Manawa
-600-004.?.064-600.004.064

Tiko Tiki ripeka
-001.063-001-014

Tagaegae papa Tahiti tohunga
-651-680.001?-011

Wainui Takawaenga Tuapiko
-755-381?(741?)- 381

Paikea Tuapiko Waenganui-Po Tawhitiri
-7552-382?(742?)-381

Tangata Wainui Taiura Tiki-ura-arapo
-381?(741?)-001.009.005

Wainui Ikaroa Tiki arapo
-381?(741?)- 7002?-001-005?

O set a Snare for the House of the Priest of Heaven and Earth, Tiki, on the Underworld pathway to catch the Sacred Fire and Central Sun. Sacred Bird of the ancestral stars, sweep them with power Sacred Bird of Power, into the Heart of Tane 63

Raise them high up, O Tiki, to the territory marked off From root of the Earth to Eternal Sunrise as medium And Bright Morning Star who travelled through the centre of the Crushing Pillars of Death as the Central Sun; Between the giants in deepest darkness Yet appears the Morning Star and High Priest of Earth, Po-tiki who lit the path of the Underworld on fire. O Morning Star, remember my loved ones and turn a merciful gaze upon me, as you pass through the belly of the dead, O Tiki, you who enlighten the path of the Underworld as Central Sun and Sweeper of the Stars.

Can the study of one glyph combination be so useful? Butinov also clarifies glyph combinations:
Table: Glyph Combination Typesxcv

Combination type 1. Whole word ideograms

Example in Rongorongo/Rapanui king (ariki) + hand (manu) = ariki mau the supreme chief. 2. Ideograms with key signs sun (raa) + sky (rangi) = sun (not day, the second meaning of raa). 3. Phonetic and key signs walking man (ki te haka hiki ia, to arrive home) + sky (rangi) = to visit/send (rangi) The phonetic in this case is the sky (rangi) and the key sign to determine the meaning of the homonym rangi in context is the motion of a person going for a visit (rangi) 4. Pure phonetic the sun (raa) + rain (ua) = they (raua)

Though Metoro may not have been entirely correct in his list, his approach sets the direction of the research of rongorongo. Together with the text genre, the amendment and combination tables can help unravel the puzzle of each glyph sequence when taken in full context. Wolfe, though taking the extreme in regarding all of Metoro‘s list at face value, presents some valuable research to consider. Wolfe presents two more textual themes or genres for consideration: As a fertility charm, a woman with a child and a wooden tablet circled around a post. But most of such ceremonials have been performed on the occasion of burials. Here it seems fairly sure that the recitations of the rongorongo men from their wooden tablets referred to conjurations for rebirth. As the pictographs on the statues as well as on the small wooden images represented a rebirth symbolism.xcvi Wolfe compares his hypothesis to ancient Nordic and Egyptian funerary writing. Though his work may be dated and extreme, he does make a point in various uses of the writing 64

for rebirth symbolism. One more artefact he failed to mention in this regard are the skulls, and their glyphs carved into the foreheadxcvii. Two such glyphs include the Taha/Tavake, frigate bird (Barthel‘s 600), though in a diving form, and vulva representation (Barthel‘s 50, Métraux, 1940. P. 266). This vulva appears perhaps in the logographic form of a diving bird or a falling star, which in tern presents perhaps a falling or Underworld genre. Yet, confirming the sign of a vulva on the skull, Métraux writes that there is a ―belief in the fertilizing power of ariki skulls (as) paralleled in other parts of Polynesia.‖xcviii Métraux identifies a stone covered with these ‗vulva‘ glyphs on the northeast side of Rapanui, called Pu-o-Hiro (the Trumpet-of-Hiro).xcix It made the sound of a trumpet (conch shell perhaps) when the wind blew through a hole in the rock. The vulvas on the rock may be linked to the reproductive nature of wind in relation to its predominance at the Orongo village as it whistles through the grass, an offering of Kui the blind in gratitude for lives saved from the deluge. (see Hoa-Hakanana‘ia in the introduction and the Earth Diver deluge chart in part i.b.). Since the stone with all the vulva‘s is called, Pu-o-Hiro, this ‗vulva‘ glyph 50 may also contain the same name. In Rapanui, consider the syllable used as, PU, (trumpet, hole, well or vulva as puhaga)(from the Rapanui dictionary). Some examples of the use of the glyph: Given: glyph 50 (or a semblance of it) is carved on the trumpet rock, Pu-o-Hiro. Hypothesis: glyph 50‘s ‗name‘ is Pu. Procedure 1: test glyph 50 with Pu as they relate on the tablets with other glyphs.
Table: The Possibilities of Pu – completed Nov. 19, 10 to demonstrate working methodology.

Glyph occurrence
50

Definition

.

PU occurs as a syllable or as a word by itself: As a word PU also means to come forward in greeting or to produce (for example: a friend produces greetings; a trumpet produces sound; a vulva produces regeneration; a well produces water; the PO Underworld produces dawn). This phrase contains two examples;

50.711-606(.?-?)001.006-021-050?-7552

1

2 1: PU, trumpet/vulva/well + HI, fish on line = puhi meaning to blow (as in a fire) 2: PO, ball + PU, trumpet = popu (produces nothing), however it sounds like popo. There are two definitions in the Rapanui dictionary: popo: a ball & pôpo: to enter/put in/to contain (as a bundle). Popohaga means to dawn. Haga (to want, to love as aga, to work, to make, to create) becomes an implied action modifier. Plausible decipherment: 65

puhi taka-tika hetu‘u popohaga taniwha Blow to gather the signs of the stars at the dawning of the water-monster. In parallel phrases (pu & popo are interchanged) from two tablets: Tablet H
0022-022-050?-059-733

Tablet P
0022-050-007-059-733

1 2 3 4

5

The glyphs of pu and popo are used interchangeably, Perhaps as popohaga, to dawn. 1: Poaka: the Orion Constellation. The glyph is both syllabic and logographic. Syllabic from PO, ball + AKA, a root fibre = poaka. It can also represent PO, the Underworld of Ancestors which gather at Orion (Poaka). It is Logographic because it looks like the Orion‘s belt. 1.b. waka: the canoe. In context with PO, the Underworld, this canoe might represent, Tama, the Underworld Canoe. 2. Pu is intended, not in its syllabic form, but as the logogram for the dawn. 3. REI syllable or logogram of the Reimiro neck ornament and sign for Reinga, another glyph for the Underworld. 4. Atua: lord, prince. 5. taniwha: another form of watermonster. The repeated portion on the tail may represent a plural marker. Plausible Decipherment using Moon Calendar & Canoe of Rata research: po waka popohaga atua taniwha The ancestoral canoe dawns on the Underworld prince of water-monsters.

470.050-670-050.061-004.064-050-700-064.0743-004.064-005-670-004.064-670-004.064

1

2

3 45 6 7 8

9

10 11 12

Note: These numbers are used one time only for convenience sake. Refer primarily to Barthel‘s glyph numbers listed throughout in 8 font (Guy. 1988. P. 323).

(confirmed in Part iv.) 1. Tahinga popohaga: the sweeping rays of dawn. (ri confirmed Part iv.) 2. puri: to be held up, restrained. Perhaps pure: prayer. (see Part iv. + intro.) 3. mana: power. 4. popohaga: dawn. (ika – scholars agree) 5. ika: fish, offering or ikaroa: Milky Way ancestral home. (Intro. + Part iv.) 6. nahu (as naku) ancient word possibly meaning forgiven. 66

(Part vi + v.) (Part iv.)

or naho: confortable. Yet, scholars have noticed hand alterations between glyph 064 and glyph 006 (Guy. 2006. P. 62). Aho – fishing line from hauhau fibre. Ahu – sacred temple platform, grave, to swell. 7. mana: power. 8. arapo: Underworld pathway? 9: Tahi: the Sweeping Ceremony, as 11. 10: mana: power, as 12. Decipherment using Moon Calendar & Canoe of Rata research and glyph for which Scholar‘s agree (ika, fish; hua, fruit or scrotum; marama, moon; rima, hand) : tahinga popohaga pure mana popohaga ikaroa nahu arapo tahi mana tahi mana The Sweeping Ceremony of dawn‘s prayer powerful dawn‘s rising of Ikaroa (home of ancestors) forgiving with a path through the Underworld sweep with power sweep with power The Santiago staff appears to have a name that uses the

600-199-050.076-064?(.?-?)002?.035?-199-076 /

glyph for the proposed PU syllable. Glyph 199 represents one of the 97 partition lines that separate every three glyphs.c Davletshin sources Metoro as the informant who read the accompanying glyph as the Rapanui word ‗ure‘ for ‗phallus‘ and states: ―Fedorova suggests that the article replaced ure originally used as father name‘s marker.‖ci This research agrees that it represents a marker for a name, but points to the glyph as a foot, wae, intended to read, wai. See part 1.d. on the Mondberg‘s quote. (source Bixon) PU + HA (from hau – thread) = puha, to rise (of the sea).
050.0032

pupu (? from sunrise to sunset?) or through the night.
050.?.050 (see glyph 100)

Since, Metero offers henua or landcii (plausibly as a theme of certain glyphs rather the syllable it represents) in naming this glyph 50, it might logographically represent the rays of the Sun rising over the horizon. The glyph 600 frigate bird as Taha means to lean or the side. But Taha is the Tahitian for Rapanui‘s frigate bird tavake. Tavake means white as well as the frigate bird. It corresponds with the Polynesian tawhaki, which means to open, to burst forth as perhaps 67

the ‗white‘ of a new day or the white of a crashing breaker. Tavake is also an important Rapanui deity, presented here as one and the same as the Polyensian mythic hero Tawaki. This deity was the one who climbed the rope of heaven and then stomped on heavens floor bursting it open and causing the deluge. It is likely that the funerary bird on the skull represents this deity, who is perhaps synonymous with the bird deity Manu or Tane. To write glyph 600 on the skull, then, is to say that heaven will be burst open for my loved one by Tavake, though the glyph on the tablets may represent a phonemic element as a syllable or perhaps to mean simply a bird or to open. Following this trend, Glyph 50 might also represent a deity. Perhaps more on the Rapanui Tavake tradition will provide clues: The stranger Teavaka (Tavake) said, ―What remains is the landing site of Teavaka. (after the land sank into the sea – after a deluge, the landing site of Teavaka might correspond to the stomping place of Tawhaki which caused the deluge.) Thereupon, the king (Hotu Matua) asked, ―Why did the land sink into the sea?‖ – ―It was lifted up by Uvoke with a (mighty) pole. From there, where it was lifted, from Teavaka, (Uvoke came) to Te Ohiro, then to Te Pito O Henua. It was at Puku Puhipuhi where the pole of Uvoke broke. The hole (?) is the size of the pole. The pole came from above....‖ciii Hotu Matua associates the pole with lightning (or a meteor) from Makemake, which might make Uvoke an aspect of Makemake as the great judge deity, akin to Zeus as the deity of death and Teavaka/Ohiro the beneficiaries of pardon into the afterlife paradise in rangi or heaven. Therefore, it would make sense to carve the Tavake bird (glyph 600) on the skull of a loved one. It would also make sense that glyph 50 is a diving bird or a falling star, as another form of Tavake or perhaps Ohiro. The glyph corresponds with the three threads hanging from heaven in the Tawhaki myth (Tregear, 1891, tawhaki) and a thread is called hiro. Placing these potential identifications (of vulva – regenerative life, falling star, diving bird, a certain deity, or perhaps even bundle) into glyph 50 rongorongo sequences might reveal potential clues of associated glyphs. This association of glyphs into plausible context is a common methodology of this research. More on comparative context is presented above in Rongorongo and Comparative Mythology (see section i.d.). Moveover, the Rapanui deity Tavake is paralleled with Tawhaki elsewhere in Polynesia. It is plausible that Tawhaki‘s three vines suspended from heaven logographically appear in glyph 50 itself. In myth the central vine is rooted on the sacred mountain, just as it appears rooted in the glyph. Wolfe excused Jaussen‘s doubts in Metoro‘s translation suggesting the writing as telegraphic (without conjuctions, pronouns and grammatical elements) and by turning to Routledge who wrote, ―... it illustrates interestingly the general method of condensation in which, even in the recitations, a few words assume or implicate extended knowledge.‖civ Metoro adds, ―...besides the word giving the proper meaning of the sign, the chant includes groups of other words added by the fancy of the artists.‖cv Such a requirement of extended knowledge and words added to the written script do not necessarily imply a pure mnemonic logographic system, they may just expose the illiteracy of the reader. A logographic-syllabary can be associated with Indigenous style 68

story-telling. For example, in Blackfoot Culture Class, Andy Black Water described the eleven core values of the Blackfoot philosophy. In articulating a translation from the Blackfoot it was often expressed that on Blackfoot word implies a volume of English meaning and that the full context of the word can never truly be translated.cvi For example, Niitsitapiwa, as one of these eleven core values, means ‗real people‘. The word is associated with origin stories and weaves into the other ten core values to define the characteristics of a real person. Moreover, a comparative analysis of this Blackfoot word to those words akin to ‗real people‘ that other Indigenous language groups use for selfidentification could be a useful inquiry for another study. Metoro‘s attempt at decipherment, though incomplete, did cause a stir among the Rapanui who believed the tablets were sacred or tapu. Wolfe writes: ...if we consider the texts were regarded as sacred ones, that it was their absolute intention to hide them from strangers. The emotional involvement of the natives, reported by the investigators, their crying and insisting, seems to confirm their intention to disturb the attempt at deciphering.cvii Routledge was also confounded by informants who were only pretending to read the tablets.cviii The conclusions drawn from attempts to decipher might be that, though Metoro, knew some of the writing symbols and the initial rules of literacy, he could not read the tablets. As well, other informants may have revealed very little even though they knew all. This is likely the case with informant, Ure-vaeiko. The angle of this research focuses on the most sacred deities and their mythical stories across Polynesia as in terms of the above comparative analysis, might reveal what was regarded as sacred on the tablets. Perhaps the island has hidden tablets that a devout search for lost caves and tombs would reveal. Regardless, it can be kept in mind, that like other Indigenous communities around the world, a general agreement was made to keep their artifacts sacred, or tapu, by the rongorongo readers and writers. It would be better to die with our secrets, that to give them to those who have harmed us. Further evidence cited by Wolfe includes that Pater Zumbohm‘s interpreter claimed, ―that each sign has its name‖ and that Routledge‘s informant asserted glyphs were, ―the same picture, but other words.‖cix Though we are confirming here the use of synonyms, homonyms and homographs in rongorongo, the two phrases taken together might also confirm the use of a syllabic system with logograms. As well, Wolfe cites Thomson‘s account of the informant omitting two glyphs and saying: ―The next hieroglyphics ... have been written in some ancient language, the key of which has long been lost.‖cx Upon reading the Apai tablet chant these two glyphs remained a mystery. Though the informant Ure-vaeiko, may have been making up what he was reading on the tablets to protect its tapu restriction or out of illiteracy of the rongorongo script, everything an informant would describe of the tablets may present some valuable clues about their make-up. Perhaps the two ―unknown glyphs‖ were too sacred to voice, representing deities or sacred invocation from the original land of migration. 69

Wolfe confirms the use of a syllabic system and suggests the plausibility of a guess and check methodology of decipherment when certain glyphs appear self-evident. That is in his estimation 20% or 28 out of 149 were simple enough to verify based on the logogram they represent. For example a picture of a hand is rima, a hand, or a syllable associated.cxi An important element in the decipherment of these tablets is to apply the Polynesian and Rapanui order of grammar and syntax. Since the research leans on a telegraphic style interpretation, noun and verb order in rongorongo may be solely dependent upon a preconceived knowledge of their order in speech. Chapin confirms this order as Verb first, Subject second and Object third (VSO).cxii Since, putting the verb first is unique to Western languages, such as English, it is important to include its likelihood in the order of Rongorongo phrases. For example in the proposed phrase and decipherment of the Mamari tablet Moon Calendar is as follows.

390.041-378-041

paiga-hina tagaroa-ngari hina Provisioner Hina of the ocean deity, Tangaroa chants to Hina. The syllables were produced from a consistent order.

The grammar consistent with early Rapa Nui linguistics is ordered the opposite of the English Subject and Verb order. Switching the order to Verb/Subject/Object (Chapin. 1974.) gives the following translation: In telegraphic form: Eat-Hina Tangaroa-cry Hina. In extended VSO form: Provide Hina‘s nourishment Tangaroa we beseech you for Hina‘s sake. In English grammar: Tangaroa provide nourishment for Hina. The concept implies the phases of the moon (Hina‘s waning and waxing cycle) in unison with the rising and falling of the tides (Tangaroa‘s nourishing cycle). For more see the chapter on the moon calender. In the mythology Hina on the moon pounds the tapa clothes for her children. Hina is weaving in the waning and waxing of the moon to offer her children proper dress, proper incantations and proper nourishment for the ceremony of the dead called, The Sweeping 70

of the Stars. This sweeping or cleansing is reflected in Hina‘s moon cycle together with the cycle of her twins, Morning and Evening Star. Morning star represents the sounding of dawn or life after death and Evening Star represents the continuation of the cycle of regeneration.

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Chapter 4 Finding Rongorongo Patterns, Sequences and Themes

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On Statistical Analysis In reference to statistical analysis, Konstantin Pozdniakov‘s work is relied upon in order to verify the chant syllables below.cxiii Following this trend are Davletshin, Melka, Horley and Guy, to name a few explorers of statistical analysis on the Easter Island tablets. Davletshin analysed the names on the Santiago Staff and writes: ―The fact that the combinations of signs appear in a certain position in the name strongly suggests that they represent titles.‖cxiv Davletshin points out the importance of sign TB530 as a logograph for a man in headdress and writes of its purpose in title lists: It is likely that TB530 and TB021=530 refer to the same title.... (and) is of most frequent use on the Kohau Rongorongo tablets showing distinctive distribution of TB076 (Table 6), and yet it appears around 15 times on the tablets.cxv (see also part iv.b.RI)

001.076-021-532

(021 being the dot)

Davletshin also outlines the way names are written in Rapanui to cross-reference with the Santiago Staff, ―for example: Te Ariki Ko Hotu Matu‘a (title then name)...(or less common) Ko Ava Rei, (te) tamahahine (name then title).cxvi Davletshin confirms the use of ‗te‘ as an article (the) and ‗ko‘ as a subject marker. As well, He mate Oroi, he ariki Oroi o Hiva o Marae-Renga meaning Thus died Oroi, a chief Oroi, from Hiva from Marae-Renga; uses the article he (‗a‘ instead of ‗the‘) with the title (ariki) before the name (Oroi). Here an example of Verb (to die) then Subject (Oroi) then Object (Hiva or Marae-Renga) is typical sentence structure for Polynesia. Therefore, if the tablets are in telegraph form, the possibility of identifying verbs and sentence, word or syllable order (VSO or ABAB, BABA, AAAA, AAA, AA), and hidden prepositions exists. Davletshin presents the current hypothesis of names found on the tablets in current statistical analysis and his own hypothesis:
Chart: Davletshin‘s Hypothesis of Names found on the Tablets cxvii Note: from a name ordering sequence of ABCD(E), where SM = Subject Marker

. A B C D E

Current Hypothesis of Names Glyph 200 = SM ‗ko‘ often absent a name of one or more signs father‘s name with 1 or more signs G076 = father‘s ure name marker

Davletshin’s Hypothesis G076 = SM ‗ko‘ mostly genealogies a title that maybe omitted a name of one or more signs the ‗a‘ possessive for son of father (not on Small Santiago) father‘s name with 1 or more signs

Davletshin‘s conclusion on structural analysis of the Santiago Staff agrees with the genealogy hypothesis on the Small Santiago Tablet presented by Butinov and Knorosov. A genealogy would confirm the authority of the Chief who holds the staff as a sign of that authority. Therefore, patterns from the known Rapanui and comparative Polynesian 73

genealogy lists might be found on the staff‘s name sequences. Davletshin concludes that the statistical analysis confirms a logo-syllabic writing system.cxviii Melka expressed the important parallel X1YZ sequence Fischer originally noticed in glyphs 606.076 (X1), 070 (Y), 008 (Z) on the Santiago Staff as it relates to the Échancrée tablet. cxix The Échancrée excludes glyph 076 (replaced with an elbow support holding up the arm of glyph 606). After this alteration a second arm (glyph 006) is added to glyph 070.
Chart: X1YZ variationscxx

Tablet Santiago Staff

X1YZ Sequence 606.076-700-008

Échancrée

606.010?-700.006-008

Reasoning Melka notes that this regular sequence is at times skipped on the Santiago staff, posing a problem for Fischer‘s reasoning below. Fischer regards the missing 076 glyph as the work of a Scribe omitting what is usual for the phrase.

606.076-700-008

Another variation occurs in the 076 glyph itself when at times might be abbreviated by glyph 490 (gapping mouth downward).cxxi Part vi below on the Canoe of Rata, reveals a variation between glyph 300 (with gapping mouth up on the Tahua text A tablet) and glyph 200 (On Text Q, P and H) which might confirm a variable usage between 076, 490, 300 and 200. Again this hypothesis is plausible on the basis of how Glyph 200, 076 and 490 are used on the genealogy lists of rongorongo and glyph 200 and 300 are interchanged on the Canoe of Rata chant. Though there are at least 306 X1YZ sequences on the Santiago Staff, it accounts for only 60% of the list. Other sequences that appear in three or more forms from most common to least common include:
Chart: Melka‘s Frequency of X1YZ and variants on the Santiago Staffcxxii

Occurance 306/513 (60%) 50 ( over 9%) ~ 25 ( ~ 5%) 10 ( about 1%)

(There are 9 more that appear twice and 16 more variations that appear once. The ‗Atua-Mata-Riri‘ chant of Ure Va‘e Iko carries the sequences of X1YZ creation verses 75% of the time, however the three variants of the chant do not match with any of the variants from the Santiago Staff (Melka, 2009. P.46. Table 4). Melka relates that the association of Ure‘s chant with the Santiago staff was a mere educated guess and not a positive scientific validation (Melka, 2009. P. 48)).

Type of Sequence X1YZ X1Y X1YZW; 1YZ; X1Y1 X1YZWWi; X1YZZ; 1YZW; X11Z; 1YWWiWiiWiii; X11; X1Y1W; X1YZWWiWii

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Using Davletshin‘s ABCDE hypothesis of the Santiago genealogy list above might find Melka‘s sequences plausible in matching Rapanui genealogy names or other listed names. Doing so requires an understanding that it might be ~60% likely that the title/name sequence will be translated as X1YZ and ~10% likely to find a X1Y, provided the alteration in not due to a lack of recollection of name forms and depending on what list(s) corpus is being accessed. The matching of statistics implies a use of the variety of names and their titles that can be found in Rapanui writing. Melka relates some aspects of ‗science‘ that need to be understood in order to interpret the tablets for the sake of science. He relates that the Santiago Staff or chieftain‘s baton is one of perhaps 100s we are left with and therefore, from a scientific point of view has been given to us by chance.cxxiii What the other lost staffs revealed would have given us a bigger corpus to find patterns from. Unfortunately we are left with one staff of a unique genre, which minimizes its usefulness towards the other 22 tablets. On the flip-side, we have one staff that plausibly contains a genealogy with lists of names, some titles and a means of communicating accent of authority. This document presents three chants deciphered with their attempted syllable charts. As such verifiable decipherment attempts are made, the Santiago Staff offers an important refined confirmation set to prove or falsify the attempt. It is more difficult to use a random syllable list on these names than on tablets that appear to have a less specified genre. We are almost certain they are names, therefore, they have to follow the rules of Rapanui lists, titles, naming and possibly accent patterns. If you have a true list of syllables, it will be the ‗one‘ Chieftain Baton of the Santiago Staff that will confer authority on the decipherment. From Indigenous World-view, such a possibility far from happening by chance is regarded as providential. In summary, the Santiago Staff will confirm an attempted syllable list when compared with a random set of syllables, which both are measured against Rapanui names and/or lists. The test will be established positive to the extent that the attempt makes more sense or reveals more proof names or list titles than syllables chosen at random. Results may be quantifiable even if the syllables present only a slightly positive test, depending on how random syllables respond to tablet vs. Rapanui comparisons. Though not an emphasis of this study, the above brief study of the Santiago Staff‘s list of names in statistical analysis might offer more clues as to the linguistic properties of the tablet chants presented in the sections below. An in depth test of the syllables presented in this research cross-examined against a random set of syllables after being applied to the Santiago Staff is an important verification option, but for now out of the scope of this document. Statistical Analysis finds Sequences To find sequences on the rongorongo tablets is a confirmation of a syllabic/phonetic system (Melka 2008. P. 167) and presents a honing in or a focused investigation that Melka states: provides evidence ―lessoning further the probability of being wrong in their 75

statistical claims.cxxiv As well, in finding these patterns on the tablets, matches can then be made with the known mythology of Rapanui (Melka 2008. P. 174. Pozdniakov 1996. P. 299). Métraux addressed this repetitive requirement when doubting the tablets were phonetic or syllabic (Métraux, 1940. P. 403). It is from a series of ten that Melka presented the Keiti tablets recto sequence (Melka 2008. Pp. 161-162). When following the two glyphs: 4.430 & 22.430y, across the entire recto (Horley. 2007. P. 27), the 10 sequences expand into 21. However, Melka‘s 10 sequences can be singled out from the 21 in that they contain the two moons and the ring glyph numbered in the following 10 variants:
Table: Keiti Recto Sequence of 10 (Melka 2008. P. 162)cxxv

. 1 2 3 4 ** 5 6 * 7 8 9 10 *

Moon Glyph 1 40.300 40 40 41 (300) 40 (300) 40 41 41 40 40

Moon Glyph 2 41 (300y) 300.40 (300y) 40 40 40 40 40 41 300.40 40

Ring Glyph 300.24 (oval) 300.24 (warped left?) 300.28x (warped top) 300.28x 300.28x 300.28x 300.28x 300.28x 300.28x 300.28x

*glyph 670 (tahi, to sweep? or the numeral one) Table: 21 Sequence of the entire Keiti recto (Note: numbered glyphs italicized to match with table above. Sequence 2/2 is contains main glyphs in bold, where glyph 206.63 is usually 203 from sequence 5. Also Note: Refer primarily to Barthel‘s glyph numbers listed for emphasis throughout in 8 font.).

Tablet Line Line1

Glyphs
40.300-41-300y

Sequence #s Proposed 20/ Melka’s 10 1/1 2/2

206.63-83.63-722.63- 40-300.40-300y-300.24-4.430-22.430y

3/3
300.28x

Line 2
670 670

4/4 5/5
203- 16

6/6
670 4- 22 Abbreviated due to confined space?

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Line 3

7/7 8
430y.4-431y Irregularities. (missing canoe)

9/8 Line 3/4 / 10 / 9
4.430?-22 Irregularities (missing man?)

11
8– 405– 670– 53.9

Line4/5

/

12a 12b

Line 5/6

/

13 Irregularities (tahinga) 14 Small knife 15 / 10

Line 6/7

/

16a/b

Line 7/8

/

17 18 19 20
(stooping, tahi)

Line 8/9

/

21a

21b (stooping, tahi) Remaining portion of the Keiti recto after 21 sequences

Given: In the 10 sequences Melka has found on the Keiti recto, the moons appear as crescents always in any pairing of glyphs 40 & 41. Hypothesis: It is plausible that the next glyph after this pairing refers to that pairing. After these twin moons is carved Glyph 300.28x . Therefore, the glyph represents ‗twins‘ or ga rauhiva. Nga in Polynesia (ga in Rapanui?), means to breathe as seen in the 77

mouth of glyph 300; Rau, to grasp, occurs as glyph 300 grasps logographically glyph 28x. Inquiry: Is 28x the glyph for the famous homeland, Hiva? The glyph has the appearance of an atoll or reef, similar to the one from linguistically confirmed migration routes of the Outlier and Bellona Island Region. (Wilson. 1985. P. 90; Source). Metoro offers the following Jaussen list interpretationcxxvi: It is plausible that such an enclosure is a representation of the ‗praying place‘ of the land of origin of the first person, the first paradise of Hiva, which can be reached in rites of passage through 10 successive stages of the sacred house of prayer or the Hare pure. Other possibilities surround the theme of mouth, vaha, and eating, kai. If the glyph pair represents kai-tangata, new light could be shed on the assumed cannibalistic cave of ana kai-tangata, cave of the man eater. Like elsewhere in Polynesia, the hero kai-tangata married Whatitiri (Matakerepo), who enjoyed eating humans. She was struct blind after eating fish with hooks of human bone that were not cleansed by pure ritual. Kai-tangata was not a man eater, but was from the line of heavenly beings, such as his father, Rehua and grandson Tawhaki. Amidst Whatitiri‘s humiliation of blindness, she discovers the incantation for the separation of the earth, papa from the sky, rangi. As Matakerepo, she points out the rope that will enable her grandson Tawhaki to climb to Rehua, the tenth heaven. He is able to do this after acquiring from her 9 out of 10 of the sweet potatos Matakerepo was counting. Perhaps the ten verses of this ring glyph are related to this counting of the ten roots.cxxvii Procedure 1: Identity the genre. However this root and fish offering must be celebrated, there are various ceremonies where its chant and feast may be used. A genre related to 2 crescent moons might be the marriage of two members of the Marama (Moon) tribe (Krupa 1971. P. 1). Or perhaps there is a ceremony of accent where 40 and 41 are Chief and Clan Mother, exemplified by Hina (Krupa 1971. P. 1), the moon maiden, while glyph 300 represents the royal heir child. As well, if the genre involves a funerary rite, the lunar crescents may represent the span of one‘s life from one crescent to the next. The consistent element placed 21 times across the entire Keiti recto as glyph 4 and 22 are interpreted as a knife and a canoe in this research. In funerary offerings and tattooing rites, the knife produces purification and in funerary rites the canoe of the death incantations provide power to pass through the Underworld unharmed. Glyphs 41 – 40 of line 4 and 7 may represent a new moon, personified in glyph 300 from line 4. This is merely conjecture at this point. It may represent a sacred dance for that matter. Melka statistical analysis of the Keiti recto stresses the importance of recurring glyphs, such as, Glyph 203, 200, 208, 670 in attempting to find a pattern (Melka 2008. P. 164). Procedure 2a: Consider expounding genre with cross corpus glyph examination.

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Glyph 200 logographically appears to be a man standing with protruding ears or eyes.. Metoro offers tagata or man as a thematic decipherment of many glyphs. Consider Metoro‘s view of the following from the Jaussen

List:cxxviii To consider the glyph as a general representation of a man is therefore plausible, with each added allograph depicting some form of human activity or relationship.

Petroglyphs in the cave Ana o Keke resemble the feather-like Rongorongo glyph 3 (left) and a compound Rongorongo glyph 211:42 (center), a hapax legomenon found in Br1, followed by a V shape that may be glyph 27 Rongorongo glyph 27. A line of divots passes through them.cxxix Glyph 211.42 in central picture suggests the logogram of one head, two arms and seated on a crescent moon. Perhaps the glyph represents a talking head, with a mouth where the crescent moon is the lower jaw. Notice what appear to be ears in the photo. Here glyph 200 has been suggested as having either eyes or ears or perhaps both, in this case. Since the figure glyph may be ‗talking‘ it is plausible to consider it a representation of Rongo one of the top three deities of Polynesia and attested to in the Rapanui moon calendar. If glyph 200 is meant to represent TU/Tuu, the war deity another deity of Polynesia named Turongo is found in Tregear‘s dicitonary, which combines both deity names into one. If the ears are intended for glyph 200, then is tariga intended to draw syllables or rongo? Can mata or tu still be plausible choices? The V shape may represent the cave itself and therefore, ana. Metoro calls the ‗v‘ or ‗u‘ shaped glyph haga, meaning the baycxxx. Therefore, it might represent anything in the environment that has a bow, bent or bay shape to it. The cave where the above photo is taken is called, ana o Keke; keke meaning to go down after zenith of the Sun. There appears to be a Sun representation moving across the cave wall. Perhaps the ‗branch‘ represents the zenith and rongo is voicing the keke or half cycle to setting of the Sun. Is the bowl shape beneath the glyph 211? of the cave wall perhaps a banana leaf used to recite rongorongo as if being held by the two hands? This is merely conjecture at this point.

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Tablet Gv contains what appears to be a genealogy which appears in the following sequential pattern recognized by Fischer, Butinov and Knorozov and identified by Guy as follows: 200-A-B.76-200-B-C.76-200-C-D.76-…cxxxi King A- B(son of) The first sequence of Text Gv (see below) begins as …-A.76-200-…or…A-B.76-200and the first two notable rulers from Manuscript E and F (see below) begins as: AB1(son)-A(father)-C1(son)-B(father)-….. Therefore, Text Gv‘s deliminator 200 sequence might begin as: …A-B.76-200-. Therefore, if the noteworthy rulers are written on this sequence then glyph 054.152? plausibly represents Oto Uta and there appears the be a sequence of six deliminators (see Manuscript F below). The Text Gv genealogy sequence glyphs appear as follows:

001.6-710-300.300.300.61-055?-631.61.76-200-048?-631?

-?—200-091?-385?-002.76-200-350-280.76-200-280-730.76

200-760=517a.76-200-517a-222.76-062.073-222

The figures below contains the next dozen or so glyphs with the deliminator 200 no longer present in the 200-A-B.76… sequence. Notice that glyph 200 continues to appear in various forms attached to other glyphs, Also, notice the 4 ‗sea-horse‘ like glyphs in relation to Text Cb10.63-202; Hr4.20-136; Pr3.458-598 in terms of Guy‘s harmonic sequence of the ‗feather cloak‘.cxxxii Notice in particular how glyph 451f of Text Hr4 appears similar to the ‗sea horse‘ glyphs below.

Polynesian genealogies had two portions, the first was of deities and the second was of the living ancestors, linked by the first man. The initial deified genealogy of Easter Island begins with the 10 noteworthy rules Barthel sources from Manuscript E: Those were the noteworthy rulers (? Ariki motongi): Oto Uta, Tangaroa A Oto Uta, Tiki Hati A Tangaroa, Roroi A Tiki Hati, Tuu Kuma A Roroi, Ataranga A Tuu Kuma, Harai A Ataranga, Taana A Harai, Matua A Taana, and Hotu A Matua...cxxxiii Manuscript F contains a genealogical line of only 6 noteworthy rulers (Barthel. 1978. P.11):

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Oto Uta, Tangaroa A Oto Uta, Roroi A Tangaroa, Tuukuma A Roroi, Taana Harai A Tuukuma, Hotu Matua A Taana Harai belong to Maori.
Table: Manuscript E’s 10 Rules vs. Manuscript F’s 6 Rulers cxxxiv

Manuscript E 1 Oto Uta 2 Tangaroa 3 Tiki Hati 4 Roroi 5 Tuu Kuma 6 Ataranga 7 Harai 8 Taana 9 Matua 10 Hotu

Manuscript F Oto Uta Tangaroa Roroi Tuukuma Taana Harai Hotu Matua

It is plausible that this rongorongo sequence and Manuscript F with its 6 ‗noteworthy rulers‘ are one and the same like a chip off the Rosetta Stone. A brief consideration with word breakdown of Manuscript E genealogy is presented below:
Table: Text Gv genealogy parallel tests with Manuscript E and F

A {1-2 }B{ 2-3?}B{ 3 ?-4 } B{ 4-5 }B { 5-6 }B{6-7 }B 7-8

9

8

A. Based on Metoro‘s three scholar kings plausibly parallel to ‗the noteworthy rulers‘. B. scholar king? stand? ears – Rongo? eyes – Enlightened? man? descendant? 1. Otouta ... to – to rise up to the zenith; uta – higher up.... 2. Tangaroa … 3. i. Tiki hati? Ti is a long thick root. hati – to break, die, to watch or tail someone. ii. Tangaroa? side view syllable, TA/taha + mouth/breathe glyph, NGA/GA? + to project upwards/long (as the appendage), Roa. 4. Roroi (spittle? Drops?)... 5. rorau a variety of turtle. Honu is also Rapanui for turtle. 6. roroa – elongated (like an eel?). Roroi rohirohi, tired, used instead of ga‘e-ga‘e (mouth-elongated). 7. Tuu Kuma kumara – sweet potato; kumata – a fish. 9. Ataranga from spirit glyph + ball (PO or RA)... dawn? Mother of Hina? Harai – to accompany Taana – to dash down, strike down, to assemble ... tattoo/cave? Matua – father 7. Hotu – to swell, kindle, first man killed, great migrating chief...

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Though some of the glyphs appear to match, the parallels are conjecture and the alleged chip off the Rosetta Stone appears inconclusive. Perhaps the development of the decipherment will reveal a variation of the 10 or 6 rulers of Manuscript E and F on this portion of Text Gv. It is this kind of work, using the tools of statistical analysis, that will lead to a pattern of affirmative decipherment. However, ones growing syllabary requires a flexibility to ever refining the deciphered meanings and openness to literary elements, such as, synonyms and homonyms in glyph identification.

Procedure 2b: Consider expounding genre with cross corpus glyph examination.

A more tangible decipherment is Glyph 670 . If this research identifies ‗to sweep‘ correctly as glyph 670, the genre of the Polynesian funerary rite called the Sweeping of the Stars may be found in the sequence.
Table: Plausible decipherment of Glyph 670 and 470

Glyph
670

Plausible Genre, Logogram and Syllables Diving, bowing or a stooping bird. Side view of bird. Plausible syllables TA/taha, side + HI/hianga, to stoop = tahi, to sweep. Metoro offers kakarava or noi arurua, meaning to lean and to bow down to the groundcxxxv. As glyph 670 with open mouth. As above, tahi + NGA(GA?), to breathe = tahinga, the Polynesian Sweeping Ceremony. For example, a burning branch is waved at the stars at early dawn to imitate the sweeping of the Sun‘s rays that gathers all the stars of Ikaroa, the Milky Way into the light of regeneration. Uses might include a funerary ritual or to draw the mediums of ancestors to guard the island or guide a new canoe. A plausible synonym might be this flame spinning ceremony glyph 36 poipoi, ball game or wave offering. A contextual ceremony might be the rite of passage to manhood of a boy who can imitate his father‘s flame throwing routine with accompanying chants. tahi rauhi from tahi + RA/ra‘a, the Sun + U/ure, the phallus + HI, a fish on a line = sweet to gather. (see Part iii,iv for syllable sourcing)

470

670-008.078?.711

A strong plausible logogram for broom in glyph 135 is 670-135?-670.020?-781-140-004.004 surrounded by the sweeping glyphs 670. Consider the sweeping towards the rising Sun represented by the Sun with rays in glyph 781. The eyes of the glyph 82

represent an aspect of the Creator Makemake? Next to the rising Sun is glyph 140, which appears to be a type of the Reimiro 007 glyph. It resembles the jaw of the former glyph turned on its side. The genre points to the Overturning of Mataaho and Maui‘s use of the jawbone of the guardian of the Underworld to beat the Sun into submission at its rising. This mythology enabled regeneration to return to order. Interestingly, the entire sequence is translated, tahi (side/stoop syllables) routu (broom logogram) tahu (side/stoop/breasts, U, syllables), makemake te kauwae-runga ma te kauwae-raro (Creator logogram with Upper and Lower Jaw of Maori sacred knowledge), tohere (three, toru/TO; necklace, here/HE syllable/logogram) and maru (pure offering knife, maripi/MA; two, rua/RU); meaning: ―sweep broom set ablaze by the Creator and Upper Jaw (Makemake) with Lower Jaw (in the aspect) of the setting Sun deity of war (Maru)‖; tahi routu tahu makemake kauwae-runga-raro tohere maru. Glyph 670.020 may mean tahi-wahu – sweep outside.

Notice glyph 470 appears to interchange and work alongside glyph 670. This is expected if the glyphs represent ‗to sweep‘ and ‗the Sweeping Ceremony‘. Source ... anagrams? Allograph ? The first glyph presented from Text Cv2 may relate with the 3rd Basket of Knowledge in the Maori karakia rites called, te kete tuaatea. Such knowledge is derived from ritual experience in the karakia and is not restricted by time or spacecxxxvi. Glyph 670 appears twice on Melka‘s Keiti Sequence of 10 in front of glyph 63. If glyph 670 indeed represents tahi, but is used to represent the number one in part 4 above, then glyph 63 may represent the counting marker, ko. Line four might produce .... ko(kore) tahi, ko(kore) tahi [63-670-63-670] as a counting scheme (one by one) leading into the moon section. Glyph 670 in the 6th sequence is a doubled stooping beak without the body. From the stoop syllable (HI, from hianga, to stoop) this coupled beak produces hihi or eyelash. The word in Old Rapanui is used to describe the section of the cliff that narrows at the top as at the Crator Rano Kao (Rapanui Dictionary). It may be plausible to also use the eyelash (hihi – 670 glyph) to describe the thin portion of the crescent moon.

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Such a doubling of a glyph is common to both the Rapanui tablets and Old Rapanui records of chants and verses. A good place to start research in this area is Melka‘s references and numbering of double glyphs (Melka. 2008. Pp. 167-168) where he also refers to sign triplication. The basis for study of double, triple and even quadruple signs in rongorongo vs. Old Rapanui statistical analysis is that, like lists, they present a unique and easy to identify pattern that is likely to appear in each translation resulting in potential matched and deciphered syllables, words, etc.. Glyph 670 in the 10th Keiti recto sequence with the following glyphs:

8– 405– 670– 53.9

8 405 670 53.9

ra tagaroa tahi vaiora

Sun scholars agree Ocean Lord taha/breathe/long sweep TA(taha, side) + HI(hianga, stoop) generous/waters of life VAI(water) + URA(torch)

A plausible translation tied in with the mythology of funerary chants: the Sun Lord of the Ocean sweep (with rays of the Sun) across the waters of life... (where the setting Sun makes a road for the dying soul shining like a torch off the waters) However, this sequence does not follow the V.S.O (Verb, Subject, Object) order of usually Polynesian (Rapanui included) phrases (Chapin 1974). Honoring this order would produce: Shine Lord of the Ocean (Tangaroa) by the sweeping path of Sun across the ocean. Here, ‗sweep‘ is used as an adjective, not a verb. Further study is required on two levels. First is to examine the interchangeability of Rapanui and Polynesian nouns, verbs, adjectives, etc.. In the West, we use language for functional purposes. Nouns matter most. Indigenous culture‘s use of language in the actions of ceremony raises the status of the verb. But what are the source roots of these nouns and verbs and how do they relate. Secondly, an examination of the entire tablet in terms of the order of phrases is in order to determine where the Sun glyph 8 above is placed in phrase and the likelihood it would ever be used as the verb, ‗to shine‘. Procedure 3: Attempt a contextual interpretation of ‗twin‘ moon phrase. Another phrase is included to attempt a contextual interpretation of the hypothesized ‗twin‘ moons in logoglyph and syllabic form:

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450–608–450– 680– 450– 684– 40–40– 300.28x 4.430-22.430y

450 608 450 680 450 684 40 40 300.28 4.430 22.430y

ga taga-pa? ga ta-papa? ga ...hihi? marama marama garauhiva ma-tanga waka-ngata

plural (many) GA (breathe) tangata-papa (important man)? plural (many) GA (breathe) shake the stones? plural (many) GA (breathe) scrape x2? particles? Sparks? Small portions? crescent moon crescent moon twins purify the man (21 times with next glyph) (in the Underworld migration) canoe of the man.

A plausible translation tied in with the mythology of funerary chants: breathe (regenerative wind) out the great person; breathe out the shaken stones (perhaps Ru‘s erupting breathe from Rano Raraku producing the stone moai); breathe out the many ‗sparks‘ (of souls to fly) as the moon twins (who are waxing in order to restore the full moon like the birds restored the chips of the tree Rata felled too soon) and purify the fallen man, while the other rises in the canoe (from the Underworld one in pain is purified as in a tattoo ceremony and the other in the Ancestral canoe where the wayfinder finds comfort towards the Stars of Heaven). On the verso the sequence of glyph 380.1 occurs 23 times and Melka perceived that these two separate kinds of sequences on each side of the Keiti tablet present each ―a different piece of text category, ie., topic, subject, message, and genre‖ (Melka 2008. Pp. 169). Melka points to Fischer‘s study of multiple genres found on other tablets such as the Mamari and Echancrée tablets.cxxxvii On the Keiti recto a 21 paired sequence of glyphs 4.430-22.430y (Melka. 2008. P. 167) (proposed ma-tanga waka-ngata) appear to represent one genre mingled with Melka‘s 10 sequence glyph 300.28x (proposed twins: ga-rau-hiva) on the entire side of the tablet. Based on the mamari tablet proposed interpretation in Part iv below, the twins are one and the same individual Morning Star, at sunrise and sunset paralleled with the waning and waxing of the Moon. They are a representation of the spirit of an individual lamenting the imperfect (New Moon) dying of the soul and simultaneously celebrating the perfect reflection of the soul in the Full Moon. Therefore, the twin moons above are one and the same individual struggling in 10 separate ways to face the ‗homeland‘ (300.28x) of the perfect soul and 21 separate ways to purify the dying part of one and rest in the canoe of the living part of that same one (4.430-22.430y). If this initial step of interpretation is correct, the Rapanui tohunga who carved the tablets present a deep philosophy of human conscience that expresses the dual nature of human beings, with the potential to do evil, yet the tendency 85

to do good; and though we appear to die, we can rise in waka-ngata, the canoe of human destiny to Rehua (Polynesian heaven). Indigenous wisdom matters here because there is a spiritual significance and translation to these tablets only heard of in the heart of the priest who carved it. What is required is to feel what the ancient shaman or tohunga priest feels, the same passion, the same purpose. It is easier to sit with a friend whose spouse is dying of cancer if your own spouse has also died of cancer. What happened to these priests and their people when the tablets were being written has not likely happened to any of us. However, we can try to empathize. The priests writing these tablets were likely lamenting the loss of their children and grand children to the slave raids. They were likely funerary tablets in that regard. If we can sit for a moment and consider that possibility and then allow that incantation to move us within, even to change us and make us better people as we try to read these incantations, then and only then will these tablets begin to share their secrets with us (Carrasco. 2004. P. 1). These ten offerings to raise the tapu of the sacred canoe to the ten ‗homelands‘ or heavens may have been applied not only for the dead in funerary rites, but also for the living in tattooing rites. Once this proposed funerary chant on the Keiti recto is interpreted, the contextual research presented above suggests an interrelationship between these 10 ga-rauhiva ‗twins‘ as a prayer for the dead making parallel the myth of Tavake (Tawhaki), who steals nine taro roots from Matakerepo or Kui the Blind and uses the tenth to restore her sight. The weaving of the rongorongo Keiti recto incantation with this Tavake (Tawhaki) myth suggests that the incantation is offering the soul of the dead transport through ten mythic ‗homelands‘ or ‗hiva‘, proposed as the ten heavens (rangi). Each of the ten incantations requires a ‗knife‘ offering and a ‗canoe‘. The first nine are separate from the final or tenth heaven (rehua). The tenth heaven requires a pair of five incantations (surrounding the final 300.28x glyph). Being open to the atmosphere of a funerary rite, such a climax of enabling your deceased loved one to enter the highest heaven would require such a rise and fall of mana (power) filled prayer. The moment might bring nothing less than ecstasy to an Indigenous shaman. This side of the Keiti recto may represent one of the most sacred incantations of ancient Polynesia. It brings to mind the context called upon by the scholars of Mayan script (now 90% deciphered) from Indigenous peoples in order to bring to life what the Mayans believe about what they wrote (see Introduction). Here the tablets of Easter Island might present something more than just an artefact for museum dust to gather around. Each person that views this Keiti recto might now consider the philosophy and spirituality of the early Rapanui and how they understood our fallen and better natures. Here we have a people that understood how each one can face their sorrows as mere travails to higher realms of existence. That if each mountain we climb has a higher obstacle beyond it we are not to despair but rejoice because we must be on the fearful and wonderful path to the highest heaven.

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The genre of the Keiti recto then might be a powerful funerary incantation for the soul of the dead. The Keiti verso appears to have perhaps two or three genres. Yet, the section using sequences of glyph 380.1 appears also to be a sequence of 23 funerary incantations. A hypothesis of a funerary genre on the Keiti verso can be examined in particular when one of the 23 sequences is cross-referenced with the entire rongorongo corpus. (source) This one line in the 380.1 sequence appears in twelve variations (the most common phrase on the tablets) on the tablets of Rapanui and Pozdniakov was able to locatecxxxviii them all. Being the most common phrase on the tablets we are presented with the sequence of sequences and perhaps the overall underlying theme of the Easter Island tablets. Glyph 380.1 becomes a theme within a more important theme. Out of the twelve appearances of this phrase, five of those are in small form and seven are in large form. The Keiti verso contains one of each form:
Chart: Most Common Rongorongo Phrase Note: These numbers are used one time only for convenience sake. Refer primarily to Barthel‘s glyph numbers listed throughout in 8 font or labelled (Guy. 1988. P. 323).

Small Form: Tablet Rongorongo Sequence Text Ev6
007-067.0102?

.

2 3 Text Hv12
007-067-0103?-

2 3a/b Text Rb 6…
007-67.0102?-

2 3 Text Cr2-3 2 Text Cv12
007-067-0102?...

/
007.061.380.1-67.0102?-067.1...

1 3 4

2 3a/b Large Form: Tablet Rongorongo Sequence Text Ev3
380.1-007-067.0102?-067.470?.001-670-580?-380.1...

.

1 2 Text Ab4

3

4,5a 6 7

1

-----------

0223-001.0522-007-067.0102?-067-470?.001-670-580?-001.0522-...

1b 2

3 4 5b 7 1b -----------10a------- 7 87

Text Cv2
020-041-380.1-067.0102?-067-730?-670-001-630?-571?-700?

1 Text Ra6

3 4 4b 6a/b/c 7a/b

001-007-600-300.001-007-067.0224-640.001-630.069-700?...

2 8 Text Sr1

9 2 3b 4 5a 6/7 ---------10b---------

380.1-007-067.0102?-067.470?.001.256?(254)-0022-021?.069...

1c 3 4/5 Text Kr3:

5b 5c,7a, ----10c----

073(710).400?-059?.004.064-132-144.132?—007-067.0102?-400-470?.001-4302-580?...

i.a i.b-c i.d-e 2 Text Gr2-3: ia ib ic id-e 2,3, 4

3 4c 5a 6c, 7a / 4d 5a 6c 7a 1d

073(710).400?-059?-004.064-132-144.132?—007-067.0102?-067-680-470?.001-430?-580?-380.1.003

Each sequence has matched numbers as near as this research would allow in order to compare the common word portions of the twelve phrases. Glyph 380.1 is proposed as number one. What is this most important theme the ancient priests are trying to voice? (Carrasco. 2004. P. 1). Imagine that priest in his cave carving away at the wooden oar, with his entire people nearly obliterated by the slave trade. What is he going to write? Given the tragic context the original writers were in, a hymn for the dead should come to no surprise. Small Form of Most Common Rongorongo Phrase Plausible Decipherment Glyph 2: Rei/Reinga from Reimiro neck ornament plus the context of a funerary prayer produces the Underworld of Reinga. Metoro and scholars agree. Glyph 3a: Pu or Pua or Punga (Pua)cxxxix a flower – also meaning anchor. Glyph 3b: Wanangacxl or Vanaga, from wa (waka), canoe + na (wana) bristles + nga, unfinished canoe = wananga – meaning a sacred altar or medium. Glyph 2-3a/b reads Reinga Punga(Pua) Wananga and are the introductory words of an incantation for the dead, meaning, The Underworld (Ancestors) (are) Anchored (by a) (True) Medium. Therefore, number 4 above is ngati, from ngata (nga), man + ti, tree = a descendent of or the ancestors‘ component of the incantation, since he is anchored to the tree. Those who learned the incantations and are our ancestors in the grave, have become our wananga, our sacred medium or anchor. Before we climb the vine of heaven it must be anchored by the modelling, witness, incantations and traditions of our ancestors. What a remarkable way of passing on, of preserving the spiritual fabric of a culture. We see the 88

glyphs in different forms, but they all represent at least the flower of Pua in their simplest form. Consider their main significance, then, to be the instruction of the new generation into the incantations of the Wananga, even mre crucial than the important devotional practices to the ancestors. That is, the nurturing of children, the blossoming of posterity, was the most important aspect in Polynesian mythology. Reinga Pua Wananga was indeed the cry from the Naval of the Earth. Reinga Pua Wananga = As sure as the overturning of the underworld, may our children be anchored and raised by the devotions of our parents or As the underworld overturns by Rigel‘s (Punga‘s) rising we will follow our ancestors. What about Chapin‘s (1974) Verb Subject Object (VSO) order of Rapanui phrases. That is, the first researched interpretation, if it is close, would make even more sense if using Rapanui grammar. Consider the following:
Table: Reinga Pua Wananga: First Interpretation of vs. added contextual grammar

English assumed grammar the Underworld Flower/topknot/ Anchor Medium

Rapanui VSO grammar drop to the Underworld the anchor of the Medium

Unintentionally, the research becomes richer, by using the appropriate grammar. This potential proof of a correct decipherment becomes even more evident when it is applied to the Holy Mountain chant plausibly found in the Greater Washington Tablet below. Keep in mind the context of the Indigenous carver (Carrasco. 2004. P. 1) of this most common glyph: As the last priest of the Naval of the Earth, and all his loved ones are gone to slavery or dead. He weeps with great sobs for his people and begins a sacred incantation for them – to provide a medium between heaven and earth – Punga Wananga, the anchor medium, that they not swing forever on the unanchored vine between the opposing realms beyond the curtain of death, but that they climb that one rooted vine hanging on your hope. Large Form of Most Common Rongorongo Phrase Plausible Decipherment Glyphs ia: tangata-ikacxli, from TA/tavake, frigate bird + nga/ga, to breathe + ika, fish (ika or Kawa the first fish offering) = tangata-ika, meaning the offering of the man. Kawatacxlii, to desire earnestly or long for. Perhaps it means kohau-ika, a fallen warrior (see genre list above). Glyph ib: atuacxliii, from the moon cycle glyphs. Here Atea (the glyph as a wave – teatea) or Watea or Wakea may apply. Glyph ic: mana, from MA/marama, moon + NA/naunau, to feel for = mana, meaning power. Atua-mana: the deity of power. Glyph id-e: Rou, means the stick used for gathering bread-fruit. It was curved and forked. Routucxliv means a comb. The comb glyph is followed by the bread-fruit fork, 89

giving a possible rorou – to bend down towards. The death incantation acknowledges a bending down toward the next glyph (Reinga), at the time of death. Glyph ia-e: tangata-ika atua-mana routu: meaning the man offering as the deity of power (over death) who sweeps (with the broom of life) Glyph 1 as Barthel‘s 380.1: Ngaticxlv from NGA/GA, to breathe + TI, ti tree = ngati, means a descendent of or a descendent from. Ngati comes in 4 forms, as Ngati (above), Ngate, Ngatu and Ngatoro (see above 1a-d). Glyph 1b: Ngate might be derived from glyph 1b, from the context of Ngati + tengi (te), three = ngate, to shake. Te means to burst out and could well be applied to a spring or a volcano bursting its liquid. Ngate is shaking like that volcano that causes the spring to burst at the star Puanga (Rigel) the source of the River Eridanus. Glyph 1c: Also consider the larger mouth of the Text Sr1 glyph 1c as Ngatu, from Nga, breath + ti, tree + uati or huati, (u), open = Ngatu, a son. Glyph 1d: In text Gr2-3, glyph 1d translates as ngatoro, from nga, breath + to (toko), pole + ro (miro‘s last syllable due to upward direction of the glyph) = Ngatoro, meaning the celebrated priest of the Whirlpool (Te Parata). Ngatoro made the whirlpool momentarily threaten the Arawa canoe since Tamate-kapua offended his wife. Ngatoro made springs of water by stamping his foot and placed patupaearehe fairies on the hills (It was Tawhati that stamped his foot to soak the heavens of Maru – the hilly marua. Ngatoro means to ascend toward the sky. Toro means to stretch forth the hand, to sprout, high tide, the burn, to poke a fire, to visit or pay respect to a corpse, to explore, etc.. Therefore, Ngati (380.1) is one of the most significant and varied glyphs of rongorongo. Ngati means a descendent of, an ancestor caught in the Tamarereti canoe lifted to the sky at death. Shaken by the decay and death of their bodies, they are called to a regeneration, just like the only surviving son, Kanae. A sweeping of decay in the house of Rehua must occur that may be reflected by the churning of the whirlpool and the one who was sacrificed there to wash us all clean. Glyph 001.009.005 fits well if one is a descendant of uraara potiki the Underworld. (5952.005), Tiki as guardian of the flaming pathway to

Traditional Symbols Shirres presents a karakia prayer called, E Tiki e, to describe the formalized structure of even the shortest prayers in three stages: 1 – acknowledging the deity; 2 – a loosing and binding pure; 3 – and a final act required to seal the prayer. But notice in this chant how the deity Tiki is required to bring healing to the body as if ngati, the generations of a tribe can also be bound together by the breathe or nga of the first man, ti/tiki (see Part vi at the Canoe of Rata tree felling chant and Part vii, Tikitawhito):cxlvi 90

E Tiki e, homai te ruruku. Rukutia, taroia, tamaua. Toro te kiko. Arawa i o uaua. Tenei hoki te tutaki ka mau.

O Tiki, give here the binding. Draw together, tie up, hold fast. Stretch out the flesh. Fasten your sinews. Now the junction is made fast.

Shirres notices that Tiki, as the first man, is resides through such karakia in birth ceremonies binding the parts of the new born much like Rata‘s Woodland Ferries bind together the parts of the ancestral tree (Shirres. 1996. Ibid. Website). Glyph 2: Reinga (Rei) from Reimiro (as small form above) Glyph 3: Pu, Pua, Punga or Puanga (as small form above). Glyph 3b portrays the Wananga – canoe/bristles glyph more distinctly and half portioned, perhaps to tell of the overturning of the canoe itself (see small form above). Glyph 4-5: Consider 4 as the usual Pu, Pua as above (also see 5 below – as 4 is connected to five and 4 b,c and d rest in between this connection, which will tell much of the glyph meanings). Consider 5, 5a and 5b as Tikitawhitocxlvii, the first man. The decipherment of this glyph is significant and should be highlighted:

067.470?.001

Pua (anchor/flower medium and topknot) + Tiki (the first born of the topknot Pu) + TA/taha (taha) + HI/hianga (stoop) + whito (dwarf, small) = Pua Tiki-tawhito, the medium and first man in the topknot of the flower of death, (perhaps personified in Hinenuitepo) (see ngati above for Shirres E Tiki e chant). Glyph 4b is Mango-roa, the long shark and represents the Milky Way (see glyph 7). Ururoa is a shark derived from head, uru and long, roa. This definition fits the glyph as the long shark and matches the ancient legend that tells of Tawhito as such: ―… a Head was seen in heaven, which asked, ―Who is the earthly king that conducts himself well?‖ and the people all answered, ―Tawhito is that King. He is skilful, he is a priest and diviner, and he sacrifices himself in finding out the way to benefit his people.‖ Edward Tregear in Maori-Polynesian Comparative Dictionary Glyph 4c may be a representation of Tangaroa (but without the ‗long‘ raised arm), given its locality in the context of Ngati and Ururoa above. Tangaroa is the father of Punga and deity of the ocean. Tanga is the simple meaning of the glyph from Tane (ta), the bird + nga, the breath = tanga, to gather, a shoal of fish. Where Maui raised the mountain and the fish burst forth from the break in the Table of Rata.

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Glyph 4d also rests between Putiki and Tawhito. The dual birds stooping might be of similar meaning to the yin/yang symbol. Ihi means to divide, (Ihinga is a priest who brought incantations back from Miru‘s house of the dead); Iho means to descend downwards (Ihonga is part of a ceremony for the dead); Ihu is a nose or a beak. Consider the descending beaks of these divided birds as the Ihuihucxlviii twins, Ihuatamai and Ihuwareware and consider the mythology from Tregear: ―Ihuatamai and Ihuwareware were two brothers who found the body of Hina when stranded on the shore at Wairarawa after her long swim in the ocean. [See Hinauri.] She became the wife of the two brothers, but was delivered up by them to their lord, Tinirau, the King (or god) of Fishes, a child of Tangaroa—P. M., 49. They are also mentioned in the celebrated birth-incantation of Hine-te-iwaiwa (a name of Hina):—‗Tu i tou tia me ko Ihuwareware, Tu i tou kona me ko Ihuatamai.‘S. R., 110.‖ 5b: Tutenganahau, from Tu, war deity + tenga, (tengi) three fingers up + na (nohi), to sit (or behold based on the emphasis toward tiki) + hau (nau – nahau), to take up. Here Tutenganahau means a deity that is dead and only found by the deity disguised as a fly, Tuparaunui. The name of the latter might play out as the Warrior deity of great rottenness. No wonder he is a fly god. Tutenganahau might play out as the Warrior god weeping (three) to behold thee. A significant adding to Tikitawhito should be considered for glyph 5b, then as, the ancient one, the first-man, beside the king of thieves who is the Warrior deity weeping to behold thee. 5c: Po, meaning the Underworld and also considered Orion. Te Pou is Sirius, the Dog Star in ancient Greek astronomy or star of death. Glyph 6: Tahitahicxlix from tahi, side + ta (Tane) + hi (hinga), to stoop = tahitahi, to sweep. Tahinga is the Sweeping which is an incantation used to relieve us from Kanga, the Curse. Perhaps this curse is any curse in general or may refer to the curse of death, mortality or even death as a result of our own faults. Glyph 7: Ikaroa, from ika, fish + roa, to lengthen = ikaroa the Milky Way, the mother of the stars (Nga Whetu) and wife of the Mist, (Kohu). The Milky Way was also MangoRoa (see 4b above). Urutira is the deity of the shark. Glyph 8-9: Tane is representing glyph 8. Prior to glyph 8 is glyph 2, Reinga. Glyph 9 represents ngakaucl, from nga, breath + kau (kauahi), wood = ngakau, meaning the heart or seat of affections. Another word for the heart is Manawa. Manawa means the belly, which was the center of affections, love and considered the heart in Polynesian philosophy. Manawa may also mean to breath + Ru, the supporter of heaven = manawaru, to rejoice. Therefore, Tane Manawa is the Heart of Tane, the home of the Ponaturi – the birdmen, the stars.

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Summary of Most Common Rongorongo Phrase – Glyphs 1-9 (with i.a-e) Reigna Tane ngakau
007-600-300.001

tangata-ika Atua-mana Rorou
073(710).400?-059?.004.064-132-144.132?

380.1-007-067.0102?-067.470?.001-670-580?-380.1...

Ngati Reigna Pua (Rei Pua) Wanagna Tikitawhito Tahinga Ikaroa

Thrust down Tane-Tavake your Heart To the (Bird-)man fallen in battle as an offering of the deity of power bent down to the Underworld To the descendants thrust down as the anchor medium, Tikitawhito, the first man of life and sweeper of the stars Originally the research produced as ―Underworld Tane Heart‖ should be considered ―Underworld behold Tane.‖ However, the reading of ―Underworld of Tane‘s Heart‖ not only fits the mythology, less modification is required. As well, using the proper VerbSubject-Object (VSO) (Chapin, 1974) order of Rapanui grammar produces the translation above with a particular genre that otherwise might have been missed. Consider the following tables:
Table: The Most Common Phrase with or without Verb-Subject-Object Rapanui Grammarcli

Preliminary Decipherment Reigna Tane ngakau Underworld bird-deity heart

vs.

VSO Decipherment Reigna Tane ngakau Thrust-down bird-deity to your heart

For ngakau, heart to be an object (in Rapanui grammar) a preposition such as ‗into‘ must be added. As a result the bird-deity seems to be thrust into his or her own heart. At first glance it appears to contradict sound reasoning. However, in the mythology the heart of Tane is the Underworld.clii Therefore, to thrust down the bird-deity to the Underworld, which is his own heart, makes perfect sense. As well, Reinga is the Underworld, but in Rapanui grammar it can also appear to be a verb, ‗to thrust down‘. To consider so many glyphs as they appear as potential VSO phrases might supply an extended corpus of homographs, one being a noun and the other a verb. (what about the Rapanui dictionary?.... therefore, we just doubled the corpus.... What this thrust-down the bird deity actually means in the physical world is the setting of the Sun, Tane, being the deity of the Sun. Therefore, the ancient Polynesian phrase, ‗thrust down the Sun‘, is alluded to in this rongorongo ‗most common phrase‘ (source).

93

(source – thrust down the sun) Remarkably, there is a rongorongo logograph that strikingly fits this sacred word:

(B080.700? or 600?). This logograph might form the Polynesian word, Turaki, which means ‗to thrust down the sun‘. The Syllables of the glyph are: RA, Sun + RA, Sun + HI/Hiku, tail = rarahi, meaning great. The setting Sun, then represents the great Tane, diving into the Underworld to raise the ancestors to the Milky Way, or heaven. That there are two Sun‘s together might imply the rising to life intended for those who have died. Is the tail a bird or a fish? Maui, in his aspect as stealer of fire escapes the Underworld first as a fish and then as a bird (Tregear, 1891, Maui). This is the cross-roads of identity in Polynesian lore, to transform into a fish or a bird. That is, the fish represent the deceased in the Underworld ocean symbolized as the heart of the bird-deity, Tane (Tregear, 1891, Tane). The ancestors were purified in the heart of Tane like gizzard stones are rubbed and become perfectly smooth inside a bird. The stones of the shore were likened to these gizzard stones of Tane, which compelled the ancient Polynesians to bury their dead with a pile of smooth stones from the shore directly above their torso. That way, when the body decayed, it would fill with the purified ‗gizzard stones of Tane‘. The deceased is transformed from a fish to a bird in this process of spiritual purification and migration after death to ‗steal‘ the Sun with Maui and fly like Tane to the regenerative house of the rising Sun. Ikaroa, the Great Fish of the Milky Way, then, is a temporary abode of the ancestors (Tregear, 1891, Ikaroa), until they are swept into the heart of Tane, the Sun of enlightened beings, by his feathery rays of dawn toward the highest heaven of Rehua (Tregear, 1891, Rehua. In Hawaii, the fish and birds actually war against one another. They come to an agreement, but offerings of life are required. The birds agree to allow the fish to swim in both streams and sea, while the fish offer the little fish from the rivers to the birds. Yet, there was the First Fish offering that opened the new era of peace. Perhaps the glyph of this first fish offering is this:
710.400?-059?.004.064-132-144.132?

The plausible tangata-ika glyph (710.400) typifies this fish/bird offering motif. Is it a fish being offered, or the bird-man? Therefore, we are left with two possibilities: tangata-ika and tangata-manu. Here again we find the twins revealing within every human being the possibility of two separate identities, akin to the planet Venus as Morning and Evening Star. The fish are perhaps the Evening creatures, feeding mostly in the evening; while the birds are morning creatures. The Rapanui tablet genre consists of Kohau Manu, chants to lure the birds to the island and Kohau Ika, a list of fallen warriors. The glyph represents a funerary offering of the fallen warrior while simultaneously beckoning the bird-man to rise. Actually, this first man is also the first warrior fallen in battle, that being Maui at the gate of the rising Sun. His full name is Maui-potiki, a variant of Tikitawhito
067.470?.001.

94

Consider the context of glyph B080.710?, the plausible Turaki-rarahi, the Great Thrust Down Sun:
Table: Plausible context of Thrust-Down-Sun on Tablet Tahua Note: These numbers (1-7) are used one time only for convenience sake. Refer primarily to Barthel‘s glyph numbers listed throughout in 8 font or labelled (Guy. 1988. P. 323). Notive Chapin‘s VSO Rapanui grammar.

600.007-290-025-0022-080.710?(600?)-004-001.009.005

1

2

3 4 5 6 7 Tane (Light Giver) of the Underworld build (turtle-earth) (verb) house (of two entrances) (subject) the dark world (object) to thrust down the (great) sun (verb) purify (subject) the shaman of the path of darkness lit by Tiki (object)

1. Tane-reinga 2. Patu (honu) 3. Haohao (Ruatapa) 4. Po 5. Turaki (rarahi) 6. Ma (knife) 7. Taiura-arapo-ura-tiki

Tane-reinga patu ruatapu po turaki-rarahi ma Taiura-arapo-ura-tiki Tane’s heart containing the entire expanse of darkness Build the two-door house of the Underworld When you Thrust Down the Sun Great Purifier at the door of the dawn lighting the path of darkness.

.

On the same tablet as the abbreviated Canoe of Rata chant (see Part vi), is this amazing prayer to release the deceased upon the Bright or Red Pathway of Tane. Tane, the Sun setting or thrust down offers mourners a powerful incantation and lament drawing the deceased ancestors towards enlightenment at the dawn of regeneration. The proof is when they twinkle in the sky above after being brushed across the chest of Rangi by the sweeping of feathers of Tane at sunset. When the Sun sets, the starry ancestors receive their light. When the sun rises they are swept away into a new celestial realm of enlightenment, likened in ancient Egypt to one star that becomes like a second Sun, restoring Creation‘s blinded eye, the eye of Horis. But first, in Polynesian lore, the Sun must be thrust down, into the dark (unknown) and misty heart of Tane. The Bright Road of Tane, is confirmed by that thrusting down the Sun to the underworld, which endears to underworld to Tane. Here the spirituality of Te Pito te Henua is elegant and hopeful, where the Underworld becomes the very Heart of Tane. The notes have been used to study the patterns of the Polynesian mythology as they correspond to the Rapanui rongorongo and visa versa. Consider the glyphs as designed 95

by storytellers who were devoted to passing on their sacred customs (Carrasco. 2004. P. 1). They were superior in their understanding of life and death and how to enable their people to live and die in peace. The Easter Island Moai, continue to voice their purpose in a rising hum as the passionate scattering of the stars of our eternal souls. The Genre of the Keiti Tablet Therefore, the Keiti recto contains what appears to be a funerary chant praying for the souls to transform through the ten heavens or ‗homelands‘. The Keiti verso appears to continue that genre of funerary prayer, but with a different set of incantation based on its own unique list deliminator (identifier). This glyph 380.1 of the Keiti verso appears to identify descendents, perhaps of a certain person being prayed for to reach heaven on the Keiti recto. Unless, the prayer to reach heaven is meant for the entire lineage, which would mean the removal of the tapu of their particular clan‘s Underworld canoe. Melka recommends caution in order to prevent ―uncertainty and indulgence in bias‖ in presenting a specific genre related to the variation in the verso and recto of the Keiti tablet (Melka. 2008. Pp. 169-171). He does admit that Barthel supported the genre of ‗bibliographic texts‘ or catalogues in the presence of glyph 380.1 and even presented the possible translations of kohau rongorongo or writing board (man with writing board)(Melka. 2008. Pp. 170). Barthel offers a context or genre, because he has a plausible interpretation of glyph 380.1. Fischer and Melka present no context due to their lack of verifiable input towards glyph 380.1cliii. If Barthel is correct, the context of ‗bibliographic texts‘ in the sequences involves, perhaps a catalogue of historical events, or Island organisms. This could mean that anything at all is written on them, but more likely, perhaps a record of a tangata manu (bird man) ceremony. But why write about writing, when life itself can be recorded? Instead, this research points to the possibility of a lineage marker in prayers for the dead and that these prayers for the dead occur throughout the entire Keiti tablet in at least 2 or likely 3 different forms. Melka suggests this possibility of the Keiti tablet containing ―different textual sub-categories.‖cliv Due to the glyph‘s (380.1) variable and broad distribution across several tablets of rongorongo, it is possible, even likely that a large portion of the tablets are written funerary incantations, that is of the same genre. As Horley admitted in his research on ‗Structural Analysis on Rongorongo Inscriptions‘, including the Keiti lists, that it is ―tempting to think that all surviving d-lists (deliminator lists) concern the same subject‖.clv And considering the devastation caused by slave-raiders whose oars many of these prayers were written, the context would more than likely also agree with these solemn laments. To identify this funerary genre is an important step in unravelling more clues and towards the eventual decipherment of much of these sacred tablets. Melka writes: ―Assessments on quantitative analysis may lead at some point, to different hypothesized subjects and genres across the documents, i.e., recognizing the structure of KRR texts may gradually lead to the understanding of the texts...‖ clvi These three glyphs represent the Upper Jaw and the Lower Jaw of the three stones in the basket of Sacred Knowledge. Two verses are included where they appear on three 96

separate Rongorongo tablets: Text H, P and Q. Contained on these two verses are several important ‗flag‘ glyphs, such as, the Upper and Lower Jaw, the three rock bundles of knowledge, the sweeping glyphs with broom in between, the three pillars – first, middle and last (smallest) and the gate of the Underworld Mata-tama, which appears as two birds holding up their weapons (at the gate). the Upper Jawk te Kauwae-runga the lower jawk te Kauwae-raro. the three stone basket of knowledge, Kete-wananga.

clvii

Tahi Rootu Tahi hetuhetu (Kete-wananga-tahitahia) Makara tohere Maru Tuhakau u-tahi-po raro tuma wananga tamaroa Sweep (with the) broom Sweep the Sacred Stones of the Basket of Knowledge of Makemake (skull deity of the tides and Creation) and set as the Sun toward a new harmony when Maru faces Tu (in a war deity battle) with the sacred stones for solidifying the chant for sweeping the darkness of the underworld below in order to stand pure and tapu with the wananga or sacred teaching for the son.

clviii

Poangaanga-hakahetu Tokomua, poangaanga Tokoroto, poangaanga Tokopa kohua-kete-wananga tupo-haka Mata-Tama kori-haka popohaga-haka Skull (decaying) first prop, skull middle prop and skull last prop standing up at the oven of the three stones of knowledge there is strength, at the grave there is strength at the Gate of Rongo at the native oven there is strength at the dawn there is strength. The gate to the underworld is related to the rising and setting sun and the proper utu payment chants that raise the tapu of the day, the island, the ancestors and the produce. These utu payments most certainly come from the baskets of knowledge.

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Chapter 5 Rongorongo Chant: Ma-hiku-rangi the Sacred Mountain

98

Combining Genre and Sequences on the Greater Washington Tablet As presented above, the Greater Washington verso line 2 has the following sequential pattern and plausible genre:
Table: Greater Washington tablet chant with plausible genre

Sequence A B1-2 C D

rongorongo

plausible genre (all conjecture) A: a bone? = funerary; B: a house? = rite of passage C: a star fish? = tangata-manu egg hunt swim? D: a knife = a tattooing ceremony or offering. E: a blind person? = Kui the blind or Matakerepo as Underworld mythical heroines of Greater Polynesia. F: A deity overturned?= the overturning of Mataaho

001-025-081-004

ECD
760?.002-081-004

FCD
146.062?-081-004

GCD
660?-081-004

G: A flame on the shoulder? = Maui stealing the fire from the Underworld Mataaho. H: Orion‘s Belt?: Rapanui‘s Poaka (de Feu). A possible form of the Underworld, governed by Matakerepo or Kui the blind, where Maui stole the fire.

HCD
0022-081-004

G C D x3 I C D x2
007-081-004

I: Reimiro neckband (Scholars agree): a potential sign of Reinga, the Underworld J: Honu: turtle (Scholars agree)

J K L ...
280-042.0592-048

What this chart represents is an attempt to provide the necessary new inquiry of which Melka writes: ―Logically, what remains to be done in the long run is uncover and substantiate the matches (of rongorongo sequences with Rapanui folk-lore), via detailed investigation.... It should be noted... a revision is required in order to establish new lines of inquiry.‖clix New questions in this regard consist of what has been substantiated in the comparative mythology investigation above: How does Easter Island mythology and linguistics compare with that of broader Polynesia? Another question builds upon the former: Is Rapanui mythology integrally connected with the main ancient Polynesian themes, such as, the Canoe of Rata (Laka), Hina‘s Jumping into the Water, Maui‘s stealing of the flame of the Underworld, the overturning of Mataaho, etc.? If so, can clues of these themes be found on the Easter Island tablets? or Can chants in broader Polynesia match sequences on the Easter Island tablets? 99

Krupa offers the following input related to Rapanui and Polynesian mythological comparatives: Provided Barthel‘s solution of the character 40 (as Hina) is correct, its semantic structure should allow it to enter into such combinations that could be regarded as reflections of some of the following motifs: (a) Hina as a first woman and her creation, (b) Hina as the spouse of Tiki, (c) Hina and the eel Tuna and, possibly, Maui, (d) Hina as the moon deity capable of assuming various forms and the lady of the night and/or Hades, (e) Hina or mahina as playing a part in some ceremonies, (f) Mahina as a celestial body.14 (Also see Figure of Heyerdahl‘s cave in Part i above) Having addressed this new inquiry in the chart above, the following pattern stands out as a plausible representation in the rongorongo chant. Presented here is a possible stealing of the fire from the Underworld and the resulting flood that occurred after angering the blind goddess of the Underworld. As well, a consideration of the use of the logographic-syllabary might identify the central glyph as ―tail – sun‖ or hikura. In the Polynesian great deluge there is a mountain that human survivors find refuge called, Hikurangi or Mahikurangi. Using the identification of the myths with a guess and check of possible syllables has the potential of drawing out more contextual patterns and potential hits in legitimate decipherment. These patterns across the Easter Island tablets, produce a growing list of various chants and their accompanying syllables. Therefore a plausible decipherment can be attempted with openness for reconsideration on the part of this research on the one hand and openness for consideration by the community of scholars and Elders on the other. The author believes it is a song about Hikurangi, the Holy Mountain, so prevalent in Polynesian Mythology. A variation of Hikurangi is Mahikurangi, literary meaning the sacred hill on which the sky rests. According to Tregear: It was the first land which appeared when Maui pulled up his ―fish‖ (the land) above water: Ko te matau ra tena i hi ai te whenua rahi, e takoto nei; ka rewa Hikurangi, kei runga—G. P., 160. It was known as ―the Holy Mountain‖ in Hawaiki; upon it fell the first faint light, when the sun and moon appeared as ―eyes of heaven.‖—A. H. M., i. 43, 50, 148; iii. 11, 31, 37, 51, 55. [See Hawaiki, Maui, and Ruatapu.] - Tregear‘s Maori-Polynesian Comparative Dictionary. The Greater Washington tablet chant using the above methodology presents an plausible decipherment below of this Easter Island chant about Hikurangi.

14

Krupa (1971). Ibid. Pp. 2-3.

100

Figure: Greater Washington Verso

View of Plausible Holy Mountain (Ma-Hikurangi) Chant on Greater Washington Tablets Verso, Line 1-2. Line 1 Line one appears too flawed to develop until a full syllabus is available. Line 2

001 -025 -081 -004-760?.002 -081-004-146.062?-081-004 -660? -081-004 -0022-081-004

-660?

-081-004

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

4b

-660?

-081-004 - 660?

-081-004 -007-081-004 -007-081-004 -280-042.0592-048

10

9b

11 12 13

Thirteen Glyphs to Decipher a Rongorongo Chant There are essentially two glyphs (081 and 004) that are required to unlock 2/3rds of this sequence. The sun glyph and the slanted pillar or knife. Metoro and the scholars agree that the Sun glyph represents ra‘a or the syllable RA and that the fish glyph represents ika. Ikaroa is the closest match for this third glyph. Yet, this name of the Milky Way (Ikaroa, long-fish), can be represented by a fish with a tail so long it curves upward. Perhaps the tail of glyph three is intended. Hiku means tail and Hikura can expand into Hikurangi, the Sacred Mountain of Polynesian origin stories. Moreover, Metoro offers the ra‘a, Sun glyph to also represent hetu, stars or ahi, fire, which therefore, makes it plausible to extend the meaning further to ragi (rangi), or sky. Hikurangi fits with the deluge mythology of the glyphs explored in the table above, making this interpretation very plausible. The next glyph might represent MA, as the syllable added to Hikurangi to represent holy or sacred: Mahikurangi. MA is a short form of Manga or river and MA signifies sacred from the cleansing quality of a river. To consider glyph 4 of the figure above as MA, it has to correspond logographically. Since a knife uses in offerings to cleans or purify is called, maripi, it stands to reason that the syllable MA fits the glyph. Whenever this ‗knife‘ glyph is used, it can be suspect as a purifying element, an offering or a sign for what is sacred. Metoro offers ivihehe, needle as the instrument of glyph 004. The syllable MA is still plausible, since a needle can also be used in purification rites, weather in weaving or tattooing.

101

That is 3 down, 10 to go. Which glyphs do we know? Glyph 10 and 11 are accepted by scholars as reimiro, the neck ornament and honu, the turtle. Glyph 8 as po, ball + aka, root cord, produces the Rapanui Constellation of Poaka, Orion‘s Belt. Since the glyph looks like Orion it could be Poaka or the night glyph Po. With almost half of the glyphs a plausible understanding of the text can be attempted. However, what do the remaining glyphs appear to represent? Glyph 1 and 2: Pole or pillar and house; Glyph 5: ? Hard to tell. In the context of the mythology it may be a blind person counting taro roots; Glyph 6 appears like a oval or window overturning as in the mythology; Glyph 7, a frigate bird bending the neck to the ground. The mythology might point to a flame on her shoulder as the flame stolen from the Underworld by the trickster Maui. Glyph 12 and 13 are difficult to tell. Glyph 12 appears like the sun when it first rises on the horizon. That land appears to bow as the bottom of the glyph toward the sun. After three years of following this process starting from the sequence and genre table above, the following syllable/word and sentence tables are produced. Tregear‘s MaoriPolynesian Comparative Dictionary is a great source to build upon the limited Old Rapanui vocabulary.
Table: Ma-Hikurangi Chant Syllables and Words of the Greater Washington Verso Line 2

Rapanui/Polynesian English Translation: 1-2.) Tiki HaoHao (Ruatapu) One of the 4 Sons of Whiro, from Tiki, pole + glyph 2, HaoHao, to surround or encircle. Ruatapu is the sacred two door House of the Priest Tiki, who destroyed the water monster – Paikea (One Door House). Death‘s door of sunset is overcome by the second door of Sunrise clx 2.) Haohao to bend, encircle (also Paikea Ruatapa – see 1 above).clxi 3.) Hikurangi the mountain refuge of the Polynesian deluge or the hill on which the sky (or sun) rests.clxii 4.) Ma Ma/maripi, knife (possibly made from a reed) to cleanse or purify (Manga as stream is abbreviated as Ma).clxiii Glyph 4b the Ma knife glyph with variable bottom? 5.) Matakerepo old blind woman from mata, eyes + kere, darkened + po, night, underworld, three stars of Orion; also Kui the blind or Whaitiri, grandmother of Tawhaki.clxiv 6.) Mataaho window from mata, eye + aho, light.clxv 7.) Tahi to sweep from TA/taha, side + HI/hianga, to stoop. Metoro offers to lean or bow. Possibly the sweeping of an axe, a paddle or a broomclxvi 8.) Poaka Orion‘s Belt from PO/poipoi, a ball + AKA, a root cord. The Underworld is named Po, a term for night. Here the ancestors line up in rows like the Constellation of Orion, which serves as mast of the Polynesian canoe of the afterlife or underworld. Po, or night as the first word in a VSO phrase, might appear as the verb, to darken. A 102

9.) Ra

10.) Reinga 11.) Honu/henua

12.) Rongo

13.) Koroiti

darkening of the Sun is required to catch the Ponaturi off guard in ancient Polynesian mythology. The Sun from RA/ra‘a. The sun is emphasised as the source of regeneration and Enlightenment, not merely the hill it rests on. The Underworld from REI/reimiro, neck ornament, Similar to Po, Reinga is the abode of the dead.clxvii the Turtle or the land. Found on the Mamari Moon Calendar. Easter Island itself is the Turtle, from which its shape clearly represents.clxviii The sounding place or one of the deities of the Polynesian Trinity from Koro (noose) + kokoru (shovel) meaning Koro (alternatives – Ko Oro, Oro, Ko Rongo and Rongo).clxix A snare, to noose the Sun (see Maui‘s Ball Game Part v.)

After identifying the given logographic and mythological context, then a hypothesis is made toward a decipherment of glyphs. Then using Rapanui grammatical order of verb, subject and then object, a basic sentence structure can be attempted.
Table: Greater Washington Verso Line 2 Chant – Ma-Hikurangi

Rongorongo Rapanui/Polynesian Tiki Haohao (Ruatapu) Hikurangi Ma Matakerepo Hikurangi Ma
760?.002-081-004

Translation with VSO15 Grammar Support the House of the Sacred Mountain By counting the taro roots of Matakerepo, Blind Grandmother, of the Sacred Mountain Overturn Mataaho, opener of the Window of heaven for the flood of the Sacred Mountain and river Sweep (to?) the Sacred Mountain

001-025-081-004

Mataaho Hikurangi Ma
146.062?-081-004

Tahi Hikurangi Ma
660?-081-004

Po Ra Ma
0022-081-004

Darken the Sacred Sun.

Tahi Hikurangi Ma (x3)
660?-081-004
15

Sweep to the Sacred Mountain (x3)

Chapin (1974). Ibid. Verb Subject Object grammar from Rapanui.

103

Reinga Hikurangi Ma
007-081-004

Leap down to Reinga (the leaping Place) the Underworld deep below the Sacred Mountain Leap down to Reinga to enlighten the Underworld with the Sacred Sun Pound the Earth-drum, Honu, Sacred Turtle of Rongo, the sounding place of the dawn, to lure the Sun to the noosing snare of Maui.

Reinga Ra Ma
007-081-004

Honu Rongo Koroiti
280-042.0592-048

The two charts together produce the following plausibly deciphered rongorongo funerary and origin chant: Mahikurangi – The Holy Mountain Tiki Haohao (Ruatapu) Hikurangi Ma Matakerepo Hikurangi Ma Mataaho Hikurangi Ma Tahi Hikurangi Ma Po Ra Ma Tahi Hikurangi Ma Tahi Hikurangi Ma Tahi Hikurangi Ma Reinga Hikurangi Ma Reinga Ra Ma Honu Rongo Koroiti. O Tiki, Pillar of the House of the Sacred Mountain Matakerepo, Blind Grandmother, of the Sacred Mountain Mataaho, Opener of the flood of the Sacred Mountain Sweep to (paddle to?) the Sacred Mountain 104

where Po, the waiting place of the souls of the dead, greets the Dawn Sweep to the Sacred Mountain Sweep to the Sacred Mountain Sweep to the Sacred Mountain The Underworld of Reinga lies deep below the Sacred Mountain The Underworld of Reinga has seen the Sacred Sun Honu, Sacred Turtle of Rongo, who beckons the dawn, by noosing the Sun on the horizon with the snare of Maui. With VSO Rapanui contextual grammar (Chapin 1974): Support, O Tiki, the House of the Sacred Mountain By counting the taro roots of Matakerepo, Blind Grandmother, of the Sacred Mountain Overturn Mataaho, opener of the window of heaven for the flood of the Sacred Mountain and river Sweep or paddle to the Sacred Mountain Darken or hide, the Sacred Sun in the Underworld Sweep to the Sacred Mountain Sweep to the Sacred Mountain Sweep to the Sacred Mountain Leap down from Reinga (the leaping Place) to the Underworld deep below the Sacred Mountain Leap down to Reinga to enlighten the Underworld with the Sacred Sun Pound the Earth-drumclxx, Honu, Sacred Turtle of Rongo, the sounding place of the dawn, to lure the Sun to the noosing snare of Maui. The mythology and Indigenous World-view offers a certain parallel between story, chant and local land-forms. It involves the story of the creation of the world and is given the highest regard, often named, the homeland, Turtle Mountain, Turtle Island or the land of origin. It involves a wayfinding canoe and migration. Tiki is the chief of the canoe, Matakerepo is the wayfinder and Mataaho provides the motion of the waters under the bow. The sweeping involves the motion of paddling to the refuge of the Sacred Mountain, Mahikurangi. It is a funerary offering, but could serve as a purifying ceremony in childbirth, innogerating a new canoe or on any occasion. Mahikurangi is a prayer that puts the Underworld in its place. Mahikurangi raises the mountain of our salvation as if it were the heart of Tane rising out of the sea. Mahikurangi sweeps to Mahikurangi as a refuge and stronghold for souls. Mahikurangi where the Sun gazes enlightenment upon us, born of Turtle Island where a noose is set at te Pito te Henua and a snare at the end of the Earth.

105

Chapter 6 Rongorongo Chant: The Life Cycle of the Soul

106

There is a chant on the tablets where rongorongo scholar Jacques Guy identifies a Harmonic Sequence. Below are three lines of the Rongorongo writing system of Easter Island. After finding in them a certain pattern, a leading researcher in the field, named Jacques Guy, called these three lines harmonic sequences. After deciphering them, I called them, the passage rite chant of the Life Cycle of the Soul into Harmony. Guy presents Text Br3, 4& 6 sequence which occurs as follows (Guy. 2006. P. 59): ... ... . The Advantage of Repeating Picto-Glyphs: Here is a list of all the glyphs common to all three lines: ... ... ... ... / ... / ... ... / ... ... ... The advantage of deciphering the common glyphs might lead to a translation of all three lines in the study of just one set of glyphs. Each of the three lines has its own repetitive unique element as well. Guy identifies these as sequential clefs (Guy. 2006. P. 59). The first line contains this standing symbol: ... / / / ...

The second line contains a variation of a seated symbol The third line contains a staff .

These unique elements repeat in exactly the same location in all three lines. In other words, to develop a basic understanding of the three lines, it is only necessary to interpret 15 symbols instead of over 100 glyphs which make up the entire chant. Three-step to decipherment: The research involved taking a glyph and breaking down the symbols contained on it. The symbols were then applied their respective Rapanui or early Polynesian words. The first syllable of these words that name the symbol, usually identified the syllable making up part of the final word.

A good example of this three step decipherment process is contained in this glyph. . The first portion on the left or the pointed glyph has been determined to be a knife. The early Polynesian word for knife is maripi. The second portion on the right has been 107

determined to be the ‗palm-up‘ glyph, which represents the action, to feel for or to reveal. The closest Rapanui word found was the Mosquito or naunau, which ‗feels for‘ the blood of its prey. The first syllables of maripi and naunau are MA and NA, which produce mana, the Polynesian word for spiritual force or power. These syllables are determined by their rate of success in the development of the translation of the rest of the Easter Island Tablets. Below is a list of all 15 repetitive glyphs in this sample decipherment of these three similar lines of the Easter Island tablets16:
Table: Harmonic sequence individual decipherment

Glyph

symbols stand/ball breathe

syllables tu/po nga

Rapanui (Tregear) Cipher tupo, a grave nga, to breathe

Berthin it

Berthin offers ―it‖ where Dansereau offers ―ball‖.

i

/ii

/iii

/iv tangata, man ngari, to chant ngana, a power of the air tawha, Guardian of the Underworld tangaroa, deity of the sea, wharo, to stretch tawhana, to shoot out, to rise, born
Berthin (logographic) take in / to eat to affirm enter her, speak and affirm divisiveness/ enter here, speak of having divisiveness

i.side/breathe TA/taha/NGA i.hand rima/RI ii.to feel for NA/naunau iii.side/wide TA/WHA iii.long point ROA iv.wide/to feel WHA/NA
Dansereau (syllabic/lograph) Hand / to breathe/ to chant To feel for/ to reveal A wind deity/ Ngana/ eagerly Long/ hidden/ deity of the sea To stretch forth/ to crawl/ Ngatoro

tool, bent

ROU/tirou

Rou, a tool for pulling down fruit from trees, also meaning, to pull. Whanui, Morning Star

wide/large
16

WHA/NUI

Before reading their sacred meaning, please consider that, as an author, I have never felt entitled to publish this decipherment. Rather it has been a privilege weighed down in my conscience by the knowledge that these are funerary prayers and, even more, they are the last words of the tohunga wisdom keepers who were mourning not only the death of their grandchildren, but the loss of their way of life. In these difficult times, the Rainbow Warriors are given access to these most sacred documents in order to strategize in the battle to restore the Earth.

108

moon/to feel for MA/NA dawn/moon PU/MA

mana, spiritual force, power pumau, constant, fixed

knife /

MA/maripi

ma, to cleanse, pure

ball/canoe/2 hand Po/rua/riri? Ririno Porua, canoe and its chief that was lost at sea in the first migration of Polynesia from Hawaiki. The canoe was lost at the reef called, taputapuatea a variable name for the Underworld(restricted day)

/

pathway bristles

ara wana

ara, pathway arawa, greatest canoe of first migration. Ara-rou, pathway for pulling as a canoe makes on the see when rowers pull oars in time. Rapa, sacred oar, Rata – deity who retrieved father‘s bones in canoe of most sacred tree. Tiki wananga, the first man as Underworld medium. Porua, chief of Ririno canoe lost at sea, while Turi and his canoe the Aotea found safety.

tree, thatch

rakau/patu tapatu

/

pole, bristles wana/tiki

ball, star, two po/hetu/rua

Orion, arm

poaka/anga

poa, food eaten for the dead

wing, two

pakau

papa, the Earth

Again, these syllables are used in the development of the fuller translation of the tablets. That is, the dozen or so chants deciphered thus far use the same syllable/symbol designation. This enabled the formulation of a syllable chart and a word chart, given 109

above in order to further facilitate the decipherment of the tablets and offer others the tools needed to verify this work. And perhaps even complete it. Though we arrived at most of our conclusions separately, the Logographic work of Berthin will contribute substantially to the decipherment of these chants. An attempt was made above to compare the translation by Berthin vs. Dansereau of certain glyphs. There are notable similarities in our conclusions. However, the differences gave cause to attempt a brief decipherment of this work taking into account Berthin‘s use of logographic interpretation, supported by Dansereau‘s development of the chant. Below is a decipherment of the entire three-line sequence found on the Easter Island tablets. The languages run as Rongorongo – Rapanui – English (literal) – English (with Rapanui verb/subject/object grammar) – English (with Berthin‘s logographic meanings weaved into the text). The Life Cycle of the Soul into Harmony

... Pakore waka tangata tunga-rou tangata-rou ra’a tupo-rou tupo-whanui tupo-mana tupo-pumau tupo-ma tupo-Porua-Ririno tupo-ara tupo-Rata tupo-pakoretiki tupo-Porua tupo-poa-poha tupo-papa Broken canoe, the canoe of the man standing and pulling (the oar). The man pulling. The Sun at the grave pulling. At the grave, Morning Star. At the Grave power. At the grave fixed. At the grave pure. The grave of the chief of the canoe lost at sea. At the grave a pathway. Grave of Rata. Grave of the broken pillar. Grave of Porua, chief of Ririno lost at sea. The grave food offering split open. The grave of the wide expanse of the Earth (noosed/hooked) Break to rise off an island‘s breakers onto the high sea the canoe of the man out from his standing place footing or island pulling the oar of the spirit canoe through the grave of the Underworld. Enlighten this grave by the pulling, the grave of Morning Star. Empower dawn to light the grave of purification where the grave of Porua-Ririno – Chief of the Canoe lost at sea on the reef Taputapuakea – of forbidden daylight, opening a pathway from the grave, by the power of Rata who broke the tree of spirit-land that raised up to the sky, as the chips of Porua lost at sea, the grave with the food offering, the grave split open, the grave raised up by the hook of Maui, as a new island paradise over the Earth. ... Ahu koma-rou wewero-ra’a Potiki tahinga-riri Whanui tangata-ngari-mana tangatapumau tangata-ngana-ma tangata-ngana-Ririno tangata-ngana ara Tangaroa-tawhai Rata Tangaroa-tawhai-tiki Tangaroa-tawhai Porua tanga-whana Porua Tangaroatawhai poa-poha Tangaroa-tawhai-papa 110

The Ahu pure by pulling and thrust down the Sun Potiki, tahinga riri sweep with power Morning Star the man chant of power. The man chant constant. Power of the air pure. Power of the air of the canoe lost at sea. Power of the air a pathway. Tangaroa medium. Rata. Tangaroa Medium. Pillar Tangaroa medium Porua lost at sea. Whana – spring back Porua. Tangaroa Medium with food offering for the dead. Split open. Tangaroa medium over the Earth (searched for over the sea.) Build a maori temple to purify by pulling the sacred oar of the spirit canoe and by thrusting down the Sun of Maui Potiki who noosed the Sun and inagurated The Sweeping Ceremony with the fury of Morning Star, the first human chants with power, the first human chants the constant invocation, the Birdman or spirit of the air is cleansed, the Birdman raises the canoe, Ririna, lost at sea, the Birdman raises the canoe to the pathway. Tangaroa mediates for Rata. Tangaroa raises up the sky as pillar of heaven. Tangaroa mediates for Porua lost at sea. The Birdman mediates for Porua lost at sea. Tangaroa mediates with food for the dead, split open. Tangaroa mediates by raising the Earth.

... Tangata Poaka Tangata MakeMake Honu-rou Whanui rou-mana rou pumau rou ma rou-Ririno rou-Arawa Wananga-rou Rata rou Wananga-tiki rou-Porua rou Poaka rou-wahi rou poa-poha rou papa The men of the stars, the deity of Sunrise, the turtle pulling with Morning star, pulling with primal power, pulling constantly, pulling with purity. Pulling in the canoe lost at sea (at the reef of forbidden day). Pulling of the ancestral spirit canoe the pathway of pulling with Rata, pulling of the medium standing up rod, Tiki, pulling of Poaka, pulling in the rain. Pulling with the food offering for the dead, split open. Pulling over the great expanse of the Earth (stand upon at the break of day). People of the Stars, look to Makemake who fashioned turtle island while pulling, rising like Morning Star who pulled with power, pulling constantly, pulling to purify the human spirit, pulling the Ririno canoe lost at sea like the waning crescent moon, pulling of the Powerful Medium of the Pathway marked with the pulling of our oars, where Rata pulling found a Powerful Medium Pillar who raise up the sky by the pulling of Porua lost at sea, pulling to the stars, pulling in the rain, pulling toward the other side where a food offering for the dead split open at the end of the Earth. The chant involves three separate portions of a funerary song. Indigenous passage rites often follow these three stages, which work very much like the life cycle of a butterfly. In particular, the syllabic outcomes (in bold) of the three stages of the chant produce words closely related to caterpillar, cocoon and butterfly in ngatoro (toroku – caterpillar), ngaro (hidden), wharo and ngatoro (to stretch), ngari (strong muscular intent), ngana (with eager intent), tawhana (to shoot forth) and whanau (to bring forth as a child or butterfly). These words derived from the syllables include references to the early migration canoes and chiefs: Wharo – thief and son of Whena, preacher before the 111

deluge who battled with the Rainbow - Uenuku. Ngatoro – chief of the Totara-Keria canoe which migrated from New Zealand to Hawaiki to defeat the Great Curse of Manaia; Whanau-moana (Tutawa) – father of the winged people (Birdmen) of Waitotara (Water-Tree, used as Ngatoro‘s canoe). He was a son of Turi and Rongorongo, born on the Aotea canoe, in the midway migration between Hawaiki and New Zealand. Also named, Tutawake – also preached before the flood to the obstinate, which caused the war of Taiparipari (the sea of many breaking waves). Ngana – an ancestor of Tiki in the following line: Hau-ngangana – Ngana – Ngana-nui – Ngana-roa – Ngana-ruru – Ngana-mawaki - ?Kahukura or ?Wakehau – Tiki. The themes involved all interrelate with early Polynesian funerary symbols, such as, the Breaking Waves of Death, the Tree at the Edge of the Water or Leaping Place, the migration canoes related to the Polynesian Great Deluge and a reviving of the dead to join the ancestors in the stars. The first rite of passage stage of the Life Cycle of the Soul into Harmony involves the chaos of death. The second stage of the Life Cycle of the Soul into Harmony involves a transformation of the deceased. The third stage of the Life Cycle of the Soul into Harmony is finally offered the deceased in a prayer to rise up to the stars with the ancestors. Chant Stage Variations - the Life Cycle of the Soul into Harmony: Stage One Stage Two Stage Three . The canoe of Rata breaks The Sun is thrust down The stars meet the dawn out of the waves to the Sun with the top-knot noose of the Creator, Makemake of Maui to the temple platform or the Table of Rata The grave is a void of chaos where Morning Star has entered with the power of dawn to purify the dead. Ririno is the early Polynesian migration canoe lost in the ocean of the Underworld.. The grave is the pathway of Rata who broke the ancestral tree of the dead where the chips are reassembled as the chief of the Underworld canoe at the final feast of the dead. Morning Star sweeps the dead or the stars to the dawn to purify and transform the dead into birdmen. Ririno is the canoe of the dead. Using turtle island, Morning Star fashions the void with power, ushers the dawn to enlighten and cleanse all the dead. Ririno springs out of the void.

The birdmen are on the pathway of Rata through the sky to the sea of Tangaroa, Lord of the Ocean. Tangaroa assists Rata. Tangaroa raises the ancestral tree out of the sea. Tangaroa gathers the chips as the 112

The void is the paradise of the powerful medium of Rata. The void of paradise is empowered by the tohunga of our ancestral tree where the chips are gathered as chief of the canoe of the Underworld of the

chief of the Underworld canoe. The birdmen are gathered as chips at the feast of Tangaroa. The grave or abode of the Tangaroa raises the dead is the wide expanse expanse of the Earth of the earth. All are subject out of the sea. to death.

stars all set in a row to follow into the paradise feast of the void to gather the dead. The dead in the void are gathered from the ends of the Earth.

With a plausible greater understanding of the glyphs presented in Guy‘s harmonic sequences of Text Br (Guy. 2006. P. 59), the following glyphs from Text Br11 might help clarify the famed syllable of the Santiago Staff, glyph 076 occurring here in four glyphs:

600 - 4 - 600-40b-700f-300.76.63-300?.4 -590.5 -380.50 -600 -430.76-430c.76-430.76-755-63.41.64-670-710-470:21?

There are eighteen glyphs here, six plausibly known by the scholars and six explored and plausibly deciphered in this research. That is two thirds plausibly deciphered. The remaining 6 contain syllables that in part appear reasonably understood in the above research. Tane ma Tavake hotu ika-wana? tunga-na-ure? tunga-ma-? Tiki?-Taiuraarapo tangata-popohaga Tavake ngatahure ngatahure ngatahure? Wainui komana? tahi ika tahinga hetu. Bird deity cleanse Tavake bear fruit fish-medium standing-place? Standing place? Tiki-flame of the path of darkness, human form of the dawn, Tavake the ancestors? 3 generations? Morning Star like/meditate/turn over and over in the mind/10th age of the universe, sweep the first fish of the Milky Way the great sweeping of the stars.
Note: Using some Verb/Subject/Object (VSO)(Chapin. 1974) order from Rapanui or Polynesian grammar, with creative licence:

Tavake, bird deity, pure Tavake regenerate the first fish offering and medium at the Birdman’s perch(?) The standing place of vision and purification where Tiki carries the flame through the path of darkness as the personification of dawn, Tavake, bring together, bring together, bring together, Morning Star with power sweep to the Milky Way in the Sweeping Ceremony this beloved Star. Like Chips off the Rosetta Stone Below are a number of examples of the interplay between symbol, syllable and logograms, with proof or flag words17 that form sentences with a rich Polynesian and
17

Flag word: a Rapanui word, or Polynesian variant, associated with a rongorongo glyph by confirmed research, such as, ure, hua & atua from the Mamari Lunar Calendar. Plausible word-glyph associations might also be considered. The purpose for flag words is to find several in a chant that can be associated in like sequence on the tablets. If so, the words and syllables begin to fall like chips off the Rosetta Stone.

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Rapanui context. The result is not only an expanded Rapanui dictionary, but a gap filled with linguistic and mythic relations between Easter Island and broader Polynesia. In the Canoe of Rata chant listen on four tablets below, the canoe or waka glyph , represents the syllable WA. This syllable is confirmed by the logogram for the doublehull canoe or hourua waka: Glyph 100 . The syllable is again confirmed by the

contextual glyphs surrounding it. An example is the tree or rakau glyph: 65 66. The surrounding glyphs elaborate and prove its context in semiotic fashion as the tree is uprooted: . The identifiable glyphs are confirmed by a Polynesian mythical chant called, the Canoe of Rata. In the myth, Rata cuts down a tree to make a canoe in order to retrieve his father‘s bones. The bones here are represented by the chips of the tree being hewn. This is an example of the Indigenous philosophy of all our relations, similarly demonstrated by Haidi ancestral bones placed atop totem poles in funerary rites. These bones, much like a rotting tree, are a sign of the regenerative power or mana of the life-force of the Creator continually present in all things. That is why Rata would find the tree reassembled each morning he woke up after felling the tree. Rata discovers the tree is reassembled by birds, fairies or birdmen. Other variations use all the creatures of the forest, which are relations to be honored just like the tree. The chief of the birdmen discover Rata‘s intensions are honorable and teach him the incantation for felling this sacred ancestral tree shown here: Fly together, chips and shavings, Stick you fast together, Hold you fast together; Stand upright again, O tree. ; cut at the roots and containing fruit: : or disassembled chip by chip:

Therefore, an entire sequence of glyphs can be identified to correspond with the chant as shown above. Given enough symbol, syllable and logogram confirmations, the exact meaning of the text comes out and expounds upon the chant (see The Canoe of Rata sentences below). In Hawaii, parallel to Rata is the mythic hero, Laka, who is hewn a double hull canoe. The corresponding glyph used on Easter Island agrees. The birdmen make the canoe for Rata and transport it to the sea for Rata, all in one brief night. The one night and chips of the tree represent the passing of the moon and its crescent phases which cause the moon to wane after every chip is hewn. In the Orient it is the deified hero, Ji, who forever hews a tree on the moon that eternally regenerates. Splinters, then, are not an uncommon sign for the waning and waxing fragments of the 114

moon. Another portion of the chant of the Canoe of Rata in its original form is translated below, from rongorongo, to a common Polynesian dialect and finally to English.

E ara rakau e! E ara rakau e! A pathway for the canoe! A pathway for the canoe! E ara inano e. A path of sweet scented flowers. E kopukopu te tini o kupolu. The entire family of the birds of Kupolu. E matakitaki, kareko! Oo Honour you (Rata) above mortals. Like chips off the Rosetta Stone, more clues deliver a larger and larger list of syllables and logograms. Lines that took two years, now take two hours to decipher. Another clue, another chant; another chant another chip of the Rosetta Stone, which the Birdmen of Rata help assemble together. The repetition of the chorus line ‗a pathway for the canoe‘ on the Easter Island tablets has inserted verses between the chorus as seen here: . Notice the name for canoe is rakau. Interchanging rakau, the tree, with waka, the canoe is a confirmation of not only the symbol and syllables chosen for tree and canoe, but also the fact that the Easter Island tablets decipherment involves syllable and semiotic translations. For more Chips off the Rosetta Stone, see decipherment charts for syllables, words and sentences below. A recurring peculiarity helps to further confirm a true decipherment of the tablets. That is, though the tablets are translated from left to right, as do glyph syllables joined together, the glyphs that are not joined together, yet form, one subject or word, are often written in reverse. For example, E ara inano e, , a pathway of sweet scented flowers, the pathway or

ara glyph, , is read before the flower glyph. This anomaly occurs on the Holy Mountain or Mahikurangi chant found on the tablets. The glyphs for holy mountain occur in this order, , yet the first syllable sign for holy or pure occurs last. This

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purity sign,

, MA, from maripi, represents a reed or bone knife used for making pure

sacrificial offerings among other uses. Mahikurangi contains one syllable, MA, and two semiotic logograms, hiku for tail, seen on the lower portion of the glyph (glyphs are read from bottom up) and rangi for sky represented by the ra or sun glyph: .

These glyphs were not picked out of the air. The glyph for Makemake is agreed to be the face with two bulging eyes. Here is a variation of that logoglyph, aspect as the setting sun, , makemake in

, tohere, with three flame fragments used as logogram rays of

the Sun. This deity goes to war, , maru, in the Underworld of darkness where the souls of the ancestors are gathered by the sweeping broom of the burning rays of the sunset. Notice the glyph, tohere, if turned on its back, produces the jaw of the skull of makemake. Here again is a confirmation of makemake, which the early Rapanui understood appeared as a skull. In the turning of the jaw are two mythological aspects: first, the jawbone in the hand of Maui, the trickster who nooses the Sun. Maui tore this jawbone off of the guardian of the Underworld and used it as a weapon to club the Sun. Secondly, the turning jaw represents the myth, the Overturning of Mataaho, a variation of the great deluge. The rising water is akin to the Sun setting on the sea, which appears to rise as the Sun sinks on the water of the horizon. Makemake, as the setting sun represents the bird deity, Tane (Tavake), whose belly is the water of the ocean where the souls of the deceased reside. Maui who captures the Sun at its setting is called, Maui-potiki , or Maui of the top-knot with stolen flame. The glyph has the belly of the bird, Tane, or Tane-Manawa (the heart of Tane which represents the ocean and Underworld where deceased souls reside); the Sun, which is the ball (poipoi/PO); and the top-knot of hair (circled above) of Maui‘s mother who reared him in her top-knot. The hair represents wisdom, meaning Maui‘s mother raised him on wisdom. This top-knot of wisdom can be heard on the most sacred location for reading the tablets on Easter Island, called, Orongo (the hearing place). There on this kilometre high volcano, Rano Kao, is a ceremonial house with a moai statue buried half-way (now in the Museum of London). The 8-foot statue is called, Hoa Hakananai‘a (the hidden friend). This is Maui-potiki. Maui-potiki is said to have been thrown out of her top-knot into a thorn bush, which are plentiful down the volcano rim. Confirming this Polynesian myth as on the tablets is the name of the tiny island, Motu Kaukau, that appears like a thorn coming out of the sea, where Maui was thrown. And on the back of Hoa Hakanana‘ia are the two seals that raised him when thrown into the sea, by wrapping him in seaweed. One of the seals has a foot with six toes, which forms the syllables and the look of a broom. The foot of Makemake diving into the sea at sunset, are the rays of the 116

Sun, the broom of gathering souls in the Underworld, and the fin of the seal who is a representation of Easter Island‘s Tangaroa, deity of the ocean and the moon, found on the Mamari Moon Calendar and confirmed in Polynesian moon 30 day calendars. Indigenous language is not purely functional like Western languages. One word may have a paragraph of meanings and small volume of short mythical stories related to it. A word such as, ara or pathway, 15, does not merely signify a path for people to walk on. It has a number of uses and values, as do all words in Indigenous cultures. The highest use and value of the ara, pathway, is to be used for the dead and it is symbolized by the bright red road or pathway of the Sunset reflecting on the ocean. As such, a combination of ara waka (rakau) , a pathway for the canoe, identifies this highest value as the red road of the Sunset reflecting on the water, since it is the canoe confirming an Oceanic or migration pathway and the red reflection signifying a clear passage. There is another logogram found on the canoe above, they are the bristles or wanawana. In the most sacred incantation these glyphs combine in the following way: A pathway for the canoe in Polynesian Mythology represents a place for the wananga priest (one who has died after learning all the sacred incantations during his living years as a tohunga priest, Tregear, 1891); This wananga is the pathway for the canoe of deceased ancestors when his canoe is raised up on the island as a Standing Up Rod. The standing up rod is a medium for the wananga to reside in order to mediate the protection of rangi (heaven) upon papa (earth), even after death. In Blackfoot philosophy this Red Road is also the path for everyone to walk and follow the ancestors to the happy hunting ground and eventually, the buffalo or wolf trail of the Milky Way. The rays of the Sun help sweep the ancestors up to that Milky Way (Ikaroa) in Polynesian philosophy and cosmology. These rays are added as a verse to the pathway for the canoe chorus in two forms, as glyph number 554 and is the logogram, tara for rays or horns of sun. These rays are the wanawana, bristles (wananga priests) that make up the solar broom consisting of the setting Sun with all its rays in which Rupe, also named Maui-mua (the first pillar of heaven), the brother of Hina and Maui, uses to clean the highest heaven or purify the newly deceased into deified ancestors themselves in the heavenly gathering banquet and ceremony those who sing the chorus of the Moon Calendar participate in during the offering of first fish and/or fruits. The priests that are successful in living an honorable life on the island can draw the entire island into a continual pattern of ceremony weaved within the cycle of the moon and even in every daily meal prepared. Some populations lose touch with their origin ceremonies, while others develop clusters of participants. Easter Island had a cluster group, which made it more difficult for foreigners to be taught the proper use of the tablets. That is, not everyone on the island participated fully in the ceremonial rites, for lack of devotion and by way of the secrecy or sacred tapu covering of the priestly rongorongo rites. Therefore, a foreigner might be forcibly adopted by a chief that avoids the sacred rites of the island and the priests may hold the foreigner at a distance to honor the tapu covering the sacred tablets.

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Youth and protégés of the living tohunga priests are encouraged to weave their own lives into the ecology and sacred ceremonial rites. Quite universal are various blood-letting rites of passage that enable the youth to enter under the protection of higher tapu coverings until eventually they meet the setting Sun, lord of the ocean, Tangaroa, who besides long-man (akin to Maui-mua – the first pillar) is a name also meaning free-fromrestriction. Therefore, blood letting gives power (mana) to the youth to rise to heaven through the red road. Mana appears as , in the Canoe of Rata verses from MA/maripi (knife) + NA/naunau (to feel for with open palm or to reveal).

Another blood letting sign is the tattoo instrument, , in Maui‘s ball game, the tattoo soothing chant of the Small Reimiro Tablet. It appears three times in a row confirming the instruments full name from ta in short, to ta-ta-tau. Then a forth tattoo instrument is added with the glyph for man producing, tangata, , the name of a complete human being. That is, after four sessions of tattoo cutting, the youth becomes a man. The use of four may be linked with the four phases of the moon. Usually, the human glyph is not accompanied by the tattooing instrument, but rather the pole or toko glyph, seen here attached to the sun: 1,8, producing toko-rangi, the Pillar of Heaven. That pillar on earth is the one willing to portion himself as the true sacrificial tohunga priest identified by the following glyph: 11, produced from toko/TO, (pillar/pole) +ahu or hua/HU, (to stack or heap up) = tohunga. The NGA syllable is implied and not carved into the glyph, which happens elsewhere. The constellation Orion is called, poaka, as seen in the glyph , from PO/poipoi, (a ball) + aka, (a root running through the centre of the three balls of light or stars. Orion is used as the symbolic abode of Underworld deceased attached by the root of their lineage. The poaka or Orion glyph produces the syllable PO. It appears on the Small Reimiro glyph in the tattoo soothing chant in this form: pohi, a ball game. , PO/poaka, (Orion) + HI/hianga, (to stoop) =

It appears with the following glyphs: which read, koromahanga (a semiotic noose) + maui, (maui is caught in his own noose or puamanu the ‗tie-bird‘ snare), tahi(nga) Tane (manu huna Tane – is the hidden bird of Tane, this is Maui in the topknot of his mother on Orongo), koromahanga-maui (noose), tahinga-iti-maui (Mauitaha – one of Maui‘s brothers), pohi (ball game). Therefore, to noose the Sun during the Sweeping of the Stars at Sunrise, is the ball game of Maui. Maui and Tane are one in the same, since Maui noosed the Sun to slow it down, yet he also travelled through the mouth of death and was killed at the ‗noose‘ of her other end, her vulva or komari, the sight of regeneration of the dead because of the offering of Maui who retrieved the fire. 118

Looking at Maui‘s brothers there are:

maui-taha, (maui-side from the side symbol, maui-roto, (maui-inside the volcano or

used as a syllable but semiotic in this case.); turtle/birdman nest);

maui-waho (maui-outside from maui + WA/waharoa, maui-pae

ceremonial oven for the dead + HO/hoka, to project sharply upwards); (maui-platform from the laddar or platform symbol).

In the verses of the Canoe of Rata, this glyph appears: , meaning kohuhu from KO/koko, a hole + huhu, hollow or concave = kohuhu, a well spring. In the Rata myth, the Underworld deity who killed Rata‘s father had his head in a well, when Rata severed it, like the Sun in a noose. Then all the Underworld fish escaped out of this well, also called ‗the Table of Rata (Laka). Therefore, the pathway for the canoe descends into the Underworld at Sunset, representing death, and is transported through the Underworld canal to rise with Rata at the Sunrise of regeneration. At the kohuhu, well spring, Rata splits open the Underworld table allowing the dead to rise to the Milky Way. The glyph for split open or koara is this: 105, from KO/koko, hole + ARA, pathway = Koara to

split open. Which leads to another important find given here: ,.Kopako Uenuku Kopako from KO + new syllable, PA/pawhera, (dried hanging fish), the Rainbow deity; Uenuku from UE, bend + NUKU, a wide extent = Uenuku. The glyph is also semiotic, with the head of Uenuku hidden in the mist under his mythical rainbow home. The word is written in chants as kopako uenuku-kopako. The dash is accounted for in the arm joining kopako to the right. In the Moon Calendar of the Mamari tablet the Hiro glyph appears: 30? in semiotic fashion as the proverb states, ‗Whiro the new moon appears as a twisted thread‘; The moon day called, Ata, (spirit, shadow) appears attached here with the moon 73. Applying the syllables produces maata, meaning a deep swamp, which is analogous to the place of the spirits in the new moon. Then the glyph for deity or atua is carved as, 59/144 from its semiotic appearance as a wave or Tuatea. The wanawana bristles appear on the wave confirming the use of wananga to represent ancestral deities. The turtle or henua glyph appears as 280 honu turtle (Metero calls it henua as the pole glyph). Notice the earliest name for Easter Island was te pito te henua; The Naval of the Earth, where Earth and Turtle are interchangeable. Considering the way the island looks from Google Earth, the Ojibwa Seven Fire Prophesy does not sound too far off, ―Look for an island shaped like a turtle that will be an instrument in the restoration of the Earth.‖ 119

And another example of a semiotic glyph is the foot glyph: 76 vae/ wae, foot/clan found on the Santiago Staff. The staff was a very sacred power staff used by ariki chiefs. As such it either had a list of ancestors in genealogical form, or was made by request for the repose of the souls lost in the slave raids and would be used together with incantations to rise-up a powerful reckoning. Your probably thinking, ‗no-wai!‘ Actually, an old Rapanui chant has vai or water attached to the name of a certain islander. In ancient Egyptian, logograms of words were used that were not the intended symbol, but only sounded similar to the intended symbol. Thus, the use of the foot glyph to mean water is not out of the ordinary. Moreover, the Bellona Island contains similar chants using the sole of the foot as a portion of the islanders names. Upon reaching the new island of a migration, the islanders may have rested one foot in the water and the other on land. This being done with a certain incantation would raise the tapu of the island and allow the inhabitant to dwell under a safe covering. Moreover, China‘s Kung Kung deluge hero uses water as his official emblem. With enough syllable from these chants, a matching of the Easter Island genealogies with the Santiago Staff is a possibility. Or a test can be made with these syllables producing names on the Santiago Staff vs. syllables picked at random for each glyph. Then the options can be compared for most correct names or words within usable names. If the syllables of this research produce more names than a random test, it is a good sign of the viability of these syllables. In fact, why don‘t I try that? The proofs of the decipherment of rongorongo syllables are forming contextual words again and again, in relation to myths and ceremonies broadening the understanding of the tablets and the life and times of those who carved them. More proofs are found below in the reading of the syllables, words and sentences of the three chants deciphered below. First an understanding of the mythology is researched.

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Chapter 7 Rapa Nui Lunar Calendar: The Feast of Hina Chant

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Moon Calendar chorus sequences On the Mamari Tablet appears the following Rongorongo version of the Rapa Nui moon calender.
Figure 5: Rongorongo Mamari Moon Calendar portioned off into quarters of the lunar month.

Column 1: Chant Chorus First Quarter

2: Chorus

3: Verses 1-8

portion added later

Second Quarter

Third Quarter

Forth Quarther

For convenience the lunar month it is divided here into eight rows and in columns representing three recurring verses of this lunar chant. This lunar chant is the first portion of the Rapa Nui tablets that contain verifiable glyphs the scholars can all agree upon. That is, the days of the lunar month were ‗spoken‘ by the early Rapa Nui on three occasions. Thomson, Englert and Metreux were each given the names of the 28-30 days of this Moon Calender, each with slight variations accounted for from their Rapanui informants (see chart below).clxxi

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Table 3: Easter Island‘s 30-day Moon Cycleclxxii:

Moon Day Day 1 Day 2 Day 3-8 Day 9 Day 10 Day 11 Day 29 Day 12 Day 13 Day 14 Day 15 Day1620 Day 21 Day 22 Day 23 Day 24 Day 25 Day 26 Day 27 Day 28

Moon Day Rapanui Name oata/ataclxxiii oari/ariclxxv kokore tahi-onoclxxvii maharuclxxix ohua/huaclxxx otua/atuaclxxxii hotu (optional moon day)clxxxiv maureclxxxvi ina-iraclxxxviii rakauclxxxix omotohi/motohicxci kokore tahi-rimacxciii tapumecxciv matuacxcv orongo/rongocxcvi orongo Taane/ rongo tanecxcviii mauri nuicc mauri kero/ mauri karocci omutu/mutuccii tireocciii

English Translation cloud, shadow or spiritclxxiv to resembleclxxvi void one to sixclxxviii admire/grasp/thieves scrotum/growing/offspiringclxxxi lord/deityclxxxiii swelling/bearing fruitclxxxv sacred enclosureclxxxvii of the Moon goddess and son under the tree of lifecxc of the first borncxcii void one to five to consecrate through the parent who conveys the messagecxcvii at the hearing place of the crier Tanecxcix with the great heart the heart of darkness coming to an end to catch Rapa Nui: tirere – a fish; titiri – to grab, to roast sweet potatos; tere – run, to escape, deap-sea fisherman. the thread of the deity of rainccv

Day 30

hiro (option moon day/ Ohiro after Day 1)cciv

The exploration of the moon days of broader Polynesia would be best conducted one island group at a time, as the Easter Island calendar above. To gain a hint of the parallels between Rapa Nui other islands of the Pacific, consider how closely these Polynesian moon days agree: Greater Polynesian Moon Day Variations
Table 4: Broader Polynesian 30-day Moon Cycle Variations and Contextccvi: (IN PROGRESS)

Moon Day Day 1

Rapanui moon day Oata/ata

Moon Day Variations Across Polynesia (Day #s may vary) Hoata; Tu nui, tu hawa

English Translation

Day 2

Oari/ari

O vari, ai, ari, ai, ari roa 123

Horned moon as if lifting up a spear to fight; Great standing (warrior), standing chipped or wounded to resemble, deep swamp, mud,

Day 3-8 kokore tahiono

Hami ami mua (roto, muri), amiama (amiama aka oti) Tamatea kai ariki (ananga, aio, whakapau) Koekoe, korekore, huna, una, Mawharu, owaru, mohalu, mehau, maaru, poipoi haa pao Ua, Atua whaka haehae O Tu, hutu nui; hutu manae Maurea, Marangi, mara‘i

Day 9 Day 10 Day 11 Day 29 (12b) Day 12 Day 13 Day 14 Day 15

Maharu Ohua/hua Otua/atua hotu (option) Maure ina-ira rakau (1-3) Omotohi/ Motohi kokore tahirima Tapume

to appear; arikiwi is a cloak covered in feathers; wari is mud; Hina fled to the moon after seeing her children covered in mud. To pile up, to gather up; (inside; to collect or behind) ... (long end) clean child who is a king; food king (rapidly or in a cave; calm or son of first parents; to be consumed) void one to six admire/grasp/thieves (to beat chips into a ball?) scrotum/growing/offspiring lord/deity who tears to pieces swelling/bearing fruit sacred enclosure, to chip or apportion of the Moon goddess and husband or son under the tree of life at the full moon. To beat with a fist, a window, of the first born, irresistible, to beg for, the ensnare, to bait. To search out for by song, to chant for in drawing out or finding, to lament, void one-five to consecrate through, to search, void lament/cleave full, lord of the ocean the parent who conveys the message at the hearing place of the crier Tane, lord of the ocean in the shade (behind/ long or root end) with the great heart; soon/ quick/ come!; to beat ; a cluster, a betrothed woman, a beautiful princess of romantic lore/ to breathe or blow. the heart of darkness; the hearing heart coming to an end by migrating across the moon‘s

Rakau nui; Rakau matohi roto; aka oti; Rakau motohe Motohe, matahiapo

Day1620 Day 21

Takirau, Korekore; korekore turua; Takirau, korekore piri ki Tangaroa Tangaroa a mua Tangaroa a roto Tangaroa kiokio (muri/ aka oti) Wawena; haa paa; puhiwa

Day 22 Day 23 Day 24

Matua Orongo/rongo OrongoTaane/ rongo tane mauri nui

Day 25

Day 26 Day 27 Day 28

mauri kero/ mauri karo Omutu/mutu Tireo

Roo maori Mutuwhenua Otireo Avaiki 124

(Day 29 see12b)

Day 30

hiro (option) moon day/ Ohiro after Day 1)

Whiro, hiro hiti; iro

pathway over Hawaiki. Titireia is the royal plume of Uenuku‘s heirs. Whitireia is the path of the sun and moon in heaven (Tregear). Whiti – cross over, leap, a hoop; rea - spring up, grow; reia - to fly/run or reinga – the underworld. Maori: tirea – moon day; tiri – to throw, to plant at intervals; tiro – a food store (whata), to gaze; tere – to float, to swim, to swell, quick. Polynesia: tiri - to run, very sacred message. Hawa (chipped) iki (to lift up/ a charm for raising fish/ consume). Hawaiki - spiritland, place of tree of life at Spirit‘s Leap. at the thread of the deity of rain.

Also useful is a list of the months of the Rapa Nui calendar gathered from Thomson in 1886 and later examined by Barthel: Rapanui Lunar Year and Cultural Cycle (H: heliacal; C: Cosmic; R: Rising; S: Setting) Rapanui name Festival . Anakena New Year/ Hotu Matua‘s arrival near Ahu vai tara kai ua. Tonga Nui (Jul/Aug) See Maro, last month is very similar. Hora-iti (little summer) Hora Iti (Aug/Sep) Tagata-Manu Birdman Egg Hunt as sooty terns are nesting at Motu Nui. Above ground plants, such as, banana, sugar-cane and trees are planted. Eel fishing from shore. Tagata-Manu ends, winners find sooty tern chicks for feast and Bird-man fasts at Orohie. Planting below ground of yams, sweet potatoes and taro. Hora Nui - the bountiful season begins (when Matariki, small eyes, Pleiades, first appears after Nov 16CR) with Te Vai Hakairi of te riki, feast of the First Fruits of the King (hakakio - thanksgiving) occurs after 1st yam harvest. Plenty of fishing.ccvii The Paina festival begins when Tautoru, (three handsome ones of spirit and two sons, Orion) was high (Dec 1CR) 125

Hora-nui (big summer) Hora Nui (Sep/Oct)

Tangaroa Uri Hora Nui (Oct/Nov)

Ruti Hora Nui (Nov/Dec)

and at western setting of ga vaka (Canoes of Hotu Matua and Rei Pua, Centaurii) set in the west. Sweet Potato harvest started. Banana harvest. Pausible drought. Plenty of daylight hours for fishing and building houses. Koro Hora Nui (Dec/Jan) The Koro festival began when Tautoru (Orion) and Matamea (Mars)ccviii appear every two years. More heat leads to less work, more recreation (surfing, ngaru) festivities associated with raising tapu ceremonies for entering a new house. Paina festival ends at Po Roroa‘s (Canopus) disappearance at dawn (Feb 14CS). Meridian Matariki Feb 20 sunset. Very hot, so less planting and more fishing. Bleak season begins at first complete lunation. As last month with heat. Slight planting of sweet potatoes. Deep sea fishing season ends and war begins at disappearance of Matariki (Apr 18HS) before crescent. Sweet potatoes planted in morning, fishing after noon. Planting season begins at Po Roroa (Canopus) rising (May 21HR) and eel fishing season with Veri Hariu, Great Worm, Vega‘s dawn disappearance (May 30CS).ccix Heavy planting of sweet potatos.

Tuaharo Hora Nui (Jan/Feb) Te hetu‘u tuupu Tonga Iti (Feb/Mar) Tara-hau Tonga Iti (Mar/Apr) Vaitu Tu‘u nui big winter Tonga Iti (Apr/May)

Vai Tu‘u Poto short winter Pua (turmeric) was harvested for chief offerings and for Tonga Iti (May/June) renga (yellow body paint). New Year anticipated. Planting and fishing ends, apart from near shore. Paper mulberry tree harvest (mahute)ccx. Tapa capes (nua) are made. Maro or Temaro feathers Tonga Nui (June/July) New Year first moon after the rising of Matariki (Jun 12HR) and the setting of Orion (Jun 6HS) with Jun 21 winter solstice. Cold season with little plant growth, but abundant bird feather growthccxi. Tangata Manu Birdman Egg Ceremonies began at appearance of Orion (Jun 22HR)ccxii. Therefore, there is much singing (Moriori: chirping). Tattooing portion of the ceremony began at Orongo when Veri hariu, great worm (Vega) appeared Jul 27CR.ccxiii

When overlapping the Rapa Nui moon days with the right column of the Rongorongo moon calendar chant, the glyphs representing some of the names from the moon calendar can be identified. 126

Table 3: Easter Island‘s 30-day Moon Cycleccxiv:

Moon Day Day 1, 2 & 30 Day 3-8 Day 9-11, 29 (12b) Day 12-14 (or 13-15 if hotu occurs…) Day 15 Day16-20 Day 21 & 22 Day 23 -26 Day 27-28 Day 29-30

Rapanui Name ata, ari, hiro (optional moon day) kokore tahi-ono maharu, hua, atua, hotu (optional moon day) maure, ina-ira & rakau

Rongorongo glyphs

motohi kokore tahi-rima tapume & matua rongo, rongo tane, mauri nui, mauri kero (karo) mutu & tireo See Day 1 and Day 12b

Of the 28-30 lunar month moon glyphs, there are a variety of ways the transcriber represented the moons. Though there is an attempt to carve 30 moons telling of the logographic nature of the Rongorongo script, several moons appear to have syllabic additions or separate glyphs representing specific qualities of that particular moon.

One way the moons are represented is as the pictoglyph mahina, meaning the moon in Rapa Nui. Days 2, 3-9, 14 and 17-29 are represented in this fashion as strickly the moon.

Another way the moons are represented is as the moon with an added portion. Ata

,

hua , hotu and matua appear with portions added to the moon. Using these moon days as Rosetta Stone like flag glyphs, certain questions could be asked in relation to how these glyphs appeared elsewhere on the tablets. Does the glyph portion of Moon Day ata (meaning spirit, shadow, light) represent the rongorongo term for spirit?

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Does the glyph portion of hua

(meaning scrotum, offspring) represent the

rongorongo term for scrotum/offspring? Does the glyph portion of hotu (meaning swelling, bearing fruit) represent the rongorongo term for swelling? In pictographic form they do appear to represent their corresponding moon day meanings. However, the glyph that corresponds with moon day matua (father) does not appear to correspond with its meaning. Further investigation into the use of the moon chant in Rapa Nui ceremony and mythology will offer more clues at to the purpose and meaning of these glyphs.

Other moon days are represented by the following glyphs: hiro

, motohi

, rongo

tane , and the pair mutu & tireo . Interestingly, Polynesian mythology speaks of Whiro (hiro), deity of the New Moon, with its thin crescents in the sky appearing as a twisted thread much like the glyph of the primary bird deity, named Tane . appears. Also, Oceanic lore tells

The plausibility of 5 out of 9 pictoglyphs matching their corresponding moon day name is telling of the likelihood that the decipherment of this moon calendar chant has been set in motion. In this moon calendar chant, the following five glyphs contribute to roughly two thirds of the 8 line chant: Decipher these, together with the five moon days given above, and the basic outline of this chant will be solved. Using the former syllable order, attemps can be made at deciphering each glyph.

Also, consider the appearance of the glyph in relation to Rapa Nui and Polynesian early culture and the interpretation of the most relevant informant of the day, Metoro.
Table: Tentative Logographic Interpretation of three glyphs from Text Sa5 ccxv

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Glyph

Logographic Appearance full/stomach; mouth/breath; moon side/sit; person; point/long; mouth breath; hand

Metoro/Jausen List marama, moon tagata kai, the person eating; rima, hand kikiu to squeak (fr. crier)

moon, moon deity side, bird, stoop/bend sun, phallus, fish

marama, moon manu moe, bird sleeping raa sun; hetu star; ahi, fire; tino, keel of a canoe; higa, to fall; ika, fish; kahi, sea bream

Consider the lining up of the syllables according to a consistent ordering on the glyph in the following three examplesccxvi: In this first example, the placement of the 4th syllable is missing. The research thus far considers the small arm as an unused glyph portion.

This second glyph uses the second syllable in both the 2nd and the 4th positions. This usage is indicated by a turning of the glyph portion toward position #4 and represents atu meaning behind as the glyph is turning or looking behind.

The third example does not utilize the 2nd syllable position.

With the potential meanings and above ordering consider the syllables being used and a plausible translation given in the chart below.
Table: Tentative Syllabic Interpretation of three glyphs from Text Aa7ccxvii

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Glyphs

Syllabic Outcome KAI, pregnant/nourished; ha/GA, rise breath; HINA, moon goddess

Tentative Translation KAI + GA + HINA: kaiga-hina pregnant or nourish Hina

TA/taha, side; TAGA/tagata, TAGA + ROA + RI + A: Tagaroaperson; ROA, long; RIMA, hand; ria, deity of the sea (Tangaroa) A/atu, behind. with a small portion (of an offering or a small child) HINA, goddess of the moon TA/taha, side, bird; HI/higa, to stoop/bend hina, moon goddess TA + HI: tahi, to sweep (see Ch. 4)

raa, sun; ure, phallus; hi, to fish

Consistent syllable order: U + HI + RA:, yam root sunccxviii Visual syllable order: RA + U + HI: rauhi, to collect, to gatherccxix

Together, the five glyphs appear to be a song for a sacred feast. kaiga-hina tagaroa-ria hinaccxx tahi uhira-rauhiccxxi
Literally:

Pregnant (or nourish) Hina (moon goddess) Tangaroa (deity of the sea) small portion Hina sweep (or scrape) the yam
Polynesian grammar with verb/subject/object (VSO) order gives:

Tangaroa (whose chant) nourishes Hina (empregnates) with a small portion, while scraping to collect the sacred root Who is actually doing the sweeping? If the chant is sung during the harvest, then it would make sense to exclude a name and so include anyone gathering the roots. It may also be Hina who is gathering the sacred roots. In Polynesian mythology, Hina pounds tapa cloth in the waning and waxing of the moon in order to dress her children with sacred tapa clothes. In the above chant, Hina continually collects the roots in order to provide the food for this sacred Uhi yam feast. Using Polynesian VSO grammar, it is the Sun sweeping the yams. To sweep, tahi, in Rapa Nui, actually means to scrape with a sharp stone. Scraping makes more sense if one is to till the earth and pull up roots. It also provides a parallel with the carving of the statue moai and the tattooing ceremony initiating the birdman egg hunt.

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But what if the scraping is accomplished by the twins themselves, as they appear at the end of the moon calendar chant . After all, the turtle, honu, does represent the earth, henua. And the syllables placed in visual order make up most of the Rapa Nui term for twins: RA/raa + U/ure + HI = RAUHI/ga rauhiva, the twins. A significant parallel can be drawn here with the Orongo ma Tane twin bird figure painted on the ceiling of the prayer house atop Orongo village (see Orongo prayer house figure in the Introduction). The chorus sings of the scraping paralleled with the rongo person (the listening person) whose body is painted with the dye (henga) of the sacred root (white/yellow). He may also be scraped with the tattooing instrument and the adding of the dye from the black poporo berries and the ti tree gum. Once the tattoo is healed, he can become a bird-person or Tangata-manu; from a Rongo listening apprentice to a Tane bird person flying toward the enlightenment of the first egg from the Sooty Tern. This Rongo (listening) Birdperson is made to resemble Tane, Bird deity of the Sun, by listening to his call. In Polynesia the gods are twins named, Rongo ma Tane. These twins are also alluded to in the moon chants insertion of the Venus twins of Morning and Evening Star. Our view of Venus from Earth occurs seven times brighter when Venus is a crescent, since it is much closer to us. This bright view of Venus is carved in the first verses of the moon chant and becomes dimmer as the chant

proceeds to the eighth and final verse . The reason for including Venus into the moon calendar is to highlight the importance of the imagery of Venus in relation to the light of the Sun.ccxxii The tattooing ceremony likens the person being tattooed as the dark twin, Evening Star lit on fire, the fire of pain. This fire enables his dark side to be tested and purified as if entering the dawn sun itself and resemble Morning Star. It is this Morning Star that raises the ball of light and life, called the sun, much like the winning Birdman raises the bundle with the egg to his forehead. Venus most interesting aspect is that it disappears for seven days of the year, hidden by the light of the Sun. These seven days are represented by the 7 moai standing in front of the ancient village at Ahu Tahai and the seven moon days up to and including the full moon, motohi. The twins of Evening and Morning Star are hidden in the fire of the Sun, much like the cook in the umu oven of the full moon, motohi.ccxxiii In Rapa Nui mythology this cook motohi is raised above the three stones of the umu earth oven (Guy), much like the first eggccxxiv of the sooty tern is raised from the three island stones of Motu-kao-kao, Motu-iti and Motu-nui. This sacred yam oven feast (uhi-umu) likens the growth of the waxing moon and the growth of the individuals at the feast. Together with the yams, within the actual earth oven is a mixture of fish and water wrapped in seaweed. The stones are so hot that they cause the water to rise up in the form of steam upon opening the meal for consumption. Who is this cook of motohi, hidden in the mist of the earth oven? Is it Hoa Hakanana‘ia, our hidden friend buried in the earth volcano; is it Maui 131

wrapped in the misty seaweed; or is it Tangaroa, lord of the ocean, rising out of the misty spray of the breaking surf?ccxxv Together with the sound of the surf, the chirping and listening for the loud call of the Sooty Tern is paralleled with the reading of the rongorongo boards. The readings occur in a sacred space enclosed by sticks hanging with feathers, called maro , seen. Before the tablets are read, the seaweed protecting them are unwrapped, much like the opening of the sacred umu earth oven also wrapped in seaweed. It was the trickster Maui, wrapped in seaweed to be nourished by Mu and Weka, the wingless birds of Polynesian lore found on the back of Hoa-hakanana‘ia. The tablets have one more wrapping to remove before reading. This wrapping is considered the most sacred item on early Rapa Nui. The tablet is wrapped in the long hair of the islanders for protection. The hair represents the wisdom written on the tablets. It was also what wrapped Maui in the topknot of his mother‘s hair. Hair became very important in early Polynesia, as it was only with the hair of Hina that Maui was able to make a rope strong enough to snare the sun.

In the pictoglyph urahi/rauhi there is a clue to the use of this powerful rope of Hina‘s hair. There is the glyph of the sun, ra‘a, there is the offspring glyph, hau, standing for the new life of the child Maui, and there is the snaring line. If the chant is used as a ngari,canoe timing chant, the purpose of noosing the sun is to gain distance over the horizon. If the chant is used in early Polynesian baptismal rites, the purpose of noosing the sun is to gain enlightenment for the offspring. If the chant is used in funerary rites, the purpose is to raise the deceased ancestor to endless life in rangi, the sky. During day time, the deceased were present in the warm light of the Sun. At night, the dead appeared in the stars scattered over the Milky Way. The Milky Way was called, the Long Fish, Ikaroa, and was considered to swallow the dead, until they were swept into new life by the rays of dawn. Death was likened to sunset, with dusk‘s most sacred pillar, called, Tiki-tapu (Pillarrestricted), reflecting red light from the sunset off the waves of the ocean. It is the people of earth, , who lament this sunset of fate or anticipate its eventual return at

sunrise. Tangaroa is lamenting the ria (morsal) offering he must give, since in the Rapa-nui lore, it was portions of his body, in the form of a seal, that were placed in the umu oven. In Polynesia, lament is written, mihi. From Polynesia, Tangaroa-mihi, is a Moon Day that comes after the full moon. Tangaroa is lamenting his own offering in the Motohi earth oven, as cook on the moon. In Polyensian lore, Tangaroa-mihi also laments the loss his great man-eating monster, Kataore. Kataore is captured and killed with a snare of strong ropes. Kataore literally means the laugh (kata) of (o) the sun (ra‘a/re). Polynesian mythology tells of Maui who travelled through the body of the goddess of death (akin to Ikaroa), but died when the Ponaturi (fairies/bird-people) laughed as they saw him stuck in the back end of the underworld goddess, much like Hoa-hakanana‘ia is 132

stuck in the great hole of Rano Kao. It is no wonder the Polyesnian call the gateway to the underworld, the Chasm of Tiki; it is where Tikitapu, the sacred red pillar of sunset descends and the same mythology tells of Tangaroa‘s mana to consist of all things colored red, including his own flesh which remained red as it did not cook well in the umu oven. Worthy of notice from Rapa Nui lore is the first name given to the island by the dream visit of Hau-maka. He names the island, Te-pito-o-kainga (the naval of the pregnant or the end of the hunger/meal). In his dream, Hau-maka, travels through the air from Hiva, the homeland of Hotu Matua, and he lands at Rapa Nui‘s Rano Kao crater. Interestingly, Hau-maka has a translation that follows this theme of Maui‘s snaring of the sun legend. Hau is Rapa Nui for rope. Maka, is more difficult to find a translation. The closest is Makemake, the mysterious Creator deity of Rapa Nui. In Polyensia, Maka can mean a hook or a fish. Rapa Nui‘s hook is written, maga‘i. Therefore, the uhira glyph: the sacred offering of the yam of enlightenment, demonstrates a vision of Hau Maka, in a writing Metoro understood as very ancient. Hau Maka, the ambassador of the first man, Hotu Matua, who like Maui-potiki, possessed the secret to noosing the sun with the two Hau thread and Maka hooks of Makemake.

RongoRongo Moon Chant glyphs in Rapanui (with Polynesian support)
(See Syllable Table above for detailed syllable decipherment and VSO Rapa Nui grammar examples)ccxxvi(notice certain rongorongo scribal errors, ie. second glyph)

1a

Kaiga-hinaccxxvii tagaroa-riaccxxviii hinaccxxix Literal: Pregnant or eating place (referring to a home with an inheritance) of Hina Tangaroa‘s morsel Hina
With Rapa Nui grammar in Verb Subject Object (VSO):

Tangaroa‘s morsel nourishes Hina, causing her to grow (as the waxing moon)

1b

tahi(nga)ccxxx uhira(urenga) (ga-)rauhi(va)ccxxxi by scraping up the Sacred Yam (for the twin)

1c

ma-ataccxxxii mahina-ariccxxxiii hiroccxxxiv spirits to know Ari-hiro (how to resemble a twisted thread) (Ari is Hua‘s twin – see verse three
below).

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2a

kaiga-hina tagaroa-riaccxxxv hina Tangaroa‘s portion nourishes Hina, causing her to grow 2b This portion was forgotten, then added on the sides of the tablet.
See part 1b for the added glyphs.

tahi(nga) uhira by scraping up the Sacred Yam

2c

korore tahi, kokore rua, korore toru, kokore ha, Kokore rima, kokore ono (6 marama) from the void once, twice… six times.

3a

kaiga-hina tagaroa-riaccxxxvi hina Tangaroa‘s portion nourishes Hina, causing her to grow

3b

tahi(nga) tamaccxxxvii urahi(urenga) with child scraping up the Sacred Yam

3c

mahina mahua atua hotuccxxxviii causing the Moon to heal for Lord Hotu (the first ancestor) who bears fruit.

4a

kaiga-hina tagaroa-ria hina-iticcxxxix Tangaroa‘s portion nourishes Hina and her people, causing them to grow

4b

tahi(nga) urahi ccxl Scraping up the Sacred Yam

4c

maure ina-ira rakauccxli (exposing) a Sacred Enclosure for the first woman and her husband with their digging stick

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4d

Matahiapo(Motohi)ccxlii (for the wrapping of) the First Born in the full moon (umu oven)

5a

kata-hineccxliii tangaroa-ria Hina Tangaroa‘s morsel fills Hina with laughter

5b

Atutahiccxliv tahi(nga) uhira while Hine‘s mother scrapes away the Sacred Yam

5c

kokore tahi, … Marama x5ccxlv In the void once, twice… five times

6a

kaiga-hina tangaroa-ria hina-iti Tangarao‘s portion nourishes little Hina

6b

tahi(nga) rangiccxlvi uhira by scraping away the Sacred Yam

6c

tapume matua maroccxlvii as the parent consecrates the feather

7a

kaiga-hina tangaroa-ria hina Tangaroa‘s portion nourishes Hina

7b

tahi(nga) uhira-ikaroa By scraping the Sacred Yam in the underworld

7c

orongo Rongo ma Taneccxlviii maurinui mauri-karo o-mutu Listen to the Sacred Bird who conveys a message with the great heart, the heart in 135

darkness coming to an end

8a

kaiga-hina tangaroa-ria hina Tangaroa‘s portion nourish Hina

8b

tahi(nga) uhira By scraping away the Sacred Yam

8c

honu mahangaccxlix tireo For the twins to spring up from the earth quickly appearing as a twisted thread.

These twins Ari and Hua; Rongo and Tane represent the characteristics of one and the same individual striving through Rapa Nui ritual to become whole in order to help maintain harmony between the island and his people by weaving his or her own personal identity into the environment. In the first waxing crescent of the Rongorongo Moon Calendar, these twins appear to strive toward the full moon representing wholeness or enlightenment. Each person chanting joins the twins in the chorus calling for a portion of the sacred offering from the deity of the sea: kaiga-hina tangaroa-ria hina, tahinga uhira Tangaroa nourish Hina with this small offering that appears like the growing crescent of the Moon brought to life like this Sacred Yam we scrape from the ground into daylight; or like the Sacred First Fish Offering we fish up from the mist of the surf. Therefore, those working the gardens or those fishing in the sea can sing along during their everyday tasks. It is not just a song, but also a weaving of the soul through the earth, its produce; through the sky, its ancestors; and through the spirit and its Creator. What a way to make sacred every task associated with the land and sea. In this way the ma-ata spirits will come to resemble a twisted thread, Hiro, who is the deity of rain and the empty soul reflected in the New Moon. He is the giver of the threads of strength for the filling of the soul together with the growth of the island. A true islander would empty himself or herself little by little, everyday, to sustain harmony and growth on the island.

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Figure: Turtle Twins on two tablets

In the Polynesian Race, Fornander writes down the Samoan deluge chant, called Te Tai Toko. Consider the following verses: O Hina te ao meha Eia O Fetu-moana Eia …. O he tai toko e hetu. E He enata i mua i te utuna O te Fetu-moana He enata i mui te pikia i te utunu O te Fetu-tau-ani He hono te vavena-e-tani-huina O te tai toko e hetu. E. Tipia, tipia to oe puaina, te hae pe‘ia Mea tuna kai no te Etua ke huha ko huha Oh Hina-te-ao-meha. You are here Oh Lord of the Ocean. You are here …. Oh the flood, the roaring. Awesome A man before, with the offerings Oh the Lord of the Ocean Oh man behind, holding the offering Oh Lord Tau-ani A turtle between, making great noise Oh the flood, the roaring. Awesome Cut, cut your ear; this is a bad house For cooking food for the God a different portion, it is the portion.

This Samoan song of the great deluge corresponds with the Rongorongo Moon Calendar chant, drawing a parallel between the rising tides and the flooding of the earth. The moon and the ocean were regarded as teachers, telling a story about the land and even physically altering it time and again. At high tide, the fish feed. Planting and harvesting are also governed by the moon. So, the islander unites their daily task with the daily work of the Creator making what seems impossible into reality. The Moon will increase and it‘s power will raise and lower the island in the sea; the plants will grow; the fish will bite; and my soul will be restored. The one before and the one behind is one and the same person. The one behind is looking back to lament the waning of the full moon or the brighter seasons of life. The one before is looking ahead in anticipation for another full moon cycle. The parallels with planting, fishing, rite of passage, tattooing, funerals and birthing all weave together into the one complete human being. It was a spirituality that divided the person in two not for sake of the pain, but to understand reality in order to envision a reunion of the soul. It was a chant good enough to carry over the ocean from Samoa to Rapa Nui or visa-versa. This rock carving from Hawaii confirms the cultural parallels across Polynesian used to assist in the decipherment of this chant.

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Figure: Hawaiian Rock Carving of Rongorongo Turtle Twins ccl

Rapa Nui has a similar birdman rock carving with a morsel in its hand. The morsel is likely the first egg of the Tangata-manu and may represent the portion of the first fruit offering given to the participant to consume. Consuming the offering of the god, be it sweet potatoes (kumara) or fish or an egg, is intended not so much to fill the body, but to fill the spirit of the individual. Though a fish or an egg could be the offering represented in the Moon Calendar above, it is also the sacred root of the yam (uhi) that is consumed. Po! Po! … Enoka Te Pakarua, is a Maori chant full of parallels regarding the seafood or the sacred root offerings. Pō! Pō! E tangi ana Tama ki te kai māna! Waiho me tiki ake ki te Pou-a-hao-kai, Hei ā mai te pakake ki uta rā Hei waiū mō Tama! Kia mauria mai e tō tipuna, e Uenuku! Whakarongo! Ko te kūmara ko Pari-nui-te-ra. Ka hikimata te tapuae o Tangaroa, Ka whaimata te tapuae o Tangaroa. Tangaroa! Ka haruru! Baby! Potiki! The boy is crying for food! Let it be fetched from the pile of netted seafood, And the whale be driven ashore As mother's food to make milk for the boy! Let it be brought by your ancestor, the rainbow-god Uenuku! Listen! The kumara is from the Great Cliffs of the Sun The footstep of the sea-god Tangaroa is begun, The foot-stamping ritual honouring Tangaroa is performed. Tangaroa! The steps resound!
For the entire chant see Supplement: The Maori Song: Po! Po!

Here in the Maori chant are Tangaroa‘s steps, a significant part of the Rapa Nui mythical story of Tangaroa discussed below in this chapter. 138

The second verse of the chant lays down a repetition of six scraping of the Sacred Yam. They represent the waxing oon, the digging up of the yam and the continuous daily offering of the enlightened spirit toward this island harmony. The third verse of the moon chant points to a scraping much like the bird of a child with the tama glyph . It is the moon, Hina, birthing and healing the spirit singing of their place on the island as heirs of Hotu Matua.

The forth verse confirms in the use of the eye and little moon, , to produce Tama-iti, that the inheritance is not only for the sons of the island, but also the daughters. This inheritance does not overwhelm the spirit, since it is a little share offered day by day to produce a maximum yield for everyone. This individual and communal effort is evident at the opening of the umu oven, where all are given a fragment of the first yam and fish, which represents the eating of the god, Maui, the Life, represented by the light of the full moon, Motohi .

The fifth verse expresses the joy of the harvest, which, like the Polynesian Star Atutahi (Canopus), can be taken out of the basket for consumption again and again. The sixth verse produces the greatest gift of the lightest feather. If the family maintains this weight of spirit, it will never lose its joy. After again recalling the harvest and the fishing season, the seventh verse sings of ancestors and deities who have made it all possible. First, the ancestors are seen in the Great Fish, Ikaroa , circled here as the sign of the Milky Way. They are at the end of their heart‘s long journey and have aligned their spirits into the likeness of Rongo ma Tane, by listening to the call of the Creator Bird of the Sun. Verse 8 leaves no doubt as to the fate of these children of earth who also rise up into the full fruition of the human spirit led by the deity of the sea, Tangaroa. He taught each one how the same power of the tides, seen in the moon and heard on the shore, can transfix and transform the human spirit also. Tangaroa, (literally, the tall man), is not named in the Rapa Nui‘s third moon quarter like the rest of Polynesia. He appears to be like Hoa Hakanana‘ia, a hidden friend. He is hidden in the second glyph with a tiny gift. It is a portion of the Te Vai Hakairi o te Riki first fruit‘s festival umu earth oven. Tangaroa as the Creator, realizes he does not need the portion for himself, so he asks that all the islanders take a portion for themselves to have life and that the tohunga bury a portion for papa henua, Mother Earth. The moon day‘s across Polynesia includeTangaroa-mua, Tangaroa-roto and Tangaroakiokio. They represent an ordering, as in first, middle and last (lit. before the others, amidst and outcast), much like the ordering of the moai statues inside and outside Rano 139

Raraku‘s crater lake (In Polynesian roto also means lake). Tangaroa-piri is another name on the Polyensain moon calendar. Piri means to lament. It is a compassionate Tangaroa, deity of the sea, who notices in the waning of the moon a representation of loss of light and life in the human condition. Such would be the heart of Tangaroa in his aspect as creator of all, seen here in this statuette from the Austral Islands.

Figure: A Wooden Figure of Tangaroa from French Polyesnia (Larouse)

Coleman describes the Polyesnian sea god, Tagaro, as busy about making models of humans from the clay. He then bowled them down with fruit, where they mixed and came to life. The statue is similar, where humans are made from the body of Tangaroaccli. A statue of Rongo is very similar with his three sons coming out of his chest (Larousecclii). Rangi is understood as marked with the ancestral stars upon his chest (Tregearccliii). This ocean deity, Tagaroa-mea, visited Rapa Nui as a seal, clubbed by the early founders, cooked in the umu oven and distributed in portion to the other clans. However, his flesh was only half cooked (Englertccliv) and still red, thus the name Tangaroa-mea, Tangaroa the red. It is important to consider all Rapa Nui and Polynesian lore in determining the purpose of Tangaroa‘s moon calendar. According to the accumulated lore, in the moon calendar, Tagaroa is the offering, half cooked to remind those who participate that it is not a cannibalistic feast, but a spiritual one of a deity who cannot die. He is the egg of the Tangata-manu, since he is the creator of all. The egg is a sign of the life he gives to the islander who can participate in that life any time an offering is made as portion of every umu oven. The moon calendar is also sung during the yam harvest and while fishing, making sacred every act performed on land and sea.

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When the first explorers came to Rapa Nui, they arrive in the month of Maro, Hotu Matua came in Tangaroa Uri. The explorers stood at Rano Kao crater, while Hotu Matua‘s canoe arrived near, Motu Nui, the island of the first egg. The explorers called from the calling ledge below Orongo village to Motu-nui as follows: Kainga kino Kahukahu o heke Rimu rimu roroa Mai te unu Mai te vere Ka toe Hotu Matua replied: Kainga kino hoki Tai ua Ka okooko Tai papaku Ka ora the homeland is bad too the flood brings destruction the low tide brings life the land (womb, food) is bad the yams cannot spread (slide out); the octopus is hiding in his ink. the seaweeds (tentacles, tangle) are too long when pulling out (let‘s drink drink) when weeding it (let‘s eat food) leave something (this bad land, a bit of food) behind.

Shires comments on a similar Maori karakia: I have not found any karakia expressing the destruction of atua dangerous to the kuumara. But reference is made, in the karakia Waere waerea and in some of the kuumara work chants, to the weeds, grubs, and so on, the enemies of the kuumara. These enemies are spoken of as coming from Hawaiki, and have to be cut down, turned aside and gathered into a heap at Kuratau, the place where all the weeds are put away in Hawaiki: Ngaere te whakatupua. Ngaere te whakatawhito. Ko koe kei whakangaerea mai e koe, te taru ki Hawaiki, Kutikuti, pekapeka, ahua te papa i Kuratau. 'Bring forth the new growth. Bring forth the old growth. But you, don't bring here the weeds at Hawaiki, Cut them, sweep them aside, and heap them up at Kuratau. In these origin chants are words and themes from the rongorongo moon calendar. Kainga and the yam are include, along with the seaweed and the tangle (like hiro, a twisted thread) to name a few. What is important is the use of the themes to establish utu chants that serve as payment or removal of tapu coverings. This pure removal song enables the bird person to enter into the life and produce of the island, with the permission of the ancestors and their common creator.

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Chapter 8 More on the Rapa Nui Lunar Calendar

142

Moon Calendar Rongorongo Word Decipherment
Bartel‘s rongorongo glyph numbers and refer to the syllable table above for detailed decipherment key.

41 (from Barthel‘s Number System) Hina is the moon arching left appears in row one of the Moon Calendar sequence as read in the pattern above. In Polynesian lore, Hina is the maiden of the moon, her face and mallet are seen on the full moon as she pounds the mulberry bark to form tapa clothing. Felbermayer‘s Easter Island song confirms the use of the feminine vahine with reference to beauty and littleness as with the mamari moon calendar. Poki vahine itiiti a aku, Eo pahe tiare, Teatea, pahe one Anakena, Oriori i roto i te vai moana. Taaku poki nehenehe pahe hetu'u era O te tapa o te rangi. Itiiti, reherehe e teatea Hekaheka pahe vavai Ana hakakoa e te tokerau.cclv Small and dainty is my maiden, Who with sweet scent like flowers, At the waves on the sand of Anakena, Plays and dances in the blue water. My young pretty maiden like a star On the horizon. Small, delicate and white As soft as cotton Caressed by the wind.

This chant on the island confirms at least this much: ‗vahine itiiti‘ relates to hine iti, on the moon calendar. Moreover, there is a profound devotion to the moon in this chant as much of its characteristics are likenned to the fondness a father or husband might have for a woman on the island. Shirres offers a Maori karakia for a female child where Hine is asked to dwell in a Standing Up Rod used to offer mana to the child:cclvi Nau mai koia ki roto o to whare, to turuturu.... Tenei to ara, e Hine-angiangi. Therefore, come into your house, your rod .... This is your pathway, Hine-angiangi.

A similar karakia chant is used for a baby boy invoking Rupe (Maui-mua). Hina is regarded then, as the first woman who stands as a model for all women. Maui-mua literally means Maui In Front, as Rupe, is the first one to set up in front of all men. Shirres continues the karakia for the baby girl with a list of names of Hina that offer mana in the identity of womanhood. Such rites raise the bar for our understanding of the sacred association and value of our reproductive nature. That is, where we have made sex an object and commodity, Indigenous wisdom reminds us that it a gift subject to its own devotional and regenerative mana or life force. To see so much of our reproductive nature mirrored freely in these rongorongo glyphs, such as the vulva (see chapter on Maui) and phallus (B76) glyphs is telling of a spirituality void of scrupples and with a refined balance of tapu (sacred restriction) and noa (free from restriction) in human sexual identity. 143

Ramon Campbell‘s Chant 20 from Easter Island research contains a confirmation of Hina used in names (see bold). Also, the use of nuahina as a name for the old woman in the moon, since the full moon resembles a old woman lighting a fire for her oven. Cantos – Kaunga te Rongo Kaunga te rongo kia Hina-mango; eve raku-raku teke te makoi, haka veke oho i roto te koro; niu hau pu. Karete, karete; karate karate; e te tehe e te te ure mumuni, kiri-vaku-vaku. A uka a tea, tataki po-ihu-ihu tataki po-ave-ave; he ruru peaha, he kena peaha; a hei peaha; maharo te uka ngutu-ngutu po. Koreva koreva ure ki-kiu; Ka koe-koe mai te more ote nuahine more katatau, katarau ra; more, kare reva, kare reba ra. He ungaa e te manga, he tukia e te hahatu; ka oho mahaki a potu eve; pu ti, pu ta, hava-hava ree. Glyph 78 portion circled as ure and glyph 40 Maramacclvii is the moon arching right. Together as syllables they produce: Maure, the temple surround where the sacred Pae or Ahu are located. Marama is considered another name for Hina, whose parents are Atutahi and Rangi. Other scholars translate mahina, like marama, also represents the moon with the syllable MA. See syllables below. An inquiry is recommended regarding the use of this glyph and glyph 76 (usually occuring on the Santiago Staff, the Honolulu Tablet and the Small Santiago (verso)) as representing the identicle ure meaning. Notice that glyph 78 as a highly plausible sign for ure, penis, adds to the doubt of glyph 076 as a sign for penis. Guy relates that Metoro inconsistently identified glyph 076 as such, adding to the doubt of Metoro‘s decipherment.cclviii

61 The Ringa arm is a sign of the sacred screen, Ri, where only the priest can pass. The priest then raises his arm to confer blessing and raise tapu restrictions by the powerful incantations he has been taught from of old. Davletshin proposes glyph 530, as ‗Ariki‘ (king, chief) and glyph 21 (the suspended ball) as ‗a‘. Thus, glyph 21 + glyph 530 = ‗a Ariki‘, as shown here between two other glyphs on the Santiago Staff: . A possibility of the confirmation of the RI syllable exists here, where the RI syllable boldfaced in the centre of the proposed Ariki title, exists as the three marks (of the Rianga – hand) on the left side of the upper portion (or head) of glyph 530. Notice that perhaps the ―a‖ syllable is the ball attached on the right, confirming Davletshin‘s use of both glyphs 021 and 530, as well as the RI syllable. Also, see syllable RI above.

200, as TU, as a syllable and Tu, to stand; is a tentative translation. Davletshin finds glyph 200 occurs in the following groups: ABAB, BABA, AAAA, AAA. Davletshin defines two possibilities for the glyph (since they rarely occur with glyph 076 in title positions)( Davletshin, 2002. P. 12): first glyph 200 could be TE and combined with glyph 076: produces ko te, as in lists of Rapanui namescclix. If so, Davletshin confirms the first letter of the plausible TU syllable, from te. A second possibility in 144

Davletshin‘s work is that glyph 200 occurs as a syllable and a rare logographic title. If so, Davletshin is potentially confirming the use of the syllable TU, which could also be the rare title of the deity of war. Davletshin inquires as to why glyph 200 appears exclusively in the geneology on the Small Santiago Tablet.cclx He suggests perhaps it presents the usage of te, where other tablets do not. It may also present the designation of a tribe that wrote the tablet, or the name of a title used only on this tablet perhaps of a contextual deity, ahu, moai and/or ancestor.

670 Tahicclxi – to sweep Tahinga – the Sweeping (see 132-135); Tregear writes that the Sweeping is a ceremony where the priest raises a burning branch to the sky and sweeps the sky. This is completed at dawn to cooperate with the removal of the stars from the sky. They are swept with the rays of the Sun into the Sun or Moon or important constellation, such as, Matariki (Pleiades). This glyph and the next in sequence is missing from the second section of the 8-verse moon calendar. Fischer points out these missing glyphs can be found on the sides of the Mamari tablet where they are vaguely carved.cclxii Perhaps it was forgotten and corrected by an expert. See syllables TA and HI. 8 Ra/Ra‘acclxiii; The Sun as a sign of the deity and the symbol of the source of life and enlightenment. Tane and Maui are associated with the Sun and Dawn. The Pathway of Tane is the Eastern Sunrise reflection on the ocean representing life. The Pathway of Tangaroa is the Western Sunset as it reflects upon the ocean representing death. See syllables RA.

700 Ika/ikaroa. Most scholars agree this glyph represents the fish, ika.. The Milky Way is the Great Fish, Ikaroa, that has swallowed the ancestors in the Underworld. Tregear points to the myth of how the giant sea serpent is burned with three hot stones and becomes the offering payment (utu) necessary to release the souls consumed by death into eternal life. Maui turns from a fish to a bird while stealing fire from the Underworld. From Tregear, the ocean is the heart of Tane and Hina is washed there as a New Moon to begin waxing out of death to the life of the Full Moon once again, all because of the cleansing waters of Tane (Waiora o Tane). 73 Atacclxiv: spirit, ghost or shadow. Most scholars agree. The ATA or spirit syllable stems off of the moon, marama, producing MA + ATA. Maata means a deep swamp, which may be a term used to describe the New Moon where this glyph is located. MA may also be a form of plural marker producing ‗spirits‘, referring to the twins that resemble(ari) one another and are bound together as a twisted thread (hiro/whiro, the waning and waxing crescents intertwined at the New Moon). 30? Hiro/miro/au deity ; twisted thread – Whiro is the deity that migrated to a new land from Hawaiki Underworld to Aotea Day-Light to Warau Underworld again, a cycle 145

not unlike the New Moon, Full Moon, New Moon. Guy found this glyph related to the New Moon or last quarter moon feast (koro) observed by Katherine Routledge where maru sticks were made holding feathers (heu-heu) on a string. Pua (flowers?) were tied to them and they were stuck in the ground around where the tohunga chanted the rongorongo.cclxv Further Fischer finds Kapiera, Routledge‘s informant and Mètraux citing prayers to Hiro, the rain deitycclxvi: E te vai. E te uka. Matavai roa water the woman tears long O te ragni. Ahiro of the skies name of goddess ‗E te ‗ua, matavai roa ‗a Hiro e Ka hoa mai koe ki raro Ha rei mai koe ki raro ‗E te ‗ua, matavai roa ‗a Hiro e. (―Oh rain, long tears of Hiro/ Fall you down/ Beat you down/ Oh rain, long tears of Hiro‖.) (Routledge, 1914-15 & Mètraux, 1971).cclxvii These two sources confirm Hiro as the rain deity, which relates to his position at the waxing from the New Moon on the mamari tablet. Both Hina and Hiro are lamenting. However there is another song from Felbermayer that reveals that this lament bears fruit found on the flower from this song: Epuae/E pua te oheohe/E pua te nanaia/E tama te raa/Hiro rangi pakupaku. /Ruahi e/Hati mai ena hati pu. /Epuae/E pua te oheohe/Ka ketu te vave, /Te vave nuinui./Hati mai ena hati pu/Tomotomo ki Hanga Riorio. /Ko akuru ko akuru/Tataki e roetiaroetia/Tu Hanga Roa/Tu Apina/O haka makau mai haho. /O tangi karanga mai uta/Tomotomo ki Hanga Riorio.cclxviii Taking a portion of this chant and translating it according the the Rapanui dictionarycclxix produces the following: E pua e E pua te oheohe E pua te nanaia E tama te raa Hiro rangi pakupaku. Ruahi e Hati mai ena hati pu. Oh, the taro flower The flower from the vine The flower of the breakers (hidden friend) Enlightened by the rays of the Sun Hiro (rain deity/thread) in the sky comes straight down. To the fishing hole (the sun‘s rays) Break forth those waves that bend down and lift on the back (in order to intervene) in front of (rescue from death)

The term for flowers, pua, is related to a plant with red edible berries on the island cliffs. Elsewhere in Polynesia, pua, also means a bundle, to roll up or the foaming breakers of 146

the sea. With the red dawn, implying rain (Hiro), shining on them pua becomes a word meaning play with nanaia, the breakers. Nanaia corresponds with the burried statue in the rongorongo chanting house at Orongo. This moai statue is named, Hoa Hakanana‘ia, the Master Wave Breaker according to the Rapanui dictionary. It also means, the Hidden or Stolen Friend. Hiro as deity of theives (Mètraux, 1971, P. 310), then, might correspond to this stealing of fire from the Underworld.cclxx The rain from Hiro‘s tears are bitter thoughts that produce with Hina her song irresistably beckoning a divine response.cclxxi As well, the deities found in this chant of Easter Island expound upon our understanding of the song when a broader Polynesian view is taken (Tregear, 1891).cclxxii As well, it is likely this song is found on the tablets where three flowers occur in a row. Consider an option for the ‗coconut tree‘ glyph as a flower and also a topknot. Also refer to the following from Ramon Campbell, Chant 21, which bears several flag words that may be identified close together on sections of the tablets; Cantos – Koro Rupa: Koro-rupa te hare / haka katakata; / i Keremea te hare / haka rurarura; / ka iri ange Ranokao / te ngaatu a Hami-Renga-Renga; / ka oka ange Ha‘u-Koka / te korotea; / A-Kava, te ruruke; / ka ni ange Hate-Hate / te kahi riva a tumu a hoi; / ka take ange Hiro-Moko / te kovare a Uka-Rai-A. / Hei para ange, / te hei para uhi; / a vaka tae mama, / a Vai-Na-Arenga; / Arenga-Rekoreko; / erua-rua moai / a hiti kio-kio; / Ko te tai! / ie a hua mahomea; / Ko te koiro! / a Mata-Toki-Toki; / Ko te koreha! / a Viri-viri-Renga; / Kai tu’u ange ra, kai tu‘u ange ra. / kia e rake-rake / a iri ngae-ngae; / ki ta rutu-rutu / turu reko-reko; / ki raro ki te rano. / Mata ui a runga a te hihi e, / rima rotu-rotu, ki te hope / ki te tumu; / kai pahika i ana pahika / ka tangi nana’e a iri, / ngae-ngae ki vai Pikea-Uri; / ka hati te vave i Papa-Hiro-Hiro; / ka u’uri te vaka i te Haka-Kainga / Ka ngau niuhi i TokaMiti-Ake; / ko nga kope a ninihi a pupuku e; / a Meru-Meru, o te hoa raakau; / karamaka; karamaka te ara tataki; / o veri ara pe, a ara vie e. / a teki te kinga e, / a haua auke e; / ure manu au-au i te ahi; / o Manavai-parere e; kari riva, kauru roa, / te ataranga e rehu, / piki-piki miro o Hiva e; / o Hiva-O Pare-kane-kane e.cclxxiii Flag words are identified in bold for their plausible decipherment in this research. For example, ana, as a cave, might be represented by glyph 027. This is one of several Rapanui chants gathered by Ramon Campbell that might become like chips off the Rosetta Stone if enough flag words and their patterns are identified on the tablets. Hiro represents the deity of the New Moon. Hirohirocclxxiv means to think or to enlighten. Therefore, the New Moon Hiro in terms of Kokore is the ‗Great Void‘ needed to place the seed of enlightenment. This enlightenment is represented by the twisted thread of the crescent moon, hiro. The late Michael Shirres sums up his Maori Theology website with the following Whiro (hiro) karakia chant: Ka Mate Whirocclxxv Ka mate Whiro Ka mate Whiro Whiro dies Whiro dies 147

Tuu takeke Kei runga nei teetehi rangi Kei raro nei teetehi rangi Poo ki tupua te poo Poo ki tawhito te poo He karere, he karere i tukua Ki too tini i runga Ki too tini i raro Kei reira te puu Kei reira te kaitaua Kei reira te rongomaiwhiti Ko toou manawa, ko taaku manawa. Kia hoomai toou manawa mate mooku. Kia hooatu taaku manawa ora moou. Whiti ora! Maranga mai ki runga!

It is done! There is a world above There is a world below Night given over to the spirits, Night given over to those long since dead. A message of peace has been sent to your many above to your many below. The absolute potential. There in the realms of Tuumatauenga. There are the ancient rituals. Your heart, my heart. You give me your dying heart. I give you my living heart. Cross over to life! Rise up above!

This karakia was the ancestral deity Uenuku‘s incantation to bring his son, Whiro back to life. Shirres takes into account how this chant offered he and his dying friend consolation at his friends death bed. Shirres was also able to face a fatal illness with courage throught the chant. Indigenous wisdom takes these personal stories into account when trying to understand artifacts that carry the mana or life force of those stories. Any chant with Hiro/Whiro and all related myths are important for the decipherment of this Lunar mamari Calendar. From an Indigenous point of view, when your world has been torn apart, every thread, every hiro, every thought that remains is recovered, reused and recycled in order to rebuild what is needed to restore the Earth to the paradise of our youth. Indigenous wisdom would go so far as to say, if these chants can make an impression on the heart of the researcher, there will be a little more room there for the ancestors to place a translation of rongorongo.

59 Tuatea 144 wave; sea spray; this glyph represents Atua, meaning lord or deity and most scholars will agree, though adding that it pictures a cloak with feathers for the island chief. Glyphs in other chants with the bristles on them express bristles (wanawana) as the symbol of a deified ancestral priest of the island, called a Wananga. The requirement of being a Wananga is while living the Tohunga priesthood, one was able to learn and transmit all the sacred and powerful incantations of the former generation. Also, the rising tide and sea foam are likened to the life giving quality of uterine fluid, since at high tide all the water creatures come out to feed. Confirming this glyph in its fertility aspect are the surrounding hua (genitals, offspring) and hotu (bearing fruit, pregnant, swelling) glyphs. 148

143 Rakaucclxxvi is the sacred tree of life located in the Underworld lake where death is being overcome (Tregear, 1891). The tree in some myths is hewn into a canoe to rescue the bones of a dead ancestor, in other myths it contains fruit or birds that are food for eternal life. Rakau is combined with the full moon Motohi in other Polynesian moon cycles. Rakau Motohi is the tree of life of the first born deified ancestor as a result of the ceremonial umu oven, offering and prayers.

152 Motohicclxxvii is the offspring or first born deified ancestor of the umu oven funerary ceremony (see 143 above). The fruit in the tree of life, the egg in the nest of the tree of life or the food in the moari umu oven together with the cook on the moon with the three stones of the umu oven (Guy 2006. P. 64.). Shirres associates the food offering of the 3rd stage of the Maori karakia ritual with the Hina and Tangaroa moon calendar (Shirres. 1996. Ibid. Website). It is worth noting that the winner of the egg hunt ritual offers the egg to his ariki or chief who immediately eats it, while the winner is provided with a personal food provider or cook for the entire year. Motohi relates with Matahiapo as the syllable for the circular window represents mata, tahi is the side view of the man in the moon, Hina is the moon maiden and po are the three stones glyph (see the Tattoo Soothing Chant: the Ball Game of Maui, pohi). It is not out of the question that moto transfers from eye or window, mata, as vowel and consonant transfers across Polynesia are common. However, the transfer was not accidental, since moto means to strike or beat and ‗Hina‘s face and mallet are in the moon‘ (Tregear, 1891, Hina).cclxxviii The following chant Felbermayer was given on Rapa Nui contains reference to rongorongo (bold) in the same chant as Ohiro omotohi (bold/italicied), calling for further exploration.cclxxix For the purposes of this research it is merely referenced to confirm the use of tablet chanting in relation to the full-moon cycle of the mamari tablet. A curious note is that Ohiro‘s name includes his identification as being the full moon, omotohi with ‗clean‘ or ‗clear‘, ma‘itaki, as a modifier. Ka meme no / To koro hami mea. / Tavake i tua e. / Ka uuri no / To koro tangata. / Tu'a ite ohiro. Raua tangi no / Mahaki te Makohe. / Ka paringi te matavai ote Tuvi. / Ka kariti te hupe'e ote / Kukuru toua. / Eve Pepe a ure Motu Nui. / E toruange ra / E toru ange ra / Ka kai-to koro pero/ Ka kai-to koro pero / Motu Iti, Motu Nui, Motu Kaukau / Kai tuu mai koe Papa rona rakerake. Ki taaku papaku. / He una kuri, ta papa kuri / Uha mea itiiti ta te Hatauma / He Naunau n? ta Puku Naunau / He Rongorongo ta orongo rongo / He retu ta huhatu retu. / To koro vaka tere/ To koro vaka tere / Ko haho ko Vai Vaka / Ta nua heke too / Ta nua heke too. / Ko hahokoro heke. / Ta nua hetuke tunu / Ta nua hetuke tunu, / Ko vai hetuke tunu / Ko vai Hetuke Tunu./ Ta nua kumara keri / Ta nua kumara keri / Kote Ehuehu kote Kapukapua. / Ta koro toa rei/ Ta koro toa rei. / Ka Kai te koro mahingo / Ka hoko te mahingo / Ka tangi koro matu'a / Ka tangi nua matu'a / Ihe te vai era ko Vai A Repa? / Ka hopu nua o oku i Vai A Repa./Ka oho de Kuhane o koro o oku ki Havaiki, / Ite ngaro hanga ra'a. / Ohiro omotohi ma'itaki,/Ka haka 149

maeha to hami mea / O te mahingo koro. / Kote ako i te mahingo! / Kote apu i te mahingo. The chant bears several important flag words (some bolded) which may be identifiable on the tablets. A search for their potential pattern on the tablets is in order. Vai may be represented by 053 and/or 077 as what appears to be water from a shore or stream. There may be a relationship between vai as a clan identifier as the 078 ure glyph confirmed on the Lunar Calendar of Mamari. It should be noted that Metoro did not read this glyph as Motohi/Matahiapo, full-moon, but rather te hare pure e tagata noho ki roto, the house of prayer with a man inside (Jaussen List). Guy regards this inconsistency as proof that Metoro did not know the script.cclxxx Yet, perhaps Metoro is speaking of the mythical genre of the glyph related to the cook in the moon with the maori oven stones and so a spiritual feast in the first portion offered to the god and consumed in morsels by the people.

600 Tane or manu is the bird deity of Polynesia, considered the most powerful deity of all, together with Rongo and Tu, forming the Polynesian Trinity. For example, Tane corrects Nuku for making an offering to the moon after the great deluge called, Tumutumuwhenua, or the Overturning of Mataaho. Related in research is the rendering of this bird glyph as taha. Jaussen (rarely), Guy, Berthin and De Maat translate the glyph as Taha, from frigate bird, also producing the same syllable, TA just as from Tane. Tavake is another early person or deity of Rapa Nui. His name is transferable to the Polynesian mythical hero, Tawhaki. A Rapa Nui chant expresses the use of the ‗sound‘ of tane here used as man or husband. Kau-Kau poki tane Poki tane, poki vahine Ka moe mai te ara Tata oho era O ta‘aku kenu riva eracclxxxi

11 hua or ahu to stack or heap up is a glyph used in any glyph with lines in it to represent a sacred place or a place levitated to protect the offering placed upon it or the priest seated or standing upon it; a sacred seat, an ahu temple platform or an altar and offering. The name of the priest in the glyph occurs as TO/toko, pole + HU/hua, to stack = TOHU, short for tohunga – priest. The syllables from ‗pole-cut‘ or tiki-more produce TI-MO. Routledge noted a half-dozen informants spoke chants from the tablets beginning with, he timo te ako-ako, he ako-ako tena. Fischer translates: ‗To be formally sung is the chant, to be chanted is this:‘cclxxxii Old Rapanui gives ako-ako as the chants sung of the deities, agreeing with the finding of Tangaroa, lord of the ocean in this moon calendar.

150

280 honu turtle; most scholars, including Jaussen, agree. The turtle represents the Island of Life sent to rescue Hina who fell from the sky. There she produces the first human beings after her lament beckons heaven to give her half of heaven to make paradise on the turtle‘s back for her offspring. The birthing cycle of Hina produces twins who gaze at the stars scattered across the belly of Ikaroa, the Milky Way or Rangi, the sky. The night twins of Polynesian lore are called by Tregear, Ihuwareware and Ihuatamai. Tu i tou tia me ko Ihuwareware, Tu i tou kona me ko Ihuatamai.cclxxxiii As children of Hina, the twins are born on Mahikurangi, the Sacred Island, for Hina‘s children who are clothed with the mulberry back she pounds from the tree on the moon. This is why a name given her is ‗a stranded log of timber‘. This occurs on the Mamari moon calendar with rakau motohi or sacred tree of the first born Full Moon. Berthin agrees with Kaulins where the turtle was used as guide when tied to a lost ship, since they would instinctively seek out the nearest land.cclxxxiv The Ojibwa 7-Fire Prophesy states: ―Look for an Island shaped like a turtle that will be an instrument in the restoration of the earth.‖ Mètraux presents the Easter Island chants with the use of turtle, honu, and or world, henua, given below. The first chant also includes the use of queen, tapairu, in Rapanui musical history. It is a beautiful chant honoring the king and the land of produce he governs given here in part below: Eaha to rau...ariki ki te mahua i uta nei? What does the king make fertile in the country? He tupu, tomo a Mata-mea i rangi rau... Mars comes up, appears in the sky. He tuatea to rau... ariki ki te mahua i uta The king makes the shoots of white-sweet nei. potatoes grow in the country. Anirato-maniroto ka rata te tuatea, ka Now make the sweet-potatos favourable, the rata te rangirangi, ka rata te tupuna. sky favourable, the ancestors favourable. Eaha to rau...ariki ki te mahua i uta nei? What does the king make fertile in the country?

(four verses follow this chorus with crayfish, mosses and plants, much like the look of certain creatures on the mamari tablet prior to the Moon calendar. Below are the verses with reference to turtle, honu and queen, tapairu).

Eaha to rau...ariki ki te mahua i uta nei? E honu, e keo, e pane te to rau an (a) ariki ki te mahua i uta nei. Eaha to rau...ariki ki te mahua i uta nei?

What does the king make fertile in the country? The turtle, its abdomen, its legs, these the king makes grow in the country. What does the king make fertile in the 151

... (two and a half more verses of gratitude for sky, stars, Sun, moon and dew)...

E ariki, e tapairu, to rau ariki ki te mahua i uta nei. ... (and the concluding verse in gratitude for worms, earwigs and beetles)... cclxxxv

country? The chiefs, the cheifesses he makes favourable in the country.

It would be this sort of chant that would go with the marami moon calendar, since it expresses similar elements and genre. Those being the use of verse and chorus, honour of natural phenomenon and devotion to chiefs and deities. Above, the chant use of honu for turtle may be the reason why nei (land, here), is used for land instead henua. Mètraux offers another chant with the Earth or land expressed as henua. O te henua mata-po-uri oou, E Mahuna-te-raa kenu aaku E tae pe uta oe tomatou. Henua mata-maeha i te uinga. Aue, nua e, aue koro e, aue matua E, aue nga kope.cclxxxvi
(emphasis in boldface added)

Felbermayer Easter Island chant also includes henua, in the context of Easter Island‘s early name, Te Pito O Te Henua. I he Hotu Matua e hura nei? Te Pito O Te Henua e hura nei. Te Pito O Te Henua e hura nei! A Hau Maka hiva. E Ira e Rapaenga e Ka kimi te maara ote ariki. Konga kope tutuu vai ate tanga A Hau Maka hiva. Eku ihi eku aha varua Ka haka ooa iti iti mai koe Ite reo o te moa o Ariana. Oa taki heuheu.cclxxxvii A search for corresponding rongorongo glyphs on the Rapa Nui tablets would include looking for the turtle as it relates to chants associated with both the turtle and the land. 381 gata/ngata, mancclxxxviii; tagata/tangata; tagata gari (tangata ngari); tagata ria is the glyph for a human singing the sacred canoe-timing song (ngari) to keep rowers together as they paddle or the glyph for the human eating a share of a meal (ria). In deciphering glyph 381, all three syllables: TA, from tahi, side-view; GA/nga, to breath; RI/rianga, arm or hand, together did not appear to form a single word, but instead, the compound: tangata-ngari and/or tangata-ria. Bartell and Fischer offer a solution by 152

refering to the glyph as gai/kai, to eat.cclxxxix Though, produced is the word, taga/tanga from bottom up reading of the two syllables for side-view and to eat. The reason being, the open mouth and arm appear consistently with variable bases, such as in Barthel‘s 301, 321 and 341 glyphs to name a few. Furthermore, the arm interchanges with other glyph portions, such as in Barthel‘s 385-387 glyphs. This would indicate the mouth glyph means, to breathe or to eat, with or without the hand and with any other arm style glyph, further confirming the use of a syllabary as the words develop into sentence and tablet decipherment. A call to take special care of all the new legislation, or "canoe," supporting the Treaty of Waitangi, because it is a sign of a new summer of Maori pride. Tōia maiccxc te waka nei Kūmea mai te waka nei Ki te takotoranga i takoto ai Tiriticcxci te mana motuhakeccxcii Te tangi a te manu e ccxciii Pīpī-wha-rau-ro-accxciv Kūi! Kūi! Kūi! Whitiwhiti ora! Hui e, tāiki e. Haul this canoe closer haul the canoe here to its special resting place; the Treaty gives us our autonomy. May the cry of the bird, the shining cuckoo - Quee! Quee! Quee! signal a change for the better. Draw together, become intertwined!

Thanks to Te Kohanga Reo o Rananawww.kohanga.co.uk © 2008 Perspective from a Maori Wisdom Keeper Wheke Tapairu – the Octopus deity – (lit. Octopus Princess) Special thanks to Rangimarie Turuki Rose Pere, eminent Maori Elder and scholarccxcv Reply from Rangimarie Turuki Rose Pere: Greetings….continue with your Vision Quest. There is no limit to what we can share...that is the beauty and the perfection of the ONENESS of everything that exists.ccxcvi Rapanui Lunar Calendar Translation with 8 noble tentacle of octopus of wisdom
wairua (spiritual) portion added later whatumanawa (emotions, all seeing eye of the heart)

whanaungatanga (all my relations)

153

taha tinana (physical)

taonga tukuiho (cultural)

mana (personal vested authority)

mauri (life force, energy, phychical)

hinengaro (intellectual)

Moon Calendar Rongorongo Syllable Decipherment
Note: compare with main Supplementary Syllable Chart and the Syllable Charts of each chant. Table 6: Syllables of the Moon Calendar with detailed decipherment meaning and context

Syllable Symbol U
44

Symbol Meaning
Phallus - Ure; Lightning Uira Guy and Berthinccxcvii Stats also Confirm.ccxcviii Thread Hau Jaussen Mosses/ Feathersccxcix; Rjabchikov ariccc.

Sound Meaning
‗u‘ = a thunderous sound or milk/breast
(firm, fixed, to reach land, to arrive, high tide)

Myth
Breakers of death make sound of thunder and sea foam as deities fertility zone, like white elixir, milk of fertility goddess or semen of deity. See Ureia in Tregear

HA
3,30

‗ha‘ = To breathe and four

Related to hiro, the twisted thread and applied to the New Moon which appears like a twisted thread and represents the deity, Hiro/Whiro, who slew the son of Hua and fled in canoe migration. Hina baits the line from which Maui/Tangaroa draw up the Island of Life Tawhaki/Tavake climbed the thread of heaven after restoring sight to Kui the Blind in exchange for 9 out of 10 of her sweet potatoes.

154

HI
. 41 678 617/711

Moon – Hina/Ina Rjabchikov Barthel, Fischer & Guyccci; to fall or to stoop – hiangacccii; to fish – hi Barthel, Krupa & Fishcerccciii The Scrotum – huaccciv; to heap up – huacccv Stats confirmcccvi

‗hi‘ = to fish
(to fish with a line, to raise up, to draw up; related also to falling... into contempt)

HU
74 11

‗hu‘ = to burn; to blow
(to uncover what is hidden; to undress; to free from tapu; hua is fruitful; huahua are birds.)

MA
40 607ii

The moon – maramacccvii; the eye - matacccviii Stats agree
cccix

‗ma‘ = for; or as ma‘a is to know (clean, pure,
to wash; plural article, and)

GA (NGA)
390 378

To eat – gaucccx; to yearn for – guakauha; to bark – gaugau; to breathe,
or gasp – nga; food – ngai/kai

‗ga‘ (nga/ka) = a plural marker for example used of twins

Hina falls from heaven when the hole in the sky opens (the moon waxes full). She then baits the hook from which Maui or Tangaroa draws up the Islands of Life. The fish is a symbol of the soul in the Underworld; the Great Fish as the Underworld itself (Ikaroa, the Milky Way); the fish offering as essential to remove impurities, curses and restrictions. Hua is the father of the boy killed by Whiro and twin of Ari, another day of the moons age. The Heaping Place is an altar in a Pa/Pae or Maure temple. Birds represent souls liberated from the Underworld after death. One myth has Rata‘s father, Waheiroa sacrificing his life to get birds from the Underworld for his pregnant wife. (See Ponaturi, Waheiroa, Rata) Marama is the moon goddess; an aspect of Hina/Ina; whose parents are Rangi and Atutahi; she becomes sick after the full moon and wanes, being restored by washing in the waters of Tane (the Ocean, Tane‘s Heart). Mata is the face, window, eye or light that gives understanding. The overturning of Mataaho or eye-light is the great deluge caused by Tawhaki/Tavake. In the Tawhaki myth, heaven has a drought. That is, from Marama/Hina‘s lament, half of heaven floods the Underworld so she can make paradise of Turtle Island amidst the ocean of Tane‘s Heart. Ga rauhiva are twins, the turtle twins of this moon cycle as Hua and Ari; Ari/Arii/Karihi as Tawhaki/Tavake‘s twin. Then Hua and Tawhaki are one in the same as father of boy slain by Whiro. As gau, to eat, reflects the cook in the moon with three oven stones.

155

RA
8

Racccxi – the Sun; Rae is the forehead. Scholars agree. Rimacccxii – the hand or arm Stats Confirmcccxiii

Ra = the Sun Also Venus and Rangi (see endnote 66)
Ri = a screen or mark used to denote that only a priest can proceed.

On Tuna‘s decent from Rangi or heaven, his forehead had two threads hanging from it when Tawhaki rose to heaven. Ri, ringa or rima is a mosed sacred sign of the priest and his or her function to make offering and incantation in a most sacred standing place even in whispers to raise restrictions and bless the people and their migrations. Roanga-Rahia a beautiful daughter of Hine-te-rangi-atahua. Ruru-teina married her though his elder brothers attempted to burn him in the house of the snake-woman, Te Karara-hu-ara. He was found alive in the charred death grip of the snake. Ta is the striking of Hina who makes tapa cloth (for clothes) from mulberry bark on the moon. The full moon presents her face and the mallet. Tane‘s belly is the ocean, an all encompassing sign of His Love and presence consuming us. The smoothed pebbles of the shore are his gizzard stones. Tura as bald, day-light. Tura gave his immortality to his wife bearing a child. Turakanga is the ceremony to throw down the stick representing the path of death. Turi as deaf or the knee. Turi offered heart of Uenuku‘s son in a meal for Uenuku to eat. Turi migrated to New Zealand. Tunga is place where priestly ceremonies are made.

RI
378 61

RO
378

Roa – long

Ro = in or into; an insect.

TA
600 670 378

Tane – the Sacred Bird of Oceana; Tahi - the side; the glyph representing a side-view.cccxiv Stats Confirmcccxv

Ta = a tattoo; to shake or pull up with force; to beat or
strike with a mallet

TU
378 200

Tu – to stand; Tunga a standingplace Tura to stand in the open day-light. Turi – bending knee, deaf. Tuma... Stats agreecccxvi

Tu = to crush;
to stand

There is a relationship between the syllable values of like vowels in one line vs. similar consonants in another.

156

Chapter 9 Reimiro Neck Ornament: Maui’s Tattoo Soothing Chant

157

The chant was found on this Small Reimiro Tablet and was used as a neck ornament of authority by the Easter Island Princess. She likely chanted this tattoo soothing chant over the islander being tattooed at Orongo village during the Tangata-manu Ceremonial Egg Hunt, since there tablets were worn by the leading women in the initial procession up to Orongo. The painful passage-rite of tattooing carves out the identity of the youth to prepare for the new life of adulthood, while the sweetness of the chant fills them with a sense of belonging and goodness through all that has been carved. Sprinkled onto the cuts is the black dye from the poporo berry mixed with ti tree resin. This glyph of tahinga-maui-taha, means the scraping(sweeping) of Maui‘s brother (Maui-taha). The red and black berries are likened to the blood of the god that brought the plants to life and are here crushed in the teeth of the princess and spit onto the skin at the tip of the scraping tattoo needle. The princess in this chant is called, Tapairu, the same name given to fairies (bird-people) in Polynesian lore. Hina-tapairu is the name of Hina as queen of these bird-peoplecccxvii. It is the same life (life is translated as maui) Maui is offering the youth in order to make them blood brothers. As a tattoo soothing chant, the singer would want to refer to a chorus in order to lengthen the song and so lengthen its soothing effect upon the wounded. Perhaps even a divide after every 2-4 glyphs, tripling the amount of chorus lines shown in the glyphs of Figure 10 below. A tentative decipherment of the Easter Island tablet prayer of the Small Reimiro Tablet of Rongorongo. The island Princess wore this around her neck as an ornament of authority, while singing this tattoo soothing chant over her clan member being tattooed. According to Indigenous philosophy, this prayer is being revealed now after over a Century as a tapu or restriction removal event. That is, since the Easter Island script was made unknown to all, it is now being revealed to everyone in the world in order to gather us all under the same story or mythical event. The prayer is intended to sooth the pains of the entire 158

Earth, so scared by the unchecked use of technology and a materialist economy fueled by exponential growth. This pain soothing prayer can be applied to any particular fasting of ones‘ culture for the restoration of our Ecosystems,.. As the Island Princess poured salt water over the wounds of the youth, the chant must have sounded like the song of the Sirens: Figure q: The Tattoo Soothing Chant – The Ball Game of Maui

Chorus:

Tapairu tapa-ta‘u rakau Maui-maunu Princess Tapairu, record the birth on this tree of Maui-wrapped in seawead tau‘a Tu-whaka-heke-tangata taunga To do combat with the deity of war at this resting place. Tangaroa-haka ma ara-wero-tonga huhuti -rua-haeroa Lord of the Ocean purifycccxviii on the pathway of piercing a furrow carved to plant this sacred prayer ta-ta-tau iho tangata With the tattooing instrument, once, 159

twice, three times, with the needle and on the forth, the full essence of the man.

Tu-mata-uenga (Tu-whaka-heke-tangata) tari Riwaru kowhai Deity of War carry this Canoe of Rata to the blossoming tree of Spring kaiga hura papaga taga ahi(rega) To nourish for the work of putting in order the youth by passing them the flame

Potikitiki-Taranga Ika-Tawaka Maui-roto This Lord Topknot (a name for Maui), child of Taranga (steal the flame and shape-shifts from a fish into a hawk) for Maui-Roto (one of Maui‘s Brothers) Koma Tahingacccxix Koma by setting the snare of Maui (to steal the flame of Enlightenment), the Sweeping Ceremony, by setting a snare of Maui.

Tahinga-Iti-Maui, Maui-taha pohi Maui The Sweeping/scraping of Little Maui with Maui-taha (one of Maui‘s brothers) in this ball game of Mauicccxx Maui-whenua Ika-roa Maui Who raises the Earth (this island nest) on his shoulders to Ikaroa (the Long Fish of the Milky Way) on the shoulders of Maui

Maui-waho Maui-pae mau pae Maui-outside, (a brother of Maui), Maui-raised up, (another brother of Maui) raised up in front 160

Maui Koro Iti-Maui by Maui, by the Snare of Little Maui. . The significance of this chant is remarkable. It names several Polynesian deities, only a few of which are known in the fragmented history of Easter Island. Of particular interest is Maui and his brothers, who participate in a fishing contest to snare and pull up the islands. Maui snaring the Sun and stealing the flame of the Underworld are also common Polynesian mythical stories. Since these stories were associated with the tattooing rite of Rapa Nui, the moral of the stories are related to assisting the youth on the journey of Enlightenment. For instance, the stealing of fire is intended to extend the kindness of Maui beyond giving human beings fire, toward offering them the gift of their full human essence and qualities. What is more remarkable is the location this chant of Maui and his brothers has been found, on Rapa Nui where the moai statues are carved like those being tattooed. The carving of Maui brings the Moai statues inside (roto) the crater quarry, outside (waho) the crater, beside (taha) the path, in front of (mua) the ancient village and raised up on platforms (pae). In Polynesian dialects the transfer of syllables is minute: Maui-roto, Maui-waho, Maui-taha, Maui-mua and Maui-pae are all the brothers of Maui in Polynesian storytelling. The implications are startling and tell of the Rapa Nui and their tablets as a unifying instrument of Polynesian Indigenous cultures, much like the Wayfinding Canoe itself. Below is a syllable chart to assist the reader in verifying the syllables used to decipher this chant. Wording came from the Rapanui Dictionary and the Polynesian-Maori Comparative Dictionary by Tregear, 1891.
Table 1ii: Syllables of the Moon Calender with detailed decipherment meaning and context Note: compare with the main Syllable Chart and the Syllable Charts of each chant for confirmation of syllables.

Glyph

Morpheme Bone – iwi;

Syllable ‗i‘

Myth In Polynesian Indigenous philosophy, bones were not signs of death, but of life. Stick of Tavake? Breakers of death make sound of thunder and sea foam as deities fertility zone, like white elixir, milk of fertility goddess or semen of deity. See Ureia in Tregear Hina falls from heaven when the hole in the sky opens (the moon waxes full). She then baits the hook from which Maui or Tangaroa draws up the Islands of Life. The

I
1

U
306.1.3?

Support, tear – ue

‗u‘ = a thunderous sound or milk/breast
(firm, fixed, to reach land, to arrive, high tide)

HI
678

Moon – Hina/Ina; to fall or to stoop – hianga; to fish – hi

‗hi‘ = to fish
(to fish with a line, to raise up, to draw up; related also to falling... into contempt)

161

470(400)?:51.

Moon Calendar agrees

HO
1.10 20.10?

To project upwards – hoka

‗ho‘

HU
11

to heap up – hua Moon Calendar agrees

‗hu‘ = to burn; to blow (to uncover what is
hidden; to undress; to free from tapu; hua is fruitful; huahua are birds.)

MA
206

The eyes - mata The blade – maripi

‗ma‘ = for; or as ma‘a is to know
(clean, pure, to wash; plural article, and)

4

fish is a symbol of the soul in the Underworld; the Great Fish as the Underworld itself (Ikaroa, the Milky Way); the fish offering as essential to remove impurities, curses and restrictions. To rise is the constant theme of enlightenment, which makes this sign an appendage to the popohaga rising Sun glyph. Indigenous lore presented the journey of the human spirit and community as a constant rising through a light bearing hole to newer paradise like worlds, while the old world passes away. Hua is the father of the boy killed by Whiro and twin of Ari, another day of the moons age. The Heaping Place is an altar in a Pa/Pae or Maure temple. Birds represent souls liberated from the Underworld after death. One myth has Rata‘s father, Waheiroa sacrificing his life to get birds from the Underworld for his pregnant wife. (See Ponaturi, Waheiroa, Rata) Marama is the moon goddess; an aspect of Hina/Ina; whose parents are Rangi and Atutahi; she becomes sick after the full moon and wanes, being restored by washing in the waters of Tane (the Ocean, Tane‘s Heart). Mata is the face, window, eye or light that gives understanding. The overturning of Mataaho or eye-light is the great deluge caused by Tawhaki/Tavake. In the Tawhaki myth, heaven has a drought. That is, from Marama/Hina‘s lament, half of heaven floods the Underworld so she can make paradise of Turtle Island amidst the ocean of Tane‘s Heart.

162

GA (NGA)
376?

To eat – gau; to yearn for – guakauha; to bark – gaugau; to breathe,
or gasp – nga; food – ngai/kai

‗ga‘ (nga/ka) = a plural marker for example used of twins

Moon Calendar agrees
607.450?

PA
607.3

Pae – a raised seat or platform; a step or ladder; the horizon

Pa = an enclosure;
to touch, give, reach or report

PO
3 109

Orion – Tautoru/Poaka A ball – poipoi/popo; Roa – long; Ro, Hiro – thread: Guy.cccxxi

Tau or Po

Ga rauhiva are twins, the turtle twins of this moon cycle as Hua and Ari; Ari/Arii/Karihi as Tawhaki/Tavake‘s twin. Then Hua and Tawhaki are one in the same as father of boy slain by Whiro. As gau, to eat, reflects the cook in the moon with three oven stones. Pa is the patron deity of eating or consuming food. Paea is the last child of Rangi, a daughter, born after Rangi was wounded by Tangaroa. Turi names his storehouse at Patea River, Paeahua and the threshold of his house, matangirei, paepaehakehake Orion is where the ancestors assemble (lit. tautoru), according to their roots (aka).The Underworld of Darkness is PO. Poaka, Roanga-Rahia a beautiful daughter of Hine-te-rangi-atahua. Ruruteina married her though his elder brothers attempted to burn him in the house of the snake-woman, Te Karara-hu-ara. He was found alive in the charred death grip of the snake. Ta is the striking of Hina who makes tapa cloth (for clothes) from mulberry bark on the moon. The full moon presents her face and the mallet. Tane‘s belly is the ocean, an all encompassing sign of His Love and presence consuming us. The smoothed pebbles of the shore are his gizzard stones.

RO
69

Ro = in or into; an insect.

607.3

TA
600

380

Tane – the Sacred Bird of Oceana; Tahi - the side; the glyph representing a side-view. Moon Calendar agrees

Ta = a tattoo; to shake or pull up with force; to beat or
strike with a mallet

4

671(631)?

TI
600.21.67?

Topknot - tikitiki

‗ti‘

Potiki – was the child weaning in the topknot of his mother. He grows from her nourishment through her wisdom hair, then

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TU
200

306.1.3?

Tu – to stand; Tunga a standingplace Tura to stand in the open day-light. Turi – bending knee, deaf. Tuma... Moon Calendar agrees

Tu = to crush; to
stand

VA
376? 20.10?

shapeshifting as a fish through the sea and as a bird through the air; carrying this wisdom as a flame to set the kindled world on fire. Tura as bald, day-light. Tura gave his immortality to his wife bearing a child. Turakanga is the ceremony to throw down the stick representing the path of death. Turi as deaf or the knee. Turi offered heart of Uenuku‘s son in a meal for Uenuku to eat. Turi migrated to New Zealand. Tunga is place where priestly ceremonies are made. The maori oven is sign of Mauiwaho – the brother of Maui ‗outside‘ Rano Raraku crator eating from the Maui oven. That is the victorious birdman eats for a year gifts of food provided for him. There is a relationship between the syllable values of like vowels in one line vs. similar consonants in another.

Indigenous wisdom expands the meaning of things, where a syllable is not lost in the sterility of mere function. Instead, not only every word or syllable contains wisdom, but every sound, especially those whispered from the environment are sacred moments that guide and instruct the individual and community.

v.b. Tattoo Soothing Chant word decipherment

Tapairu from TA/Tane (Tavake, bird deity) + PA/pakau (wing) + IRO/hiro (thread) = Princess of Island Maui hauled up.cccxxii Tapawaha from TA/Tane (bird deity) + PA/pakau (wing) + WAHA (mouth) = tattooing on the cheeks.
B66: Raka - syllable from - RA/rakau (tree) + KA = to scrape making harrows or grooves, as in tattooing.

: Maunu from MAU/Maui (glyph used for Maui, trickster who noosed the Sun) + NU/nutu (mouth of a river or reef) = seaweed in Rapanui. Maunu from Maui + nutu (mouth of a river or reef) = seaweed in Rapanui. In this glyph, Maui is being prepared, divided for wrapping in seaweed. Maui is in the glyph suspended upsidedown at the top. It also sounds like Rapanui fishhook, mangai, what Maui used to raise the land. In this
B71.51

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glyph, a myth tells that Maui uses his own jaw as the hook and this glyph itself appears that Maui is part of a jaw (Tregear. 1891. Maui).cccxxiii Tau-a from TAU/tautoru, Orion + HA/a, four = tau‘a to combat or to perch. Tau‘a Tu-whaka-heke-tangata Tau‘a – Warring Tu-who-defeats-the-man warring. Most likely, Do combat with the deity of war at this resting place (see next glyph) Taunga from TAU/tautoru, Orion + HA/GA/GNA, to breathe = taugna, a resting place (Rapa Nui equivalent tau‘a. This glyph is likening the Orongo Village to a perch for birds to rest.cccxxiv In Polynesian lore, Maui-potiki is wrapped in seaweed by Mu and Weka to nourish the child. Related to this Orion glyph is Tau-potiki (Tregear), a name of the god Tane or one who assisted Tane in propping up the sky.cccxxv Tanganga from syllables: TA/tahi (side) + NGA (breath) + ANGA/angaanga (the back of the hand) = free from pain. This word appears to be related to human (tangata) and deity of the ocean (tangaroa).cccxxvi Ma from MA/maripi (knife) = pure/to purify.
B15.62?.450?:Wero-tonga from WERO (pierce) + TO/toru (three) + NGA (breath) = to pierce or repress your feelings (be strong). Wero = to pierce or certain tattoos lining the face.cccxxvii Ara, the pathway glyph occurs at the bottom producing: ara-wero-tonga, the pathway of piercing; the pathway of strength; the pathway of facing the pain stoically. Arapo = the Underworld pathway; Aranga = arise, to surface or appearing in a vision. Potoru = a chief on the Ririno whose advice caused the canoe to be sunk. B126(123?): Huhuti Rua-haeroa from HUHUTI (to pull up by the roots + huhu, pierce + ti, tree) + Rua-haeroa from RUA (2) + HA/hae (four/cut) + ROA (long) = hole dug in ground to hide with protective prayers. Purification or vindication from the powers of the Underworld is hidden within the scars ‗dug‘ during tattoo passage rites.cccxxviii

Ta ta tau: a tattooing instrument and to make near or tame. Iho from I/Iwi (bone) + HO/hoka (to project upwards) = the full essence of the person.cccxxix Tangata from TA/tahi (side) + NGA (breathe) + TA/tahi = man, person.

B4.37? : Tari from TA (tattooing instrument) + RI/rima (five) = to carry, to hang, to accompany, to wait. Taripo (PO/poi, a ball) to wait until the point of death.cccxxx B123.124? : Riwaru from RI/rima (five) + WARU (eight) = Rata‘s Canoe made by the Birdmen. That is, the tree is cut at the roots to produce a canoe in contrast to being pulled up by the roots as to produce a hole for Hina. The hole was used for Hina to fall through,

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to cleanse in the primordial ocean, rise on ‗Turtle Island‘ (expressed in the shape of Easter Island) and regenerate human offspring or descendants. The canoe is used to rise over the breakers of death to retrieve the bones of the ancestor(s).cccxxxi A consideration can be made for the tree Rata felled as being cut at the roots representative of the generational tree cut off from enlightenment, and being given enlightenment back when the tree is pulled up by the roots from above. The tree of the canoe might also be associated with a sacred school, the priestly house or wharekura. Shirres noticed a relearning of archaic Maori terms when ancient chants are compared with new ones in an association between the sacred canoe and a house as being opened when ‗its roots were cut off‘. On his website he writes: Sometimes we are fortunate in having similar versions of the same karakia and this can help us to understand the meaning of a particular word....the phrase kotia te pu, which occurs in the canoe karakia for the cutting down of a tree, is spelled out in the same karakia adapted for the opening of a new house: Kua kotia nga putake o te rakau o te whare nei, 'The roots of the tree of this house have been cut off'.cccxxxii Therefore, a tree being cut off at the roots is a sign of purification or a cleaning out of all spirits and making the place accessible to only the good spirits called upon. For more on the Canoe of Rata see Part vi below.
B123.79?.678 : Kowhai from KOWHA/kowhanga (nest) + I/ianga/hianga (to stoop) = a blossoming tree, the Spring. Oneone from ohanga (nest) + oha (stooping or to grow on roots) + ne (behold or sail ship) = the earth. Also, Hiti from hi/hinga (stoop) + ti (tree) = Eastern. Tahiti from ta/tane + hiti = the Eastern Sunrise Paradise.cccxxxiii

KA MATE! KA MATE! It is death! It is death! We were at war KA ORA! KA ORA! It is life! It is life! But now there is peace. KA MATE! KA MATE! We're going to die! We're going to die! We thought we were all going to die KA ORA! KA ORA! We're going to live! We're going to live! but now we are safe TENEI TE TANGATA PU-HURU-HURU This is the man, so hairy because our leader, so strong and masculine, NANA NEI I TIKI MAI, WHAKAWHITI TE RA! who fetched, and made shine the sun! has unified us and brought back the sunny days of peace! 166

UPANE! KA UPANE! Together! Keep together! We are all working in harmony, side by side, HUPANE! KAUPANE! Up the step! A second step! making steady progress WHITI TE RA! HI! Out comes the sun! Ahh! to prolong these sunny days of peace.

B430(395)?-408(390)?-400? B430(395)?-408(390)?: Pagaha‘a from PA/paki, a wing + GA/NGA, to breathe + HA‘A, a slab for making nets = name of a tattoo design on the cheeks. Tupatupa from tuku, net fishing + papa = to carry. Papa from PA/paki, a wing + PA/paki, a wing = to place in a row on a flat surface. Papaga = to order. The three birds sit in a row together like moai on ahu plattforms while carrying the flame snared in the net (the topknot on the moai made of the red tupa volcanic stone may be represented here as the stollen flame of enlightenment). Maui is shapeshifting with the stolen fire to escape from Wahuika, the Fire Goddess. Papa as the Earth with a flame on it marks the legend of Maui snaring or stealing the fire from the underworld and setting the Earth on fire. (Noosing the Sun, then, and steeling the fire from the Underworld are one in the same mythological event).cccxxxiv B600.21.67? Maui-tikitiki-a-Taranga = Maui formed in the topknot of his mother, Taranga. With the flame on his mother‘s wing, Baby Maui (Maui-potiki) is wrapped in her topknot as, Potikitiki, from PO/poi (ball) + TIKITIKI (topknot).cccxxxv The Maori Songs are often song for Po! Po! The youngest child of the family: here is the first verse of one such song called, Po! Po! Popo, Popo, Poopoo Enoka Te Pakarua. Pō! Pō! E tangi ana Tama ki te kai māna! Baby! Potiki! The boy is crying for food!

For the entire chant see Supplement: The Maori Song: Po! Po! Stealing the flame from the Underworld, Maui shape-shifts from a fish into a hawk. Tawaka = Hawk. The trickster Maui disguised as a hawk to escape the wrath of Mahuika, the Goddess of Fire.
B710.631?.607? B700.19? Maui-roto from MAUI (see next group of glyphs) + ROTO (inside from the net glyph inside the fish) = Maui-inside, Maui's brother or the Moai 'inside' the Crator quarry of Rano Raraku.

The context of a fish in karakia or Maori prayer is that of a victim of war, where the bird was the victor. For example, Shirres writes:cccxxxvi

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This imagery is used very graphically in a karakia said for young warriors going into their first battle. It concludes: He kawau te manu, rukuhia iho, puea ake, he ika e mau ana i te waha. No hea? No te puna i uta. He maroro te ika. Ka oti te kakati e te kawau waha nui, he aua mata whero te ika. Nana i moe te au, tangohia ake ana. Waiho ana hei tohu taua. The bird is a cormorant, diving deep, then bursting up out of the waters, a fish held in its mouth. From where? From the inland pool. The fish was stretched out. Squeezed tight by the big mouthed cormorant, the fish is now a red eyed mullet. The one who was sleeping in the current has been dragged up. Let it be a sign for the war-party.

It is plausible to consider this fish as ‗snared‘ in the mouth of a former bird glyph. A rite of passage such as tattooing related to a battle in the sign of the fish as ‗a sign for the war-party‘ makes sense in terms of Indigenous world-view.
B115:

Koma syllables from KO/koro (snare) + MA/Maui (see next set of glyphs) = from TA/tahi (side) + HI/hianga (stoop) = to scrape or sweep clean.

clean.
B671(631)?: Tahi

B115:

Koma = clean.

: Tahinga Iti-Maui from TA/tahi (side) + HI/hianga (stoop) + Iti (little) + Maui (see glyph 4) = the Sweeping Ceremony to remove the curse (kanga) by Little Maui. Tahinga, the Sweeping Ceremony, appears in a prayer referring to Make Make, and involves a priest setting ablaze a branch from the sacred fire of the first fish offering and waving the flaming branch at the Milky Way at early dawn to represent the Sweeping of the Stars by the Sun‘s rays at dawn. This is symbolic of the deity represented by the Sun gathering the ancestoral stars to be drawn into the light of Rehua, the tenth heaven. And Maui-taha from Maui + TA/tahi (side) + HA (breath) = the brother of Maui, Mauion the side.
B470(400)?:51

Pohi from PO/poi (a ball, Orion) + HI/hianga (to stoop) = a ball game song. The little trickster Maui dances and sings to a ball game.cccxxxvii Tauhi from TAU/tautoru, Orion + HI/hianga, to stoop = tauhi, to sprinkle. It may refer to the sprinkling of black poporo dye on the tattoo wound. :cccxxxviii Maui = the glyph of the trickster deity who noosed the Sun and raises Islands with his magic fishhook and jawbone (as seen in the surrounding glyphs). The Maui symbol was tattooed on the left side of the woman – mau means left (Kaulins,
B51

B2.678 :

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1981, An Astranaumical Zodiac). This essential clue led to further clues of Maui‘s brothers and their names represented by the moai statues of Easter Island. Such an important contribution to our understanding of Polynesian history is a direct result and proof of a possitive decipherment of this Small Reimiro Easter Island tablet. The use of mau in Campbell‘s and Felbermayer‘s Rapa Nui chants may be associated with this Maui glyph on the tablets. Ka mau te tekateka kite Ariki E tu'ura e e e Ka mau te maro kite Ariki E tu'ura e e e Ka mau te reimiro kite Ariki E tu'ura e e e Ka mau te rongorongo kite Ariki E tu'ura e e e Ka mau te tahonga kite Ariki E tu'ura e e e Ka mau te ukariva kite Ariki E tu'ura e e ecccxxxix Ramon Campbell Chant 14 CANTOS p196 Campbell Ka mau te rongorongo ia Tu-ko-iho e. Me'e maori-ori Tu-ko-iho, He haka ha ere-ere moai.cccxl Ramon Campbell Chant 16 CANTOS - Te Reva Rapanui Haere mai nei mitere tabana, e aroha mau e tau Ariki, i etahi moroti. Ahuro, ahuro, ahuro taatou e i te reva reimiro e! Ko te ohoro matou, ko te hutiro i te reva; i te reva reimiro rapanui, ie tahi moroti. Ahuro, ahuro, ahuro tatou e, i te reva-reimiro e!cccxli
B51.79? -: Maui henua/Kowharoa = Maui with the world on his shoulders. Another common trickster theme is the hero with the world on his shoulders. In this case, a nest is used as the world. This world is Easter Island, the Nest of the Birdmen. Oneone Maui Maui has lifted the world on his shoulders.cccxlii

: Ika-roa from Ika, fish + roa, long = the Milky Way; the Great Fish or Ikaroa, lifting up the Earth to dwell in heaven of the Milky Way.cccxliii
B710?

169

B51: Maui-waho from Maui of last glyph + waharoa (ceremonial oven for the dead) + hoka (projecting sharply upwards) = Maui‘s brother, Maui Outside.cccxliv B11? : Pae = raised up. Maui-pae from MAUI + PAE (step ladder) = Maui‘s brother, Maui-raised up on platform. Again, this glyph lends serious weight to the conclusion of decipherment. B48 : Koro-iti from koro, a snare (for Maui to noose the Sun) + iti, little = the son of Hina, both carried away by Maui in Polynesian mythology.

Conclusion: This decipherment is genuine for all the reasons the moon cycle is correct as described in the last chapter‘s conclusion. As well, the characters match the moon cycles style of syllabic decipherment and reliance of greater Polynesian mythology. Here we have even more evidence of exact pictographic images that contribute to these stories with the brothers of Maui. Tapairu as the initial glyph means little fairies, or the princess of the fairies (birdpeople). Tapairu wraps Maui in edible seaweed, as if to prepare him as food in the sacred Maori oven, much like the Moon Calendar shared the morsel of the god. Apart from this sacred feast, there is an allusion to water and fire baptismal rites. There is also the tattooing rite – as if not only water and fire, but also blood is required to complete and purify each birdman or person. There is even a sort of purging of unworthiness in the jumping from a tree, called the Sacred Tree of Life. This tree jumping was a ritual practiced elsewhere in Polynesia. Maui is the saviour of the world in this mythology. He is a trickster who dies for us, yet somehow remains with us in the ritual. He lifts us up out of the depths and makes food for us of what grows there and even will take strips of his own flesh to feed us. As Saint Thomas Aquinas spoke of Jesus, ―Like the Pelican you pluck at your own flesh to feed your young.‖ With these strips and his mother‘s hair he catches the sun so that we can grow the sacred breadfruit or poporo berries. He puts fire in the sacred red wood so we can rub the wood to make fire for the Maori Oven. He takes us to a secret place that only those with the mark can enter. With the tattooing rite we have the mark that confirms the waters of our baptism and seals us for life. Are their greater storytellers describing the personal nature of the Creator than this?

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Chapter 10 Four Tablet Grand Tradition: The Canoe of Rata Chant

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Four Tablet Grand Tradition - the Canoe of Rata Chant There is a portion of the Easter Island tablets called, The Grand Tradition, namely due to its appearance on four tablets, Text A, H, P & Q. Guy provides a comparative analysis of this portion of the tablets in his ―On the Fragment of the ‗Tahua‘ Tablet‖, published in 1985.cccxlv Of the ages and types of wood used to carve the tablets, Guy writes: Tablet A is engraved on a European oar of ash wood and is considered to date from the late 18th century of the first half of the 19th century, whereas the other tablets are inscribed on local woods (Metraux 1940:393).cccxlvi The newness of Text A might explain the noticeable abbreviated appearance and differences in relation to the other tablets. Through further structural analysis, Guy compares and contrasts five separate segments of the four tablet portions of this Grand Tradition (Guy. 1985. P. 377). This research utilizes Guy‘s segments due to their meaningful division. An important pattern in this plausible decipherment occurs up to 10 times in sequence in the form of ‗AxB‘ (Guy. 1985. P. 378), where A is glyph 8, x is a variable attachment to glyph 8 and B is glyphs 15-22f. Text H, P and Q utilize this pattern (ie. 8+variable+1522f), while Text A excludes glyph 15 (ie. 8+variable+22f) (Guy. 1985. P. 378). Some variations to this pattern are pointed out by Guy, which has called for clarification below. A second pattern that also appears to occur 10 times in form ‗Ax‘ (Guy. 1985. P. 379), where A is glyph 65, 66A or 66B and x is a variable element.cccxlvii The Grand Tradition of the Canoe of Rata The complete chant from two of the four tablets appears as follows: Segment 1 &2: Text Q (Text P is damaged)
/

Segment 3: Text P (Text Q is damaged here) Segment 4-5: Text P (Text Q is damaged) / After identifying the glyphs of the flying chips of the double-hull canoe, it became apparent that the Polynesian mythical tale of the Canoe of Rata was the chant of the Grand Tradition. Inquiry: How do the four different versions of this chant contrast, compare and help to identify the various meaning of glyphs? What are the known and plausible glyphs? How does the triply line/canoe recurring pattern help unfold the meaning of the chant? 172

Given: Jacques Guy (source) identified the thread down glyph as plausibly the syllable, ―RO‖ on the Mamari Tablet Moon Calendar. The appearance of a double-hull canoe next to tree glyphs . The repetition of 10 plausible double glyphs that appear to coincide with the verse ‗a pathway for the canoe‘ in the Canoe of Rata story. The dismantling and assembling of the tree with chips flying much like in the Canoe of Rata mythology. The appearance of the Canoe of Rata chants pathway of sweet scented flowers
.

The glyph identifying ATA, the spirit or shadow
.

confirmed on the moon Calendar scholars.

The sun, ra‘a glyph

is universally accepted by

Rower’s Timing Chant tentative word decipherment 2a-b from Tablet H and Q: Tuara-matara (Turi/Tura) Tuara-matara: from TU, to stand and A/ai, leg stretched as in lying with or procreating + RA/rama, a torch – to assist, support, to back up Turi and Tura – aspects of Rata; matara from MATA, eye + RA/rama, torch = release. To assist the releasing of the canoe (from Tapu) in order to travel abroad.Turi and Tura are ancestral deities and chiefs of the early migration canoes whose mythical stories are akin to that of the Canoe of Rata. Tuahiwi-o-te-rangi – the kauati or fire-raising sticks taken by Tura from Whiro, to first make fire among the fairies.cccxlviii From Tablet P: tua-rama tua-rama: translated as above apart from the torch being now more than an attached syllable. Rama the torch appears here as an attached word to emphasize the torch itself. Tua from TU, to stand + A/ai, leg stretched as a symbol to procreate = Tua, literally, to turn back. It can mean a sacred ceremonial incantation intended to turn back to the ancestors for protection, for example, during the baptism of a new born or in tree felling and canoe building. Tua-nui-te-ra is an early migrating ancestor that may be intended in these glyphs as the torch bearer or carrier of the flame to guide the canoe through the Underworld.cccxlix Turi and Tura are ancestral deities and chiefs of the early migration canoes whose mythical stories are akin to that of the Canoe of Rata. Guy‘s statistical analysis points out a series of 5 consecutive double glyphs, making a common use of 10 in sequence occur (Guy. 1985. Ibid. P. 383). The structure of the chant then follows a 2-2-2 (4)-2-210 – 10 pattern. This pattern confirms the presence of a chant, with a counting pattern for timing rowers. Tablet A uses a breathing head glyph instead of the head with the eyes : Tuara or Tua-rama is still produced as above, however the emphasis is not on the seeing with the torch on the path of enlightenment in the journey through the 173

Underworld, the emphasis is on the breathing of the deity. Therefore, the early Polynesian meaning of Tuara as putting a canoe before the wind works into the chant (Tregear, 1891, Tuara). There is a sense that the chant has several different verses as would a canoe-timing chant for a long distance migration. The result is repeating verses with various meanings such as the following chant compiled from deities whose names begin with Tua (Tregear, 1891, tua…): Tua-nui-te-ra, lit. Great Lord of the Sun, guide our canoe with your guiding light…. Tuapiko, together with Tawhaitiri, the two pillars of the Underworld, move aside for our light canoe to pass.… Tuatara, Lizard and Ngarara-huarau, Lizard-goddess, raise us like Rurute-ina to the sky to retrieve the flame of enlightenment (this flame was then used to consume the Lizard-goddess until only two scales remained; see ngau-waho below)…. Tua-tangata, lit. Lord-human, deified-ancestors give us understanding to be true human beings (like Tau-ira, Lord-of-the-Blemish and first deified human who became model for children; in Rapa Nui, Ira is the husband of Ina/Hina)…. Tua-rangi, Lord-of-the-Sky, Husband of Papa-the-Earth, raise up the horizon to hasten our voyage (also notice other deities that correspond with tau)….

3a-d: Uga, Uga, Uga, Uga-waho from U/ure, phallus + NGA/ga, to breathe + waho, outside/abroad = lead, lead, lead, lead-abroad (lead-forth). This chant enables rowers to keep time as they lead-forth for distance abroad, while chopping the waves with their paddles in time with the chant. The waho glyph as found in Maui‘s Tattoo Soothing Chant on the Small Reimiro Tablet, is abbreviated on the uga glyph with the two markings. In the mythology, the two markings represent the scales of Ngarara-huarau, Lizard goddess of the Underworld, burned by the flame of enlightenment and leaving behind only two of her scales. Therefore, her two scales are a sign that the canoe of the Underworld can freely pass or as the glyph tells, to lead-forth.
cccl 205s 205 305s 445 695

4a-b: These two glyphs differ on all four tablets of the Grand Tradition. However, these differences can be used to help decipher more than confuse. Consider a much longer chant when rowing at sea and each of these glyphs could represent separate rhyming verses used after the timing chant, ―uga uga uga uga-waho‖ added with the following: From Tablet H: Turou from TU, to stand + RO/roa, long + U/ue, a support = Turou, a stick for reaching or Turo, to stoop down (in order to reach down the 174

oar in rowing). Tuhou - from TU, to stand + HO/hoka, projecting sharply upwards + U/uenga, a support = Tuhou, the nine-foot giant deity whose bones are used in ceremony (Tregear, 1891, Tuhou), for the first time here equated with Rata‘s father, Wahieroa. Rata was eager to retrieve his father‘s bones for ceremonial purposes. Tablet P has the support missing: Turo from TU, to stand + RO/roa, long = to stoop. Tuho - from Tu, to stand and HO/hoka, to project sharply upwards – to move. There is a play on words intended in the abbreviation of the nine-foot deity. To honour this ancestor, Tuhou, the clan must tuho, to move. From Tablet Q: Turou-turo as above meaning a stick for reaching to stoop down: trust down the oar. Ngaro – to hide, to disappear, as the effort of the rowers over the horizon or perhaps together in time as they stoop down. The symbols for stand, project upwards and support are all present here. Perhaps the mouth and the eyes symbols have a neutral aspect in certain words. Usually they apply to NGA, breathing and MATA, the eyes.

From Tablet A: sea; tamaroa, a son.

Tangaho tamaho ? More likely Tangaroa, deity of the

Tu-mata-(roa)-uenga from TU, to stand + MATA, to see + UE/uenga, to prop up (+ ROA, long) = deity of war; Tanga-roa from TA/taha, side + NGA, to breathe + ROA, long = deity of the sea. 5a-b: Maro maro – from MA/maripi, reed knife + RO/hiro, thread (Guy) – to extend as a fathom distance of rowers reach. Also, Maha - from ma, knife + ha/haka, thread = to lift up, as the action of rowers in a canoe. 6a-b. Raha rakau rere marama – extended tree of flying chips.

Raha rakau rere marama - raha from RA/rakau, tree + HA, four = extended; rakau = tree; rere marama = fly chips; together - the extended tree of flying chips.cccli These two glyphs relate to the Polynesian chant sung by the Woodland Fairies to rebuild the sacred tree Rata fell: Fly together, chips and shavings. Stick fast together. Hold fast together. Fly together, bits of branches. Stick fast together. Hold fast together. Stretch straight upwards. Look, the young green tree stands. Join the bones together. Join the blood together. Join the flesh together. Join the sinews together. Join them so they will be firm. Join them so they will hold fast. It is the heavens which join. It is the heavens which bind together. It is the earth which strengthens and supports. In section one we read the main chorus of a canoe blessing ritual and probably a chant for rowing at sea, or at least its introduction. In section 2, Rata and the woodland fairies 175

felling and fixing the tree for the canoe. Like the chant below signifies, the tree is as sacred as the bones of the ancestors. Shirres of the New Zealand maori, offers a related 'binding' karakia and calls it a hohou rongo or stick bundle, a peace binding karakia for healing wounds of battle and ―wounds dividing us as peoples.‖ccclii Note: portions of the Canoe of Rata chant are boldfaced. Tuutakina i te iwi. Join the bones together. Tuutakina i te toto. Join the blood together. Tuutakina i te kiko. Join the flesh together. Tuutakina i te uaua. Join the sinews together. Tuutakina kia uu. Join them so they will be firm. Tuutakina kia mau. Join them so they will hold fast. Teenei te rangi ka tuutaki. It is the heavens which join. Teenei te rangi ka ruruku. It is the heavens which bind together. Teenei te papa ka wheuka. It is the earth which strengthens and supports. E Rangi e, awhitia. Heavens, embrace us. E Papa e, awhitia. Earth, embrace us. Naau ka awhi, ka awhi. What you embrace, is indeed embraced. Naau ka aaka, ka aaka. What you cherish is truly cherished. Naau ka toro, ka toro. What you stretch out and join stays stretched out and joined. Tupu he toka whenua, It grows, a rock of the land, tupu he toka Mata-te-raa. a rock like Mata-te-raa. Shirres comments on this chant as follows: To use this karakia is to go back to the beginning of creation, when all was still dark and Rangi and Papa, the spiritual powers responsible for the heavens and the earth, were caught up in an embrace so close and so strong that no light could come through to their children. So we call on the strength of their love for each other to bind us together.cccliii Notice that the former chant of the Canoe of Rata, resembles the Karakia to a remarkable extent. ‗Join the bones, the sinew and flesh,‘ used in the karakia chant, draws reference to the canoe of Rata. That is, Rata is one of the central deities of Polynesia and certain incantations (ie. Join the bones...) in Rata myth are applied to this karakia for the dead to regenerate. cccliv 7a-c. Raro Rata-marama-raro. As in ancient China and India, deities are surrounded by an adjective modifier. (the table of Rata) 7a: Raro from RA/rakau, tree and RO, hiro (Guy), thread (from bottom of glyph pointing upward) = below, a name for the Underworld (Tregear. 1891. raro). Rarotonga is the house of Hine-nui-te-po and Tonga-nui at the bottom of the Underworld. Maui hooked the roof of this house to pull up the islands. Rata‘s wife was Tonga-rau-ta-whiri. 176

The Table of Rata was the Underworld sea floor that once pulled up allowed all the fish to escape, making Rata‘s table synonymous with the roof of Rarotonga. In the mythology of the Tuamotu archipelago, Rata is orphaned at the hand of Puna, shark king of the Underworld. Rata as an aspect of Nganaoa (Tregear. 1891. Nganaoa) here in this legend actually defeats the shark of Puna to revive his parents. 7b. Rata-marama – from RA, rakau, tree and TA/mata, eyes; MARA/marama, chipped = means Rata, who chipped at the ancestral tree. Rata is our Underworld Canoe Hero and Guide. The marama chip may also be a designation for Hawaiki from HAWA, chipped + IKI, raised up = Hawaiki, the original homeland on the other side of Rarotonga. Supporting the translation of Hawaiki: the glyph Rata is surrounded by two trees, the first has no branches, the second with branches due to the chip ‗raised up‘ and restored to the tree. 7.c. Raro = below or to intercede (Tregear, 1891, raro). Rata travels below on behalf of spirit‘s trapped in the Underworld house of Rarotonga. He intercedes for them, he rescues them from the house of death. 7a-c. Raro Rata-hawaiki-raro – Intercessor (at Rarotonga) Rata our Intercessor from Hawaiki (where our bones are raised). This naming of raro Rata raro resembles the naming of kopako Uenuku-kopako, along with ancient Chinese and Hindu deities whose names are coupled with an adjective modifier. Raro Rata-raro, because he is the deity guiding the Spirit Canoe ‗below‘ to the depths of the Underworld, the Table of Rata, to retrieve his father‘s bones from Rarotonga and restore them to the other side, his homeland, Hawaiki. 7d. Rakau kouru – from rakau, tree + kouru, tree-top (uru means hair on the head) = tree joining together. In the Canoe of Rata mythology, the incantation calls for the chips to join together (uru), akin to the symmetry required to work the canoe. Urutonga is the name of the woman taken by the Ponaturi fairies to watch the door of the Underworld house, called Manawa Tane. Tawhaki rescues her and retrieves his father Hema‘s bones, just as Rata recovers the bones of Wahieroa 8a-d. Rakau koiwi rakau rakau – tree, trunk, tree, tree.

In the myth of the Canoe of Rata, the woodland fairies, the birdmen of Tane, fell the tree. The woodland fairies know the incantation for felling the Sacred Ancestral Tree and how to hewing out the canoe in proper ceremony. Koiwi means the trunk of a tree, or skeleton, synonymous with the bones of Rata‘s father, Wahieroa. When the birdmen fell the tree, the hope of Rata is stirred, as if he already has the sacred bones in his possession. Perhaps intended here is kite-koiwi, a great vision or prophesy of the ancestral realm. 177

Permission is required from above, and an offering must be left as ‗utu‘ (incantation payment) for the tree. 9. Hourua waka – double-hull canoe.

Hourua (haurua) is a possible combination of the words for tree and two. As well, the glyph appears to be the logograph of a double-hull canoe, hourua waka. Hourua is a possible combination of the words for tree and two. In Hawaiian mythology it is noteworthy to mention that Laka, (Rata), is given two outriggers which he binds together. It is confirmed that Easter Island was a destination before Hawaii and New Zealand. And now we know that certain aspects of this greater Polynesian mythology came from Easter Island itself. Guy‘s research in finding this double glyph is an important clue in verifying this tentative decipherment. That is, glyph 100 is optionally preceded by a pairing or a single occurrence of glyph 66A (Guy. 1985. P. 379). If the glyphs are a double-canoe, it makes sense that a single or a double ‗tree‘ would precede it to indicate that the tree(s) is(are) a required item for hewing the canoe. Wolfe sources Thomson regarding the association of the double hull canoe in the migration of Hotu Matua (who might therefore be considered an aspect of Rata): Hoatumatua, the first king, was a deified ancestor and considered a mediator between heaven and earth; unlimited power was attributed to him. Thomson reports a chant, given by his interpreter as a translation of a wooden tablet (ea ha to rau ariiki ke te): ―What power has the great king in the universe? He has the power to create stars, the clouds, the dew, the rain, and the moon‖…. ―The island was discovered by King Hotu-matua, who came from the land in the direction of the rising sun, with two large double canoes…‖ccclv Further proof of the use of double canoes in Rata‘s chant is confirmed in the Hawaiian version of the Rata (Laka) myth where Laka uses a double-hull canoe. It should be mentioned that for such a long expedition to te pito te henua (the end of the earth), the single canoe with a side-rigger was preferred by wayfinders, since the double hull was not as stable and known to break up in rough seas. 10b-c: Ramaku from RA/Rakau, tree + MA/rama, torch + KU/hiku, tail = a great torch; Raha(ku) from RA/Rakau, tree + HA/haka, work + KU/hiku, tail = a great expanse, a great increase. ara waka/rakau, a pathway for the canoeccclvi

Text H, P and Q

15.22f

In section three, Rata embarks to avenge his father and in section four the canoe of the war-god, Tu, is finished, the bones, canoe and/or stones are erected as a pathway to heaven. There is a spiritual war raging. The vengeance of Tu is ignited. Maui finds it all 178

a mere game. Hina is falling, as we all do. Rata and the Rainbow can capture hearts of the fish and birds (our own dual soul – the yin and yang) and return the bones that unite us to heaven where Tane and Wakea alone can put flesh on them once again. Then, an agreement is made, a solemn oath – the Maori meet face to face with the heavenly Makemake and stand forever. Shirres offers the following karakia chant of the sacred canoe (Marerei-ao & Taotaorangi are mentioned places in the ancient Hawaiki).ccclvii Notice the ‗view‘ of the pathway of the canoe on the sea from within the canoe itself. This context is a starting point for clues to the wording used in this rongorongo chant plausibly given as the Canoe of Rata. E kau ki te tai e, e kau ki te tai e, E kau raa, e Taane. Waahia atu raa te ngaru hukahuka o Marerei-ao Pikitia atu te aurere kura o Taotao-rangi. Tapatapa ruru ana te kakau o te hoe, E auheke ana, e tara tutu ana te huka o Tangaroa I te puhi whatukura, i te puhi marei kura o taku waka. Ka titiro iho au ki te pae o uta, ki te pae o waho. Piki tuu rangi ana te kakau o te hoe; Kumea te uru o taku waka Ki runga ki te kiri waiwai o Papa-tuu-a-nuku E takoto mai nei; Ki runga ki te uru tapu nui o Taane E tuu mai nei. Whatiwhati rua ana te hoe a Pou-poto, Tau ake ki te hoe naa Kura, he ariki whatu manawa. Too manawa, e Kura, ki taku manawa; Ka irihia, ka irihia ki Wai-o-nuku, Ka irihia, ka irihia ki Wai-o-rangi, Ka whiti au ki te whei ao, ki te ao maarama. Tupu kerekere, tupu wanawana Ka hara mai te toki E Haumie Huie Taikie! Swim on the sea, swim on the sea, Swim now, oh Taane. Split the foamy waves of Marerei-ao; Ascend the sacred current of Taotao-rangi. The foam of Tangaroa is standing in crests, is descending On the sacred plumes of my canoe, I look down on the inner and outer rows of surf. The handle of the paddle is lifted to the sky, The head of my canoe is pulled forward Onto the skin of mother earth lying here, With the sacred head of Taane standing above. The paddle of Pou-poto breaks in two. And the paddle of Kura is taken, A great chief and high-priest, of very great heart. Your heart, oh Kura, bound to my heart, Lifted, lifted up in the waters of the earth Lifted, lifted up in the waters of the heavens I cross the mortal world, to the world of light. Let it grow in deep wonder and awe. Bring here the axe, Come, gather in full force, it is done!

Taylor offers the chant of the chief of the Aotea canoe, almost 1000 years old. The voyage from Raiatea Island in the Eastern Pacific to New Zealand required the chief to encourage his crew as follows:ccclviii 179

Ko Aotea te waka, Aotea is the Canoe, Ko Turi tangata ti runga, And Turi is the Chief. Ko te Roku-o-whiti te hoe. The Roku-o-whiti is the Paddle. Piri papa te hoe! Behold my paddle! Awhi papa te hoe! It is laid by the canoe-side, Toitu te hoe! Held close to the canoe-side. Toirere te hoe! Now ‗tis raised on high – the paddle! Toi mahuta te hoe! Poised for the plunge – the paddle! Toi hapakapa te hoe We spring forward! Kai runga te rangi. Now, it leaps and flashes – the paddle Ko te hoe nawai? It quivers like a bird‘s wing Ko te hoe na te Kahu-nunui; This paddle of mine! Ko te ho nawai? This paddle – whence came it? Te hoe na te Kahu-roroa. It came from the Kahu-nunui, Ko te hoe nawai? From the Kahu-roroa, Ko te hoe no Rangi-nui-e-tu-nui. It came from the Great-Sky-above us. Tena te waka, Now the course of the canoe rests Ka tau ki Tipua-o-te-Rangi, On the Sacred Place of Heaven, Ki Tawhito-o-te-Rangi, The dwelling of the Ancient Ones Nga turanga whetu o Rehua Beneath the star-god Rehua‘s eye. Hapai ake au See! I raise on high I te kakau o taku hoe, The handle of my paddle, I te Roku-o-whiti. Te Roku-o-whiti. Whiti patato, rere patato, I raise it – how it flies and flashes! Mama patato, Ha! the outward lift and the dashing, Te riakanga, te hapainga, The quick thrust in and the backward sweep Te komotanga, te kumenga, The swishing, the swirling eddies, Te riponga, te awenga The boiling white wake A te puehutanga And the spray that flies from my paddle! O te wai o taku hoe nei. Lift up
(flag words for glyphs surrounding the pathway for the canoe glyphs)

Kei te rangi, hikitia! Kei te rangi, hapainga, Kei te aweawe nui no Tu. Tena te ara ka totohe nui,

The paddle to the sky above,

To the great expanse of Tu, There before us lies our ocean-path, The path of strife and tumult, Ko te ara o tenei Ariki, The path of this chief, Ko te ara o tenei matua iwi, The danger-roadway of this crew; Ko te ara o Rangi-nui-e-tu-nei, ‘Tis the road of the Great-Sky-above-us, Nguaha te kakau o taku hoe nei, Here is my paddle, Ko Kautu-ki-te-Rangi. Kautu-ki-te-rangi; Ki te rangi, hikitia; To the heavens raise it; Ki te rangi, hapainga; To the heavens lift it; Ki te rangi, tutorona atu, To the sky far drawn out, Ki te rangi, tutorona, mai. To the horizon that lies before us, Ki te rangi, tu te ihi, To the heavens, 180

Ki te rangi, tu te koko, Tu te mana, tu te tapu E tapu tena te ara Ka totohe te ara O Tane-matohe-nuku, Te ara o Tane-matohe-rangi, Ko te ara o te Kahu-nunui, Ko te ara o te Kahu-roroa, Ko te ara o tenei Ariki, Ko te ara o tenei tauira, Tawhi kia Rehua, Ki uta mai, te ao marama; E Rongo-ma-Tane, Whakairihia!

(Flag words for a pathway for the canoe and the sky chant rangi-ngari glyph presented in this chapter)

sacred and mighty. Before us lies our ocean way, The path of the sacred canoe, the child Of Tane, who severed Earth from Sky. The path of the Kahu-nunui, the Kahu-roroa, The pathway of this chief, the priest. In Rehua is our trust, (the star, Sirius, deity of 10ths Heaven) Through him we‘ll reach the land of light. O Rongo and Tane! We raise our offerings! (Those in the canoe, wave
twirling poi/balls over head to imitate old custom of priests raising up kumara offering to Rongo).

A Sweet Scented Pathway:
Text H? & P: Text A: 67-34 67-15.34-200.44

Pua ara-taire tuata: the flower pathway sweetly scented (by the flowers) for the Tuata – canoe tapu removal ceremony. Since the dead, decay, they require a purification rite that enables a sweet scent to replace the foul odour. Such a purification process can only occur with the assistance of the divine bird, Tavake or Tane, who knows where the elevated pathway is. Shirres presents the canoe opening karakia rite called, Wanganui, to fell a tree which becomes the canoe rod or pathway of Taane:ccclix Tena te ara, te ara ka iri, te ara o Tane. That is the pathway, the pathway which is suspended, the pathway of Taane.

Such a Standing Up Rod in the Rata mythology is prepared in one night as a canoe and is transported through the air and set into the water. This coincides with the Wanganui karakia ritual where a ‗rod‘ is placed in the water and Toko koi te poo (Pole reaching into the night) is recited for the dead person (Shirres. 1996. Website). A second pole is set up for the living and Toko koi te ao (Pole reaching into the light) is recited for the living to return to te ao marama (the world of light; lit. the day light) and land of the living (Shirres. 1996. Website). Interestingly, the Canoe of Rata on the tablets uses the two trees to hew a double-hull canoe or canoe of two poles. Therefore, the sweet scented pathway provides a way for a return to the living from the dead, enabling the deceased to become a deified ancestor and spirit medium for the community. 181

A Wave Offering for the Dead: Text H? & P: 90-60-36.200-4.4.4-7-2

Text A:

65.6-4-4-4-7-2

Tu wae(ri) Tu-poi-po18i mate reigna po: Stand at the sacred screen (the mark of sacredness preventing common entry), stand firm (war deity) with the wave offering of the dead of the Underworld of darkness. Shirres offers two karakia prayers for inaugurating a canoe Ko te rakau na Hapai.... Ko te rakau na Toa.... Ko te rakau na Tu, Tu-ka-riri, Tu-ka-nguha. And Tuku tonu, heke tonu, te ika ki te po, Tuku tonu, heke tonu, te ika ki Te Reinga. Let the fish drop straight down, descend directly, to the night [the world of the dead], Let the fish drop straight down, descend directly, to the leaping off place [the place where the spirits of the dead leap off to their abode]. It is the weapon belonging to Hapai. . . . It is the weapon belonging to Toa. . . . It is the weapon belonging to Tuu, angry Tuu, raging Tuu.ccclx

Shirres states that the weapon or stick used to pure the canoe was called, raakau, which lifted up or haapai to (belonging to or na) Tuu, na Maru, na ngaa tupua (the great spirits). The weapon is an atua destroying stick or he raakau patu atua. The priest hits the canoe and chanting the karakia calls the harmful atua to drop of or a death dropping (he taka mate).ccclxi Rower’s Timing Chant decipherment The Grand Tradition of the Canoe of Rata - Segment 1 and 2:
Text H: Large Santiago: /
2-41-220.9-220.9-440-440-440-440.20?-205s-205s-4.3-4.3 / 65.71-65-22?-65.3-66.95-10t-66.3-66.48f-66-1-66-100-66.9.10?-66.6.10

Text P: Large St. Petersburg:

/
2-41 -220.9 -220.9-440-440-440-440.20?-205-205-4.3-4.3 / 65.71-65-65.3-66.95-66.3?-66.49f-66-1-66-66-22-22-66.9-66.6

Text Q: Small St. Petersburg:

18

Tu-poi-poi: stand with a wave offering. See the chant of the Aotea above for Whakairihia! We raise our offerings! (Those in the canoe, wave twirling poi/balls over head to imitate
old custom of priests raising up kumara offering to Rongo).

182

/
2-41 -220.9-220.9-440-440-440-440.20?-305s-305-4.3-4.3 / 65.71-65-22?-65.3-66.95-21t-66.3?-66.48f-66-1-66-66-100-66.9.10?-66.6

1a-b 2a-b
Text A: Tahua (Oar):

3a-d

4a-b

5a-b
/

6a-b 7a-d

8a-d

9 10b-c

430.40-220.9-220.9-440-440-440-440-445-695-4.3.?-4

65.3-65.3 -65.95-65 -65.22f -65 -1-65-22-65.450y-65.9-65.6-4-4-4

10a 10b 10c 1- Tautoru (Poaka whiti) Hine -2- Tua-rama Tua-rama-3- uga uga uga uga-waho -4turou turou -5- maro maro / -6- Raha rakau marama rere -7- raro Rata-marama-raro rakau kouru -8- rakau koiwi rakau rakau (ratorua) -9- hourua waka -10- ramaku raha(ku) ranga(ku) 1- Orion (Rigel – pass over) Night Maiden -2- light our journey back (to the ancestors), light our turning back –3- lead (ahead), lead, lead, lead-forth -4- the reaching stick, the reaching stick, -5- extend one fathom / -6- extended tree of flying chips -7- intercessor Rata-the-Intercessor of flying chips joining together at the tree-top -8- the tree (hewn) to the bone or trunk, the tree, the tree (Ratorua – the name of the battle when Uenuku defeated Whena in Rarotonga) -9- the double-hull canoe -10- (with) a torch of long light, (over) a great expanse, rise high (this canoe). Translated: Night Maiden, Hina, pass over Orion (for a good journey) and light our way back to the ancestors; lead, lead, lead, lead-forth; with the reaching stick, with the reaching stick, extend, extend one fathom; on this long tree of flying chips; of the intercessor Rata-intercessor of flying chips joining together at the tree-top; the tree hewn to the bone at the battle of Rarotonga; where the double-hull canoe; with longlasting torch; over the great expanse; rise up this canoe. 1: Tautoru, Orion; Poaka, Rigel : from the appearance of Orion‘s belt = Tautoru, Orion; or as syllables PO/poipoi, balls + AKA, root or ancestors = Poaka, Rigel; Hina, moon goddess from Moon glyph arching left as in the Mamari Tablet moon calendar. The overall intended result may be Hine-nui-te-po – Underworld Night Maiden of the Moon; (And/or) The moon passing over Orion as a good omen for embarking out to sea, since Orion by itself is regarded as a bad omen. Hine-nui-te-po is identified as the sister of Rata and daughter of Tane.ccclxii Rapanui chants for further study: Ramon Campbell chant 10 Aku Aku de Vinapu E te barua era, o te aro era; o Hanga Hoon, o Maunga O-Pipi; ira te poki ta-tairunga i te hoi; e te Aku-AKU. Haka i matua mo taana poki mo taana poki ngaro vai e... Pore nui eri ngaro e... 183

Kai too koe e taina e, i te poki haka eke hokotahi noo tata ora noo mai e te hoi... Kai toe koe i te poe maharo mataki mo a ki toou aro Pore nui eri ngaro e... I te era ana koe e taina ere... te tau'a e hoki e... Ararua-rua aro e... Ka tomo Manu-Nihi-Nihi kiraro ka hahati Mata-Tutuma, Mata-Tutuma, A-koe-koe, Mata Tutuma, A-koe-koe... E... tangi mo te poki tata Ora ai i runga i te hoi e... Ramon Campbell Chant 13 Cantos – Tuu-maheke E Tuu-maheke, te Ariki nui, kapiri mai ki tangi-tangi, ia matua e: Ena e, tangi nei. Ena e. Tangi-tangi nei. A te ara hapaina, pakapaka kina era, taua e taina e, a runga te ngaruhoa e: Ena e, tangi nei, Ena e. Tangi-tangi nei. Ka tangi a tai a hare manaba beabea o taina e, o te ngaruhoa e: Ena e, tangi nei. Ena e. Tangitangi nei. Ihea te ngaruhoa ngaro mai nei? I tahatai i menema behi tiare! ngaro mai nei: Ena e, tangi nei, Ena e. Tangi-tangi nei. E riu-tangi no te ngarukoa e... e...

The Grand Tradition of the Canoe of Rata – Segment 3
Text H: Large Santiago:

554?-15-22f-554?-110-15-22f-554-13-15-22f-554-200-15-22f-8-451-15-22f-5:8-15-22f-8.6-15-22f-8-4.64-15-22f-553?

Text P: Large St. Petersburg:

554-15-22f-551-110-15-22f-81.61-27-15-22f-81.61-13-15-22f-8.61 -200 -15-22f-8-451-15-22f -5:8-15-22f-8.6:15?-22f-8-4.64-15-22f-553-15-22f

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

Text Q: Small St. Petersburg: Text Q is damaged here...
554 -15 -22f -551-110 -15-22f-551-13-15-22f-551 -200-15-22f -8

Text A: Tahua (Oar): Nine glyphs (65.450y-65.9-65.6-4-4-4-67-34-60.260) are removed to align with Text H, P & Q below)

554?-22f-551.71 -22f -552 -22f-551

-22f-301.8

-22f-8.451-22f -5:8-22f

-8.6-22f

-8

-4.64-22f -553-22f

1- rangi-tokotoko ara waka -2- rangi-ngari kohuhu ara waka -3- Hikurangi-ri koko ara waka -4- rangi-ngari (Hikurangi-ri) tokorua ara waka -5- rangi-ngari Tu ara waka -6-

184

raro(tonga) ara waka -7- ra-matara ara waka -8- ra-haka ara waka -9- ra-mana ara waka -10- ra-mama (ga-rauhiva) ara waka The ray‘s of dawn are the pathway for the canoe; with the chorus to pull the rowers together to the well spring on the pathway for the canoe; to the Holy Mountain well spring on the pathway for the canoe; hear the chorus of canoe timing (to the Tapu Mountain) on the Sun and Moon‘s (day and night) pathway for the canoe; hear the chorus for canoe timing and stand fast with the deity of War, Tu on the pathway for the canoe; at the Underworld house pulled up by Maui‘s fish hook on the pathway for the canoe; the Sun loosing the dawn on the pathway for the canoe; the working Sun on the pathway for the canoe; the powerful Sun on the pathway for the canoe; the nimble Sun on the pathway for the canoe.
Related Chant:

E ara rakau e! E ara rakau e! E ara inano e. E kopukopu te tini o kupolu. E matakitaki, kareko! Oo

A pathway for the canoe! A pathway for the canoe! A path of sweet scented flowers. The entire family of the birds of Kupolu. Honour you (Rata) above mortals.

There are 10 sections or verses to this portion of the Canoe of Rata chant that contains the pathway for the canoe: There are 10 sections or verses to this portion of the Canoe of Rata chant that contains the pathway for the canoe: 1. Rangi-tokotoko ara waka: the sky‘s sunrays are a pathway for the canoe. Text H, P & Q: Text A: Rangi-tokotoko – from ra, sun + ngi, unfinished + toko toko, to support, to row together (Tregear. 1891. tokotoko). Rangi-nana from RANGI, sky + NANA, to feel for, to reveal = Rangi-nana, the sky is bent on revenge. Ara waka from a pathway for the Canoe. Wanawana means bristles as found on the canoe, may represent the Maori terms for rays of the Sun, toko or wana. As wana, these rays may be figurative of the deified ancestral priests or spirit medium called, Wananga. Together the three glyphs might read ‗a pathway for the canoe of a spirit medium‘.ccclxiii Their memorial is the canoe raised up as a conduit for the spirit medium, called a Standing-Up-Rod.ccclxiv 2. Rangi-ngari kohuhu ara waka: the sky chant to pull rowers together toward the well-spring (of the ancestors) on this pathway for the canoe. Text H, P & Q: Rangi-ngari from RA, Sun + NGI, unfinished + NGA, to breathe + RI/rima, the hand = a division or portion of a song (Tregear. 1891. Rangi) to pull rowers together in 185

timing (Tregear. 1891. ngari). Kohuhu from KO/koko, to dig a hole + HUHU, concave = a well spring (Rangi-riri is the fountain on the ocean floor where all fish spring forth. This fountain is likened to the well Rata severed the head of the Underworld deity who killed his father. It is here the Table of Rata on the ocean floor the Underworld is broken and the fish boil up to the surface. In Richard Taylor‘s Te Ika a Maui, on New Zealand and Its Inhabitants, the ancient rowers‘ chant of the Aotea canoe also uses rangi with plenty of chorus: Kit e rangi, hapainga;… to the heavens raise it (a hoe, paddle) Ki te rangi tu te koko.… to the heavens, lift it. Here the rowers paddle is an offering raised on high and plunged into the sea. The chant also uses ara, or pathway in multiply chorus.ccclxv 3. Hikurangi-ri koko ara waka: Toward the Sacred Mountain lift your paddle on the pathway for the canoe. Text P: Text A: Hikurangi-ri koko from HIKU, tail + RANGI, Sun/sky + RI/rima, a hand + KOKO, concave = the sacred mountain spring (in the sea producing all fish) (Tregear. 1891. Hikurangi). Ri works as an abbreviation for ngari, a canoe timing chant and may also by itself be a sacred screen making Tapu what appears on the other side of the hand. Thus, the mountain spring is sacred and restricted from common use. Guy identifies verse 3 as contained only on Text A and P (Guy. 1985. P. 381). It makes sense when Text P, verse 2 and 3 read as follows: Sing of the well spring of the pathway for the canoe, At the holy mountain well spring of the pathway for the canoe. In Text A, the glyphs appear as a moon being raised over the Sun. Logographically, this coincides with both the Aotea Canoe chant with koko meaning lift and a play on the Tokorua of verse four below. Tokorua in verse four is intended as a syllabic pun for Sun and Moon. 4. Rangi-ngari tokorua (Hikurangi-riri) ara waka: Chorus of the rowers divided both night and day (on the Sacred Mountain) on the pathway for the canoe. Text H & Q: Text P: Text A:

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Rangi-ngari (Hikurangi-riri) toritori from TO/toko, pole + RI/riki, fragment = toritori, to divide. Tokorua from TOKO, pole + RUA, two = tokorua – nga tokorua a Taingahue, ―The Twins of Taingahue‖ are the sun and moon (Tregear. 1891. Tokorua). Also, Nga tokorua a tongotongo: the two children of Tongotongo, the Sun and Moon (Tregear. 1891. Ra). Hikurangi is the first place where the dawn sun touches the earth. 5. Rangi-ngari rari Tu ara waka: The chorus for the rowers who shout for Tu, the deity of war, to conquer the pathway for the canoe. Text H & Q: Text P: Text A: Rangi-ngari rari Tu. Rari from RA, the Sun + RI/rima, the hand = to make a loud noise. Tu from TU, to stand = Tu of the Angry Face, deity of war. Taylor‘s Aotea Canoe Chant, Tu is placed in Kei te aweawe nui no Tu, the great expanse (or multitude) of Tu. 6. Raro(tonga) ara waka: (Maui) the light, draws up the Underworld habitation on the pathway for the canoe. Text H & P: 8-451-15-22f

Text A: 8.451-22f . Raro from RA, the Sun + RO/Rou, a fish hook = the bottom. Rarotonga the house at the bottom of the sea hooked by Maui, and pulled up land for humanity. The Rarotonga house belonged to Hine-nui-te-po, goddess of the Underworld.ccclxvi As a canoe migrates, the sighted land appears to rise up out of the sea. 7. Ra-matara ara waka: where the sky meets the Underworld loosen the dawn providing a pathway for the canoe. Text H & P: Text A: Ra-matara from RA, the Sun + MATA, the eyes + RA/ara, a pathway = to loosen or set free the Sun (an incantation for the dawn). Rangimata from RA/rangi, the Sun/the sky + MATA, the eyes = the canoe of the Moriori migration.ccclxvii

8. Ra-haka-ara waka: = let the Sun work on the pathway for the canoe. Text H: Text P: 187

Text A: Ra-haka from RA, the Sun + HAKA, the verbal hand sign for work or action = the work of the Sun. 9. Ra mana ara waka: the Sun is our source of power on the pathway for the Canoe. Text H & P: Text A: Ra mana from RA, the Sun + MA/mahina, the moon + NA/naunau, to feel for (as a mosquito), to reveal = the power of the Sun. 10. ra-mama ara waka: The sun is nimble on the pathway for the canoe Text H? & P: Text A: Ra-mama from RA, the sun + MA/mata, the eyes + MA/mata = ra-mama, the light and nimble sun. Also ga-rauhiva from RA, the sun + GA-RAUHIVA, twins = the twins (Morning and Evening Star). Ra mana ara waka: the Sun is the spiritual force on the pathway for the Canoe. Guy makes an interesting observation in the statistical analysis of glyph 22f (Guy. 1985. P. 381), the plausible ‗canoe‘. In Text A, the bristles appear to alternate from left to right in most of the 10 glyphs. This may be a representation of the paddles alternating or the Chief of the canoe swinging the timing stone from left to right as he chants the timing song. In Tablet P there appears to be a variation of glyph 22f from pairs of ‗biconvex‘ or half size ‗canoes‘ to pairs of ‗meniscus‘ full size ‗canoes‘ (Guy. 1985. P. 381). There may be a play on ‗extra‘ syllables at use here. It is plausible that the bristles (wanawana), stand for the wananga priestly medium or deified ancestor of this canoe. In this case, Rata and/or the recently deceased. Regardless of the meaning, Guy‘s finding is an important clue towards the rediscovery of more than one rongorongo school or leading teacher at work on the island (Guy. 1985. P. 387). ________________________________________________________________________ The Grand Tradition of the Canoe of Rata - Segment 4-5 (extra 3 glyphs).
Text H:

-90?-60?-36-200 -4-4-4 -7 -2 / -60-93-70 -520- 381 -8 -1.8 Text P:

-739-73.306 -431

/
67-15.34 -200.44-90-60-36.200 -4.4.4 -7 -2 / -60-93-70 -520-D380 -8 -1.8 -739-73.306-431(335?)

188

4.1a-b 2
Text Q: damaged

3a-c

/ 5.1a-c

2a-c

3a-b

4a-b / extra 1a-c

-520- 381 -8 -1.8 -739-73.306 -431 -200 Text A:

/ 67 -34 -60.260 -554-22f / 65.6-4 -4 -4 -7 -2 / -60-93-70 -200-D394

-8

-1.8

-421-739

Seg. 4: 1a-b- Pua ara tiare -2- Tuata -3a-b- mata wae -3c- poipoi Tu Seg. 5: 1a- mate/mato -1b- Reinga -1c- Tautoru/Poaka -2a- wae -2b- tumata -2cmatariki -3a- tupa -3b- tangata -4a- ra‘a -4b- tiki-rangi Extra glyphs: -1a- taniwha (punga-mako) -1b- tuata-tahaua-ata -1c- atu tangaroa Seg. 4: Flower; pathway sweet scent; canoe ceremony; face the division; of the wave offering of Tu; Seg. 5: for the dead in deep swamp Underworld of darkness at the apportioning of kindling for the souls gathered at the Pleiades; to carry the man to the Sun at the pillar of the Sky (at dawn); where the water monster (shark) (is defeated) by the canoe releasing ceremony and nimble souls supported by Lord (of the sea) Tangaroa. Related Chant(s): A Pathway for the Canoe…A pathway of sweet scented flowers… Seg4.1. pua ara tiare – flower pathway sweet scent.

Horley presents a possible parallel to this glyph 067 as glyph 133 and also attributes glyph 055b and 068 as potentially synonymous, giving reason to further study the variations of Barthel‘s glyphs 162-176. (Horley. 2009. P. 260). Here is the line of the Pathway of the Canoe: E ara inano e – the pathway of sweet scented flowers. Tiara means a traveller and tiari means to hang. The scent glyph is a hanging of resin off of sweet smelling plants.

2. Tuata – from TU, to stand, god of war and ATA, spirit or shadow = Tuata, the ceremony for removing tapu from a canoe. 3a. Mata wae – face the division.

Mata wae from MATA, the eyes + wae, the foot = face the division. 3c. Poipoi Tu – from poipoi, ball game or wave offering and Tu, war god.

This is a wave offering to Tu, the war god. If Tu is our protective spirit from glyph 2 above, it is only right to honor him with a wave offering. The wave offering is 189

also common to the pathway for the canoe chant in the karakia or pure prayers of the Maori. Seg.5.1a. Mate – death; mato – a deep swamp

Mate – from maripi, knife + tengi, three = death. Mato – from maripi and toru (three) = a deep swamp. Matoka-rau-tawhiri is the wife of Wahieroa. In her pregnancy with Rata, she desired the fairies, koko birds or tui birds and her husband died trying to get them. Perhaps she is the deep swamp or Reinga or Po, or queen of it. Reinga Po – the Underworld of Darkness.

1b-c.

Reinga Tautoru Poaka – from Rei(nga), the reimiro neck ornament + Tautoru, Orion + Poaka from PO/poipoi, balls + AKA, root = Poaka, Rigel. Reinga and Po are both terms for the Underworld. 2a-c wae tumata matariki– Apportion the burning of the Pleiades, the gathering place of the deceased. The Pleiades, Matariki rose at the burning time for stars, which was dawn. To align their clan with the stars, the tohunga priest would open the maori oven at this time so that the smoke would rise and feed the Pleiades, which was considered in a weakened state. As Matariki rose, the planting season would begin. .

3a-b tu-pa tangata ngari from TU, to stand + PA, deity of food consumption (marked by round belly) or PA, to reach one‘s ears (marked by sagging ear) = tupa, to carry; tangata the man. 4ara‘a tiki-rangi – the Sun, the pillar of the sky. Dawn as it appears to make a pillar reflecting off of the water. Extra glyphs: -1ataniwha (punga-mako) – a water monster or shark.

1b- tuata-tuhaua-ata – tuata from TU, to stand + ATA, spirit/shadow = tuata, a ceremony for raising tapu from a new canoe. Tuhaua-ata from TU, to stand + HA/haka, to work (from the hand) + U/ueue, a support + ATA, spirit = tuhaua-ata, quick, nimble spirit.

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Tuwhakararo is the son of Rata. Tuwha means to divide or apportion. Whakauekaipapa is an ancient ancestor and father of Kopako and Tupa. 1c- atu tangaroa – from ATU, turn around + TA/taha, side + NGA, to breathe + ROA, long = atu tangaroa, Lord Tangaroa, the deity of the sea and the deity of war.

Expanded Translation: Segment 1:
/

Night Maiden, Hina, pass over Orion (for a good journey) and light our way back to the ancestors; lead, lead, lead, lead-forth; with the reaching stick, with the reaching stick, extend, extend one fathom Segment 2: on this long tree of flying chips; the intercessor Rata-intercessor of flying chips joins together at the tree-top; the tree hewn to the bone at the battle of Rarotonga; where the double-hull canoe; with long-lasting torch; over the great expanse; rise up this canoe. Segment 3: rangi-tokotoko ara waka rangi-ngari kohuhu ara waka Hikurangi-ri koko ara waka rangi-ngari (Hikurangi-ri) tokorua ara waka rangi-ngari Tu ara waka raro(tonga) ara waka ra-matara ara waka ra-haka ara waka ra-mana ara waka ra-mama (ga-rauhiva) ara waka The ray‘s of dawn are the pathway for the canoe; with the chorus to pull the rowers together to the well spring on the pathway for the canoe; to the Holy Mountain well spring on the pathway for the canoe; hear the chorus of canoe timing (to the Tapu Mountain) on the Sun and Moon‘s (day and night) pathway for the canoe; hear the chorus for canoe timing and stand fast with the deity of War, Tu on the pathway for the canoe; at the Underworld house pulled up by Maui‘s fish hook on the pathway for the canoe; the Sun loosing the dawn on the pathway for the canoe; the working Sun on the pathway for the canoe; the powerful Sun on the pathway for the canoe; the nimble Sun on the pathway for the canoe. Segment 4: Pua ara tiare Tuata mata wae Poipoi Tu Flower; pathway sweet scent; canoe ceremony to remove tapu; face the division of the wave offering of Tu, deity of war; 191

Segment 5: Note: The main line comes from Text P, related allographs appear above from Text A below from Text H.

Mate-mato Reinga Tuatoru-poaka wae tumata matariki tupa tangata ra‘a tiki-rangi for the dead in the deep swamp of the Underworld of darkness apportion a burning of the Pleiades where carried our ancestors are enlightened by the Sun at the pillar of the Sky (at dawn). Matariki was the constellation where the ancestors gathered from the grave. It rose in mid-winter to the laments seasoned with a joyful anticipation for the New Year. Matariki‘s rising occurred at what was called the burning rays of the Sun, meaning dawn. Extra Glyphs: Note: Text P appears in the centre, related allographs appear above from Text A below from Text Q.

taniwha (punga-mako) tuata-tahaua-ata atu tangaroa where the water monster (shark) (is defeated) in this pure ceremony to remove tapu from the canoe by nimble spirits supported by Tangaroa (deities of the sea). (Note: in the ceremony the crew eat the fish offering and as in the canoe karakia presented by Shirres above, the deity eats his enemy, the enemy is symbolized by a fish (death as a giant fish or taniwha).

Conclusion:
Rata advocates for the ancestors by providing a vessel to break the waves of death and rise up carried on this celestial pathway to the stars. From this spiritual volcano of death come a shoal of fish, which represent all people. The birdmen are the elect commissioned to help gather the fish. At Sunrise, when all mysteries are brought to light, even the elect admit their own helplessness when standing face to face with Makemake. Yet, in the Raising of the Rods we find an Advocate and Mediator in Rata, who builds a vessel for us and our ancestors to break the waves of death and rise up this divine pathway of Rakau, the Canoe, the Sacred Tree of Life, of Maui.

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Chapter 11 Tuhinapo-Rapa: The Guardian of Ocean Migrations

193

Rapa Oar with

Guardian of Ocean Migrations

This pictoglyph of Tuhinapo Rapa is found engraved on the large Reimiro neck ornament of the Easter Island Chief (Illustrated by Jayme Dansereau, 2011).
The Reimiro neck ornaments were worn by early Easter Island royalty. The syllables of Tu-hi-na-po unravel from the appearance of the glyph where each section forms a syllable from the symbol it signifies, starting from the bottom two legs: TU (representing to stand); HI/hianga (to stoop or to fall); NA/nao or wha (to feel for/to reveal); PO/poi (a ball) = TU – HI – NA – PO + the RAPA oar as the Guardian of Ocean Migrations (Dansereau, 2011; Tregear, 1891). The Easter Islanders have retained enough words in the old Rapa Nui dictionary to confirm: Tu (to crush); Higa (to fall); Naonao (a mosquito or one who feels for); Popo (a ball).

Does this plausible decipherment match any of the Rongorongo written on the remaining 23 writing tablets of Easter Island? The Tuhinapo-rapa glyph appears similar to the following:

Glyph 87 Glyph 99!

is the Rapa oar. Easter Island also uses the term Ao for a ceremonial oar. contains the pegs or feet of the syllable for stand, which is TU. These legs . Glyph 99 also contains what appears to be

also appear at the bottom of Tuhinapo

a spade or an oar resting on the legs, as in Glyph 99a . The syllables work as follows: TU, to stand + RA/rapa, the oar + MA/mata, to look or to face = Turama, meaning to 194

light a torch. The body of the glyph appears like an upside-down torch. In fact, this glyph , Tura-rama-ure, contains the torch glyph atop the legs and the oar. 521 522 522c 522f 522v and

In its varying forms, glyph 520

glyph 523 each contain a likeness to Tuhinapo-Rapa . All contain a ball and a bending nose; the form of the arms is usually a stump and the Rapa oar appears to be contained within the glyph. As well the open palm at the end of the bend appears also on several variations in the 520 glyphs. Glyph 685a! also contains this open palm which represents the syllable NA/naonao, meaning to grasp or to reveal. It is in this form (685a!, 522v) that the glyphs appear to most clearly represent Tuhinapo-Rapa. Where glyph 99 formerly read, Turama, to light a torch; glyph 522v reads, Tura-hinapo from TU, to stand + RA/rapa, the power oar + HI/hianga, to bend + NA/naonao, to grasp + PO/popo, a ball = Tura-hinapo, Tura (a famous ocean navigator in ancient Polynesia) and hinapo means the rays of twilight, extending the name to Tura-of-the-Rays-of-Twilight. What is it then, Tuhinapo-Rapa or Tura-hinapo? The Easter Island tablets are teaching us how Polynesian mythology unfolded from the time of the ocean navigator, Tura. Tregear tells of Maori and Polynesian myths of Tura as follows: Tura is a chief of the ancient homeland called, Hawaiki, where the great ocean navigator, Whiro, convinced Tura to migrate to a distant shore. They approached a land called Otea. Whiro continued on the ocean, but Tura stayed and married Turakihau of the Te-aitanga-a-nuku-mai-tore fairies. In Otea, all women died during childbirth do to use of Caesarian birth, but Tura kept his wife alive by keeping away the midwives who perform the operation. He then instructed her to give birth between two pillars, one representing a boy and the other a girl. It was a boy she bore. Their child‘s name was Tauira-ahua, meaning Apprentice/Disciple Lifted-up, as in the moai statues on the platforms. To his first wife, Tura‘s first son was Ira-tu-roto, who remained in Whiro‘s canoe on route to Wawau. This first son returned to Otea and carried back Tura to die peacefully in his homeland of Hawaiki. Also worthy of note: In Hawaii, Tura, spelled Kura, was one that could leap over mountains and perch on twigs. Kura is also a place where birds assemble. It was the overhanging branches of Otea that Tura leapt off of Whiro‘s canoe to reach the land. When Tura saved the life of his wife Turaki, she began to notice grey hairs on his head. Being immortal, Turaki now understood the mortality of Tura. She wept and began to pluck them out, crying, ―The weeds of Tura,‖ for grey hairs. Thus the Maori proverb: Ka tata ki a koe nga taru o Tura! Sebastien Englert, in Leyendas, relates a legend of Easter Island concerning the arrival of Hotu Matua and his sister (or wife) Ava Reipua. From Orongo atop Rano Kao, the sons of Hotu Matua, Ira and Raparenga, notice Hotu and Reipua‘s canoes at Motu Nui, the island of the Tangata Manu (Birdman) Egg Hunt. The sons cried out, Ahoy, you out there on the sea! It‘s a bad island, Weeds (kahukahu oheke) grow where you pull them up (unu), 195

Weeds (kahukahu oheke) where you uproot them (vere), Weeds (kahukahu oheke) is what there is more than enough. Are these bad weeds found by Hotu Matua and his sister, Reipua, the same weeds of Tura pulled up by his wife, Turaki? Tregear speaks of these weeds or Kurakura as spirits of the dead, which are the bad growth that comes from the seed of the dead body. In the Easter Island legend, the two words for pulling up the weeds are unu and vere, meaning to cut the hair and to pull up weeds. In the Easter Island myth another interesting parallel is regarding the reefs of Tama (the child), which Reipua‘s canoe must pass over to arrive at Motu Kaukau (island of the sharp point). Not only did Tura save his wife and their child from the cutting of Caesarian birth, but Hotu Matua saved Reipua from the undercutting on the canoe caused by this of the Reef of the Child. Interestingly, it is Ira, the first child of Hotu Matua, that warns them of the sharp reefs. How are spirits of the deceased (Kahukura o heke), the bad weed of Heke, supposed to face their mortality? Their heads are shaved as in the play on unu and vere after they have won the Tangata Manu, Birdman Egg Hunt on Motu Nui. Then they follow the road to Orohie on the side of Rano Raraku. All the moai statues in the volcano are bald, while the statues that have followed the roads to the ahu platforms often contain red hats. This hair becomes the most sacred object on Easter Island ceremony, since it represents mortal spirits, Kahukahu o Heke, belonging to Heke (spider or octopus), the builder of the roads on Easter Island. The statues carved out of the volcano parallels the Caesarian birth, but also the carving of the apprentice by way of the Tattooing Ceremony performed at Orongo at the beginning of the Tangata Manu. Tura marries Turaki, of the Aitanga-a-Nuku-mai-tore tribe. The name means the descendants of Nuku (rainbow deity) of the Flaming Eyes, like the moai statues lifted up on the platforms with eyes inlaid with shining shells. Toretore means having flaming eyes; tore, to burn, to grow, to project as a stick, all symbols of fertility and light. Nuku, meaning broad land, is the name of the Polyensian Rainbow deity, also known as kopako Uenuku-kopako . These Nuku-mai-tore fairies were known to have big bodies with limbs so small they appeared to have none. They waved their hands close to their bodies, much like the Easter Island moai statues. They were also known to have no heads or little heads, much like the Uenuku glyph shown above. Their children were always born by Caesarian operation or cutting, much like the moai statues cut out of the hillside. They lived in the trees as if these fairies were aspects of the Birdmen of the Easter Island egg hunt. These memories of Easter Island ceremony, stone and story in broader Polynesian mythology solidify this discovery of Tura on the Easter Island tablets Tura hinapo, the navigator and bringer of life to the carved out stones on Easter Island. No wonder he was chosen as the guardian of ocean migration, Tuhinapo .

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The Reimiro neck ornament has a corresponding glyph on the Easter Island tablets, which appears as the REI syllable , or the glyph signifying the Underworld, Reinga. As Tura appears on the Easter Island tablets, it would stand to reason that this glyph appears near his name. As well, the Rapa glyph and the Whiro(hiro) glyph as it appears on the moon calendar should also occur near the Tura glyph, since they are considered brothers or related characters of Polynesian lore. Samples of these glyphs as they appear with Tura-hinapo are given below: Cb1213 On the Tablet Cb12-13 above, the Rapa oar on the left of Tura-hinapo is a recurring theme and the Rei glyph on the right occurs here and on Tablet Er4 below. Er4 Tablet Ev6 contains the moon calendars Whiro(hiro) glyph six characters to the right of Tura-hinapo. Consider the distribution chart of Tura-hinapo with REI, RAPA and WHIRO below: Glyph REI RAPA WHIRO # with 40 10 8 Total on Tablets 175 50 20 % occurrence 23% 20% 40%

The Reimiro neck ornament carved with Tuhinapo-Rapa appears in glyph form together on the Easter Island tablets in a corresponding ceremonial or mythical fashion as the Rei and Tura or the Rapa and Tura glyphs at least 20%

of the time. Of the 10 times Tura

or the Rapa

oar are carved together on the tablets,

the Rei glyph appears 7 times. This means that when Tura-hinapo is identified with his Rapa power oar, it is used to drive through the underworld of Reinga 70% of the time. 197

This theory confirms the use of the tablets for the writing of funerary chants that correspond with broader Polynesian mythical story and ceremonial chants. Remarkably, glyph 771 contains the TURA lower portion of Tura-hinapo and the

upper portion becomes REI tilted sideways. The result is an appearance very similar to the Reimiro neck ornament itself as it would rest on the chest of the island royal. This confirms that TURA circled here (as TU, stand + RA/rapa, oar) is likely an

abbreviation of Tuhinapo-Rapa by combining the first syllable of the two words that make up the name. Based on Tablet Rb2-3 below, the Tura glyph variation appears 3 times near the placement of Glyph 771 . The glyph syllables can be abbreviated as TU + RAPA (turapa, to leap) + REI/reinga, giving Turapa-reinga, the underworld (lit. the Leaping Place – the gateway to the underworld of Polynesian Mythology). Tablet Rb2 Tablet Rb3 What is more remarkable is that the Whiro (hiro) glyph appears with the Tura

glyph 40% of the time. In other words, since the Whiro glyph appears 8 out of 20 times with the Tura glyph, the glyph names are not only being confirmed, but also the greater Polynesian legend of Whiro and Tura is likely being presented on the Easter Island tablets. This theory is solidified by the fact that of these 8 appearances of Whiro (hiro) with Tura , the Rei underworld glyph is there every time. Why is this significant? In Polynesian Mythology, Whiro of the New Moon is also deity of the underworld and Tura embarks on Whiro‘s canoe migration to this underworld. Considering the overall mythology, Tura is the first ancestor that came to the island to give life to the moai statues. That is, he saves the mothers from dying at birth and the Nuku-mai-tore fairy children (like the moai statues with large bodies and carved out of the mother earth) become immortal. These fairy people are the Birdmen (Bird-people) of Easter Island and these are funerary prayers to offer immortality to the dead. In Polynesian mythology Tura is the first mortal to journey to Otea, this Island of Light (enlightenment represented by the wide eyes of the moai statues inlaid with bright shells), making Tura synonymous with Hotu Matua, the founding father of Easter Island. Confirming this theory is the fact that Tura and Hotu Matua have the same navigating son, named Ira.

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The fitting together of these historic clues is a key to open the door to Polynesian history, first settled on Easter Island. This settlement later migrated to New Zealand and Hawaii leaving behind memories of the Rapanui tablet mythology and Birdman ceremony all over Oceania. Using key flag glyphs, such as Tuhinapo-Rapa and Tura-hinapo, used in the broader Polynesian mythology an unraveling of more syllables on the Easter Island tablets does occur. In fact, there are Rosetta Stone like portions of Polynesian chants confirmed on the Easter Island tablets, such as the portion of the Canoe of Rata chant on the Easter Island tablets given below: Text P: Ara waka… pua ara-inano A Pathway for the Canoe…A pathway of sweet scented flowers… Tregear identifies this portion of the Canoe of Rata chant as follows: E ara rakau e! E ara rakau e! A pathway for the canoe! A path for the canoe! E ara inano e. E kopukopu te tini o kupolu. E matakitaki, kareko! Oo A path of sweet scented flowers. The entire family of the birds of Kupolu. Honour you (Rata) above mortals.

Therefore, the tablets speak for themselves in regard to the Polynesian navigator Tura.

Tura-hinapo deciphered on the Easter Island Tablets Text Na3 Tiki Taga-Topu (Tupu) Pakohu-Tiki (x3) ika-po Tiki-(cause) the youth (to sprout, to grow, a generation, a tribe, a board used for incantations), at the Chasm of Tiki (x3), the Fish of the Underworld (the Milky Way abode of ancestors) Tahi Tokorua Tiki-haka Tura-hinapo to (Potiki) Tane to (Potiki) Tura-hinapo Tiki-haka Sweep, Twins of Taingahue (sun and moon, your plural), pillar of power (sunbeam/moonbeam/Tiki the Powerful) with Tura-hinapo (migration deity), sunrise (child) of Tane (bird deity, Creator, model for Tangata Manu birdmen) the sunrise (child), Tura-hinapo (hina is grey hairs, the weeds of Tura), the pillar of power (Tiki the Powerful)

Na3

In Polynesian Mythology Tura saves his fairy wife, Turaki, from death during childbirth. Then he places her between two poles representing a son or a daughter. This placing between the poles appears with the Tura glyph in several different ways. In Text Na3 199

above, the two poles are listed after the sweeping glyph, these same two poles are elaborated on with the hand glyph and the ball glyph. Tura-hinapo and Tane appear in unison with these Tikitiki representations. Tikitiki means to tie up as a knot of thread, or a top-knot in the hair. The top-knot represents enlightenment, since Maui-potiki (tikitiki) was nourished as an infant in his mother Taranga‘s topknot. Perhaps Taranga is one and the same as Hina, since it is her hair that Maui uses as a noose to captures the sun. In fact, in Rapanui, the hina from Tura-hinapo can mean grey hair. The grey hairs of Tura, or the mythical weeds of Tura appear as bristles on top of the glyph. When Taranga tossed Maui-potiki from her top-knot into the sea, he was raised by Mu and Weka. They wrapped him in seaweed to nourish Po-tiki. These themes of the hair of wisdom tied up in the sun reflect the image of Tura, Maui and Tane as the deity of the sun and bestower of life upon newborn children. Therefore, the newborn is positioned between the pillars of the sun and moon beams to become full of light and life just as Tane and Maui-potiki. That is, the children of Easter Island become enlightened bird people in the chant above just as their ancestors through the Tangata-manu Birdman Egg Hunt. Text H Text P Tu-haka-waka Tiki-roa (Tuhi) Tiki turama tikiroa Popohagatikiroa War deity power the canoe (of the) great Tiki (who offers, who inscribes) who lights the torch of the great pillar of Dawn-the great pillar. Text H Text P Waka ika tautoru Tiki Tahinga-haka-rapa Turahinapo (x2) The canoe‘s fish offering (to keep in order as) Orion‘s belt Tiki (during) the Sweeping Ceremony powered by the Rapa oar of Tura-hinapo (Ocean navigator as Migration deity) (x2)

Again, the theme of Tura‘s light born as the dawn between two pillars confirms the Polynesian story of Turaki‘s son or daughter born between twin pillars. The two pillars represent the Sunbeams and Moonbeams, particularly when they reflect a pillar of light across the ocean at their rising and setting. The Moon represents Hina, the woman who flew up to heaven to make tapa cloth as a sacred covering for her children. The Sun represents Tane, bird deity and model for all the Tangata Manu birdmen. Text Sb4 Tangi (Taga) matu-haka-puna henua Tura-hinapo Tunga-mapuna henua Tura-hinapo Cry (youth) Father-who-springs (from) the earth as Tura-hinapo (Ocean navigator as Migration deity) stand and spring up the earth Tura-hinapo (Tura-of the rays of twilight)

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Sb4

Ikaroa vai ika ika-ata Reinga-roa ika ika-rao The Milky Way (Great Fish of Ancestors in the Stars) (upon) the water (are) the fish (offering); the fish of dawn (of souls) in the great Underworld; the fish (offering), the Milky Way (the great fish) Sb4 above x4) Sb4 Makemake-Reinga Tiki-roa-tohunga Tiki turama Tiki Creator in the Underworld (as) the Great Tiki-pillar and priest, Tiki light the torch of Tiki. (almost as text H/P

Between the pillars of Tura a torch of life is lit. The mythology tells of Tura‘s pillars to assist in the birth of a boy or a girl. However, it may also be used in the above chant in funerary offerings to give new life to the deceased as they rise to the Great Fish of the stars of the Milky Way with the ancestors as the torch of the stars is lit. These stars are swept during the Tahinga Sweeping Ceremony to gather with the dawn which represents the personification of the Supreme Being Tane. Mamari Cb13 Tama Hotu-matua-haka popohaka-haka tahi-kurahaka turama Child (sunbeam) of Hotu-matua-the strong at the dawn(there is) strength (to) sweep the flame with strength and light the torch. Cb13 ReiPua wananga (Reinga Pua Wananga) waka Ika waho Rapa-ua Tura-hinapo ReiPua (sister of Hotu Matua) medium (Underworld flower medium) canoe (Standing-Up-Rod spirit canoe) and fish (offering) outside (beyond) the Rapa oar (shining-rain) falling like rain (with) Turahinapo. Cb13 Tama Tura-hinapo hina ika waho Rapa Tura-hinapo Child of Tura-hinapo offer the fish beyond the pillar (of dawn)

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and (sweep with) the Power Oar of Tura-hinapo. Cb13 Nga Rapa waka-Tohunga Rapa Tura-hina-po Reinga Breath (in time with) the Power Oar of the priest of the canoe (for migration) with the Power Oar of Tura-hinapo though the Underworld.

Hotu Matua and Reipua are the first man and woman who have migrated to Easter Island. Reipua birth‘s the Tohunga priest between two Rapa oars which serve as the pillars of Turaki (wife of Tura) in this chant. The new born Tohunga priest of Reipua corresponds with Tauira-ahua (lit. Sacred Apprentice) born of Turaki and Tura. Essentially a Sacred Apprentice and a New Priest are one and the same. When a faithful Tohunga dies, he is given a funerary monument called a Standing-Up-Rod and a spirit medium designation called the wananga. This Standing-Up-Rod may be a canoe, or a tall stone, on Easter Island a moai statue. Keiti Ev6 Small Washington Ra5 Rei Pua-wananga aitanga (-a-nuku-mai-tore?) haka-ana(?) rimu-karara (wahi) ma Tura-hinapo Underworld Flower Medium of the decedents (of the Woodland Fairies, to copulate, to exist) made from the cave of the skillful (to anoint, to separate, to pass through) and purified by Tura-hinapo. Ev6 Ra5 Ika Tane (Tavake, Taha, Manu) atua aitangangana(?) mana Hiro The fish offering to Tane, Lord of the descendants of the ancestor of Tiki with the power (given?) from Hiro. (Text E and R meanings now differ; Text R continues with the Twin Pillars) Ra5 Rakau-kaha (raro) Tane-ure? haka Wakawananga haka Tangata-tikitiki tiki-rama Whanui popohaga arapo The strong tree of (below, the underworld) Tane-the-producer makes the Canoe-spiritmedium (a funerary Standing-up-Rod) makes the person between the pillars (by) 202

the pillar torch of the Great Shark, the Milky Way. Reipua, the first woman (chieftess) who migrated to Easter Island is part of the Most Common Phrase called in another chapter, the Underworld Flower Medium as seen below: Text Ev3 This expanded version occurs 7 times on the tablets Text Cv12 This abbreviated version occurs 5 times on the tablets The Underworld Flower Medium corresponds with Rei(nga) Pua Waka-Wananga. This Underworld Flower Medium is the first woman Reipua and her spirit canoe. The Spirit Canoe or Waka-wananga is the celestial abode of the dead or bird people who have completed their journey on Easter Island to the Standing Up Rods (moai statues). Standing Up Rods were grave markers of important chiefs or priests in Polynesia. Usually these rods were made by propping up the canoe of the deceased. Once the canoe decayed a stone pillar would be put in its place. This canoe or stone became a conduit or medium by which the ancestor could protect the land and bring down blessings or curses to the people when ceremonies allowed. This deceased Spirit Medium was called a Wananga when he was a faithful Tohunga who performed all the ceremonies with their corresponding chants while he was living. The word wananga is chosen to represent the canoe glyph above since it fits with the greater Polynesian spirituality of these Standing Up Rods clearly represented all over Easter Island in the statue moai. There is another reason Wananga fits the canoe glyph. Wanawana means bristles and is found on the spirit canoe glyph, thus the name, Waka-wananga. This spirit canoe becomes the harekura or wisdom school of the apprentice Tohunga (also called, Taiuha, the name of the son of Tura). All ceremonies and chants follow the same teachings of this school and these teachings work together in the islanders daily life, on the tablets, in the ceremonies and in the moai statues as an organic whole. For instance, the three baskets of knowledge , kete-aronui, the basket to help humankind; kete-tuauri, the basktet of the knowledge of ritual, memory and prayer; and kete-tuatea, the basket of knowledge of anything harmful to humankind. It was Tane who retrieved these three baskets from heaven. His elder brother Whiro felt this was his right, so he sent insects, reptiles and birds of prey to attack Tane. The Supreme Being, Io, preferred Tane and let him fly to the highest heaven to retrieve the basket aided by the winds. Tane received the kete baskets and two whatukura stones to add power and mana to teaching the knowledge. Tane became Tane-te-wananga-a-rangi (Tane bringer of knowledge from the sky) and Whiro was sent to the underworld.

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Elsewhere in Polynesian myth, Hiro(Whiro) accompanies Tura to Otea (Island of Light). Tura stays, while Hiro moves onto Wawau (Land of Darkness). Hiro (Lit. Twisted Thread) is the deity of the New Moon and the last and first crescent moons, since together they appear as a twisted thread. In the Mythology, these crescent moons may be considered the pillars of the Underword. Through rite of passage, the apprentice is ‗born‘ out of this new moon of Hiro through a darkening of the senses (through tattooing, fasting, dwelling in a cave, etc). Text Bv12 Whiro ma here Tautoru popohaga aitanga-ana ata-haka ma Tura-hinapo Whiro (Deity like a twisted thread of the New Moon) purify (those) tied (a pact) to Orion‘s belt with the dawn of the decedents in the cave where souls are made pure by Tura-hinapo. Tahi vai tuku-tiki Tiki-roa Rei-pua waka-wananga Sweep the water to unroll the pillar of Tiki the Great of Reipua, the Underworld Flower Medium (Rei-pua‘s spirit canoe).

Text Hv

Text Hv continues with Text S and A. Hv (Haka-koko) wananga-aitanga-(tirou) ana rimu(-karara) waka-hinu (wahi) ma Tura-hinapo ika (Tohunga mahanga-tama-tama Reinga Tama) Dig Spirit Medium of the descendants (who) pull (the Spirit Canoe out from) the cave with great skill (anointing) purified (consecrated) by Turahinapo with the fish offering (of the Priest of the Underworld Child Twins or Children as Bird People) Haka-koko aitanga-waka-rou arapo rimu-karara (wahi) Tura-hinapo tohunga reinga tama Dig descendants of the canoe of pulling with skill (anointed) of Tura-hinapo the priest of this underworld child.

Sa2

Aa2

Text Sa 2 ends with the Tohunga pillar twin birdmen. Text Aa2 ends with the Tohunga of the Underworld Child. The following three texts (H, P and Q) include Tura as the 204

Tohunga pillar of the Underworld Child and most resembles Aa2 above. Included here are two tohunga pillars with Tane and Tama. Text H: Text P: Text Q: Tunga-haka-kaha waha ana-mata (tama) pukoko waka-wananga-aitanga-tirou ara-iti turama tohunga reinga ma Tane Tura-hinapo haka-Tane-iha Rongo-ma-Tane(mahanga)-rou Tane-tohunga (Tane-Taga-tohu) Tohunga-tama-kaha (Tohu-marotamaroa)Tama-rama Tane-waka. Standing (ceremonial standing place of tohunga) at the mouth of the cave of vision (of the sprout) of springing up the spirit canoe of the ancestors (who are) pulling (on the) little pathway of the lit torch of the Tohunga priest of the underworld purified by Tane (Tavake, Taha, bird deity) Tura-hinapo, bird deity who lights the flame for Rongo and Tane (for the twins) who pull as bird-people and priests (who bless, who are blessed by) the priest who is a strong shoot growing (a blessed feather stick for the boy) a bird-person and a shoot lit like a torch, a birdman of the spirit canoe. As the first woman, Rei Pua births all knew apprentice tohungas and children into the harekura house of Easter Island Tohunga. As mentioned above, this house is named after the first woman herself, Reinga-Pua-waka-wananga. This spirit house or spirit canoe is also regarded as a great fish, Ikaroa, the Milky Way. As a house of one door it is the Great Water Monster Paikea, and represents death. Maui enters this house of death and opens a second door, making the house of two doors, called Ruatapu. This is the very house of Reipua and the house of enlightenment for this island people, since the very noose Maui used to snare the sun is used here to draw the light of dawn into the Spirit Canoe of Ruatapu. For a glimps of Ruatapu , the two door house of the spirit canoe, together with variations of the Tura glyph, see Aa7 and Ab1 below: Aa7 Ab1 These two lines are translated in the chapter of Ruatapu, the Two Door House. Below is a list of the Rongorongo lines that contain Tura-hina-po, guardian of ocean migrations. Finally, it may be proven that Tura and Whiro are representations of one and the same person on the Easter Island tablets. Hiro is the deity of rain on Easter Island. The person 205

who prayers for rain is called, Rako ua o hiro, meaning Pleader of Rain from Hiro (deity of rain). This name is found several times beside Tura-hinapo on the tablets. Consider the following:

Bv08: Koko tautoru-roa nga Tu-roa-kaha Tangaroa-kaha Turama ure-rou-rou Potiki rako-ua Tiki-roa-wananga Turahinapo ngati-rama-korira.???

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Chapter 12 Finding Hotu Matua

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The Finding of Hotu Matua and Rei Pua – Founding Parents of Easter Island From Equipo Rongorongo…  just a start Hotu glyph as found on the Mamari C Tablet – Moon Calendar. Ca10-12

The Hotu glyph is seen in these three lines 5 or 6 times in a pattern or chant form. Beside the Hotu glyph is an arm or broom with a ball on the right side. The glyph represents Matua from Matu‘u (right hand) and angaanga (arm). That is, MATU/matu‘u + A/angaanga = MATUA. The chant below does not appear to coincide with the Rongorongo glyphs apart from Hotu Matua. I he Hotu Matua e hura nei? Te Pito O Te Henua e hura nei. Te Pito O Te Henua e hura nei! A Hau Maka hiva. Side b of the Mamari Tablet also has variations of Hotu Matua: Variation 1: A four glyph separation; Hotu facing left. Cb6 Variation 2: A three glyph separation; glyphs reversed; matua containing the ROA or NUI glyph producing Matua-roa – the Great Parent. Cb10 Variation 3: A four glyph separation; glyphs reversed; matua containing ROA and URE glyphs attached producing the Great Father (and producer of new life? or offspring) Cb11 Variation 4: Hotu with abbreviated matua attachment (right ball); HAKA or strength glyph producing Hotu Matua the strong; 4 and 5 glyphs to the right present the most common phrase of the corpus abbreviated as Rei Pua Wananga (vanaga) where Rei-pua is 208

the name of the wife or sister of Hotu Matua producing Flower Necklace Ancestral Spirit Medium. Given the Rei-Pua glyph appears more than a dozen times on the tablets and found in a funerary context (to publish in the Sweeping of the Stars – the Decipherment of the Easter Island Tablets) it appears that the tohunga priests regarded the founding mother, Rei-Pua as the patroness of the island harekura in their function during funerary ceremonies. Cb12 Tablet/Text A: Variation 1: Lord Hotu and Hotu the Strong (or Strength to Hotu) Av2 Variation 2: Hotu-ma or Hotu-roa (perhaps nui) together with Rei-pua wananga pua Tikitawhito: Flower Necklace Ancestral Medium flower (blossoming her) First Human Being of Polynesia – (lit.) Pillar-Dwarf. Here is evidence that Hotu Matua and Pua-rei are regarded a not only the first Parents, but deified beings producing the first human offspring Tiki the trickster (Tiki-tawhito – Tikitiki-i-te-Ataranga – Maui Potiki). See Tregear (1891) Hotu; etc.

Av4 Variation 3: Pua-atua Hotu mana arapo Tiki-ara-ura – Flower-lord Hotu (swelling) power on the underworld pathway of Tiki the pathway torch bearer.

Av8 Tablet/Text E Variation: Variation with broom of Rei-pua wananga; atua (Lord) and hiro (Rain diety) separated by three glyphs; Hotu preceded by Makemake?. Ev7 Tablet/Text H and P Variations: Variation of Hotu with abbreviation from portion of Text C main chant. Hotu appears with the noose to the right (noose confirmed in Small Reimiro tattoo soothing chant). The noose is not open as usual. This variation appears to occur in the naming sequence of the Great Tohungas from TO(toko – pillar) + HU(hua – stacked) + nga(implied) + 209

ROA(the long point up variation of glyph 010); together produces Tohunga-roa Punga(Whanui)-Tiki-Punga(Taniwha) tiki Hotu kouru – The Great Priest, Pillar of all Water Monsters (who rises as) the pillar of Hotu (the swelling) Noose. Here Hotu is likened to Maui who noosed the Sun of enlightenment and conquered the long fish by pulling it up from the sea floor. Hv9 Pv10

Tablet/Text I (Santiago Staff) Variation: Variation includes Matua separated from Hotu by 4 glyphs and reversed. Matua has the Ure appendage like a Text Cb variation. The central glyphs appear to be an abbreviated name from the main chant on Text Ca. I9 Tablet/Text O Variation: Variation includes Hotu and Rei together with the noose glyph. A four glyph decipherment: Arapo Hotu-ahi Rei-ata(roa) Kouru producing on the Underworld Pathway – Hotu (with stolen) flame and Great Necklace Noose. It appears here as in the study of Polynesian myth regarding the snaring of the Sun, that Hotu represents a Maui type trickster first enlightening humanity by stealing fire from the Underworld path and noosing the Sun – both are naturally exemplified in the rising of the Sun at Dawn and ultimately signify the attaining of spiritual Enlightenment perhaps even for the dead during funerary rites.

Oa5 Barthel 31-32 the reward to the tattooing artist of Hotu Matua and Hau Maka relationship is based on the tattooing payment of a mother of pearl ornament (Rei-pua) and involved the making of fishing nets and the baiting and catching of fish (ma‘u) Hotu Matua’s Blessing over the Land for Sowing and Harvest The chant is a star chart, a tattooing chant, a planting chant and a canoe timing chant all consisting of instructions, constellations, designs and planting and harvesting times. Introductory Section Ar10 12 3 4 5 210

Tautoru Poaka Taurua Mata-wai-puna Tangaroa-uri (tauri-an attachment or an ornament of feathers attached on a taiaha weapon) Tahinga ngari uha riri (she was cut in half below) Orion‘s belt (of planting season makes furrows like) the Underworld double-hull canoe (swelling by) the well-spring source of water of the Lord of the Ocean of darkness where the Sweeping Ceremony inaugurates the new canoe, the deceased row in time to the chant of the struggle with the woman (guarding the gates of death, Hine-nui-te-po). 1-2. Tautoru from TAU, a string or cluster + TORU, three = Orion. The double glyph may represent the plural of Tau, as Tautau, a string or cluster, a counting. Taurua from TAU/tautoru, Orion + RUA, two = Taurua, a double-hull canoe. Of the Constellation Orion, Poaka is used for Rigel. This may refer to the counting of spirits of the Underworld in the rows represented by the Moai statues on the platforms and expressed in the planting of seed in sowing time. Indigenous philosophy regards the very stones as life-giving, the stars as ancestors and the seeds as their spirits sprouting life‘s breath into our children. Tatau also corresponds with tattooing and a double-hull canoe. All are analogous to the making of furrows, where on the flesh, on the land, in the sea or in the sky. 3. Mata-wai-puna from MATA, the window or eye + WA/wai, water or WA/wana, bristles + PUNA, a spring = a well spring of water. Wananga may be intended by the bristles personifying the spring as the deified ancestor of life-giving water. 4. Tangaroa-uri from TA/taha, side + NGA, to breathe + ROA, long (long pointed arm) + U/ueue, a sinew or cord + RI/rima, five (the five marks on Orion) = Tangaroa-uri, deity of the sea and the month of November (the later part of spring-time planting season). Lit. Long-Man of the Darkness. The name fits will with the use of the Orion glyph, as the constellation is best seen in the darkness of night and Rigel, or Poaka coincides with the Underworld or place of darkness of spirits. The Orion constellation represents a resting place of the ancestors. This constellation is springing off of Tangaroa logographically. Uri also means offspring, which coincides with the Polynesian spirits of the dead who first enter the sea as mermaids and mermen in order to wash themselves clean in the Ocean Waters of Tane, also called, Tane Manawa, the Heart of Tane. The deceased begin as fishlike spirits and offspring (uri) of Tangaroa, and after being washed become children of Tane, birdmen or fairies. Tangaroa-tau-ri, from tauri, meaning to attach and representing a number of feathers attached to a taiaha weapon. 5. Tahinga-ngari-uha-riri? From TA/taha, side + HI/hianga, to stoop + NGA, to breathe = Tahinga, meaning the sweeping ceremony related to the tohunga priest waving a burning branch at the stars at dawn mimicking the gathering of souls to Rehua paradise by the sacrificial rays of enlightenment. Ngari from NGA, to breathe + RI/Rianga, the arm or hand = ngari, a sacred chant giving time to rowers in a canoe. Uha from U/ueue, sinew or cord + HA, four = Uha, woman or female. Riri from the two hand glyphs. Logographically, there appears to be a cyclical motion implied in the glyph. Perhaps, Tahinga ngari uha-riri, meaning the sweeping ceremony inaugurating a canoe about to 211

depart, the song of the canoe timing chant and the battle with the woman of the Underworld (Hine-nui-te-po) as the deceased fight to paddle ahead upon her Underworld waters. Summary: During the Spring-time sowing season ending near November, Tangaroa-uri, this Lord of the Ocean guides the ancestors across the sea of stars toward Rehua paradise. Polynesian lore expresses this celestial double-hull canoe as Tama-rereti, the Constellation Scorpio. The name of its chief star is Rehua, Antares of Scorpio. Rehua means paradise. Scorpio is setting in the Spring toward the Southern sky. The analogy is that to set in the canoe of the ancestors or to die is to enter the paradise of Rehua. What does Scorpio have to do with Orion? The chant above gives us a double Orion, alluding to the Taurua or double-hull canoe of Tama-rereti. In this spring-time planting season of Tangaroa-uri, Midway between Scorpio falling and Orion rising is Tatanga (Canopus). Tatanga is the mother of Hina and the Tapu Guide star of rowers at sea. In the Spring Canopus forms a line in the South with Achernar and Fomalhaut. Achernar is called Marere-o-tonga; Lit. Falling South. Marere-o-tonga is one of the deified children that separated their parents Rangi and Papa. The star is also the name of the sacred first Kumara planted by the priests in this sowing season. In mythology, Marere of Tonga is the Kumara that fell from the girdle of the hero Wahieroa. Achernar is the star connected to Orion by the river Eridanus. Thus, the belt of Wahieroa may be Orion‘s belt. Wahieroa was killed by an Underworld deity, perhaps Cygnus, in the Underworld cave of the great rift. Rata the son of Wahieroa felled a tree to retrieve his fathers bones. Wahieroa literally means ‗a long piece of fireword‘, perhaps analogous to the burning branch of the Sweeping Ceremony. As Marere-o-tonga is planted, dies and then grows the Kumara roots, it follows O-Tama-Rakau (Fomalhaut) below the horizon. When seeds are planted, O-Tama-Rakau is high in the sky. By mid-summer, the tree has fallen to the horizon, to Spirit‘s Leap. As the tree from Spirit‘s Leap, there is a vine leading down to Tama-rereti Rehua. The mythology speaks of an open space in the water below Spirit‘s Leap, perhaps the gap in the Milky Way beside Scorpio that leads to the Pointer Stars near the Southern Cross. An Easter Island moai has this giant double-hull canoe with three masts carved on it. There is a rope attached to the canoe that hangs down to a tortoise. In Polynesian star lore, the Pointers represent a cord attached to an anchor, perhaps the tortoise on Easter Island carved below the Tama-rereti constellation. It is the tortoise that is tied to lost ships to point the direction of land. The Southern Cross is pointing toward Canopus the guide and farther on, Orion, the Spring-time constellation for planting. Line 1: Ar10 12 3 45 6 7 8 9 Ta-wananga matariki Moko-nana‘o Hotu Matua tama koromahanga matua-ono tonomaui-tori Tattooing Ancestral Medium of the Pleiades (first months seeding? and gathering place of deceased spirits) Lizard covered in tattoo carvings Hotu Matua child of the noose at the mature soil gather the plentiful (harvest)

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1. Ta-wananga from TA, tattooing needle + WANA, bristles (Nga, implied). This incantation to Hotu Matua, the first parent of Easter Island is intended to bless the planting and harvest of the island. 2. Matariki from MATA, window/eye + RIKI, fragments = Matariki, the Pleiades constellation. In Polynesia, Matariki as a constellation represents the ancestral stars gathered together by the broom of heaven (rays of dawn). Near Hihina-tanga-kotea are six boulders meant to represent Matariki, the Pleiades. The legendary hero, Tuu-ko-ihu, placed them there to warn the people of the Pleiades which may bring death. One of the moai statues, called moai pakapaka has this symbol carved (tattooed) upon its forehead:

Matariki Tau-toru-Poaka: Pakapaka means the crust, as in the shell of a turtle or the crust of the earth. Matariki Tautoru-poaka from mata, window/eye + riki, fragments/chips/splinters = Matariki, the Pleiades; Tau-toru from TAU/tauru, a belt + TORU, three = Tautoru, Orion; also PO/poipoi, ball + AKA, root = Puata(Puanga), Rigel. Pakapaka, the crust/shell may represent the Earth and ancestral stars as Matariki and Tautoru. The Tahinga Sweeping Ceremony is expressed here by Orion being swept into the Pleiades, much like a harvest is gathered and the fragments of sacred meal are dispersed for enlightenment. The planting is done in August (Hora iti) for fruit bearing above ground and September (Hora nui) for rooting vegetables (Barthel, 52). In Tangaroa-uri, October, on Easter Island, there is a festival of thanksgiving, called hakakio. During this time there of thanks in the beginning of harvest, prayers and vigilance must be kept to prevent the potential for drought over the month of November. Hakakio is the beginning of harvest and the Sun is rising higher until December 21st. There is a potential at this time for harvest to dry up on Pakapaka, the crust of the Earth. Pakapaka represents the moai‘s name, the name of an ancestor. He is called, the Crust, and Orion swept inside Matariki is carved on his forehead. The skulls of the ancestors were also carved on the forehead with life-giving symbols to assist them in the afterlife. Here is a symbol for the completion of the Sweeping Ceremony carved giving life to the ancestral medium of moai Pakapaka, which in tern is a source of life for the land and its inhabitants. The gathering of the harvest occurs on a dry crust of soil, when the sun is high in the sky. This is reflected in the Polynesian myth of the Pleiades, where Matariki is chased by the messengers of Tane, being Mere (Sirius) and Aumea (Alderbaran). Matariki takes refuge in a stream (Milky Way or Zodiac?). The stream is dried up by Mere (as Sirius rises in the spring the days lengthen). Tane dashes Aumea against Matariki, which is scattered upon the dry crust of the riverbed. As ancestors, these fragments are the stars, gathered together in the great sacred Sweeping Ceremony. On the crust of the earth in Tangaroa-uri (October), these fragments are the seeds beginning to take fruit as the earth has dried and is being dashed open with the stone tools of the harvest season. Among the moai, the volcano is shattered and the statues are scattered over the island. In the identity of the individual Rapanui, the spirit is dry from human weakness and failings, and with the tattooing instrument the furrows are made upon the 213

skin to draw out the fruitful fluids of the body that enlighten the mind and spirit again. On the sea of Tangroa-uri, Tama-rereti, the canoe of Scorpio requires a sacred sweeping of oars dashing open the sea in order to move the clan to its destination among the stars. An example of the fruits of the mythical Sweeping Ceremony resulting in the Ancestors gathered together in Rangi, the Polynesian heaven. Sources pending for the shattering of Matariki myth in the dry crust of the celestial riverbed. Tautoru Matariki – we place the ancestors memory in our hearts just like we sow seeds in the ground when these constellations rise in the spring. 3. Moko-nana‘o from MOKO, lizard + NANA, to feel for (o is implied) = Moko-nana‘o, The Tattooed Lizard. Vie-Moko in Easter Island lore is the female lizard who originated the tattooing of the islanders. This Lizard Woman went with Bird Woman from their house in Hakarava to the bay of Hanga-takaure. Vie-Moko asked, ―What is the name of this ahu?‖ Bird (gannet) Woman replied, ―It is Hanga-takaure, the name of this land.‖ Vie-Moko added, ―What is Hanga-takaure to myself and to two beautiful women, the lizard woman and the gannet woman?‖ and they moved on naming all the ahu of the southern coast with the following chant: He ui hakahou a vie Moko: ‗Ko ai te ingoa o te ahu nei? Ko Hanga-nui no na ko te kainga.‘ He ki a vie Moko: ‗A hara ka Hanga-nui no mai kia au, kit e uka maitaki ko vie Moko, ko vie Kena.‘ He oho ki Vai-takiho, Hanga-tuuhata, Tama, Te Haangai, Hanga-maihiku, Kiri, Hana-te-tenga, Rungavae, Ahu-mahiha, Oroi, Opiri, Akahanga, Eu, Motuo-papa, Ana-onero, Huareva, Koekoe, Puku-auke, Pakeie, Rumotu, Hanga-tee, Tarakiu, Tahu, Motu-roa, Hanga-paukura, Papa-tangaroahiro, Hanga-hahave, Moai-a-umu, Ahu-meamea, Vinapu, Vai-a-tare, Ahurikiriki, Orongo. (Metraux, 367). Moko in Polynesia represents a lizard and a tattooing. The combined meaning comes from the protective thick skin of the lizard, which often produces scar-like lines across the back. The Polynesian story of the lizard Kai-whaka-rupu, involved the giant ugly lizard stealing the clan Princess to his Underworld cave. The woman saves herself by leading the clan to build a giant hare to trick the lizard into dwelling there where he is burned to death. From the tail of the lizard all tiny lizards were born. To this day the tail of the lizard is left behind as a morsel for its prey. Perhaps this legend lead to the naming of the harekura/wharekura or Spiritual House (lit. house ablaze) and a place of the sacred feast. Moko is a legendary man of Easter Island whose wife and children are killed. He avenges their death at the koro or feasting house prepared by his enemies at Hanga-tee. In another story, Moko‘s son, Moko-the-child is only given the tail of an eel belonging to him. Moko goes to the koro feasting house where the eel was eaten and kills all those who stole the boys prize meal. (Metreux, 377-378).

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4-5. Hotu-Matua is the founding father of Easter Island, together with Rei-pua his sister or wife. 6. Tama from TA/tane/tavake, a sacred bird + MA/mata, the eye = tama, meaning a child. In Polynesian myth, Tama is also a very ugly man whose wife runs away with a more handsome partner. Tama turns into a white crane and is captured by the women who originated the tattooing ceremony. They transformed him back into a human being, beautified his ugly face with tattooing in one day and taught him the chants to pass on their marvelous ceremony. He lured his unfaithful wife to his canoe, cut her in half and buried her in the pebbles of the shore (kidney stones of Tane). The next day he heard her singing on her grave a song like the Sirens. They were reunited in this perfected state. 7. Koromahanga from KORO, a hole + MA/maku‘u, the right handed dot + HANGA, a bay = koromahanga, meaning a noose. This syllabic meaning of noose may have simply been derived from the logographic appearance of the noose glyph. 8. Matua-ono from MATU/matu‘u, right side dots + ONO, six leaves on the vine = matua-ono, meaning the abundant soil. The plant rising in the abundant soil draws out the meaning of planting seeds in the sowing season. 9. Maui-tori from MAUI, left side dots + TO/toru, three dots + RI/rima, five leaves = maui tori, meaning plentiful and gather. Overview: The head chief and their ancestors were responsible for the bounty of the island. This chant involves the participation of the island people as they carve the land for planting, where this carving is paralleled with the carving of their own bodies in the tattooing ceremony. Line 2: Ar10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Ta-wananga matariki-waro Moko-nana‘o Hotu Matua tama tuatane taumatua-toma Tattooing Ancestral Medium of the Pleiades (gathering place of deceased spirits), Lord of Death‘s burning embers and Lizard covered in tattoo carvings Hotu Matua child cleansed (from tapu) we offer this sacred kumara in pure ceremony (until reaching their) burial place. 1. Ta-wananga matariki as in Line 1. Also, there tattooing instrument is now connected to Matariki, giving Matariki-waro from Matariki (Line 1) + WA/wanawana, bristles + RO/roa, long = Matariki-waro, possibly the deity of death (Tregear, Waro and Matariki). Waro also means burning embers. The fragments of Matariki are shattered into burning embers, reflecting the theme of the moai statues chipped out of the volcano Rano Raraku, as well as, the theme of the burning pain felt during the tattooing ceremony. 2. Moko-nana‘o (Line 1) 215

3-4. Hotu Matua (Line 1) 5. Tama (Line 1) 6. Tautane? from TAU/tautoru, Orion + TA/tahi, one + NE/tane, implied = Tau-tane, part of the plantation set apart for the sacred Kumara. Also part of the cleansing ceremony of a new-born child performed by the father or the sacred elder woman, Ruahine. Tuamata from TUA, Orion + MA/Maui, left hand + TA/tahi, one = tuamata, the brow of a hill, perhaps atop Rano Kao at Orongo. 7. Taumatua-mato from TAU/tautoru, Orion + MATU/matu‘u, right hand + A, implied = Tau-matua, the pure ceremony of the offering of the Kumara plant; Toma from TO/toru, three + MA/matu‘u, right hand = toma, a burial place. Toma reversed as mato is a deep swamp, which is the symbol of death in the volcano swamp of Rano Kao. Line 3: Ar10/11 / 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Ta-wananga matariki-waro Moko-nana‘o Hotu Matua tanga koro-ruakoauau noma? tuatane taumatua-toma noma (nei?) 1. Eaha to ran ariiki kete mahua i uta nei ? What power has the Great King on the land?

Tattooing Ancestral Medium of the Pleiades (gathering place of deceased spirits), Lord of Death‘s burning embers and Lizard covered in tattoo carvings Hotu Matua dash down (break open) the kumara food store that shines forth when we offer this sacred kumara in pure ceremony up to the burial place (when the spirit) shines forth. 1. Ta-wananga matariki-waro as in Line 2. 2. Moko-nana‘o (Line 1) 3-4. Hotu Matua (Line 1) 5. Tanga from TA/taha/tane, side or sacred bird + NGA, to breathe = Tanga, to dash down or to assemble; tatanga, quick, perhaps a brisk striking of the tattooing instrument. Akin to dashing down on the soil at sowing and harvest time or as rowers in a canoe. 6. koromahanga (Line 1). Also, Ruakoauau from RUA, two + KO/koko, a whole + auau, the sinew of the noose? = Rua-ko-auau - a storage place for the kumara. The noose that snared the Sun for enlightenment is located at the gate of the Underworld, just as the sacred Kumara used for the meal of enlightenment is retrieved at the gate of the food store, Ruakoauau.

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7. Tautoru (Line 1). 8. Noma? from NO/noho, sit (sitting on the hands) + MA/matamata, the eyes = Noma, to shine forth suddenly as a flash of lightning. 9. Tautane (Line 2 above) 10. Taumatua-toma (Line 2 above) 11. Noma?, to shine forth (as word 8 above) Line 4: Ar11 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Ta-wananga matariki-waro Moko-nana‘o Hotu Matua tanga koromahanga tatu? tuatoru taurua? noma (nei?) tuatane Tattooing Ancestral Medium of the Pleiades (planting season cluster and gathering place of deceased spirits), Lord of Death‘s burning embers and Lizard covered in tattoo carvings Hotu Matua dash down (break open) with the noose (that snared the sun, represented in the kumara) through the tattoo (carving in the furrows of this land or person) from the Underworld pathway (Orion) at the lodge of reciting (at Orongo where the tablets of Rongorongo are read) shines forth the double-hull canoe from the deep swamp (Rano-Kao) during the cleansing ceremony (bathing) of this child. 1. Ta-wananga matariki-waro as in Line 2. 2. Moko-nana‘o (Line 1) 3-4. Hotu Matua (Line 1) 5. Tanga (Line 3) 6. koromahanga (Line 1). 7. one three left Tatu from TA/tahi, one + TU/toru, three = tatu, a tattoo. 8. Tautoru (Line 1). 9. two three right Tuarua-mato from TUA/tuatoru, Orion + MA/Matu‘u, right hand + TO/toru, three = Tuarua-mato, the double-hull canoe (out from) the deep swamp (the grave). Ruma-rutu from two + right and two + three/right = ruma-rutu, the lodge of reading or reciting (the tablets of rongorongo) 10. Noma? (Line 3). 11. Tautane (Line 2 above). Tama from one + left = child 217

Line 5: Ar11 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Ta-wananga matariki-waro Moko-nana‘o Hotu Matua tama taumatua Tattooing Ancestral Medium of the Pleiades (gathering place of deceased spirits), Lord of Death‘s burning embers and Lizard covered in tattoo carvings Hotu Matua child at the noose we offer this sacred kumara in pure ceremony. 1. Ta-wananga matariki-waro (Line 2). 2. Moko-nana‘o (Line 1) 3-4. Hotu Matua (Line 1) 5. Tama (Line 1) 6. Koromahanga (Line 1). 7. Taumatua (Line 2). Line 6: Ar11 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Ma Moko-nana‘o tao tuatoru ma Moko-nana‘o rui tuatoru Moko-ma-haka maha hama Rua-haeroa? na-vaka tatauro Purify by Moko deity of the tattooing ceremony where is cooked (the sacred kumara), purify by Moko deity of tattooing and sow (until) Moko has purified (that meal to) consume (or satisfy) (or) the many (the abundant) canoes. 1. Ma from MA/maripi, a knife = ma, to purify 2. Moko-nana‘o (Line 1) 3-4. Tao from TA/tahi, one + O/ono, six = tao, to cook. ? 1 in place 2 tau maui; Tautoru (Line 1). 5. Ma (see word 1 above). 6. Moko-nana‘o (Line 1) 7-9. Rui from RU/rua, two + I/ivi, nine = rui, to sow or scatter? 1, 2, Orion, double or triple Orion.

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10. Moko-ma-haka hama – to be consumed haka – to dance, a dwarf, to work; maha – many, abundant, satisfied. 11. 2 four (wharua is a valley) May be The Southern Cross (4) and the Pointers (2) in Rapanui are ga vaka, the Canoes. Line 7: Ar11/12 / 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Ta-wananga matariki-waro Moko-nana‘o mahina Matua koro Atutahi tumata-wae-po ruru koromahanga ri atarangi (atarahi) Tattooing Ancestral Medium of the Pleiades (gathering place of deceased spirits), Lord of Death‘s burning embers and Lizard covered in tattoo carvings Moon Mother, Canopus, (guiding star) noose the burning (Sun) from the midst of night (underworld) and cover the noose with the sacred Screen of the (blue) firmament of heaven (at dawn). 1. Ta-wananga matariki-waro as in Line 2. 2. Moko-nana‘o (Line 1) 3-4. Mahina Matua (Line 1) 5. Atutahi from ATU, to turn + TA/taha, side + HI, implied = atutahi, Canopus, guiding star and mother of Hina. 6. koro, the noose. 7. Waenga-nui-po, midnight waewae-te-po, a place reached by Hina on her way to the Underworld of Po. Tupo, a tomb. Tumata, to burn. Ripo from RI/rianga, the hand + PO/poipoi, a ball = ripo, the deep or a whirlpool. Tuwa – growing out of place 8. Ruru from RU/rua, two + RU/rua, two = ruru, a cover or shelter; Haru from HA, four + RU/rua, two = haru, haruru-tanga, a noise 9. koromahanga (Line 1) 10. Ri from RI/rianga, an arm = Ri, a sacred screen of protection, tapu to enter. 11. Atarangi from ATA, a spirit or shadow + RANGI, the sun and the sky = atarangi, the firmament or arch of the sky. Atarahi, a man who died, went to Reinga, the Underworld for five days and then came back to life. Ata is dawn in Rapanui. Closing Section: Ar12 1 2 3 456 78 9 10 11 12-15 16 17 18 219

Ainga-haka Tama-nui-a-rangi ri matariki popohaga ri Hiva ri tangaroa-huri-mahanga tahinga-ngari puaka-rua Hina ga waka wananga? Ri Puna (puana) ea-puana hua(pua) Reaching down Tama-nui-a-rangi (one of the sons of Papa and Rangi who helped separate Earth from Sky) to the Screen of Matariki (the Tapu dwelling of the ancestors in the stars of the Pleiades) dawn (open) the Sacred and Tapu Screen enclosing the mysterious homeland of Hiva where Tangaroa turns the noose in the great sweeping ceremony incantation (canoe timing chant inaugurated by a burning branch waved at the stars) of the double-flower (a name for Rigel) where Hina is the medium of the canoes‘ banquet made sacred by the rising of the zenith star (Puanga) and water hole (Puna) of the spring time of the rising blossom. Rigel also called, Pua tawhiwhi o tautoru, the flower entangled three hanging together (the three gates – dawn, zenith, dusk). The moon as Hina is tangled in the Sun‘s three gates as Rigel is tangled in the belt of Orion). Ngahau (follow the example) of Tama-nui-a-raki, the ugly man who was beautified with facial tattoos, (place) the screen (over) matariki (the seeds) at dawn (risen from) Screen or Tapu Hiva-tapu where the man stoops the noose with sacred canoe rowers chant (waenga-rahi, in the midst) of the flower (Pua – Puanga/Poaka, Rigel Orion, Spring Sowing Season) when the two stars? and moon introduced the medium(s of the) two star canoes (na vaka) screened (covered) by the dawn (flower) stars setting and rising to blooming season. Tama-nui-a-raki An aspect of Tangaroa-uri, since Tama, out in his canoe (perhaps Tama-rereti, the canoe of Scorpio) beckoned by incantation his unfaithful wife, Rukutia, who swam to him. There he cut her in half (Perhaps Orion half way on the horizon when Scorpio rises). Tama buried her top half (perhaps Poata/Puanga, Rigel of Orion and the Belt). She was found the next day on her grave fully recovered. Her name was changed to Patunga-tapu. When Orion rises, it is planting season (all the seeds are covered and become tapu). 9 Tangaroa-huri-mahanga Mata o hoturoa – the hallow of the moon, perhaps identified in the glyph Hiva, as well as glyph 9 with the long arm forming a swell connecting with the mata eyes on the noose. Is there an intention here to link Hotu-matua with Tangaroa. Are they one and the same characters? Is Lord of the Ocean, also the founding canoe chief of Easter Island?

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Chapter 13 Confirming a Growing Corpus

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Tuhinapo-Rapa: a sample decipherment of a mixed syllable/logograph
On the Large Reimiro tablet worn by the King and princes of Rapanui as a sign of their authority or mana.

Tuhinapo-Rapa, the Guardian of Ocean Migrations TU, to stand + HI/hianga, to stoop, to bend or to fall + NA/nao(wha), to feel for (as a mosquito)/to reveal + PO/poi, a ball = Tuhinapo-Rapa, the Guardian of Ocean Migrations. The syllables of Tu-hi-na-po unravel from the appearance of the glyph where each section forms a syllable from the symbol it signifies starting from the bottomccclxviii two legs: This is a good start on our own journey to unveil these signs. The translation comes from the Comparative Polynesian Dictionary of Tregear (1891)ccclxix with confirmation from the Rapanui dictionaryccclxx. The Easter Islanders have retained enough of the old Rapanui words to confirm: Tu (to crush); Higa (to fall); Naonao (a mosquito or one who feels for); Popo (a ball). The moriori of the Chatham Island‘s used such incantationsccclxxi, called mauri19, after the removal of Tapu ceremony20. Is rongorongo made of syllables (like English) or logographs (like Chinese)? Fedorova, Rjabchikov, Pozdniakov, Harris and Fischer‘s work support this use of syllable associations in Rapanui hieroglyphs with their decipherment attempts. Yet, these attempts were unsuccessful, which may have inclined semiotic scholars to rise to the occassion, such as, Englert, Barthel, Guy, Krupa and Berthinccclxxii. This research considers a combination of the efforts and perspectives to form an understanding of Rongorongo. Like ancient Egyptian, which contain syllables (like English) and logograms (like Chinese), the semiotic and syllabary systems work together in Rongorongo by building syllables upon semiotic and logographic understandings of the glyphs. The ethnological research of Rapa Nui from Métraux will also prove useful.ccclxxiii The statistical analysis of Pozdniakov (2007) and Harris (2010) will help confirm the syllable listed in chartform below. Moreover, the research of Tregear (1891) on the tablet writers‘ use of myth in their Rongorongo ceremony, will help in the understanding of these syllables. Matariki-Poaka: a sample decipherment of a stone carving (petroglyph)
On the forehead of the stone moai named pakapaka. The moai‘s head was severed and taken to Europe by a passing ship.

Matariki-Tautoru(Poaka) – Pleiades (surrounding) Orion(Rigel) MATA, eye or window + RIKI, chips/fragments; TAU, to line in a row + TORU, three; PO/poipoi, a ball + AKA, a root or fibre = matariki-tautoru(poaka), Pleiades Orion(Rigel). This glyph was carved on one of the smaller moai statues called, Pakapaka, meaning the crust, as in the shell of a turtle or the crust of the earth. Papa is the name for Mother
19 20

Mauri: a heart or soul. Tapu: a sacred screen or restriction placed upon something important to protect it, such as, the largest trees on the island. Purenga: a removal of Tapu ceremony, so that the sacred restricted item could be used for an important purpose, such as, the felling of a large tree to be used for a migration canoe.

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Earth, where Rangi is Father Sky. The stars are their children. Polynesian tohunga teachers and priests regard the deceased ancestors as these children of Rangi and Papa. In early Rapa Nui, it is similar. First the deceased are born out of the crust of the Earth as the moai statues, which resemble the Polyensian Standing-Up-Rods. These stone monuments serve as a conduit for the spirit of the ancestor to transfer offerings and gifts from between Papa and Rangi. The spirit rises from the stone to the sky through what is called the Tahinga, or Sweeping Ceremony. This occurs when the meal offering is made and a burning branch from the fire is raised to the sky at sunrise. The tohunga sweeps the burning branch to mimic the rays of dawn. It is these rays that are considered ara or pathways of the soul to reach the sky and join his ancestors in the constellations. This glyph of Matariki-tautoru (or the Pleiades and Orion) represents one example of this funerary gathering. Across Polynesian, Ikaroa (the Milky Way) is the gathering place of the deceased with the ancestors. Therefore, the constellations represent a memory of the dead and a memory of their yearly activities regarding planting, fishing and passage-rites. The meaning of mata-riki tau-toru po-aka is ‗eye-fragments lined-up-three ball-root‘. The Polynesian myth of Matariki (the Pleiades) regards the seven chiefs whose eyes were placed as these stars after death. Like the ancestors represented in the moai statues lined up on the ahu platforms, the Pleiades and Orion represent the scattered ancestors being put into order as the lined up three, the rooted stars being placed in succession according to the roots of their lineage across the body of their Rangi (Father Sky). This succession is identified by the ancestral root, aka, of the Sacred Tree. Death is likened to the chopping down of this tree and each splinter or chip is one soul of the ancestral family. Matariki is the Mata (window) to gather these individual riki (chips) shattered off by death. Rapa Nui myth tells of Tavake (Bird deity) being saved by a great flood caused by the digging stick (oka) of Uvoke. The oka, digging stick, is used for digging up roots and okahu (the Old Ones) are the Elders of the island. This digging stick represents the okahu ancestors and is marked in the Rapa Nui stars by te pou o te rangi (the post in the sky: the Pleiades, Orion, and Sirius, together with Canis Minor). Canis Minor is called Taura Nukunuku, the rope of Nukunuku. This rope rises just before Mere (Sirius). The digging stick of Uvoke causes the island to rise and fall. Another Rapa Nui myth relates Tavake and Ohiro threatened by the digging stick of Teko and Puku-puhipuhi thrusts down his pole. It was the incantation of Ohiro that broke the digging stick of Teko. This is the moon calendar chant which is initiated by the crescent moon of Ohiro and follows with moon‘s waning and waxing that direct the tides. This rising and falling of the digging stick relates to the tides and the planting season. The season of Tonga-iti, (the Bleak Season), is ended by the breaking of this digging stick. How does this line of constellations break? Another Polynesian myth states that the stars of the Pleiades were originally one, but Tane sent Aumea (Aldebaran, of Taurus) and Mere (Sirius) to chase Matariki (the Pleiades), and he took refuge in a stream, (the Milky Way). Mere drained off the waters; then Tane hurled Aumea into Matariki, who shattered into fragments (riki). Since the 223

Rapa Nui digging stick broke at Puku puhipuhi on the North side of Rapa Nui, it becomes clear when looking at the North sky how this fragmenting occurs. In the month of Tagaroa Uri, Hora Nui, the bountiful season begins when Matariki first appears after Nov 16th. This celebration is called Te Vai Hakairi of te riki, feast of the First Fruits of the King (hakakio - thanksgiving). It is a feast of the first yam harvest and there is plenty of fishing. On Puku hill, the pole in the sky moves from East to West and ‗crashes‘ on the West with Matariki (the Pleiades) hitting the horizon first with Aumea the second group of stars of the pole, driving Matariki down and shattering it, just as the mythology tells. This shattering is told on Rapa Nui in a second way. On Rapa Nui, Ursa Major is called nga toa rere, the flying sugarcane. It was the stick of Tangaroa, and used as a practice weapon, since the end shattered when it was tossed without injuring whomever it hit. This flying sugarcane of Ursa Major appears to cause the Pleiades to shatter on the horizon as it curves across the sky. This view is best seen on November 16th from Pukupuhipuhi (the mound of lighting fires). Just to the East of this hill is the long earth oven of Tavake, the ditch where the fire is lit. The ditch appears as a line of long ditches dug from the North/South width of Rapa Nui‘s east side. With the ditch is the mythical story of the long ears being burned up by the short ears in this earth oven of Tavake. Considering all of the lore, the moai statues, the place names and yearly ceremonies the following can be understood. The oka digging stick in the sky of the Okahu ancestors passes on the inheritance of digging up the land on Novenber 16. The yam roots are gathered and cooked in the earth oven. The ceremony involves taking the first morsel (in the moon calendar, this is called, Tangaroa-ria (Tangaroa‘s portion) and is the yam root of the sun given to Hina to grow in light in the moons waxing cycle. According to Polyensian and Micronesian ceremony, the first morsel is distributed to each person to gain the enlightenment of the god. This is how Matariki is shattered. Is Matariki a deity? In Hawaii, there is a prayer to the gods, ‗The spirit of Rongo and of Matariki…‖ To the Moriori, Matariki is son of the deity, Ranga-nuku, and father of Wari (Weri means a root fibre or a worm like insect; to be heard as in taking root in one‘s ear). Therefore, at Orongo, (lit. listening place) when the star Veri (Vega: the great worm) appears on July 27th, the tattooing ceremony can begin. This taking root in one‘s ear involves piercing the ear and placing rongorongo glyphs inside the loop of the long ear. The tattooing ceremony involves a listening to the clan‘s songs (as in Maui‘s tattoo soothing chant above). These songs take root and cause the long ear to become like the yams of an earth oven, for the consumption and service of the entire island. This burning up of the long ears was celebrated in the Paina festival where a giant was made out of reeds and burned up in Ruti, the month after Hora Nui harvest. This Paina festival began when Tautoru, (three handsome ones: a sky spirit and his two sons, Orion), was high in the sky. The Paina ends when Po Roroa (Canopus) disappears at dawn and Matariki was high in the sky during the hottest season with potential for drought. The islanders then are enlightened by their lineage to organize the produce of the island to be

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distributed in portions as Matariki is fragmented above, since the bleak season (Tanga-iti) is about to begin and will last 5 months. Then in June, Matariki (Pleiades – the seven enlightened eyes of the chiefs) rises on June 6th and Tautoru (hidden for 7 days behind the light of the Sun) sets on June 12th . The winter solstice signals the reappearance of Tautoru, putting into order the light of Matariki, with the enlightenment of the Sun. The Tangata-Manu Egg Hunt is organized and feather (maro) gathering begins. There is much singing and celebration. This gathering is placed in myth when the Woodland Fairies (Bird-people) reassemble overnight the Sacred Tree chopped down by the Polynesian ancestral hero, Rata. Rata wanted a tree to make a canoe to retrieve his fathers bones, for a proper funeral. Rata wanted to find a way to confront death. Tane, the chief bird deity, had to teach him the proper funerary rite and in doing so provided the ancestral tree as a canoe to reach his father and have victory over death. That is, to form a spirituality that enables the community to perceive the Mata (window) of heaven (Rangi, our father, our birth-rite) where the riki (dead) individuals pass in order tau (in line) of their aka (succession) through the Po (darkness) of the Underworld. To place this glyph on the forehead of the stone moai represents the same placement of glyphs upon the forehead of skulls. The glyphs honor the dead and serve as a perpetual incantation of mana (spiritual power) to raise the soul to the enlightened realms of the heavenly ancestors gathered in the stars. Is the stone moai, then, a representation of the dead? This is the Polynesian rite of the standing up of the rods ceremony. When a chief or priest dies his canoe is raised up on end as a conduit of the ancestor to give power from heaven to the land. He therefore becomes a medium for the people. The North American Haidi raise the ancestors bones atop a totem pole for the same purpose. When the bones or the wood of the canoe decay, they are replaced with stones. The stone moai, named Pakapaka, might have been an ancestor or a mythological figure representing all ancestors or a combination of the two. To combine the two, Pakapaka, is the name given to the ancestor when he dies to remind others to follow his mana to the regeneration of Rangi or heaven. That is, Pakapaka, is the ‗crust‘ of the Earth, the ‗shell‘ of the Turtle, where life is a journey to its final end of reaching the stars. The celestial habitation of the deified ancestors, then, can be modelled after in this life on Earth.

Tiki-Tawhito: a sample decipherment of mixed syllable/logograph
This glyph occurs on several tablets in the most common phrase (see Part ii above).

Pua-tikitawhito: The First Man Pua = flower. TIKI, topknot + TA/taha, side + HI/hianga, to stoop + WHITO, a dwarf, small = Tiki-tawhito, the first man or Pua-Tiki-tawhito, the first man (flower) medium.

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Tiki is also a pole marking a portion of tapu ground restricting or making sacred that place or ecosystem. The karakia, teachings of the ancestors direct the individual through community ceremony and passage rites to become part of the land. This incantation is telling of the sacred tomb or medium or propped up canoe of the First Man, Tiki-tawhito. All descendents wish to carry on this first one‘s original ‗spirit‘ and passage rites. That is, the Creator or Great Spirit passes on to the community how to belong to the land, which is the essential quality of the identity of a ‗true‘ or ‗real‘ living and human being. This transfer of authority over the land began when the First Man arrived at the place of the particular community (ie. Easter Island). This First Man in Polynesian lore is considered the first deity who was also a man, ie. Tangaroa (Tregear. 1891. Tangaroa). The standing of the rods or grave is sacred and tapu. The flower represents the sweet scent of this deceased ancestor who would not represent a medium or conqueror of death if he were emitting a foul odor. Maui or Rata are other deities considered to be ‗small‘ or child-like deified ancestors. Yet, they are also giants in the lore. A giant child then represents both the human and limited together with the giant and divine aspects of the trickster. We need this First One as a medium or guide between heaven and earth upon our land in order to teach us how the mana works in the ecosystem and to assist in perpetuating this life-force throughout the community. As a result of this life-force filled eco-centric community, it is typical of Indigenous individuals to have no concept of time. Such a phenomenon is a primary characteristic of paradise. Though the glyphs do not appear together, Indigenous wisdom presents interrelationships between all aspects of the community with respect to the context of Rapanui and Polynesian world-view. In this sense, consider the following representation of these three glyphs:

Tuhinapo-Rapa Matariki-tautori-poaka Pua-tikitawhito Row with power in the celestial migration canoe; Underworld ancestors aligned at the gates of dawn; with the First Man and Pillar standing on the sweat scented pathway of heaven. The decipherment of the Rapa Nui tablets has been achieved due to the necessary inclusion of Indigenous World-view. This world-view includes looking at the tablets and their current decipherment as a providential sign. That is, Indigenous wisdom comprehends the world‘s ignorance of these tablets as a tapu restriction that gathers all people to this one sacred place to cause us to belong under the same story. The tablets therefore retain the value originally expressed by the ancestors, who used them (as explored throughout this work) to offer mana or power incantations for daily activities, for rite of passage, for funerals and for those struggling for survival as their world crumbles around them. As a result, Indigenous protocol might request a presentation of decipherment of Rongorongo together with an offering for the dead of the slave raids and small-pox epidemic on early Rapanui.

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The decipherment of these tablets draw us all under the same story of raising the tapu restriction upon this mysterious Indigenous writing system. Such an opportunity affords us all the rite of passge through the door of ignorance into the knowledge of a wharekura or sacred school of learning. This school teaches without respect for status and with all inclusiveness, especially for those with a listening ear. This wharekura of the Indigenous world community is once again offered to the broader circle of nations as an opportunity to enter into the philosophy of our original relationship with the land from an original and authentic Indigenous source. In essence, we are all Indigenous to Mother Earth. As such, we have a way of returning to the land upon this original pathway by way of the instructions of these ancestral writings. The instructions are not unlocked primarily by science, but also together with the foundational world-view that contains the mana (power), the mauri (the heart), the creativity and the insight that carved them. Though the story-tellers are dead, the principles of the story presented by the First Man continue to unfold in human history. This means the Creator can speak to us through them, not by a new revelation, but one we have chosen to forget over the centuries by relegating Indigenous cultures to a ForthWorld poverty. This ‗Underworld‘ experience has passed down the generations and requires a Tuhinapo (migration guide) to help us journey to a future of hope. Tiki-tawhito represents our child hero, who is the ‗voice crying‘ in the Underworld wilderness of our ancestral roots. Such a voice resounds towards a world waning and dying by our unchecked exploitation of ecosystems. It must be stated that the verification of this research is as much determined by our readiness to receive it as by the correct presentation of the syllables. Therefore, an appeal to scholars of this field might include the request to broaden our World-view to give the original wisdom-keepers a genuine voice as these tablets are read. If our circle is so broadened, the value of these tablets will sprout and grow out from our museum shelves, so that the entire world will benefit from them. Otherwise, they serve better as boards for holding Rapanui fishing line, or better still, the sacred top-knot hair of the Rapa-nui princess together with the seaweed of Tangaroa, Lord of the Sea.

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Supplements

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Supplement 1: Glossary and Syllable Chart The translation of indigenous language into modern English causes a significant stepping down of contextual meaning. Analysts should be aware that each Rongorongo glyph carries with it paragraphs of mythological meaning that when taken together form a document or perhaps even volumes of storytelling capacity. It should be no surprise then that ten glyphs of Rongorongo take as much as a hundred or more English words to define. However, even these many words prove insufficient in conveying the full meaning and play on words that were intended in the petroglyphs. There was a true school of genius at work in the original tablet language. Moreover, defining these glyphs was made possible by moving beyond a purely Western and scientific attempt toward an approach that takes into account the contextual mystical paths through rituals, prayers and devotions of these early Polynesian tohunga wisdom keepers. The decipherment chapters above find Rongorongo via a mingling of Polynesian ‗dialects‘, based on common syllables and vocabulary, but also the common spiritual symbolism drawn out of the parallel mythology, ritual and prayer. Tregear‘s dictionary made it possible to find like words used across the early Pacific islands, which complemented the Rapanui dialect and tablets and presented a plausible expansion of the Old Rapanui dictionary. When presenting glyphs, Barthel‘s number system is at times used for identification purposes. William Churchill‘s Easter Island: the Rapanui Speech and the Peopling of South-Eastern Polynesia, is a source helpful in refining the Rapanui Dictionary. Though these localized dictionaries do not provide a comprehensive word sample and are even ‗tainted‘ with Tahitan vocabulary, the dialects are so similar that the use of Tahitan words by the early Rapa Nui was likely a repeating of one and the same wording. The broader Polynesian chants, ceremonies, place names and mythology is so similar across the islands as to regard much of the languages as similar with degrees of dialectic variance. Therefore, to expand a plausible Rongorongo vocabulary, Tregear‘s Maori – Polynesian Comparative Dictionary together with its presentation of the broader Polynesian mythology has become a serious complement to the Rapa Nui dictionary in presenting the vocabulary of these tablets. When viewing these interpretations consider the transferable letters of Polynesia. For example, the ‗v‘ of Rapanui can be a ‗w‘ elsewhere; the ‗r‘ an ‗l‘; the ‗t‘ a ‗k‘; etc.. Words used in sacred ritual, such as ‗mana‘ (power, spiritual force), tend to be preserved across more island groups and become signs to assist decipherment. A syllable may be abbreviated to even a single letter. For example, the back of the hand glyph, translated ‗haka‘ (to make or to cause), may become the syllable ‗a‘, in the word with which it belongs. Certain glyphs represent more than one synonym and certain logoglyphs can be understood even though the exact Rapanui has been lost. A hypothesis presented here regards Rapa Nui‘s Rongorongo as discernible as Ancient Egyptian Hieroglyphs, where common Polynesian chants and myths serve like chips off the Rosetta Stone. Successful decipherments based on a syllablic/logographic system are verifiable in terms of the given glossary and syllable chart. Also, compare myth, chant and hero with the context of each glyph; glyphs begin to verify themselves as comprehendible sentences broaden our understanding of the experience of these Indigenous wisdom keepers. 229

Rongorongo Glossary: kaiga-hina … kainga mataiti-hina pata-Hina atu-tangaroa-ngari the feast of Hina; pregnant Hina the feast of the child Hina Fall Hina Lord Tangaroa, deity of the ocean, a song of the canoe. variations of above glyph, likely due to scribal error. Hina Hina-iti mahina moon (arch left), the Maiden of the Moon The Little Moon Maiden – an affection name for Hina, as daughter of Atutahi. moon arching right. Also represents the syllable MA. To sweep or the numeral one. the Sweeping Ceremony. Tahinga is the Sweeping ceremony (Tregear 1891) where the priest raises a burning branch to the sky and sweeps the sky. This is completed at dawn to cooperate with the removal of the stars from the sky. They are swept with the rays of the Sun into the Sun or Moon or important constellation, such as, Matariki (Pleiades). daughter the star Canopus and mother of Hina. to gather together (fish up means the moon is waxing on the moon calendar). Also, Rangi-tuahiahi as Venus expanded from rangi-rauhi. to gather together (fish down means the moon is waning) a deep swamp, representing the new moon where the souls (ata) of the deceased are believed to reside as if in a deep swamp. deity of rain and the first moon day, which when 230

Tahi Tahinga

tamahi(ne) Atutahi rauhi(va)

rauhi(va) ma-ata

Hiro (Whiro)

first waxing appears as a twisted thread. hua atua hotu maure rakau son; deity; swelling as the sea. Also, moon day 10. Lord, for the feathered cloak. Also, moon day 11. abundant. Also, moon day 12. a sacred enclosure. Also, moon day 13 tree. Also, day 15 of the moon calendar. Rakau is combined with the full moon Motohi in other Polynesian moon cycles. Rakau Motohi is the tree of life of the first born deified ancestor as a result of the ceremonial umu oven, offering and prayers.

Matahiapo (Motohi) the First Born (Moon Day 16) tohunga a Polynesian priest or wisdom keeper. These slash Marks appear within the moon of verse five of the moon calendar. a stick hanging with bird feathers. Also, matua for moon day 23.

maro

Tavake, Tane, Manu bird deity of the Sun. The bird deity of Polynesia is Tane and also, Manu. Rapanui‘s bird deity is Tavake, who may be one and the same Tawhaki, Polynesian deity who climb the rope of heaven to Hina. Related to Orongo, the call of a bird and moon day 24. Ronga ma Tane are twin deities of Polynesia represented by the pictoglyphs of two birds joined at the wings. Honu Honu mahanga the tortoise. Also, Henua, meaning earth or land. Turtle Twins. Tiro and hiro are moon days 29 and 30, meaning to observe the twisted thread. The symbolism involves a viewing of the twin threads of the waning and waxing crescent moons before and after the New Moon. Princess of the woodland fairies (a name for Hina or the queen of the island. record the births (ta‘u from to perch)

Tapairu

Tapa-ta‘u

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Rakau maunu, Maui

a tree seaweed; little Maui appears wrapped up in the top portion of this seaweed glyph as the legend of Maui relates. to lie in wait Tuwhakaheketangata (deity of war) in the place of rest. to become a man (an adult person) to purify the pathway of piercing and self-constraint to pull out of the ground this incantation for removing the curse

tauwhanga Tuwhaka-heketangata taunga whaka-tangata ma ara-wero-tonga huhuti-rua-haeroa

ta-ta-tau iro tangata With the tattooing instrument, once, twice, three times, with the needle and on the forth, the full essence of the man. tatatau iro tangata Tu-mata-uenga tari Riwaru kowhai a tattooing instrument to carve the full essence of the person Tu-whaka-heke-tangata to carry the Canoe of Rata the flowering tree (sign of Spring)

Panga papaga tanga to shoot, drive or sound the row of those assembled. In Rapanui, panga is written paga, where pagaha‘a is the name of cheek tattooing. Hura or kupega hura is the small circular net used by a single person off the shore. This net appears under the second bird of this bird glyph trio. Hura means to get working or to get moving. The sentence includes a flame carried along called, ahi or fire, 232

which is synonymous with evening. The symbolism represents the shape-shifting trickster, Maui, who stole the flame from the Underworld. The sentence may be read as an incantation which fishing as: ―Drive the row of the captured (netted) shoal at the dashing down place;‖ or in tattooing as: ―Work the tattooing of the cheeks to put in order those assembled.‖ Potikitiki-Taranga Ika-Tawaka This Lord Topknot (a name for Maui), child of Taranga (steal the flame and shape-shifts from) a fish into a hawk. Maui-Roto is one of Maui‘s Brothers the snare (for the Sun, to steal the flame of Enlightenment), of the Thief, with the snare (of Maui). The Sweeping of Little Maui. Maui-taha is one of Maui‘s brothers a ball game the trickster of Polynesia who stole the flame of the Underworld and noosed the Sun. Who raises the Earth on his shoulders the Long Fish of the Milky Way Maui-outside, a brother of Maui Maui-raised up, (another brother of Maui) raisedup in front by Maui, by the Snare of Little Maui.

Maui-roto Koma Tahae Koma

Tahinga-Iti-Maui, Pohi Maui Maui-whenua Ika-roa Maui-waho Maui-pae Maui Koro Iti-Maui

Tautoru-Poaka-Hina Orion covered by Hina, (Hina protect us) Tua-rama Tua-rama Torch bearer back to the ancestors (x2) uga (x3) uga-waho turou turo lead (x3), lead-forth the reaching stick downward

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maro maro Raha rakau marama rere raro Rata-marama raro rakau kouru rakau koiwi rakau rakau hourua waka ranga(ku) ramaku raha(ku) or Rangi-tokotoko ara waka Rangi kohuhu Hikurangi koko or hikurangi koko

extended one fathom, extended one fathom extended tree of flying chips intercessor Rata of flying chips the-Intercessor joining together at the tree-top the tree (hewn) to the bone or trunk the tree, the tree. Also, Ratorua – the battle when Uenuku defeated Whena in Rarotonga the double-hull canoe rise high (canoe)(Tablet A). (with) a torch of long light, (over) a great expanse the sky‘s sunrays a pathway for the canoe. Sky deity. Also, Rangi-ngari, the sky deity song for the canoe timing chant the well-spring the sacred mountain concave – for a well spring; ana? for cave the sacred mountain well-spring. Also, ra + hina, the sun and moon as they spring forth at dawn. See tokorua below. the twins of Taingahue, the sun and moon.

tokorua or or rangi tokorua

the sky twins, sun and moon. Also, hikurangi tokorua (abbreviated) the sacred mountain twins, 234

sun and moon rising. ra, rangi. rari tu or or Rangi Tu ra rou raro(tonga) the sun, the sky, thin to stand; Tu, the War deity warrior of Ngatoro‘s battle against Manaia. Rangi-tu killed the first of Manaia‘s clan. the sun a hook the Underworld house hooked by Maui and lifted to the surface for humanity to live to set free the sun. Also, rangimata, the canoe of the Moriori migration. the work of the Sun power, spiritual force; , the power of the sun on the pathway of the canoe the nimble sun and moon. Also, the twins garauhiva a flower or a top-knot a sweet scented pathway the tapu removing ceremony for the canoe to face, the face, the eyes, to see the foot, to divide, a time, a season a wave offering to Tu, the war god (hapainga Tu). death or a deep swamp a neck ornament of the chieftains authority, the Underworld below the leaping place Orion, Rigel, the Underworld, darkness, a bad omen, a sign of planting season the Underworld of Darkness.

ra-matara ra-haka mana ra-mama pua or tiki pua ara tiare Tuata mata wae Poipoi Tu Mate or mato reinga tautoru, poaka

Reinga Po

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tumata or or Tupa tangata matariki

to kindle, to burn the Pleiades, gathering place of the deceased

to carry the person, to mourn (tangi), (the ear as taringa is also the Sweeping Ceremony of the sweeping of a burning branch at the stars at dawn) the Sun, the pillar of the sky. Dawn reflecting as a pillar off the water a water monster or shark (punga-mako) a quick and nimble spirit benefiting from the inauguration of a new canoe Lord Tangaroa, the deity of the sea

ra‘a tiki-rangi taniwha tuata-tuhaua-ata atu tangaroa

kopako Uenuku-kopako benevolent Uenuku-the-benevolent, Rainbow deity from the early migration Tuhinapo-rapa kura, ura ripeka kete-wanaga Guardian of Ocean migrations with power oar torch, red, flame cross territorial marker the three-stone basket of wisdom; also, umu, the sacred maori oven containing the three hot stones. the sun on the horizon; dawn a tribe or clan a top-knot; deity of the top-knot, Maui-potiki a dried fish; the core of a tree; the soul; the Supreme Being to split open deep; a full tide

popohaga pori tiki, potiki Io

koara kopua

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routu kauwha-runga

a comb the Upper Jaw of the Creator; Makemake; the sun on the horizon. the Lower Jaw of the Creator

ruatapu

the two door house of the Underworld (opened by Maui); the wharekura or sacred house sweeping continually; Rongo-ma-Tane, twin deities of Sound and Light The Morning or Evening Star, Venus The descendants. Mata, the eyes; ai, copulation represented by legs; na/nau, the palm up glyph. Here the glyph appears with a hand representing the work or the action of the descendant.

tahitahi

Whanui Mata-ai-nana

Pua-roa-Tiki-tawhito The flower great Tiki, first man, and dwarf who created all people. Pua tahinga Tiki tawhito Pua-roa-wananga The flower sweeping ceremony of the stars of Tiki, first man and dwarf The great flower medium; deified ancestor

tangata; ngati; ngato man; a descendent; a kumara offered as the tapu lifting sacrifice to Puanga (Rigel), the fire at the base of the Tamarereti canoe bow (Orion). ngatoro ngato; ngate tahunga priest of the Arawa canoe the celestial kumara offering; to shake or burst as the volcano of the descendants born out of the domain of Ru, Underworld power deity.

Common word portions:

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ai ata ure ue haka riki ahi kaha

to copulate; a descentant(s) spirit, shadow offspring; phallus a support; ua? for rain the causative, to do, to act, to work chips, portions fire; flame to be strong; strength

hua/ahu/tapu offspring, scrotum; to stack, heap; a sacred platform mata kai/kainga tiki eyes; face fead, meal; place of feasting, homeland topknot; potiki, child; Maui-potiki, deified trickster raised in the topknot of his mother Taranga‘s hair. to breathe; to gasp; chant? eat? canoe; tree is a name for canoe in Rapa Nui chants tree wana means bristles and is short for wananga, sacred knowledge or a spirit medium; atua means lord or deity and comes from the feathered cloak worn by chiefs and deities. to drive ahead a post or pillar as in tiki-rangi a flower 238

ha/ga vaka/rakau rakau wana/atua

waho tiki pua

heke Rongorongo Syllable Chart:

ten tenticles of a squid (8 for the octopus)

A
376?

E

I
1

O

U

H K M
,

N NG (G) P R

T

V

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Supplement 2: Glyph sequences deciphered with syllables presented above The purpose of these supplements is to offer a list of syllables (above) and sections deciphered (below) for scholars to reproduce the results presented here and to draw the same results of the unpublished sections. Certain sections have remained unpublished for a later more comprehensive research.ccclxxiv The Lunar Mamari Calendar (see Part iii/vi)

The Small Reimiro (see Part v)

The Grand Tradition, Text H, P, Q & A (see Part vi)

The Most Common Phrase (appears in part 12 times across the tablets; see Part ii)

Text Sb-The Holy Mountain (see Part ii) (x3)

Text Hr (P and Q) – The Sweeping Ceremony (see Part ii portion/most unpublished)

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Text H (P & Q) Uenuku-Kopako - the Rainbow Deity (see Part ii portion, most unpublished)
Note: roughly 200 more glyphs associated with a certain poroporo sequence will be added in a second volume.

/

Text P

Text Br, Aruku Kurenga: Life Cycle of the Soul ... ... . Text Ar/Av: The Taiora Priest

/

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Text Ar/Av: and the Wharekura

Text Ar/Av: The Standing Stone

Text C, Mamari Tablet: Hotu Matua

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Supplement 3: The Maori Song of Potiki Po! Po! Popo, Popo, Poopoo Enoka Te Pakarua This famous oriori from the East Coast is of pre-European origin. The kumara, or sweet potato, was a treasured food, an essential item at feasts and on other important occasions. Elaborate ritual usages were observed during its cultivation, and various myths explained its origin and nature. Pō! Pō! E tangi ana Tama ki te kai Baby! Potiki!1 The boy is crying for food! māna! Waiho me tiki ake ki te Pou-a-hao- Let it be fetched from the pile of netted kai,2 seafood, Hei ā mai te pakake ki uta rā And the whale be driven ashore Hei waiū mō Tama! As mother's food to make milk3 for the boy! Kia mauria mai e tō tipuna, e Let it be brought by your ancestor, the Uenuku! rainbow-god Uenuku! Whakarongo! Ko te kūmara ko Listen! The kumara is from the Great Cliffs Pari-nui-te-ra. of the Sun4 Ka hikimata te tapuae o Tangaroa, The footstep of the sea-god Tangaroa5 is begun, Ka whaimata te tapuae o Tangaroa. The foot-stamping ritual honouring Tangaroa is performed. Tangaroa! Ka haruru! Tangaroa! The steps resound! Ka noho Uru, ka noho i a Ngangana; Puta mai ki waho rā ko Te Aotū, ko Te Aohore, ko Hinetuahōanga, Te Whatu o Poutini ei! Kei te kukunetanga mai o Hawaiki Ko te āhua ia Ko Māui-wharekino ka noho i a Pani, Ka kawea ki te wai o Monariki Mā Onehunga, mā Onerere, Mā te piere, mā te matata Te pia tangi wharau, ka hoake Ki runga rā, te Pīpī-wharauroa, Nā Whena koe, e Waho e! Tuatahi, e Waho e! Tuarua, ka topea i reira Ko te Whatanui, ko te Whataroa, ko te tī haere, Nā Kohuru, nā Paeaki, Nā Turiwhatu, nā Rakaiora. Uru lived - he lived with Ngangana,6 And there were born Te Ao-tū, Te Ao-hore, Hine-tua-hōanga, And the fish-like Stone of Poutini7, ei! It was formed in Hawaiki, Where things have their origin. When Maui-whare-kino was married to Pani,8 She who was taken to the waters of Monariki For Onehunga, for Onerere, For the piere, for the matata, The first whimper from the shelter. Giving birth to Pipiwharauroa. You are of Whena, O Waho! Thus the first part, O Waho! Of the second part is the felling there Of the timbers for the posts at the sacred place,9 and the perch of bird snares, For Kohuru, for Paeaki, For Turiwhatu, for Rakaiora. 243

Ko Waiho anake te tangata i rere noa I te ahi rūrā a Rongomaracroa, Ko te kākahu nō Tū, ko te Rangikaupapa, Ko te tātua i riro mai I a Kanoa, i a Matuatonga. Tēnei te manawa ka puritia, Tēnei te manawa ka tāwhia; Kia haramai tona hokowhitu i te ara. Ka kīa [e] Paikea Ruatapu i te tama meamea, Ka tahuri i Te Huripureiata, Ka whakakau Tama i a ia. Whakarere iho ana te kakau o te hoe: Ko Maninikura, ko Maniniaro!

Waiho was the only one who fled From the scattered fires of Rongomaraeroa.10 The garment of the war-god Tu,11 Te Rangikaupapa, The belt which was brought hither By Kanoa and Matuatonga.12 Hence men's hearts are apprehensive, Hence men's hearts are fearful, Lest his band of warriors appear on the road. When Ruatapu was called a bastard by whale-rider Paikea13 He overturned Te Huri-pureiata, And Paikea recited a spell to make himself swim. The handles of the paddles are thrust down14 They are Manini-kura and Manini-aro, sacred digging sticks! The noble one cries, cries in fear! The noble one cries, cries in terror! It was kumara-carrier Hakirirangi15 who reached the shore in springtime when the kowhai was flowering, she emptied her kumara-planting basket At Manawaru and Araiteuru,16 near Gisborne To be seen by the myriads, by the thousands. Only the underwater tree Makauri:17 was left behind out at the reef Toka-ahuru, near Gisborne, The branch of which was cast ashore as a treasure for Kuhungunu's grandson Mahaki. The rivers Mangamoteo18 and Uetanguru nurture the contents of Rongorapua. And now we wait until there is brought the kumara from the heavens.

Ka tangi te kura, ka tangi wiwini! Ka tangi te kura, ka tangi wawana! Ko Hakirirangi ka ū kei uta; Te kōwhai ka ngaora, ka ringitia te kete Ko Manawaru, ko Aaraiteuru, Ka kitea e te tini, e te mano! Ko Makauri anake i mahue atu i waho i Toka-ahuru; Ko te peka i rere mai ki uta rā hei kura mo Māhaki. Ko Mangamoteo, ko Uetanguru, Ko te kōiwi ko Rongorapua. Waiho me tiki ake ki te kūmara i a Rangi!

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Ko Pekehāwani ka noho i a Rehua19 Ko Rūhiterangi ka tau kei raro: Te ngahuru tikotiko-iere, Ko Poutūterangi! Te mātahi o te tau, te putunga o te hinu, e tama!

Below the star Spica, there appears Antares; with Ruhi-te-rangi below them, coming to rest on the land. Hence the bounteous harvest-time of the month of Poutu-te-rangi! It signals the autumn season of the firstfruits,20 when the calabashes overflow with fat, my son!

Notes on the Song
In the same mannner as with English folk songs, this chant includes quotes from earlier moteatea, and various versions have developed as it has spread from tribe to tribe. There is a longer version and fuller notes by Margaret Orbell in the book Traditional Songs of the Maori (1975). 1 Po! Po! is probably a shortened form of "Potiki! Potiki!" Oriori were often composed for the potiki, or youngest child of the family. 2 Pou-a-hao-kai is a figure of speech used of seafoods being collected for a feast. Also, in the legend of Rata, Pou-hao-kai was killed by Rata and his bones used to make fish hooks. 3 Waiu: this is sometimes used with reference to food which was eaten by the mother to help her feed her child. 4 Pari-nui-te-ra, the Great Cliffs of the Sun, is where Hoaki went to get kumara when he returned home to Hawaiki on the voyaging canoe "Te Aratawhao." 5 Tangaroa is the god of the sea and of fish. 6 Uru, Ngangana and their children Te Aotu and Te Aohore are mythical personages. 7 The Stone of Poutini is an expression for greenstone, which in traditional accounts is often referred to as a fish. 8 Maui-whare-kino was a mythical person married to Pani; he stole the kumara from Whanui in the heavens and mated it with his wife, who then gave birth to the kumara in the waters of Monariki. In the next few lines there appear to be references to ritual matters concerned with the kumara and its origin, but the exact meaning of these expressions is uncertain. 9 The posts were erected at the tua-ahu, the sacred place or altar where many religious rituals took place. 10 Rongo-maraeroa is one form of the name of Rongo, the god of the cultivation of food and other peacetime pursuits. It is also a sacred name for the kumara. The significance of the lines in which the word occurs is uncertain. 11 Tu is a shortened form of Tu-mata-uenga, god of war.

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12 Matuatonga is sometimes said to have arrived on board the Takitimu canoe. According to other accounts, Matuatonga is the name of the belt in which the kumara was brought to Aotearoa. 13 Ruatapu and Uenuku lived in Hawaiki, one of the homelands of the Maori. Insulted by his father Uenuku, Ruatapu sought revenge by overturning at sea the canoe which carried his many noble kinsmen. One of them, Paikea, escaped to Aotearoa in the form of a whale (in other accounts, riding on a whale) and landed on the East Coast. 14 Maninitua and Maniniaro occur in the myth of Pourangahua as the kumara digging-sticks which he brought back from Hawaiki, together with the kumara itself, in his journey on the back of the Great Bird of Ruakapanga. 15 Hakirirangi is said to have arrived on the Horouta canoe, and to have brought the kumara with her. She was expert in kumara lore and knew well how to plant it at the time of the flowering of the kowhai. 16 Manawaru and Araiteuru were names of kumara plantations at Turanga (Gisborne). 17 Makauri is the name of a kahikatea (white pine) tree said to have grown at the bottom of the sea from the feathers which Pourangahua plucked from his bird when he was flying home with the kumara. Toka-ahuru is Ariel Reef out from the shore at Gisborne. 18 Mangamoteo and Uetanguru are rivers at Turanga (Gisborne). According to some accounts Rongo-rapua is the name of a belt in which the kumara reached this country. 19 Rehua or Antares is the brightest star in what is known in Hawaii as Ka Makau Nui o Maui, "The Big Fishhook of Maui," the curved line of stars of the constellation Scorpius. Rehua has two wives, Whaka-onge-kai (she who makes food scarce) and Ruhi-te-rangi or Pekehawani (languid, weak). You can see Rehua high in the sky in winter time with these two wives ranged one on either side of him. When Rehua/Antares can be seen on top of Whaka-ongekai, after sunset in September, winter has almost ended. She is a most voracious female, hence food-supplies have run short. In summer the constellation Scorpio can't be seen at all. The ninth month of the Maori year (February-March) is sometimes called Ruhi-te-rangi. In the pre-dawn sky Rehua lies beside Ruhi/Pekehawani and all fruits are formed, while all things, food products and even the land and seas, become quiet and languid. 20 The season of the first fruits is autumn, the time when birds and rats are fat.

Maori Songs - Kiwi Songs - Home

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Supplement 4: The Rongorongo of Easter Island Recitation "Eaha to ran ariiki kete"ccclxxv This recitation was delivered by Ure Vaeiko upon being shown a photograph of tablet S (or Great Washington Tablet) by William Thomson. It is reproduced here as it appears in Thomson 1891, pp.523-524. Salmon's translation, in the right-hand column, bears so little relationship with Ure Vaeiko's recitation as to be almost entirely pure fantasy, even taking into account the uncertainties introduced by the many typographical mistakes. 1. Eaha to ran ariiki kete mahua i uta nei ? E tupu tomo a mata mea e rangi ran e tuatea to ran ariiki kete mahua i uta nei. Ane rato mani rata karata te tuatea, karata te rangi ran karata te tupuna. What power has the Great King on the land? He has power to make the plants grow and to change the sky to different colors. All hail the power of the Great King who makes us lenient to the young plants, to admire the skies of different colors, and to behold the clouds that rise. What power has the Great King on the land ? He has the power to create the lobsters, white-bait, eels, ape-fish, and everything in the sea. All hail the power of the Great King who gives us the knowledge to catch the lobsters, white-bait, eels, ape-fish, and all marine animals. What power has the Great King on the land? He has the power to produce the ferns, creeping plants, grass, bushes and all vegetation. All hail the power of the Great King who has taught us to love ferns, creeping plants, and all green things. What power has the Great King over the sea? He has the power to create the mighty fish that swim in the deep water. All hail the power of the Great King who has given us the strength and skill to 247

2. Eaha to ran ariiki kete mahua i uta nei ? E ura e poopoo e koiro e nohoe e to ran ariiki kete mahua i uta nei. Ane rato mani rata karata te ura ki kara te poopoo e nehe e riku e kava-kava atu.

3. Eaha to ran ariiki kete mahua i uta nei? E nehe e riku e kava atua to ran ariiki kete mahua i uta nei. Ane rato mani rata karata te nehe karata riku karata rain kava atua.

4. Eaha to ran ariiki kete mahua i uta nei ? E a hao nei e kahi e atu e ature. Ane rato mani rata karata te kahi kaharta ahi rarata te ature ane rato.

catch the fish of the mighty deep. 5. Eaha to ran ariiki kete mahua i uta nei ? E ufi e tra e kumaro to ran ariiki mahua i uta nei. Ane rato karata te ufi kumara toa e mahua i uta nei, ane rato maru. What power has the Great King on the land? He has the power to produce the yams, potatoes, and sugar-cane. All hail the power of the Great King who enables us to use as food yams, potatoes, and sugar-cane. What power has the Great King on the land? He has the power to clothe the turtles in hard shell, the fish with scales, and protects every living thing. All hail the power of the Great King who enables us to overcome the defense of the turtles, fish, and all reptiles. What power has the Great King in the universe? He has the power to create the stars, the clouds, the dew, the rain, the sun, and the moon. All hail the power of the Great King who enables us to appreciate the blessings of the bright stars, the lowering clouds, the gentle dew, the falling rain, and the light of the sun and moon. What power has the Great King upon the land? He has the power to populate the earth, to create both kings and subjects. All hail the power of the Great King who has created the human beings, given authority to kings, and created loyal subjects. What power has the Great King upon the land? He has the power to create maggots, flies, worms, fleas, and all creeping and flying insects.

6. Eaha to ran ariiki kete mahua i uta nei ? E honu e kea e pane te ran ariiki kete mahua i uta nei. Ane rato karata te honu te kea te pane.

7. Eaha to ran ariiki kete mahua i uta nei ? E hetu e range e han e na e raa e mahua te ran ariiki kete mahua i irunga nei. Ane rato karata te rangi e hon e na e raa e mahua.

8. Eaha te ran ariiki kete mahua i uta nei ? E anuga nei karata te hehun rangi han na raa mahua. Ane rato karata te hehuu rangi han na raa mahua.

9. Eaha to ran ariiki kete mahua i uta nei ? E ariiki e tapairu to ran ariiki kete i mahua i mua nei. Ane rato karata to ariiki te tapairu.

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All hail the power of the Great King who enables us to withstand the attacks of the maggots, flies, worms, fleas, and all manner of insects. 10. Eaha to ran ariiki kete mahua i uta nei ? E oi e potupotu e ugarara e hata to ran ariiki kete mahua i uta nei. Ane rato karata main rata e oi e potupotu e ugarara e hata to ran ariiki kete mahua i uta nei. What power has the Great King? All hail the unlimited power of the Great King.

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References: Armstrong, K., (2005). A Short History of Myth. Edinburgh, Scotland: Canongate Books Ltd. Barthel, T. (1958). Grundlagen zur Entzifferung der Osterinselschrift. Abhandlungen aus dem Gebiet der Auslandskunde 64, Reihe B. Vol. 36. Hamburg: Cram, de Gruyter & Co.. Barthel, T. (1978). The Eigth Land, the Polynesian Discovery and Settlement of Easter Island. Honolulu: Press of Hawaii. Martin, A. (Trans. from German). Black Water, A (2009). You are all my children and grandchildren. Speech given at the Red Crow Community College in October, 2009 to students of the Niitsitapiwa (Real People) Workplace Literacy Program. Berthin, G. G. & Berthin, M. E. (2006). Astronomical Unity and Poetic Metaphor in the Rongorongo Lunar Calendar. Applied Semiotics 8: 18. 85-98.

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Bettocchi, L. 2006. Rongo Rongo Et Semantique. Methode Rongo Rongo Lorena Bettocchi. http://www.rongorongo.com/methode-lorena-bottecchi.html (accessed October 5, 2010). Butinov, N.A. and Knorozov, Y.V. (1957). ‗Preliminary Report on the Study of the Written Language of Easter Island.‘ Journal of the Polynesian Society, 66(1). Pp. 5-17. Chauvet, S. (1935). L‘Ile de Paques et ses mysteres (Easter Island Mysteries). Paris. Editions ―Tel‖. Figs. 173-176. Répertoire des Signes Idéographiques Boustrophédon de L‘ile de Paques. The Jaussen List. Churchill, W. (1912). Easter Island. The Rapanui Speech and the Peopling of South-east Polynesia. Washington: Carnegie Institute. Pub. 174. Christ, H. (1989). Myths and Folklore. New York: Amsco. Cotterell, Arthur (ed). Coleman, J. A. (2007). The Dictionary of Mythology. Toronto: Capella. Cotterell, A. (Ed. 1999). The Encyclopedia of World Mythology. New York: Barnes & Noble Books. Dansereau, J. (Working Paper 2007). The Sweeping of the Stars: the Decipherment of Seven Chants on the Easter Island Tablets. De Laat, M. (2009). Words Out of Wood, Proposals for the Decipherment of the Easter Island Script. Delft: Eburon Publishers. Du Feu, V. (1996). Rapanui – Descriptive Grammars. New York: Routledge. Englert, S. (1970). Island at the Centre of the World. Mulloy, W. (Trans. & Ed.). New York: Charles Scribner‘s Sons. Eyrand, Fr.E. (1864-66). ‗Letter of Fr. Eugene Eyraud, the T.R.P. Superior General‘. Annals of the Propogation of the Faith, Vol.36, pp.52-71, 124-138. From website: http://web.archive.org/web/20071007022537/www.rongorongo.org/early.html Extracted September 25, 2010 from Website: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/8/87/Rongorongo_J_Reimiro.jpg Ferguson, D. (1998). Hamlyn History Myths Retold. London: Hamlyn. Fischer, S.R. (1995). Preliminary Evidence for Cosmogonic Texts in Rapanui Rongorongo Inscriptions. Journal of the Polynesian Society. Vol. 104. Pp. 303-321. Fischer, S.R. (1997). Rongorongo The Easter Island Script History, Traditions, Texts. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 286

Gonz*lez, D. F. (1770-1). The Voyage of Captain Don Felipe Gonzalez to Easter Island. Hakluyt Society, Series II. Vol. XIII(for 1903). Guy, J.B.M. (1990). ‗On the Lunar Calendar of Tablet Mamari‘. Journal de la Société des Océanistes 91:2. 135-186. doi:10.3406/jso.1990.2882. http://www.netaxs.com/~trance/mamari.html. Guy, J. B. M. (1999). Peut-on se fonder sur le témoignage de Métoro pour déchiffrer les rongorongo? Journal de la Société des Océanistes. Vol. 108. No. 1. Pp. 125-132. Hamilton, V. (1988). In the Beginning: Creation Stories from Around the World. New York: Harcourt Brace and Company. Harrison, J. P. (1873). The Hieroglyphs of Easter Island. Journal of the Anthropological Institute. Vol. 3. Pp. 370-383. Heyerdahl, T. (1958). Aku-Aku – the Secret of Easter Island. New York: Ballantine Books. Horley, P. (2005). ―Allographic Variations and Statistical Analysis of the Rongorongo Script.‖ Rapanui Journal. Vol. 19. No. 2. Pp. 107-116. Horley, P. (2007). ―Structural Analysis of Rongorongo Inscriptions.‖ Rapanui Journal. Vol. 21. No. 1. Pp. 25-32. Horley, P. (2009). ―Scribal Errors‖. Rapanui Journal. Vol.. No.. Pp. 252-260 Inglis, J. Bp. (1828). Bishop John Inlglis‘ Interview with Shanawdithit. "Appendix: Letter from the Lordbishop of Nova Scotia." S.P.G. Annual Report 1827. London: S.P.G. and C.&J. Rivington. Jaussen, T. (1893). L‘île de Pâsques. Historique et Ecriture. Bulletin de Geographie, Historique et Decriptive. Vol. 2. Johnson, F. (1976). Mythical Beasts Coloring Book. New York: Dover Publications. (MDW OWNS) Kaulins, A. (1981). An Astronomical Zodiac in the Script of Easter Island. 1st ed. Germany: Darmstadt, Diebrugerstr. Website: http://www.andiskaulins.com/publications/easterisland/easter.htm. Keenan, S. (2000). Gods, Goddesses, and Monsters: An Encyclopedia of World Mythology. New York: Scholastic.

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Krupa, V. (1971). ‗Moon‘ in the Writing of Easter Island. Oceanic Linguistics 10 (1). Pp. 1-10. Kudrjavtsev, B. G. (1949). The Written Language of Easter Island. Sbornik Museya Antropoligii i Etnografii. Vol. 11. Lanyon-Orgill, P. A. (1953). The Easter Island Inscriptions. Journal of Autronesian Studies. Vol. 1. Leemings, D. A. (1990). The World of Myth: An Anthology. New York: Oxford University Press. Melka, T.S. (2008). ‗Structural Observations Regarding RongoRongo Tablet ‗Keiti‘. Cryptologia, 32: 155-179, 2008. Taylor and Francis Group, LLC. Downloaded by: [Canadian Research Knowledge Network] At: 18:15 27 September 2010. Metraux, A. (1940). Ethnology of Easter Island. Bernice P. Bishop Museum Bulletin 160. Honolulu: Bishop Museum Press. Métraux, A. (1957). Easter Island, A Stone-age Civilization of the Pacific. Bullock, M. (Trans). New York: Oxford University Press. Metraux, A. (1971). Ethnology of Easter Island. Honolulu, Hawaii: Bishop Museum Press Reprints. Monberg, T. (1966). The Religion of Bellona Island – A Study of the Place of Beliefs and Rites in the Social Life of Pre-Christian Bellona. Copenhagen: The National Museum of Denmark. Olderogge, D. A., 1947. Parallel Texts of Some Hieroglyphic Tablets from Easter Island (from the unpublished data of B. G. Kudrjavtsev). Sovetskya Etnografiya. Vol. 4. Philip, N. (1999). Myths and Legends. New York: Dorling Kindersley. Pinart, A. (1877). ‗Jouney to Easter Island (Pacific Ocean)‘. Around the World, Vol.36, pp.225-240, (1878). Unpublished Text and Drawings. Website: http://web.archive.org/web/20071007022537/www.rongorongo.org/early.html Porteous, J. D. (1981). The Modernization of Easter Island. Western Geographical Series Vol. 19. Victoria, British Columbia: University of Victoria. Pozdniakov, K. (1996). ―Les Bases du Déchiffrement de l‘Écrture de l‘Ile de Pâques‖. Journal de la Societé des Océanistes. Vol. 103. No. 2. Pp. 289-303.

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Pozdniakov, K. & Pozdniakov, I. (2007). ‗Rapanui Writing and the Rapanui Language: Preliminary Results of Statistical Analysis‘. Forum for Anthropology and Culture. 3. Pp. 3-36. Website: http://pozdniakov.Free/1620Easter%20Island%20english.pdf. Rangimarie Turuki Rose Pere, Dr. (Working Paper No. 17). Nga Kawai Rangatira O Te Wheke Kamaatu (The Eight Noble Tentacles Of The Great Octopus of Wisdom) and Te Wheke Kamaatu Mai I Te Toihanga O Nga Rangi Tuhaha, (the Octopus of Great Wisdom from the Uppermost Of The Far Flung Heavens) The Rapanui-English Dictionary. Website: http://www.rongorongo.org/vanaga/a.html Reimiro Tablet & Tablet H of the Rongo Rongo script. On Wikipedia. Retrieved Nov. 9, 2009 from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rongorongo Rjabchikov, S.V. (1998-2005). Website: http://rongorongo.chat.ru/glyphs2.htm. Krupa, V. (1973). ‗Tane in the Easter Island Script.‘ Asian and African. Bratislava. 9. Pp. 115-119. Robbeveen, J. (1721). Extract from the Official Log of Mr. Jacob Roggeveen in The Voyage of Captain Don Felipe Gonzalez to Easter Island. Hakluyt Society, Series II, Vol. XIII(for 1903). Rosenberg, D. (1994). World Mythology: An Anthology of the Great Myths and Epics. Lincolnwood, Illinois: NTC Publishing Group. Routledge, K. (1917). The Mystery of Easter Island. London: Sifton Praed. (Routledge, 1914-15: Reel 2, notebook, p. 49r) Shand, A. (1895). The Moriori People of the Chatham Islands: Their Tradtions and History. JPS. Vol. 4. No. 1. Pp. 33-36. Website of Kopi Holdings Ltd. P. 35. Tregear, E. (1891). Moari-Polynesian Comparative Dictionary. London: Lyon and Blair, Lambton Quay. Thompsom, W.J. (1891). ‗Te Pito te Henua or Easter Island‘. The Report of the U.S. National Museum for the Year Ending June 30, 1889. Annual Reports of the Smithsonian Institute. Washington: United States Government Printing Office. Pp. 447552. Wilkinson, P. (1998). Illustrated Dictionary of Mythology. New York: Dorling Kindersley. Willis, R. (1993). World Mythology. New York: Henry Holt and Company.

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Wilson, W. H. (1985). ‗Evidence for an Outlier Source for the Proto Eastern Polynesian Pronominal System.‘ Oceanic Linguistics. Vol. 24. No. 1/2. Summer-Winter, 1985. Pp. 85-133. Website accessed Oct. 26, 2010: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3623064

Other sources: Anonymous website: http://web.archive.org/web/20060927085655/www.rongorongo.org/routldge/254.html By Great Big Sea on their CD "Turn." This song is named for a woman named Demasduit (also spelled Demasduwit), one of the last of the Beothuk people who were native to Newfoundland. The last known Beothuk, Demasduit's niece Shanawdithit, died in 1829. from http://www.wordnik.com/lists/tunie-demasduit-dream, extracted February 27, 2010. Other Sources Easter Island Statue Project Official Website From Wikipedia, the free encyclopaedia. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hoa_Hakananai'a. Retrieved 04.02.2010. Parker. I. (2009). Evanescent Light Photography web page. http://parkerlab.bio.uci.edu/nonscientific_adventures/EasterIsland_orongo.htm. Retrieved 04.02.2010. British Museum.org. Hoa Hakananai'a: Stolen or Hidden Friend. Retrieved: 09.02.2008. Guy, J. B. M.. The Easter Island Tablets – Overview. Website accessed Nov. 1, 2010: http://www.netaxs.com/~trance/rongo2.html Legassick, S. Travel Pod. Sights of Easter Island. http://images.travelpod.com/users/stevelegassick/38.1201021200.1-orongo.jpg. Retrieved 04.02.2010. Sacred Destinations, Easter Island (Rapanui). http://www.sacreddestinations.com/chile/easter-island-photos/slides/orongo-to-moto-nui-info-ccnatmandu.php. Retrieved 05..02.10. Van Tilburg, J. (Sept. 2007). Hoa hakananai‘a Laser Scan Project. Easter Island Stature Project. http://www.eisp.org/10/. Retrieved 04.02.2010. Wikipedia: Extracted September 25, 2010 from Website: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/8/87/Rongorongo_J_Reimiro.jpg

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Endnotes
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The Hoa Hakananai'a is a moai (Easter Island statue) housed in the British Museum in London. The name Hoa hakanani'a is from the Rapa Nui language; it means (roughly) "stolen or hidden friend."[1] It was removed[2] from Orongo, Easter Island on 7 November 1868[3] by the crew of the English ship HMS Topaze, and arrived in Portsmouth on 25 August 1869.[4] i. Van Tilburg, J. A. Hoa Hakananai'a (British Museum Press 2004), p.38. ii. Van Tilburg, Jo Anne. (2006). Remote Possibilities: Hoa Hakananai'a and HMS Topaze on Rapa Nui. British museum Research Papers. ISBN 0861591585. iii. Van Tilburg, J. A. Hoa Hakananai'a (British Museum Press 2004), p. iv. Van Tilburg, J. A. Hoa Hakananai'a (British Museum Press 2004), p.7. When this moai Hoa, stolen by death, was removed from its location on Orongo and taken over the breakers into a ship, the entire island, now converted to Christianity cheered. They were not cheering at the new band of thieves, they were cheering at the mythical tale that came to its fulfillment that day.

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Routledge, S & Routledge K. (1917). The Bird Cult of Easter Island. Folklore. Vol 28. No. 4. Pp. 337355. Taylor & Francis Ltd. on behalf of Folklore Enterprises, Ltd.. Retrieved Oct. 26, 2010 from http://www.jstor.org. P. 339. iii Wolff, W. (1945). The mystery of the Easter Island script. The Journal of Polynesian Society. Vol. 54. No. 1. Pp. 1-38. P. 2. iv Wolff (1945). Ibid. P. 3. v Tregear, E. (1891). Maori-Polynesian Comparative Dictionary. London: Lyon and Blair, Lambton Quay. Tregear‘s work is an essential resource for this article, since he was able to preserve as well as a dictionary could some of the common vocabulary, myth and ceremony that existed across Polynesia prior to European contact. At the same time, Tregear was able to honor the distinct elements of each island group. vi Mythology from the perspective of Karen Armstrong in A Short History of Myth (2005), which counts on the flexibility in myth to enhance our everyday lives as apposed to a more conservative confinement of myth. vii Fornander, A. (1969). An Account of the Polynesian Race – Its Origins and Migrations. Tokyo: Charles E. Tuttle Company: Publishers, pp. 1-2. viii Métraux, A. (1971). Ethnology of Easter Island. Honolulu, Hawaii: A Bishop Museum Press Reprint, p. 331. ix Routledge & Routledge (1917). Ibid. P. 340. x Keeping in mind that Orongo means the Listening Place where the high call of the Sooty Tern can be heard and Orohie means the Calling Place, where Oro is the call of a young bird. Métraux, Ibid, p. 332. xi Easter Island Statue Project (EISP) Official Website, retrieved February 18 th, 2010. xii From Easter Island Statue Project Official Website xiii Métraux, Ibid. p. 339. xiv Tregear, Ibid, maui. xv William Thompson xvi Barthel, T. S. (1978). The Eighth Land – The Polynesian Discovery and Settlement of Easter Island. Honolulu: The University Press of Hawaii, p. 261. xvii Fischer, S. R. (1997). Rongorongo – The Easter Island Script – History, Traditions, Texts. Oxford: Clarendon Press. xviii Fischer, Ibid, p. 333. xix Dansereau, J. (Unpublished from 2007). The Tattoo Soothing Chant of Maui, the Sweeping of the Stars: a Definitive Decipherment of the Easter Island Tablets. xx British Museum.org. Hoa Hakananai'a: Stolen or Hidden Friend. Retrieved: 09.02.2008. xxi Eyrand, Fr.E. (1864-66). ‗Letter of Fr. Eugene Eyraud, the T.R.P. Superior General‘. Annals of the Propogation of the Faith, Vol.36, pp.52-71, 124-138. From website: http://web.archive.org/web/20071007022537/www.rongorongo.org/early.html xxii Dalton, O. M. (1904). ‗Easter Island: Script. Man. Vol. 4. Pp. 115-116. De Harlez, C. (1895). Le Muséon, Revue Internationale. Vol. XIV. P. 415ff. Vol. XV. Pp. 68-73. xxiii Butinov, N. A. & Knorozov, Y. V. (1957). Preliminary Report on the Study of the Written Language of Easter Island. The Journal of the Polynesian Society. Vol. 66. No. 1. Pp. 5-17. xxiv Sproat, R. (2010). Language, Technology, and Society. New York: Oxford University Press, Inc. xxv Carrol, Dr. A. (1892). The Easter Island inscriptions and the translation and interpretation of them. Magazine of th ePolynesia Company. Extracted from website: http://kiwidepia.com/kiwi/ci9vL24vUm9uZ29fcm9uZ28=#Pau... xxvi Butinov & Knorozov (1957). Ibid. P. 7. xxvii Routledge, S. (1919). The Mystery of Easter Island – The Story of an Expedition. London & Aylesbury: Hazel, Watson and Viney Ltd. In website: http://www.rongorongo.org/routldge/253.html xxviii Hevesy, V. (1932) Notes on the hieroglyphs of I‘Ile de Paques. Read at the conference of the French Academy of Inscriptions and Calligraphy by Paul Pelliot. xxix Robinson, A. (2002). Lost Languages – the Enigma of the World‘s Undeciphered Scripts. New York: McGraw-Hill. xxx Butinov, N. A. & Knorozov, Y. V. (1957). Preliminary Report on the Study of the Written Language of Easter Island. Journal of the Polynesian Society. Vol. 66. No. 1. Pp. 5-17. xxxi Pozdniakov, K. & Pozdniakov, I. (2007). Rapanui Writing and the Rapanui Language: Preliminary Results of the Statistical Analysis. The Forum of Anthropology and Culture. Vol. 3. Pp. 3-36.

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Pozdniakov, K. (Unpublished). Website: http://www.sacred-texts.com/pac/ei/ei49.htm Guy, J. W. B. (1990). On the Lunar Calendar of Tablet Mamari. Jouranl of Société des Océanistes. Vol. 91. No. 2. Pp. 135-149. xxxiv Guy, J. W. B. (1982). Fused Glyphs in the Easter Island Script. Journal of the Polynesian Society. Vol. 91. Pp. 445-447. xxxv Fischer, S. R. (1995). Rongorongo, the Easter Island Script: History, Traditions, Texts. Oxford: Clarendon Press. xxxvi Fischer, S. R. (1995). Preliminary Evidence for Cosmologic Texts in Rapanui‘s Rongorongo Inscriptions. Journal for Polynesian Society. Vol. 104. Pp. 303-321. Fischer, S. R. (1995). Further Evidence for Cosmologic Texts in the RongoRongo Inscriptions of Easter Island. Rapa Nui Journal. Vol. 9. Pp. 99-107. xxxvii Kaulins, A. (1981). An Astronomical Zodiac in the Script of Easter Island. 1st ed. Germany: Darmstadt, Diebrugerstr. Website: http://www.andiskaulins.com/publications/easterisland/easter.htm. xxxviii Sproat, R. (2003). Approximate String matches in the RR Corpus. Website: http://serrano.ai.uiuc.edu/rws/ror. xxxix Sproat (2010). Ibid. xl Davletshin, A. (2002). Names in the Kohau Rongorongo Script. Presented as From Kohau Rongorongo tablets to Rapanui social organization: From Rapanui Social organization to Kohau Rongorongo script. Saint Petersburg 2nd International Conference: ―Hierarchy and Power in the History of Civilizations‖ held in Saint Petersburg. Moscow: Knorosov Center for Mesoamerican Studies, Russian State University for the Humanities. July 4-7, 2002. e-mail: aldavletshin@mail.ru xli Davletshin (2002). Ibid. P. 17. xlii Davletshin (2002). Ibid. P. 12. xliii Horley, P. (2005). Allographic Variations and Statistical Analysis of the Rongorongo Script. Rapanui Journal. Vol. 19. No. 2. Pp. 107-116. xliv Berthin, G. G. & Berthin, M. E. (2006). Astronomical Unity and Poetic Metaphor in the Rongorongo Lunar Calendar. Applied Semiotics 8: 18. 85-98. xlv Melka, T. S. (2009). Some Considerations about the Kohau Rongorongo Script in the Light of a Statistical Analysis of the ‗Santiago Staff‘. Cryptologia. Vol. 33. Pp. 24-73. P. 29. xlvi Shirres, M. (1996). Ibid. Website: Maori Theology. xlvii Routledge, S. (1917). The Mystery of Easter Island. London: Sifton Praed. xlviii Sproat (2010). Ibid. xlix Carrasco, M. (2004). ‗Unaahil B‘aak: the Temples of Palenque‘. Website of Learning Objects Studio. Weslayen University. Website: http://learningobjects.wesleyan.edu/palenque/glyphs/. Extracted: October 5, 2010 from Introduction – The Origins of the Mayan Script and a Brief History of its Decipherment. P. 3. l Carrasco. (2004). Ibid. P. 1. li Davis, W. (2009). The Wayfinders – Why Ancient Wisdom Matters in the Modern World. Toronto, Ontario: House of Anansi Press, Ltd.. Pp. 35-37, 61-62. lii Davis (2009). Ibid. P. 62. liii Davis (2009). Ibid. P. 57-59. liv Davis (2009). Ibid. P. 35. lv Standing Bear, L. (1868-1939). ‗Quotation from Oglala Sioux chief‘. Native American Quotes. Website: http://www.think-aboutit.com/native/native_american_quotes.htm. Extracted: October 13, 2010. lvi Rjabchikov, S. V. (1993). Notes on the Easter Island Script. L‘Echo de Rapa Nui. Vol. 6. No. 24. Pp. 2223. Rjabchikov confirms Lee‘s research that Honu, the turtle is seen in the Pleiades Constellation in both Rapanui and Tuamotu. Lee, G. (1992). The Rock Art of Easter Island. Symbols of Power, Prayers to the Gods. Los Angeles: The Institute of Archaeology Publications (UCLA). lvii Dansereau, J. (2007). The Sweeping of the Stars: the Decipherment of Seven Chants on the Easter Island Tablets. Unpublished. lviii Guy, B. M. (1999). Un prétendu déchiffrement des tablettes de l‘île de Pâques. Société des Océanistes. Pp. 57-63. lix Pozdniakov, K. & Pozdniakov, I. (2007). Rapanui Writing and the Rapanui Language: Preliminary Results of the Statistical Analysis. The Forum of Anthropology and Culture. Vol. 3. Pp. 3-36.
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Chapin, P. G. (1974). Syntactic Typology: Studies in the Phenomenology of Language. Linguistics Research Centre: Austin: University of Texas. College of Liberal Arts. Website: last updated: March 20, 2007. lxi Tregear (1891). Ibid. Maui; Rata; Hina; Hine. lxii Shirres, M. (1996). Website. http://crash.ihug.co.nz/~dominic/karakia2.html. lxiii Barthel, T. S. (1978). The Eighth Land – the Polynesian Discovery and Settlement of Easter Island. Honolulu: The University Press of Hawaii. lxiv Fischer, S.R. (1997). Rongorongo - The Easter Island Script History, Traditions, Texts. Oxford: Clarendon Press. Butinov, N.A. and Knorozov, Y.V. (1957). lxv Shirres, M (1996). Ibid. Website. The Kuumara Karakia: Ka noho te rangi nui, that Taylor received from Wiremu Katene invoking atua Tau & Rongo. lxvi Shirres, M. (1996). Ibid. Website. Wanganui canoe karakia ritual. lxvii Shirres, M. (1996). Ibid. Website. He tamariki raanei koe. lxviii Shirres, M. (1996). Ibid. Website. Purea te pure, 'Complete the pure', from informant Te Rangihakeke. In this karakia, the hair-cutting for Ihenga is a rite forming part of the funeral ritual for Ihenga's father. lxix Guy, J. B. M.. The Easter Island Tablets – Overview. Website accessed Nov. 1, 2010: http://www.netaxs.com/~trance/rongo2.html. Orliac C. & Orliac. M.. ―Des dieux regardent les étoiles (Gods gave at the stars)‖ Découvertes. Gallimard (Ed.). No. 38. lxx Davletshin (2002). Ibid. P. 7. Pozdniakov & Pozdniakov (2007). Pp. 3-36. Their work in statistical analysis has convinced them of a rongorongo syllabary system. lxxi Fischer, S.R. (1997). Rongorongo - The Easter Island Script History, Traditions, Texts. Oxford: Clarendon Press. Butinov, N.A. and Knorozov, Y.V. (1957). ‗Preliminary Report on the Study of the Written Language of Easter Island.‘ Journal of the Polynesian Society, 66(1). Pp. 5-17. lxxii Tregear (1891). Dansereau, J. (Unpublished from 2007). The Sweeping of the Stars: the Decipherment of Seven Chants on the Easter Island Tablets. lxxiii Butinov (1957). Ibid. P. 8. lxxiv Tregear (1891). Ibid. Karakia. lxxv Shirres, M. (1996). Ibid. Website. lxxvi Shirres, M. (1996). Ibid. Website. A Traditional Threefold Structure (of Karakia). lxxvii Shirres, M. (1996). Ibid. Website. A Traditional Threefold Structure (of Karakia). lxxviii Shirres, M. (1996). Ibid. Website. Division of Karakia. lxxix Shirres, M. (1996). Ibid. Website. Division of Karakia. lxxx Guy (1982). Ibid. Pp. 445-447. lxxxi Melka (2008). Ibid. P. 174. lxxxii Butinov (1957). Ibid. Pp. 8-9. lxxxiii Horley (2009). Ibid. Pp. 252-260. lxxxiv Horley (2009). Ibid. Pp. 258. lxxxv Horley (2009). Ibid. Pp. 259. lxxxvi Horley (2007). Ibid. Pp. 26, 28. lxxxvii Tregear (1891). Ibid. toko; tiki; ura; kura; ara; po. lxxxviii Butinov, N. A. & Knorozov, Y. V. (1957). Preliminary Report on the Study of the Written Language of Easter Island. The Journal of the Polynesian Society. Vol. 66. No. 1. Pp. 5-17. Also see website of : Guy, J. - http://www.netaxs.com/~trance/rongo2.html lxxxix Guy, J. - http://www.netaxs.com/~trance/rongo2.html xc Tregear (1891). Ibid. tiki; ura; ara; po. xci Tregear (1891). Ibid. tiki; ura; ara; po. xcii Tregear (1891). Ibid. tiki; ura; ara; po; waka; ruatapu; wanawana; wananga; taiura; ngataurira. xciii Guy, J. B. M. (1988). Rjabchikov‘s Decipherments Examined. The Journal of Polynesian Society. Vol. 97. No. 3. Pp. 321-324. P. 323 – Guy writes, ―If glyphs must be referred to at all in the text, let it be using Barthel‘s system, and let every glyph in the figures (whether cited or not in the text) have underneath it its reference number along with its phonetic value and reading.‖ xciv Tregear (1891). Ibid. tawhitiri, tawhiti, ripeka, manawa, tane, tavake, tawhaki, paikea, tuapiko, waenganui-po; wainui; tiko. RangiMarie Rose Pere, Maori Tahina Wisdom Keeper, 2010. Tama Te Ra. xcv Butinov (1957). Ibid. Pp. 13-14.

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Wolfe, W. (1945). The Mystery of the Easter Island Script – Probable causes of the disappearance of the hieroglyphic system. The Journal of Polynesian Society. Vol. 54. No. 1. Pp. 1-38. P. 4. xcvii Métraux, (1940). Ibid. P. 352. xcviii Métraux, (1940). Ibid. P. 267. xcix Métraux, (1940). Ibid. P. 310. c Barthel, T. (1958). Grundlagen zur Entzifferung der Osterinselschrift. Hamburg: Cram, de Gruyter. Fischer, S.R. (1995). Preliminary Evidence for Cosmogonic Texts in Rapanui Rongorongo Inscriptions. Journal of the Polynesian Society. Vol. 104. Pp. 303-321. ci Davletshin (2002). Ibid. P. 3. cii Butinov & Knorozov (1957). Ibid. P. 5-17. ciii Barthel, T. S. (1978). The Eighth Land – the Polynesian Discovery and Settlement of Easter Island. Honolulu: The University Press of Hawaii. Pp. 3-4. civ Wolfe (1945). Ibid. P. 6. cv Wolfe (1945). Ibid. P. 25. cvi Black Water, A., Wolf Child, B. & Weasel Fat, R. (2009). Blackfoot Culture Class. Niitsitapiwa Workplace Literacy Program. Red Crow Community College Satellite Campus. Lethbridge, Alberta. November, 2009. cvii Wolfe (1945). Ibid. P. 7. cviii Wolfe (1945). Ibid. P. 8. cix Wolfe (1945). Ibid. P. 10. cx Wolfe (1945). Ibid. P. 10. cxi Wolfe (1945). Ibid. P. 11. cxii Chapin, P. G. (1974). Syntactic Typology: Studies in the Phenomenology of Language. Linguistics Research Centre: Austin: University of Texas. College of Liberal Arts. Website: last updated: March 20, 2007. cxiii Pozdniakov, K. & Pozdniakov, I. (2007). Rapanui Writing and the Rapanui Language: Preliminary Results of the Statistical Analysis. The Forum of Anthropology and Culture. Vol. 3. Pp. 3-36. cxiv Davletshin (2002). P. 8. cxv Davletshin (2002). Ibid. P. 12. cxvi Davletshin (2002). Ibid. P. 13. cxvii Davletshin (2002). Ibid. Pp. 4, 13. cxviii Davletshin (2002). Ibid. P. 15. cxix Melka (2009). Ibid. P. 31. cxx Melka (2009). Ibid. Pp. 31-34. cxxi Melka (2009). Ibid. Pp. 34-35. cxxii Melka (2009). Ibid. Pp. 42. cxxiii Melka (2009). Ibid. Pp. 43. cxxiv Melka (2008). Ibid. P. 172. cxxv Guy, J. B. M. (1982). On a fragment of the ‗Tahua‘ tablet. The Journal of Polynesian Society. Vol 91. No. 3. Guy points out sequences of ten and eight the parallel texts of the proposed Canoe of Rata Chant on Text A, P, Q and H. cxxvi Butinov & Knorozov (1957). Ibid. P. 5-17. Guy. http://www.netaxs.com/~trance/rongo2.html. cxxvii Matakerepo is given her sight back once she has only one root left, perhaps aluding to an offering of the root as a portion of the eating of the god ceremony. Her sight, or enlightenment, comes from the realization that the flesh of the god is here satisfaction, but not from a human victim, rather an organic one. It was the fish she ate also that caused her blindness. The fish was from the hook of human bone not yet released from tapu. Maui uses such a hook to raise the island likened to a fish, Ika-a-Maui. The first fish offering to Maui is required before one can pull up any fish. Tawhaki can climb to heaven from the mana power of properly counted land produce. There are 9 roots for the first nine heavens he must climb to reach the tenth heaven. cxxviii Butinov & Knorozov (1957). Ibid. P. 5-17. Guy. http://www.netaxs.com/~trance/rongo2.html. cxxix Wikipedia: Rongorongo. Extracted December 5, 2010. cxxx Butinov & Knorozov (1957). Ibid. P. 5-17. Guy. http://www.netaxs.com/~trance/rongo2.html. cxxxi Guy, J. (1999). - Peut-on se fonder sur le témoignage de Métoro pour déchiffrer les rongo-rongo? Jounal de la Société des océanistes. Vol. 108. No. 1. Persée – http://www.persee.fr. Pp. 125-132. P. 61.

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Guy (2006). P. 65. Barthel, T. S. (1978). The Eighth Land – the Polynesian Discovery and Settlement of Easter Island. Honolulu: The University of Honolulu Press. P. 9. cxxxiv Barthel (1978). Ibid. Pp. 9, 11. cxxxv Butinov & Knorozov (1957). Ibid. P. 5-17. Guy. http://www.netaxs.com/~trance/rongo2.html. cxxxvi Shirres, M. (1996). Ibid. Website. Karakia – A Binding of Spiritual Powers. cxxxvii Fischer (1995). Ibid. P. 422. Fischer (1997). Ibid. P. 234. cxxxviii Pozniakov, K. (?). Les Bases Du Déchiffrement de L‘Écriture de L‘Île de Pâques. Société des Océanistes. Pp. 289-303. P. 295. cxxxix Pua is a flower and punga is a yellow branching choral. Punga may also mean a pollen. As an anchor punga is considered the Southern Cross Constolation, or Pungawerewere, the hanging spider, the anchor of the canoe of heaven. Punga is also the deity of sharks (see curiosity 2 below). Pu means tribe. If you include the appearance of the base or root (take) in TextEv6 or Cr2-3 (number 5 above), Pu + take = putake, meaning ancestor, origin, cause. Pu and Tiki can both mean a topknot of hair. Perhaps number 6 above in Text Cr2-3 represents Putiki, the topknot, the symbol of Maui, the greatest ancestor. Pu also means a sacred name, as a deity chief or king, root, origin, the centre, double tooth, wise, heap or bundle. cxl A wananga is the one who can chant the appropriate incantations for the dead. Wananga also means the ancient sacred traditions. Notice the canoe or waka is halved. Consider the half canoe as half the syllables of waka, thus wa plus the bristles word wana. The half canoe directs you to understand wana (bristles) is the word in context, not merely huru (hair). Yet the mythology tells of Pungaheko as the deity who provided the huruhuru, the reproductive passage through the goddess of the Underworld. As well, to blow where pu is the horn and Puhihuia is a certain beautiful maiden who brought peace. cxli A fish, in reference to a man, means that the person is offered as a sacrifice to a deity. Fish offerings were used to launch new canoes. It is plausible to refer to this association of the fish with the man as the relationship between the dead man and the canoe of the ancestors requiring a fish to be launched into rangi or heaven. The fish is not actually required since the man‘s death is a sacred event. cxlii Kawa was the first fish offering from the miraculous shower of fishes provided by Tinirau. Kawa is the sacred tree branch used in removing tapu from a canoe. Kawa is the sacred drink liquor in Polynesian ceremony. Kawa is also a name for ihiihi baptism. Kawa was one of the two hanging from the forehead of Tuna descending from the drought ravaged heaven, when Tawhaki was ascending to stomp open the springs. Tuna was a giant eel slain by Maui and his body parts bore different forms of life. Tuna sacrificed himself for his love, Hina, to save her from the deluge and instructed her to bury his head and out from the mysterious seed sprang the coconut tree, with a gourd of white food, the brains of Tuna. Another myth speaks of Hina beheading an eel, the tail swims away and the head is buried in a calabash and sprouts. The myth resembles the floating deity in the calabash pleading to enter the canoe. The glyph resembles a fish feeding in high tide combined with the next atua glyph. The rising tide in Rapanui represents the pregnancy fluid as food for infants in the womb, since the fish feed at high tide. The first fruit of fish caught was offered before such incantations and may be represented here. Tuna descending from heaven had Kawa and Maraenui handing from his forehead. Kawa is the sacred fish fallen from heaven as an firstfruit offering that like a seed bears much fruit. Maraenui is the Hawaiian City of Refuge or a Temple where such Kawa (kavai is a ball) offering were given. The taniwha water monster glyph has two such hangings from the forehead, which match with the overturning Reigna, which together make an entire head. Kawainga are the stars that herald the dawn. cxliii Atua: Such a wave creates mist and foam which are the signs of the great deity of light and life throughout the Pacific Rim. Atea is the light and parallels the role of Tane. However, Atea also means the very beginning, when the Sun and the Moon were equally bright. Therefore, in Tahiti, the incantation to Tangaroa makes sense, Taaroa is the Root, the Rock; Taaroa is the Light.‖ —Forn., i. 222. The one who represents death and dying was once the light itself and now the Light deified has represented death on our behalf. The overturning of Mataaho (window), is reflected in the moon cycle Atua glyph. This is the 14 th day of the moon, the tidal wave or rising anticipation of pregnant Hina who falls through the full moon window into the depths of Po and swims to Mokoia. The overturning of the lizard, Moko or Moo, reveals the white and soft side of the deity, just as does the full moon. In order to defeat death, one must be washed clean, as Hina fell into the depth of her repentance in the baptismal waters that softened her heart. She did not notice the mud staining her children until she left her lofty place in heaven and saw the waxing and waning of the moon as her own children rising and falling, in life and death, goodness and evil. Therefore,
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she fled back up to heaven, pure and clean as a sign for her children to follow. Atua is full moon, called Aina wai akua a Kane; The land of the divine water of Tane, where Tane is Atua, the light of the Full Moon, the clear light of Atea. Atua may mean to become divine, by imitating Tane and it may also mean the daily sacrifice for every meal. cxliv Routo: The significance of the glyph is not merely to represent bending down. The comb (heru, karau) is a representation of the scratching instrument, which is used to separate and clean. Heru also means to paw the ground as a hen scratching or as an angry bull. Here is the Poseidon Bull allusion again, which caused the flood of Gilgamesh. Mapara is a comb and the sap of a tree. To scratch a tree brings the sap. Mapou means to turn brown or red. The purpose of the scratching mystery was to turn the back of the deity, red. This is how the first man was created, from the scratched dust of the deluge and the spittle of the gods. Kapara is a comb and means a resin used to make torches after the wood is combed or spliced. Para means to halve as if a branch were spliced. Here we have a resemblance to the Hapai glyph, which must be an offering that has been combed and tested in fire. Tia is a comb and a stick driven in the ground, which can be used in baptism and death for a standing of the rods ceremony. Tiaho is to radiate and contrasts with the pole glyph as ti, (titi means to shine – what occurs as one rises the waka rod to Rangi) and aho – rays of the sun and mataaho – a window and ahoroa – the moon. The fork glyph, as rou or tirou is used for plucking the bread-fruit from the tree. In Maui‘s Ball Game chapter, the breadfruit tree represents those who would swing from the vines of Pacific Rim ceremony. At the time of death, we must be gathered like the breadfruit. Tiro is a food store raised up for storage – an allusion to the Tamarereti, canoe, where we are raised up to be consumed by the fire of Atua Aroha – Divine Love. Purau is also a fork, similar to marau. Purara, which means a branching or scattering is an allusion to the Hapai glyph and puraurau is a bristled thing alluding to the wananga glyph. Purou is also a fork and as purotu means pure clear water, the residence of the gods or a beautiful comely person. Peka is a fork and also represents sticks made into a cross (landmark) or a crossroads. Oka is a fork and means to project upwards or strip to the ribs (ie of a ship). Tarahanga is also a fork of a tree and may be used as a term for a trap for hawks. cxlv Ngata or tangata is the typical man/side glyph. With the pole added, one could use toko, but ti fits with a thorough dictionary search. Ngatoro is the priest that caused the Arawa canoe to enter a whirlpool after being insulted by Tama (see 1d below). Tama can be an abbreviation of Tamarereti, the canoe of heaven, with Orion as its bow. The consistency of the incantations present the context that the text does not so much refer to itself in this glyph as if it were a logogram of a man reading a tablet. The syllables refers to lineage, not the script itself. Perhaps the authors intended a double meaning, both logographic and syllabic: a true descendant is one who recites the tablets, or belongs to a tribe that recites the tablets. cxlvi Shirres, M. (1996). Ibid. Website. E Tiki e. Traditional Symbols. cxlvii Tiki is also a pole marking a portion of tapu ground. The incantation is telling of the sacred tomb or medium or propped up canoe of the first man, which all descendents wish to recline towards. This standing of the rods or grave is sacred and tapu. Tiki, like Maui is a trickster and may well be one in the same little, yet powerful deity. Tiki made man by mixing his blood with clay. The first woman was, among other names, Ivi or Iva and was made from one of Tiki‘s bones (see glyph 6b). The hole to the underworld is called the Chasm of Tiki. The presence of the shark after putiki may represent Arawa, which means shark and the Canoe of Tama sent to the whirlpool by Ngatoro. Consider the Arawa canoe as the Tamarereti {Tama, Arawa‘s captain + rerewai (rere), shark + Tiki (ti) = Tamarereti}. Perhaps rere (to leap, run, gush, to rise, to set…) gives us rerenga, Spirit‘s leap and Tiki is the one sung of who was sacrificed like Jonah out of the canoe into the whirlpool which engulfed him like a great fish or long shark. cxlviii Also noteworthy is Hina is then named by the brothers, Ihungarupaea, ―Stranded log of timber‖. Where the timber of a canoe is implied as the ending arch of the bow or the nose (Ihu). The moon itself then, represents a portion of the canoe. Ihuatamai is also rich in meaning. Ata means mirror and mai means toward the person speaking. Ihuatamai is then the hero twin who is inclined to imitate the teacher, Vananga. The other twin is the polar opposite, as Ihuwareware, means the deceptive one, or the fool. cxlix Tahitahia is the wooden shovel made by Rupe to sweep Rehua‘s dwelling clean. Rehua was the powerful Lord of Kindness. His home is the tenth heaven and he was Lord of the 4 highest heavens (ten is tingahuru, possibly represented by the side/man (ngata) glyph with hair (huruhuru) on his back (Ngatiwhatua?). Rupe visits him searching for Hina. Rehua healed deseases and could raise the dead. Rupe pushes his way to the highest heaven to ask Rehua where his sister Hina is hiding. Rehua tells Rupe and when he finds her, both Rupe and Hina return to heaven. Perhaps it was Rupe‘s shovel ‗cleaning‘ the tenth heaven that finds Hina. The mythology would suggest that it is the dust of man‘s rotted bones that are

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being Swept clean or dug out, that the pigeon, or dove, or winged spirit representing the purity of men might be restored to Heaven. Yet, Kanae was the Shining One, the Grey Mullet, a shiny fish was the only fish able to escape the wrath of Tawhaki and Karihi. The fish escaped by way of leaping or hopping, which is a play on the trickster Tawhito. The leap of Kanae reflects the leap of Hina from the full moon cycle. However, Kanae‘s leap or hop must occur at the New Moon, not the full moon. That is, the glittering fish that escapes is the shining sliver of the new waxing moon cycle. In one legend, Hina is bated to Konikonia‘s house (by Ku-ula) with images (ki‘i) of her husband, Ki‘imuluahuka, tied a fathom (malo, maro) apart. Malo is to dry. There was a drought in the heavens when Tawhaki ascended to the third heaven of Maru – the god of stones. Marua is a pit and also means hilly. It was the leaping fish that made the hills. These images that attracted Hina represent the stars of Orion (Rapanui – He Tui, to string together – Tuirangi is Rata‘s Canoe) with a line hanging from Sirius (Rapanui, Te Pou – a stone or wood post used as an orientation marker – a waka for the standing up of the rods) through Orion to Pleiades (the sleeping eye of heaven, the beautiful sleeping men in the lore). Rotu was the prayer of drowsiness. It was a flower gift of the spirits to Tama and also means prayer, devotion, religion. Rou was the forked and curved stick used for gathering the Bread-Fruit (see 14-15 below). Maru Punga Nui is the chief of the Arawa canoe. His home is Rotorua (deep lake). Hina sent for her food store calabash represented by the crescent moon. This calabash was Kena, the light side of the moon (the shining – perhaps the Kanae itself is the food – the parapara – first fish offering or sacred place (also Tuatua – prayer word used at marae – sacred place to represent infinite power and means the back, armpit, hidden lightning, sacred mystery). The calabash as hue links with hua or pua, fruit; huahua, birds as food – the contents of the gourd – Hina‘s food – the Ponaturi. Tohunga is a wise teacher and a sign; Huna is the moon at 10 days; Hunga is the mist or a spray of the sea, a group of persons, dust; paparahua is a table, a flat surface; para is dust, etc.). Ana is the dark side of the moon and means a cave. Here is a symbol of the cave of emergence of the Shining Ones. When the moon fills, it imitates its long lost twin, the Sun and the sky becomes whole. The children of light emerging from the cave of darkness are called to gather into one, to dwell together in peace. Social peace (the light of the earth) only comes after personal enlightenment. Hina falls to the sea at the full moon. Hinana means to wink or means fierce, passionate. Her desire to see her children clean is represented by the passionate leap of Kanae to begin the Kena, the gathering of the remnant toward the waxing of the full moon, the fullness of humanity. Kanae is not a birdman or fairy. Kanae is a fish. Perhaps the birds represent the spirit of humanity, where the fish represent the body and soul or the aspect that can decay. Kanae is the resurrected body, or a hope in the resurrection of the dead. The tapu Hapopo, the sacred first fruit we must not eat. This is Tikimaruahuka, the missing husband of Hina. He is the standing up god of stones in the huka mist or foam. The Inca called him the Seafoam. It was his huka (another word for spit) in the mythology that mixed with the red mud was rubbed in the eyes of the blind Matakerepo. Tawhaki is the healer, he stamped the floor of heaven to cause the great deluge. This floor is the table of Rata. Tawhaki climbed the vine of heaven to the drought region that Tuna was descending from. This vine is also a rainbow in the Polynesian lore, as well as a spider‘s web – the Path of the Spider. This legend has a significant link with the Blackfoot legend of Spiderman who linked heaven and earth. As well, the stamping for a fountain reflects the story of Pegasus. It was the horse-men, called Centauri, who warred with the tribe of the horse, Hippodamea and Hippocratus was this fountain of Pegasus. The Centauri stars are called Ga Waka in Rapanui, which means plural for canoes. The Canoes, or Centauri, lived on Mount Pelion, the wood of which was used to build the Argo for the Argonauts – the mythological figures who parallel the Arawa and Tamarereti company. Consider its anchor, the Southern Cross, in Rapanui, Tatauro, related to the Polynesian arataura – the rope for climbing used by the blind. The Rapanui Milky Way, He Goe, means the Eel or many fish; The star Capella in Rapanui is Ko Toe (long hair or left over). Capella rests in Auriga – the Charioteer (a long haired charioteer was Absalom). The Africans name the star Yoruba, the god of death. In Mesopotamia it is Iku (Ishtar), consort of Marduk, goddess of love, whom Gilgamesh rejected. As a result she persuaded Anu to send the Bull of Heaven to destroy the earth. The Bull is Poseiden‘s symbol whose stomping opens the flood gates just as Tawhito.. Iku in Rapanui means ashes (eoeo). Capella, is a she goat – the Ko Toe, the one left over, the scapegoat. The standing rod, then, is a pathway or vine or web between earth and heaven, death and life. It is the perch of the back scratcher, the Tuke-a-Maui (Tuke – a perch used as a bird snare; Tuku to permit, to let down, a spider‘s web; Tuketuke – a short shovel, ‗Rupe‘; Tukeroa – suns rays; Tui-tui-koviro – a circle of

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joined hands, where koviro can mean familiarity or little one; Tukekau – short. Maui is the little one, who divided and separated the Islands (Tawhito, the root of the land, Tamata, Tamaiwoho). Note: Rupe means to shake. Consider this shaking a catalyst in expelling the fish from the Table of Rata, as if it were a volcano (Easter Island Rano Raraku). This shaking one might be regarded as the owl – Ruru. The one who flies by night (Po) and sees all things even the faults of men that causes death and decay their bodies. Might the wings of Rupe clean men in the Sweeping of the waning and waxing of the moon cycle. Ruruatimai and Ruruwareware are two owls who watch the food stores of Uenuku. Remember, we must not eat of these food stores, lest we be given away by the dying son of Uenuku. Rurumahara and Ruruwareware were guardians of Tinarau‘s water stores used as mirrors by this deity of fishes. Hina falls in these pools and muddies them up, so Tinirau cannot use his mirrors. The mirrors are the souls of men muddied by sin represented by the waning moon. The owls are twins just like Ihuatamai and Ihuwareware, the stooping birds. Might this legend suggests that wise white owl is the moons bright side and the foolish wareware owl is the dark side of the moon, both waning and waxing, flapping their wings and looking into the night to sweep the way from the underworld to the highest heaven clean of the dust of men. Consider the context of fish as the enemy in battle and the host army as the birds. Here at night the birds fly as owls battling the fish, protecting the food stores of Tinirau, who is paralleled with Uenuku. It should be noted that Tinirau as Tina or Tino is the body or trunk of a person, as is Hapopo, the trunk in the mist of Uenuku that was tapu to name. Tini or tina is a multitude of persons. Tini-O-Te-Hakuturi is ‗The Multitude of the Wood-elves‖, the children of Tane who cared for the forest and Rata‘s tree. Rata‘s tree felling might be the moon itself, since the chips, slivers of the moon, are also called the ribs of Tane. We, the new Eves are born from the ribs of Tane. Tinirau is the deity of fishes. Here it could be argued that the fish and the bird are of the same group, the fish are wareware and the birds are atamai. Tinirau lived on the Holy Island, Motutapu, also called, Havaiki, the Spirit World. Tinirau had nine sisters, yet, Tingahuru (ngahuru) means ten. One is missing – Hina. He marries her to bring her into the family. Tinirau was half fish born in the Spirit Land of Hawaiki and was a piece of flesh torn from the side of his mother, Vari-ma-te-takere. Motutapu was his inheritance. Tinohi means to put heated stones on food in a native oven. Rauhi means to place together; to collect. Rau means to handle, feel, grasp, captive, two, catch in a net or gather in a basket. Haumi means to join or lengthen. Hau means to command or call to a feast. cl Manawaru, as rejoicing breaks down as mana (life, power) + waru (scratch or eight). Here Maui the Eight Eyed is alluded to as those who are spread out as stars in the heavens, since Maui is life, Maui is also the Mana itself. To scratch, then, represents an offering of life. Consider the scratching of Maui, the stars spread out over the sky, linking waru, to scratch – with waru – Maui the 8-eyed stars of the sky. The deity, Ru, spread out the heavens as a curtain and is a power at the centre of the Earth, remaining as an unborn child of Papa. This is where glyph 2, Reinga fits, since Reinga is a level of Papa, the earth – Reinga is the womb of Papa and Ru is the unborn Ponaturi in the Heart of Tane or Tane Manawa. Manawaru, rejoice, because the earth is shaking, papa is swelling, the volcano of Raraku is a sign that the earth will open and scatter the burning stones within to be among the stars or the ancestors. Ru‘s full name is Ru-wai-mokoroa. Mokohikuwaru is the deity of lizards; with moko as the lizard, hiku meaning tail, end or head of a stream and waru as scratch or eight. This end place was called, Reinga Wairua or Spirit‘s Leap and might be considered as the tail of moko. It is always the Eastern side of the Island facing the West where the Sun sets. The west represents the dying place and home of Tangaroa. Beyond the west is Te Tatau-o-te-Po, the home of Miru, the evil goddess of Po, the underworld This is where the evil Mokohikuwaru also lives. The moko-roa were giant lizards that crossed the sea. Their long bodies moving across the sea represent the figurative path of a human from the Sun‘s rising to its setting, from life to death. That is, the lizard, Moko, is a reminder of our mortality. Moko was named as Tattooing for the paths on the skin that resembled lizards. The tattooing song of Mataora includes, Me he peke ngarara – Like the legs of a lizard and Nga nganga a Mataora where nganga means lizard. Notice how the glyph 9 reflects this breath glyph. Consider manganga, which means to twist as a play on glyph 2, Reigna, where if a lizard twists it looks like the glyph. The lizard that twists ends up overturning itself and becomes vulnerable by its white and soft underbelly. Here is an allusion to the Overturning of Matahao, the great deluge. Mataaho is the chief of Mokoia Island, where Hina swam. Mataaho killed the dog of Uenuku and so a fierce war raged. In the Overturning of Matahao, a great tidal wave destroys all but those who escaped to the sacred mountain, Hikurangi or Mahikurangi. On this hill rests the Bird of the Sun, Te Manu-i-te-ra. It is the mountain on which the sky rests and the Holy Mountain, were the first faint glimmer of light appeared when the sun and moon were eyes of heaven. Moko also means spine as represented by the rod in glyph 9 and it may also

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mean a small loaf or parcel of food. The moko or moo of legend could speak and were giant lizards that lived in caves underground. Perhaps the giant turtle island of aboriginal creation mythology, Moo Island, is this lizard in a shell. This land that Maui hauled up was a fish underneath. Moko is grandfather of the hero Ngaru, who defeated the sky demon, Amai (apai)-te-rangi and learned from the fairy women, Tapairu, the ball-throwing game. Amai is related to Hapai, meaning to lift up or the swell of the sea and Hapainga is a sacrifice or wave offering – not unlike the ball-throwing game glyph. Combine moko, lizard with puna, a spring of water and the meaning is a grandchild or descendent. Tupuna is an ancestor. The glyphs of Pua and Wana allude to this meaning. Glyph 9 does represent a variation of the man/pole glyph, Ngati for descendent of, together with the Reimiro glyph, might represent Ureohei, an Easter Island historic personage. Note: another such person in the history might be represented by the two Pua glyphs side by side, if taken as topknots, is Haumiatikitiki. cli Chapin (1974). Ibid. Website. clii Tregear (1891). Ibid. Tane. cliii Melka (2008). Ibid. P. 171. Fischer (1997). Ibid. P. 436. cliv Melka (2008). Ibid. P. 171. clv Horley (2007). Ibid. P. 28. clvi Melka (2008). P. 171. clvii Glyph 1: Tahi from Taha, (side) + hinga (to stoop) = one or to sweep. Glyph 1b: Routu = a comb. Turou and Rou mean a stick used for reaching for something. Glyph 1c: Tahi hetu from Tahi (glyph 1) + hetu, stones = sweep the sacred stones. Kete-wananga – the sacred three stone umu oven and basket of knowledge glyph as it appears earlier in the narrative is alternately attached to the beak of the sweeping bird glyph/ Tahitahia – Rupe‘s wooden shovel used to clean Rehua‘s dwelling. The two side/stooping birds represent tahitahia, while portraying a wooden implement used for cleansing. Rupe rescued Hina from the Underworld and brought her up to the 10 th Heaven of the Lord of Kindness, Rehua. Glyph 2: Makara = the head and a deity ruling the tides. MakeMake is the Creator Sea God who was first a skull. The glyph represents the rising or the setting Sun, with rays as a crown and the central teeth as a pathway glittering on the sea to the rising Creator. The sun rising and setting occur as the twin tusks of this deity. The next glyph turned on its side is the missing jaw of the Makara head. The mythology likens this severed jaw to the wing of Tane, the bait of Hina which Maui used to raise the table of Rata. The Makara of ancient India, was also a water deity, with a half lion and half elephant head. The parallel of the lion/elephant head is striking. Visible is the central elephant trunk and the blunted tusks mirroring the Indian Elephant Deity who held his broken tusk to represent a refusal to judge or harm his people. Here the tusks are rounded at the end, perhaps to represent the Lord of Kindness, Rehua. An ancient ? myth tells of a serpent that came to devour man, but was intercepted by a much larger serpent who kindly swallowed the serpent lunging to devour the man. What was left was the greater and kinder serpent and man. The greater serpent was still very hungry and to prevent from eating the man, kindly ate itself by swallowing its tale. The serpent eating its tale is a common ancient icon. Consider Makara or MakeMake as a serpent on the horizon with its tale wrapping around the world out of vision behind the rising head. As the Sun sets one might ponder Makara having completely devouring himself for our sake. With this image in mind other names arise. Hine-Makara is the ancient heroin who drank the water of the deluge to save the remnant of humanity from the rising sea. Taniwha is the general name for a water monster of Polynesia and may be a mythical monster, a great shark or a whale. The ancient Hebrew word for sea serpent or dragon is Tanin. As well, Makemake as the skull or to decay is also represented in Hebrew as Makak. Glyph 3: Tohere-kauwae-raro from to/toru, (three) + he/here, (necklace) = to set, as the Sun the lower jaw. This setting of the lower jaw is also likened to the Overturning of Mataaho, where all things below the heavens (the lower jaw) are consumed by death in the cycle of regeneration. Text H has the three fragments that call for a three as the first Tohere is the sister glyph of Reimiro, thus the use of necklace syllable. The texts using just two fragments produces the comb, as the rays of the sun resemble. Whete from whe, (caterpillar) + te, (the burst forth/the figure head of a canoe) = the deity that gave Tane the birth canal (Timutimu) to produce the first man. The caterpillar is used to complement the lifecycle of the sun; caterpillar/setting – cocoon/underworld – butterfly/rising. It also resembles the snake encircling the world and swallowing its tale, an action which resembles the caterpillar entering a grave it

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spun for itself The Indian Makara is a minor deity that always carries a greater deity on its back, as a caterpillar carries the butterfly. MakeMake is the Taniwha Creator that gave of self to carry us. It brings to mind the sweet sign of the whale that gently picked up the surfer on its back a few years ago. . Glyph 4: Maru from ma/maripi (knife) + ru/rua (two) = Maru – the South Polynesian deity of War. Tu is the War deity more predominant in the North. Maru dwells in the third heaven, Ngaroto and spoke to Ngatoro of the curse of Manaia. Koripi and knife produces koru meaning a loop, much like the snake swallowing its tale. Koro means a noose and as a deity is the son of Hina who together were rescued by Rupe from the sacred island of Motutapu. Was this not the Hine-makara that swallowed the water to save the people of that island. Ancient lore tells of a woman so beautiful that when she ventured into hell, it became a beautiful place. Kore is the force of the Cosmos that represents Void, yet contains in itself the full potential to create and express infinite power. Again, the Upper Jaw and the Lower Jaw are represented by Tu and Maru the North and South war deities. The three baskets of knowledge have the effect of not only keeping heaven and earth in harmony, but also North and South – that is, all the Earth. Glyph 5: Tu-whatu from Tu (stand or war deity) + whata, (to work by using the back of hand) + u/ueha (a prop or support) = stand war deity with the sacred stone. Glyph 6: u-tahi-po - ? sacred stone chant of sweeping the ball… Glyph 7: Raro from ra/rakau (tree, branch) + ro/miro (thread) = the bottom. (kauwae-raro is the lower jaw) Rarotonga from raro (bottom) + tonga (stem, to plant, to set as the sun) = the house of Hine-nui-te-po (or Tongnui) at the bottom of the sea. Maui‘s hook caught this house and pulled up the Table of Rata from the bottom of the sea. Tongarautawhiri is the wife of Rata. Maui‘s canoe is called Haurarotuia. Rau from rakau and au (thread) = a captive. Raka (or Hawaian laka) means to be entangled, to weave, to lay over each other, to be holy, to pass over or to miss. Rakai is to smear with red ocre. Rakataua was a boy left behind in Hawaiki and came to New Zealand on a water monster. He was killed by Rata. Rau-Hau-a-Tangaroa was a woman sent by Tinirau (Lord of Fishes who dwelt on the Holy Island of Motutapu) to capture Kae who killed and ate Tinirau‘s pet whale. Tongameha was the God of the Eye near whose fortress Tawhaki and Rahiri passed on their way to the heavenly vine. They dared not look toward the fortress or they would loose an eye or two. Glyph 8: Tuma from Tu (to stand or war deity) + ma/maripi (knife) = to stand with. Glyph 9: Rakuru from ra/rakau (canoe or tree) + huru (bristles or hair) = pre-flood thief who stole the book to teach how to catch fish. Waka-Wananga from Chapter 3 meaning a standing canoe or rod of a medium spirit whose incantations in this world bore him to a Wananga or spirit guide in the next. Rawa means to cross a river. Glyph 10: Tamaroa from ta/tane (bird deity of the forests) + ma/mata (eye) + roa (lengthen) = tamaroa, a son. Tama-nui-te-ra raised Maui in the ocean after his mother threw him out of her topknot. See other Tama heros in Tregear to verify the importance of finding utu chants from the underworld as payment for rescuing someone and also for Tama as deity of roots. clviii Glyph 1: Poangaanga from po/poi, (ball) + angaanga, (back of hand) = the skull. Hakahetu from haka, the hand/to work + hetu, a stone. Glyph 1b: Tokomua from toko (a rod/pole) + mua (the front or first) = the first prop of heaven and elder brother of Rangi Potiki. Glyph 1c: Poangaanga, the skull. Glyph 1d: Tokoroto from toko, (a rod or pole) + roto (middle) = the middle prop of heaven and brother of Rangi Potiki. Glyph 1e: Poangaanga, the skull. The skulls are used as crowns of the props of heaven to represent the death and decay of the ancestors as an honest part of the process of their restoration. Glyph 1f: Tokopa from toko, (a rod) + pa (a margin, edge, finish, last) = the last prop of heaven and one of the three brothers of Rangi-Potiki, who together make up the four props of heaven that lifted their father sky (Rangi) from mother earth (Papa). The myth tells of Rangi-Potiki, Tokomua, Tokoroto, and Tokopa as the four brothers and props of heaven who raised up their father the sky, separating him from their mother the earth. Rangi the sky wept from the loss and so caused the rain. Papa the earth shook from the loss and so caused earthquakes. Ru, meaning to shake, is the deity that raised up the sky, also called, Sky Supporter. Ru used strong stakes on the center of the Rangimotia Island to build this arch of blue stones in the sky. Maui threw him up to the sky and he stuck fast, where he decayed on his bluestone arch and fell as rotted bones to form stone reminders on the

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earth. Consider Ru as Rupe, also known as Mauimua, (or Tokomua). Rupe travelled as a pigeon through the blue stone arch to the 10th Heaven of Rehua, to request the location of Hina and return her there. Glyph 2: Kohua-Kete-wananga – a Maori oven representing the three baskets of knowledge. Kowha from Kohua, (Maori oven) + wha (to grasp) = to split open, or lightning. Glyph 3: Tupo-haka from Tu, (to stand, war deity) + po/poi (ball) + haka, (a rope) = at the grave (there is) strength Glyph 4a-d: Mata Tama = The Gate of Rongo; Mata from ma/maripi, (knife) + ta/tane (the bird deity of forests) = mata – an eye or a medium used to communicate with a spirit, as in an eye to heaven. Rongoma-tane or Romatane are the ultimate expanded form of such a mata medium to heaven. Rongo-ma-tane is the usually name of the deity Rongo, meaning to listen. Ro means in or inside, as inside the Gate of Rongo. Tama from ta/tane, (bird deity) + ma/maripi, (knife) = a son or sweet potato. Tamariki is children and matariki is the Pleiades constellation. Tamarereti is the canoe of the heavenly constellations of Orion to Scorpio; the Pointers and the Southern Cross represent the line and anchor. The glyph impressively portrays the two manu gods at the Gate of Rongo, open to those who participate in death‘s tapu removal ceremony with the Kahua Maori oven. Glyph 5: Kori-haka from ko/koko, (shovel) + ri/ringa (arm) + haka (rope, strength) = at the native oven (there is) strength. Korau from kori + au, (a thread) = a spark, white or the son of Haumia-tikitiki. Haumia is the water monster that killed another of his kind, lived at Manukau and was deity of wild roots, while Rongo-ma-tane was deity of cultivated roots, such as, the Kumara. Glyph 6: Pu/pua/popo-haka from Pu/popohaga, the dawn + haka, a rope/strength = at the dawn (there is) strength. clix Melka (2008). P. 174.
clx

As Tiki, the first glyph resembles a pillar, a post, which in a spiritual context represents a standing up rod ancestral deity used to protect us on earth and draw us to heaven. Therefore, Tiki means, deity. The glyph is also a bone, or iwi. The word iwi may also point to iwa, meaning nine. Thus, Tiki iwi means, nine deities. Based on the context of the repetitive Hikurangi glyphs, the second glyph resembles a long house, or Paikea. Paikea as a house has only a single entrance. However, Paikea was saved from the flood of Ruatapa. Ruatapa also means having two entrances. Read, then, as 1 – Iwi Tiki; 2 – Paikea Ruatapa, produces, Nine Deities (or Pillars) in the House with two entrances. This imagery represents the great Egyptian Ennead. Notice that Tiki, also means the lower back bone. The symbol on the Maui statues on the lower back represents the deity Tiki, the pathway between the two mountains spanning the meridian is the Sun. It is this Hikurangi, the mountain of the deluge, that Maui raised up from the sea floor with the jawbone – another play on Tiki, where iwia, means jawbone. The jawbone as iwia, is also kauwae or kauae, which plays on kau or rakau, with roots that mean a type of Ti tree, Tiki. Kaupae is a step ladder or beam, which would serve as a standing up rod if taken with the meaning of kauwhau, to recite legends, ancestries or preach. On this Hikurangi mountain island is the this Tiki whose son is Kauaki (Kauahi), the red one who started the temple on fire. Adam is also a word meaning red in the ancient Near East. With Kauaki on this hill of the jawbone, Kauwae, Iwia, is Iwa (like Eve of Adam‘s rib) and Kauataata, the first woman. Ata, or Atarapa, means dawn. Atarau means the moon and Atahikurangi means the full day. Kau itself means to swim. Hikurangi is the hill or standing place of the Sun. Therefore, Tiki Haohao, himself, the standing rods surrounding this Sun, are the rays of the Sun. These rays are the feathers of, or the Essence of Tane. The backbone is Tiki Iwi, the ribs are Tane‘s feathers or rays. Kauwae, Kauataata (as the first part of the head of the Sun, the dawn) or Iwia is the Jawbone and Kauaki is the Red topknot, the redhead of Potiki Maui the Sun. Rara means rib. The rays of the Sun, the Rara are the ribs. As kaokao, another word meaning rib, meanings of core and the inside of a canoe are also produced, lending to the meaning of a canoe as a Tiki standing up rod. Kaokao also means the armpit. In ancient mythology the armpit of a deity was the place where lightning was produced and a place of secrets, riddles and mysteries. For the first Adam, before the first flood, a mysterious companion was given as if like the Full Moon of Hina, whom Adam fell after, so that a Second Adam would provide a mystery again who would rise after His Ata Spirit and the New Moon would become a Rib, a Sacred Mystery, and Wax into the Double Day, when the Moon is Full and the Sun with its Ribs of Tane rise together.

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clxi

Hao also means an eel. This glyph may represent the double eel surround of mythology. Inside the double eel or snake was the egg of emergence. The Ogdoad (Greek for eight) lotus or egg of emergence had eight deities inside, but later, with the addition of Ra, nine or Ennead. Egyptian Ennead was Pesedjet, which means Bite or Spit Snake. The Ogdoad was worshipped in Egypt‘s Khmun, meaning 8-Town, and was later changed to the Greek Hermopolis, from Hermes, or in Egypt, Thoth, who was the deity of scribes, healing and wisdom. The Ennead centre of worship was in Heliopolis, originally named Annu, the Place of Pillars (note 1 Tiki above). In the Hikurangi myth, the house is called, Totoka, which is a reef or rock at sea or a place that has been fixed. If we consider the meaning of Toka, as perfect, it fits with the Egyptian standing place where the axe swinging deity perfectly cuts our evil away from our good. Interestingly, Toka is the Polynesian artisan who, together with Ha (meaning to breathe or cut repeatedly) tattooed the mythological Tama to beautify him in the process of regaining his wife. Tamatane was the sacred talisman or object tossed at Tama in the underworld to transform him from a white heron, back to human form (note – it is Rata who noticed a white heron battling to the death with a sea snake when felling the sacred tree). Consider the parallel myth of the wing of Tane used by Maui as bait to raise the whale under Table of Rata. In Egyptian and Canaanite mythology, the carpenters who build this house of the gods are called Ptah and Kathor respectively. Their names mean to open. The deity is called, the Opener, because he opens the window in the sky that enables the rain of Baal or Hadad to produce and continue life on earth. Consider this Opener opening the house with one entrance, Paikea and transforming it into Ruatapa – the house with two entrances. Paikea then, represents the house of death – that whale that consumes us at life‘s end and spits us out in the underworld and Ruatapa is the judge standing at the gate of heaven refusing us this second entrance. How do we open him up? The Opener of Canaan, Kathor, also made for Baal two weapon thunderbolts to defeat Yam, the serpent-like deity of chaos and the sea, not unlike Ruatapa who pulled the plug and caused chaos at sea for those 140 chiefs in his canoe. Written above, the double snake surround from the Egyptian word for bite now parallels with the double weapon of lightning that defeats this deity of chaos. It is any wonder, then, that the relating world mythology tells us of a fire breathing dragon. Also, whati means to bend in Polynesian dialects. Whatitiri means thunder. Whatitoka means a doorway. Whatitiri is a name of Matakerepo the blind old enchantress whose chant separated heaven from earth and whose sight was restored by Tawhaki, her grandson. Whatitiri is also a cannibalistic deity and may be a parallel with Kui the blind. Tawhaki is the opener of heaven who climbs up to heaven on a vine to marry Hina. He is like the beauty of the Sun, but disguises himself to her. Hina fled to the moon to hide from the ugliness of Tawhaki‘s father Hema. The vine Tawhaki climbs is also called a spider‘s web and parallel‘s with the North American legends of Spiderman and Grandmother Spider, who hides the Sun in a giant urn. Tawhaki is also called Kahai (kaha means a rope). In Polynesia the old woman is blind and recovered by the spittle and clay of Tawhaki, who also like the Messiah of Nazareth, can walk on water. Tawhaitiri is a huge spirit standing opposite another giant named Tuapiko in the underworld (Po). All souls must pass between them. If light, they can fly through them, but if heavy, they are crushed. Tawha means to burst open or to scratch. In Samoan myth, called the Geneology of the Sun, O le Gafa o le La, Tawhaki (Taha‘i) journeys to heaven to woo Hina (Sina). clxii Hiku means hill and is represented by the fishes tail. When Maui draws up the fish from the underworld, it becomes a mountain Island. Rangi means the sky and is represented by the shining sun in the glyph resting on the fish tail, or hill. Hikurangi is tapu or a forbidden word, because it originated in the ancient land of Havaiki. It is a mountain where dwells the god Te-manu-i-te-ra, or The Bird of the Sun/Day Bird whose house atop the hill is called, Totoka (meaning a place that has become fixed or rock in the sea). This is where humanity was saved from the flood of Ruatapu (2 door). Another character, Hinemakura (Moa-kura), drank the water of the flood to save us. He is the son of Te-ra-ara-kai-ora. In one myth, Te-pu-nui-o-tonga caused the flood. Each of these names draw out meaning that help identify the glyphs of the Hikurangi chant or at least elaborate on the mythology to aid in glyph confirmation. Another story calls the hill, Puke-hapopo, (Hapopo is another forbidden tapu word), which was used by Paikea, (one door or another word for house), to lead humanity to safety by the command of Ruatapu. Paike or ike means to strike as if with a hammer. The mythology of Egypt and Scandinavia has the deity that strikes with a hammer while standing in the holy place. This heavenly violence must be performed with perfection, since it strikes the soul and divides it perfectly so that the good is separated from the evil. In Polynesia, this hammer is used for beating out tapa, the native clothes from bark. The spiritual connotation is to put on the garment of the deity, where tapa also means split or cut (as in the yin and yang of the soul). Tapa also means to call one by name. Paikea, then, produces roots that include a long house, a water-

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monster or whale, to burn, to hammer, strike and to be good or goodness itself. When we combine the mythology with the word meanings, we are lead to understand Paikea as the deluge saviour who brings us to the Island Mountain of Hikurangi. Here Paikea the deity represents a Refuge or House in Person. This royal priestly house of refuge is where all residents are purified to perfection and called by name to a special covenant. Paikeike means a high and lofty place, to adorn, to raise high one‘s head. Pa or panga means a riddle. Part of the Riddle involves the type of house Ruatapu has compelled us to enter. He lured 140 Ariki (Chiefs) into a canoe of which he pulled the puru (plug of the canoe) at mid-ocean. All the ariki drowned but Paikea (the whale, the house) who escaped to Hikurangi. clxiii It is important to consider that consonants M and K interchange in certain areas of Polynesia. In Glyph 3, Hikurangi, can be also named as Mahikurangi. Perhaps the use of Ma signifies the river of life flowing down the mountain, which would parallel to Hindu mythology of Shiva (also meaning red and the deity of three faces – a possible allusion to sun rise, noon, sunset) standing on the mountain of the deluge protecting the world from the mighty flood of Ganges. Through his beautiful long matted hair the river flows and gently lands on the mountain becoming a source of life. clxiv Whaitiri means thunder. Matakerepo fits this glyph because there are no eyes on the typical Tu head. Therefore, a blind person is intended, particularly since the three stars Po glyph is attached. The arm raised as if taking up something or feeling after (Rapanui: naunau) is also an allusion to a blind person. Feeling after or feeling one's way from the word, haha (naunau), may also mean blind. This word play development outlines a significant and relevant mythology, since it is only the light souls of Po, the underworld, that will make it past the two great deities guarding it. These are Tawhaitiri (a expanded name of the grandmother) and Tuapiko. Piko is a word for bend and confirms these two powers that bind (the heavy) and loose (the light) in the underworld are the actual pillars of the house of Ruatapa from glyph 2. Tua means to chop, which is what the deity does to separate our good and evil sides or you could say, our light and heavy sides. Tua also means a sacred ceremony of child baptism or a sacred word used to express god or a deities infinite quality. Tua also means the back side or opposite side of a solid body or house, which confirms our reference to glyph 2. Kekerepo is another word for blind, which may be drawn out of glyph 5. Keke by itself means the armpit, which, together with the back, symbolizes a hidden mystery or gift of a deity. This is confirmed by the meaning of Tawhaki‘s grandmother‘s name, Whaitiri, which is thunder. Thunder or lightening coming out of the armpit symbolizes the revelation of a divine hidden mystery. clxv Here we have the window of heaven that must be opened for the water of the deluge to come pouring through. Mataaho is refered to in the myth, the overturning of Mataaho, the cause of the great deluge. Notice the glyph is overturning to the right and preparing to stand as if on two feet. The two feet were originally part of the fragmentary beams of light like those on the left, which make up the glyph for a constellation, possibly Matariki (eye + fragments glyph meaning the Pleiades). The Pleiades is the constellation of mythology in which all souls will gather to intensify the night and make a second son, and so, in a way, restoring the blind eye of Horis. This is another great mystery of ancient mythology. What is the meaning of the restoring the light of night (the moon and the stars) to the brightness of the sun of day? It is nothing less than a massive celestial play on restoring the gift of enlightenment to fallen humanity. In the overturning of Mataaho, we see the 140 ariki in the canoe of Ruatapa, finally tipping from the pulled plug. Paikea, the house of one door, the whale of death, takes us to Hikurangi. Here we meet the twin pillars and if we are light enough we will pass through. However, like Matakerepo, we are blind and too heavy. The mythology tells that Matakerepo had 10 sweet potatos. Tawhaki, stole nine of them. Once Matakerepo has only one sweet potato, she is light enough to point out where the vine to heaven was located. Aho (from Mataaho) not only means day or light, but vine or cord. Tawhaki could only climb the one secure vine to heaven. All other vines were not secured to the rock. In fact, there were two other vines. The rock and the vine with 10 heavy and one light myth occurs in ancient China and Japan, where the tree of life from the east has ten suns in its branches, and a hunter slays nine of them so only one remains. The priestly sages who designed these myths were speaking of the gift of detachment, which is a primary requirement of attaining enlightenment most profoundly expressed among the eastern mystics and eastern religions. The goal of enlightenment then is to make your way beyond the images to the first cause; to ascend from what is not the source, to the Source itself. The Chinese glyph of the source of a spring, which is a symbol of genealogy conveys this mystery as it is in the form of a cat with a ladder, stairway or cascade running down its neck. The cat ears portray the appearance of the sacred cup of the elixir of immortality. This glyph is found in a house on Orongo, Easter Island and is expressed in the Samoan

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Genealogy of the Sun. That cat – like Egypt‘s sun-god, which in the book of the dead uses the knife to slay the serpent of death, is the light footed deity that cannot but land on its feet. It is the One who could not capsize – the One Door – Paikea – that leads us to the Hikurangi cascade when our world is overturning. He is like the One Sun out of Ten that remained Enlightened, because this cat is first detached or killed nine times. clxvi Before felling the sacred tree, Rata sharpened his axe on the back of his sister, Hine tu a Hoanga, the lading standing as a whetstone. His sister informed him about the sacred incantation of Tane, Lord of the Forests, for felling trees and that he must purify his axe on her back, the whetstone. Hoa means friends or friendship and may be related to the chips that are reassembled on the tree. The tree or canoe stands upright as a sacred funerary pillar or pathway. The spirits of the ancestors are enabled to use the pillar to ascend to heaven to await the resurrection of the body, where the flesh and bones will be reassembled. Here the chips, which are also called the ribs of Tane, are the bones of the ancestors, who are our friends. That is, they are enabled by the Creator to return down the pathway to help those living to achieve enlightenment. That is they are messengers of gifts bestowed on us by the Creator. As such, the hoa, the friends, relatives or ancestors are the chips or ribs of Tane. These are found in the word play of the Polynesian meaning of ribs, rara – which can mean a branch or twig, as wood put to the fire, or dried by the sun, or as the sun or sunbeam. Those that die, are tested by the deity of the Sun, consider him Rata. Rata fells the tree with the revolving Hine tu a Hoanga. Hoanga also means a volcano. Therefore, the rays of the revolving sun correspond to the eruption of a volcano. The rays represent the glorified ancestors, and the volcano is the purifying justice and mercy of God. This revolving volcano relates to the Hindu myth of the churning of Mt. Madura, also related to the Mandala (Circle) of Mt. Meru, which is associated with the ancient Stupa Mounds that contain the relics of Hindu saints and ancestors. Consider also that the Volcano is feminine and related to Hina, the moon (Hine tu a Hoanga). She is standing – that is at the center pillar of the moon priestess, shining like the rays of the sun. The Egyptian Ra combined with Horis, who was blinded in one eye. Together they formed, Ra-Horakhty, perhaps Rata. This would make sense, since the Indonesian Rata and Maui were Egyptian Navigators who circumnavigated the globe. Horis‘ good eye is the Sun and his second eye regains its sight as he is sharpening his axe on his sister, the moon. The churning sends out sparks and lights up the rock to the brilliance of the Sun. This entire process lends us a philosophy and theology surrounding the process of enlightenment intended by those who produced the language of these tablets. According to the glyph above, Hoanga has on her shoulder or back (the place of mysteries) a sacred chip consumed by the fire of her churning. The chip on the first shoulder appears to represent the glyph of the open mouth (nga to breath fits well here). It is the consumption of a sacred feast of a sweet potato, the sacred Kumara, where the axe is sharpened to perfectly divide our good from evil side. Therefore, the sweet potato represents the Sun deity (related to the Chinese mythological Chang‘e (or Heng‘e, like Hine), the goddess of the moon became mortal when Houyi the archer saved the earth from being scorched by shooting out nine suns and leaving one Sun to pass over the earth. Chang‘e has a pet on the moon, a jade rabbit, which mixes herbal medicine. This jade rabbit relates to Rata‘s jade axe sharpened on the back of Hine. The Chinese version of Rata is Wu Gang whose immortality attempts fail and is banished to the moon to hew a tree that eternally grows back in its place. Meanwhile, Houyi found the immortality pill from the Queen of the West (Death) and hid it in a box. Chang‘e, like Pandora, opened the box and ate the entire pill, when only half was required to be immortal. She therefore floated to the moon. In Japan, Korea and ancient Maya we also have the Sacred Rabbit of Immortality on the Moon. For the ancestors to regain their sight they must follow Tawhaki, to steal the nine false sweet potatos that are keeping Matakerepo blind and focus on only the last meal. Therefore, immortality involves a feast, the last feast before we die. In such a feast we ascend to the moon on a thread. The American Plains Indigenous lore tell of Grandmother Spider whose web, like the rays of the Sun, are the actual threads that capture the Sun and enable enlightenment. The thread represents sacred scripture in Hindu rights of passage. Therefore, the thread to the moon is the symbol of our ability to understand the process of enlightenment, to literally understand how to enter the priestly society of the sacred feast of immortality. It involved a jade axe, and a sculptor who perfects us into a pure and pleasing image ready for a banquet of the meek. Enlightenment, then, involves a purging. As true parents, our ancestors in heaven would want to see us pure, even if the greater end involves a certain discipline. In close association to the word hoanga, is papahora, to fall into fragments, which represents the sparks flying from the whetstone or volcano. On Easter Island, it is the Volcano of the stone Moai, Rano Raraku. These are the symbols of the ancestors being purified. Pawa, which is a bird trap, may represent the Thunderbird on the ridgepole of the Mayan

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cactus or tree, who is shot down by the hunters blow gun. This is the bird that scratches the back of the Mayan deity and flies up to this sacred tree, where this blood runs down the tree as if it were sap. clxvii Yet the glyph is not associated with the sky above, but with the jaw Maui broke off of the deity of the underworld. This glyph fits nicely on the water monster, Taniwha, when it is overturned. The mythology heavily expresses the Overturning of Matahao and the refuge of the new world, the Sacred Mount, Hikurangi. Consider when the jaw of the deity of death and judgement is torn off, it no longer becomes a threat. Perhaps it could swallow its own tail, but nothing more. clxviii The Turtle Twins of the above chapter, the Falling of Hina, can support the reason the author chose to carve it here. This turtle signifies the lamenting of our past death, and the gaze toward our future resurrection represented by the stonework of Easter Island clxix Lono-nui-noho-i-ka-wai - Rongo dwelling on the waters is represented in this glyph. This is the sunset or sunrise on the ocean‘s horizon. It appears to draw up the water with it. Therefore, the shovel may well represent the churning of the ocean of Hindu mythology, which would mix nicely with the paddles of a canoe on a journey to Hikurangi. The mythology tells of the rising or setting of the sun drawing up two mountains on each side of the horizon which become the 4 pillars of the earth. The mountain on the North, represents a divine mountain, and the one on the south representing an earthly mountain. From Ancient Greek lore we have the clapping of the mountains and the Argo only loosing its rudder as it followed the dove that only lost one tail feather. This is reflected in Tane‘s flight through the blue stone arch of heaven, where a gap in the corner stone enabled the loss of only one feather. In Egypt our soul must be light as a feather to enter paradise. Rongo is the deity of the Kumara, cultivated food (Heavenly food for the Heavenly Mountain (Hikurangi) Feast). Haumia is the deity of uncultivated food – from the mountain of the earth. Both deities hide in the breast of their mother, the Earth, as the West wind chases the mountains to shake and fall back into the sea. These deities are given away by leaves coming out of the ground (a confirmation of the Moari oven Kumara feast). Tu-mata-uenga consumes them, since, he alone held up heaven and earth, while the West wind blew. Rongo brought the Kumara from Havaiki in his belt, which was a rainbow, Kahukura, the deity of crops. Tu and Rongo were thrust under the waters (Kaihewa) by Tane in one legend, where in another Rongo supports Tane in the celestial war. Perhaps the two are twins, Rongo-marae-roa, a sacred name for the kumara, which grows underground and Rongo-ma-tane or Rongonui-a-tau remains in heaven with Rehua and Tane. This is why the Eating of the God requires a produce cultivated under the earth and the spittle of heaven. Tane, Tu, and Rongo are considered the Triad of Polynesian Mythology. Together they make man out of clay. To clarify the glyph itself, in one ancient him Rongo is addresses, ―the fixed Light of Heaven standing on the Earth‖ (Malamalama paa ka Lani, ku i ka honua). Therefore, the prayer of the priest writing the tablet uses this glyph as a representation of death as a mere window to eternal enlightenment. The hairs on the window represent the rays of the sun and the ancestors themselves. The sun is supported by mountains, which sway up and down as the sun rises and sets, it causes the waters to churn which produces the elixir of immortality and the furious west wind to blow which reminds us of our own death at the setting of the sun. We are not afraid, since we have been given the Kumara Sun of Rongo‘s Belt, the Rainbow of Promise. This storm too will pass, a rainbow feast will occur – we will learn to understand and participate in the feast of immortality. clxx see Butinov‘s Rapanui Amendments and Peculiarities in the Metoro-Jaussen list above & Butinov (1957). Ibid. Pp. 8-9. clxxi Guy (1990). Ibid. P. 136. Thompsom, W.J. (1891). ‗Te Pito te Henua or Easter Island‘. The Report of the U.S. National Museum for the Year Ending June 30, 1889. Annual Reports of the Smithsonian Institute. Washington: United States Government Printing Office. Pp. 447-552. Englert, S. (1970). Island at the Centre of the World. Mulloy, W. (Trans. & Ed.). Scribners, New York: Scribners. Métraux, (1940) Ibid. clxxii Guy (1990) Ibid. Pp. 135-186. clxxiii Thomson and Englert: Oata, Metraux: Ata. clxxiv Jacques Guy defines ata as the new moon, wich Polynesian meanings, cloud and shadow. clxxv Thomson: Oari, Metraux: Ari. clxxvi Guy defines ari as the first night after the new moon, when it become faintly visible and in Hawaiian ali means white, clarity. clxxvii Thomson, Englert and Metraux: Kokore tahi, Kokore rua, Kokore toru, Kokore haa, Kokore rima, Kokore ono.

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clxxviii

Guy defines kokore as ―without [a name] or nameless from the Hawaiian 'a'ole as meaning ―no‖ and in Tahitian 'aore as meaning ―there is/are not.‖ clxxix Thomson, Englert, Metraux: Maharu. clxxx Thomson, Englert: Ohua, Metraux: Hua. clxxxi Tregear (1891) defines hua from Polynesian for "fruit, scrotum, or offspring.‖ clxxxii Thomson, Englert: otua, Metraux: atua clxxxiii Guy defines atua as ―god‖ and as perhaps representing a celestial being‘s or chief‘s feather cloak. clxxxiv Thomson and Metraux, hotu. clxxxv Tregear defines hotu as ―to swell or to bear fruit.‖ Guy agrees that hotu is the extra night inserted before the full moon and describes the crescent bulge as possibly a sign of pregnancy. clxxxvi Thomson, Englert, Metraux: maure. clxxxvii Guy explains the glyph‘s appendage as perhaps phonetic by its credible representation of an animal's penis (a dolphin's for instance); and Guy defines the phonetics of the glyph as: "maure" from "ma = with, ure = penis. clxxxviii Thomson, Englert, Metraux: Ina-ira. clxxxix Thomson, Englert, Metraux: Rakau. cxc Guy describes the glyph as a filled in crescent due to its location the night before the full moon. cxci Thomson, Englert: omotohi, Metraux: motohi cxcii Guy describes the glyph as a picture of the "Cook-in-the-Moon", from Polynesian and most Melanesian mythologies. Guy adds that the three "stones" in the glyph are umu earth oven cooking stones with the seated human as the cook. cxciii Thomson, Englert, Metraux: Kokore tahi, Kokore rua...Kokore rima. cxciv Thomson, Englert, Metraux: Tapume. cxcv Thomson, Englert, Metraux: Matua. cxcvi Thomson, Englert: Orongo, Metraux: Rongo. cxcvii Guy notes that in this last quarter the glyph string with barbs and sources Routledge who describes that strings with white feathers were used in last moon quarter ceremonies. cxcviii Thomson, Englert: Orongo taane, Metraux: Rongo tane. cxcix Guy notices the glyphs of the crescent with a frigate bird, called "taha". Guy suggests the first portion is used to phonetically produce the syllable TA in Tane. cc Thomson, Englert, Metraux: Mauri nui. cci Thomson, Metraux: Mauri kero, Englert: Mauri karo. ccii Thomson, Englert: Omutu, Metraux: Mutu. cciii Thomson: Tueo (typing error for tireo, Guy); Englert, Metraux: tireo. cciv Englert places hiro after ata; Metraux places hiro after tireo. ccv Guy describes the final two crescents as perhaps huto and hiro. ccvi Tregear (1891) Ibid. Appendix A. Days of the Moon‘s Age: Moari, Moriori, Hawaian, Tahitan, Marquesan, Rarotongan. ccvii In Polynesia, Ika, the fish, is used as an important symbol of the Milky Way (Ikaroa – the long fish). It was considered the abode of the ancestors. To initiated fishing season, fishermen would offer the first fish in the umu oven to the gods and ancestors. In Rapa Nui, the Milky Way is Te ngo‘e, a great sea creature. ccviii Matamea Red eye Mars It was studied from an observatory in Poike ccix Fomalhaut is also related to eel season. It is called, Veri koreha - the giant eel. ccx Perhaps tree cutting time was related to the stars, Menkalinan & Capella, in Rapa Nui: Ko toe ko peu renga - the remnants of the fine pickaxe/energy. ccxi Related to the feather gathering were the stars Castor and Pollux, in Rapa Nui: Te hau vaero The headdress made of rooster tail feathers. ccxii Orion was considered an origin deity or chief and his two sons. His dead wife was Rigel, in Rapa Nui called, Tau ahu the beautiful firebrand. The nearby Canis Major constellation marked the winter or bleak season together with Orion, where Sirius and Orion‘s belt were called, te pou o te rangi - the post of the sky. In Rapa Nui, posts with feathers marked the sacred restricted (tapu) ground for the reading of rongorongo. This post appears to mark the tapu ground of the ancestors, the divide between life and death. The only way to raise a tapu is to know the secret utu chant required as payment to cross the sacred restriction. In Polynesian lore, Tama used this utu chant to regain his wife, Rukutia. He cut her in half and she was later found restored to life also chanting upon her grave. Tama received the utu after his ugly face

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was beautifully tattooed. The fairies who tattooed him also gave him directions to the ancestors. Two other stars in Canis Major include, Tau a aru ahu 2 beautiful firebrands. In Rapa Nui, Orion is also called, E tui, the expelled, referring to its 6 stars. Rapa Nui lore has 6 children of Anakena killed and of the more than 800 statues, only 6 with short ears. The parallel‘s suggest the learning of rongorongo chants as utu to raise the tapu between life and death marked in the starry abode of the ancestors. Also related to Orion‘s belt as the chief and his two handsome sons is the three brightest stars of the Southern Cross called, Mata Te Tautoru, the eyes of the 3 handsome ones. Also consider Achernar, Po Orongo - Orongo‘s darkness. ccxiii Other Rapa Nui star names include: Procyon & Gomeisa as Taura nukunuku - Nukunuku‘s rope; Rei a tanga or Ko Pu Tui Tangaroa‘s breastplate or the outcast‘s hole Antares, which crossed the island‘s zenith; Nga Toa Rere means the flying sugarcane - Ursa Major; Nga Rau Hiva means the leaf from Hiva (Hotu Matua‘s homeland) - the Hyades. ccxiv Guy (1990) Ibid. Pp. 135-186. ccxv Tregear (1891). Ibid. toko; tiki; ura; kura; ara; po. ccxvi Rapa Nui gives, HA for to breathe. Polynesian use of NGA for breath is also a plural marker, which is the Rapa Nui equivalent of GA. The transfer of GA to HA for breathing, while GA remains the rongorongo syllable for the breathe glyph, may be an example of Metoro‘s skipping rongorongo glyphs that were of an ancient out of use language. ccxvii Tregear (1891). Ibid. tiki; ura; ara; po. ccxviii Consistent Syllable Order refers to the usage of numbers 1 through 4 to designate syllable locations on the glyph. Tregear (1891). Polynesian: Uhira or Uhira-urenga, yam root deity very sacred with a tapu covering. Uhi also means a covering, from uhi, yam roots covered by the earth. Uhi also means to puncture the ground in digging for yams, or to puncture the skin in tattooing. ccxix Visual Syllable Order refers to the ordering portions of the glyph from left to right. Tregear‘s Polynesian Dictionary for rau and hi are similar to Rapa Nui vocabulary. ccxx Guy proposes the first three glyphs as instructions to observe and note the diameter of the waxing and waning moon. ccxxi Guy notes the fish glyph is up during the waxing cycle before the full moon glyph and the fish points down during the waning cycle. ccxxii Rapa Nui calls Venus in its Morning Star cycle, Hetu‘u popohaga, (lit. star of the rising ball or bundle, referring to the sun or its rays). Venus as Evening Star is called, Hetu‘u ahiahi, (lit. star of the fire). Elsewhere in Polyensia the Evening Star is Rangi-tu-ahiahi, (Lit. sky set on fire, which is comparable to the Rapa Nui, he-tutu i te ahi, to light a fire). The syllables of the glyph RA/ra‘a, the sun + U/ure, the phallus/offspring + HI, to fish = rauhi, which appears an abbreviation of rangi-tu-ahiahi. Rapa Nui calls Venus in its Morning Star cycle, Hetu‘u popohaga, (lit. star of the rising ball or bundle, referring to the sun or its rays). Venus as Evening Star is called, Hetu‘u ahiahi, (lit. star of the fire). Elsewhere in Polyensia the Evening Star is Rangi-tu-ahiahi, ccxxiii The Birdman who found the first egg passed it onto his chief who became king for that year. This change in government was called, ahirega, or Beautiful Fire. Another related Rapa Nui word calls the last moment before nightfall, ahiahi-ata, Soul on Fire. Considering the language of the day, the early carvers of this chant, used the mana of moon, sun and stars to add imagery and vitality to their chant and the accompanying ceremonies. ccxxiv The first egg in the tangata-manu egg hunt is then symbolized in the full moon of motohi. Metero‘s interpretive list calls it tagata i te hare pure, the man in the prayer house. The prayer house of Orongo contains the maui statue, Hoa hakanana‘ia, the hidden friend. The umu oven contains urahi-urenga (Tregear), the deified yam offering, the cook of the earth oven. The first egg of the Sooty Tern contains the life force of the island for the entire year and is given to the chief who is responsible for the bounty of the harvests and fishing seasons for that year. And the winner of the egg hunt is responsible to grow like a young chick for one year at Orohie, the chirping place, where the moai statues were scraped from the earth. ccxxv The chant speaks of the power of Tangaroa in the tide causing the moon to rise and grow. Its sounds beckon the rongo listener to consider that same power all the more capable of causing the spirit of the person to grow and rise. This moon chant may very well be used in a funerary ceremony. The feasting in its sacred sense uses the yam as an offering representing the deity himself or herself. Therefore, it is a feast of enlightenment of the spirit of the person or persons participating, living or dead. The chant calls for the morsal offering of the god to cause the light to enter and fill the human spirit, with the same mana power waxing the moon or setting the umu oven ablaze. Uenuku-kopako is also a Polynesian deity hidden in the

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mist. His only surviving son crawls mortally wounded into his father‘s feast. The father takes revenge on the enemy who attacked his children. The god in the mist of the umu is defeating death as the participants consume the morsel of the god. ccxxvi The following endnotes include myth descriptors to aid in a fuller understanding of the chant. Tregear (1891). Ibid. Refer to alphabetical Polynesian word order. ccxxvii kaiga – mahina, pregnant moon maiden (or being satisfied with food) and combines with glyph 2 below, tangaroa-ria, meaning deity of the ocean‘s small portion. This first set of glyphs confirms (Jacque Guy), that the full moon represents the cook with the three stones of the maori oven for the sacred umu feast. These sacred feasts in Polynesia were sacrificial feasts of the gods, tied into the chants of the living priests or Tahunga, as well as, those prayers of the deceased ancestral priests or Wananga. The feast had the purpose of nourishing the gods to establish a feast for the living in rangi or heaven. That is, after the person died they became servants in heaven at the feast of the gods (Tregear, 1891, rangi, rehua). When they crossed the river of death they were not to eat of the meal they saw on the other side lest their disrespect cause them to loose heaven. Yet, after the gods assembled the servants were also participants. However, in the river of death is the great water monster of death that devours souls. Required to liberate the dead are the three red hot stones of the moari oven. In other world lore these are called the three apples or three pomegranates. They are tossed into the mouth of the serpent, burning up the insides of Death. The result is the death of Death and a safe migration of souls across the river toward the heavenly umu feast in the afterlife. Hindu lore has the deity of death consuming a potion that gets caught in the throat and becomes blue from choking. The Blue Stone, Sapphira of the early Hebrews as a sign of the high priest and the Polynesians may be considered here as the blue stones set in a row of Rangi or Heaven, the Wananga, the High Priest(s) (Coleman). Hear in the moon cycle they are flaming red and blue. These are the colors of fire and water, which combine as the symbols of war in the Mesoamerican lore. The war then from the point of view of the island priest or Tahunga, is the war to secure his or her island people in their migration from a full and sustainable life on earth to stars of heaven after death. ccxxviii Tangaroa-ria; deity of the ocean‘s small portion and deity of the moon and tides. Tangaroa comes in the form of a seal when he first visits the island out from his domain of the sea. Water is therefore represented as the element of the Moon, as fire is the Sun just like in Mayan Classic lore. This first glyph of Tangaroa is standing and is perhaps a scribal error, since he is sitting in each of the other chorus lines. However, there may be an intended use of the legs to represent the deity of war, Tu, meaning to stand. Tangaroa is going to war for Hina, so that she might rise freely out of waning darkness to her full waxing cycle. ccxxix Hina is coming out of the New Moon cycle. Consider the New Moon as the dark side, or Hawaiki in Polynesian lore and the Full Moon as the migration to the light side or Aotea. Turi, the chief from Hawaiki who migrates to the east in the Aotea canoe finding Aotea, a harbour in New Zealand. Turi is produced from glyph 2 where TU, to stand and RI/Rima, hand or arm. Tu, the deity of war, dwells with his mother in Hawaiki in a narrow section called the Mute Land. Turi, meaning deaf, must be the Tu of this Mute Land. Is Hina‘s Moon Cycle, then, telling of this narrow Mute Land as the thin strip of land atop Rano Kao where rest the Orongo houses? ccxxx Tahi(nga) – in Polynesia, the Sweeping Ceremony is performed in order to raise the restriction or tapu from a new canoe (Tregear, 1891, tahinga). This means the canoe would be safe at sea, free from harm. Raising tapu from a new canoe hewn from a sacred tree is a sign of respect for the island. The tapu is essentially a sign of restriction protecting the tree from being taken for the wrong reason and with nothing to offer in return for what was taken from the land. The priest would offer a first fish that was cooked in a ceremonial umu oven. The umu feast includes very sacred incantations that are offered by the priest with the first fish offering. These incantations, called utu, are payments for the raising of the tapu. This ceremony concludes at the break of dawn when the priest sweeps at the sky with a burning branch, mimicking the rays of dawn sweeping the ancestral stars into the enlightenment of the rising Sun, the Full Moon or the Pleiades Constellation (Tregear, 1891, tahinga, matariki, ra, mata-hiapo). Even the sparks from the burning branch were very sacred and likened to the Sacred Ancestors, the Stars. Interestingly, the sweeping of this chant raises the tapu restriction, by the power of Tangaroa whose name literally means ‗unrestricted.‘ Tangaroa is surrounding by the moon glyph much like other Rapa Nui rongorongo deities, whose names are placed between a pair of the same adjectives to describe the deity. The same is true with those deities of India and China. Here Tangaroa is modified by Hina herself. That is, Hina Tangaroa-

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hina: the deity of the sea is integrally identified with the moon, which causes the tides of the sea. Hina represents Tangaroa or completes him much like a spouse. ccxxxi urahi(urenga) (ga-)rauhi(va) – the sacred deified yam and the twins are gathered together to be nourished and filled like the moon waxing into full light. Ra‘a as the Sun glyph is widely accepted. Perhaps there is a connection here with the ancient term for Hiva, the homeland of the original Rapa Nui migration, giving the meaning of Hiva as the Gathering Place. Hivo in Rapanui means to pull or pull together. Ga rauhiva means twins from vahi (to separate, the context of portions of the moon cycle). The twins in this moon cycle of Tangaroa-Hina appear with the honu turtle glyph. Polynesian myth has Tangaroa riding the ocean while standing on the backs of two tortoises. This may be an ancient metaphor for a safe migration across the ocean from the Old Country to the New Country. The turtle in the chant here has twins back to back. One appears lamenting the previous full moon and the other appears to anticipate the coming full moon. In a canoe raising ceremony before a migration, the same twins muse over the old world and the new. ccxxxii Ata – shadow or spirit. (Guy, 142) Here the spirit symbol is attached to the moon. The moon syllable is ma, from mahina, for moon. Together they give us, maata. In broader Polynesia this means a swamp, which may be helpful in understanding the context of the New Moon as a swamp or empty pit related to death in myth and symbolism. More useful is the application of ma as the plural affix in Polynesia, giving maata the meaning of more than one spirit, the people or the spirits. However, in Rapa Nui, ma‘a means to know. ccxxxiii ari – to show, reveal, to resemble. In Polynesian lore, Ari and Hua are twin children of Rangi-potiki and Papatuanuku (father sky and mother earth). The meaning of the names Ari and Hua produce – to show the sprouting; to reveal the offspring. Their names are telling of the chant‘s chorus. Ari also means to resemble. Then, ma-ata ari ohiro produces, the spirits resemble the twisted threads or the spirit knows Resembles-a-twisted-tread, if ari-o-hiro is intended as a deity. Consider the context of this line with the moon cycle and the ancient deity of Rapa Nui called, Tavake. In Polynesia his name transfers to Tawhaki, the one who climbed the thread to heaven avoiding the two outside threads (Tregear, 1891, tawhaki). The phrase ‗the spirits reveal the twisted thread‘ expresses this mythology since the New Moon, hiro, is called that which appears as a twisted thread. These two threads are also seen in the ancient line, Kawa and Maraenui were seen hanging from the forehead of Tuna (an eel) like veils. While Tuna descends because of drought in heaven, Tawhaki meets him as he rises on his journey to Hina, his mother, in order to save his father in Hawaiki, the Underworld. Tawhaki‘s twin brother is Karahi or Arii, related to the twin Ari in the moon cycle. They are seeking to avenge their father Hema, a common Polynesian theme among the deities. Kawa means bitter and Maraenui mean the great sacred enclosure. The moon cycle then has these three threads hanging from heaven in the Tawhaki myth of Kui the Blind. Two threads bring down from heaven bitter death and one is anchored to the house of life. Neither of these threads lead to heaven, since death leads to the great ocean of the Underworld and Maraenui, the Great Sacred Enclosure, is brought down from heaven to house Hina on Turtle Island in the Underworld (Tregear, 1891, Hina, Maraenui, Kawa, Kui). What is left is the central thread, called Maro, between the Full Moon waning down to the New Moon. Maro are the feathers intended to raise up the twins on the thread of life. It is the thread Tawhaki chooses after taking 9 out of 10 roots from Kui the Blind and then restoring her sight. Tawhaki climbs to heaven between the full moon of life and the new moon of death; between the lamenting and anticipating turtle twins; between the bitter house and the Great Sacred House Enclosure; this makes Tawhaki a mediator and a powerful one. The twisted threads also reveal for us a battle between good and evil, between water and fire, the moon and the sun. The rays of the sun are the threads. In fact, Tawhaki‘s threads elsewhere in Polynesia are called the Rainbow. Tawhaki/Tavake must climb the central thread, the pillar of heaven, the pathway to the sun, in order to restore to life, those who have died. The rainbow is also called, kahukura, and might also be symbolic of the fanned out red tail feathers of the Rapa Nui Tavake bird. Since Rapa Nui lore ensures that all offerings of the color red belong to Tangaroa, the Tavake, Tawhaki and the rainbow belong to Tangaroa. ccxxxiv ohiro – the moon is like a twisted thread. Hau is the thread made from the soaked bark strips of the paper mulberry tree. Hiro is a Rapanui deity of rain, Métraux (1940). Ibid. P. 310. One of the sacred ahu platforms on Easter Island is called, Tangaroa-Hiro, two of the three central characters of this Moon Calendar. One stone on Easter Island has a hole that sounds when the wind blows threw it, called, Pu-oHiro or the Trumpet of Hiro. This trumpet confirms the relationship between Orongo Tane, the hearing call of Tane and the sound of Hiro‘s trumpet. This stone is covered with the komari, vulva glyph.

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According to Tregear (1891), Whiro had to migrate for unfaithfulness and went to war against his brother Hua after killing his son and hiding him in the canoe chips. Hua identified as Tawhaki, has the twin Ari, identified as Hiro. Hua means sprout, scrotum or offspring; Atua means lord or deity; Hotu means swelling, birth or fruitfulness. Consider Hua, defined in Tregear as genealogy and in the Moon Calendar as genealogy of lords, deities and/or kings, along with the birthright down the line of the first mother and Princess of the Moon, Hina. Whiro is the line or cord representing that lineage. The saying Whiro is the New Moon which appears like a twisted thread reveals the portions of the moon cycle through appointed offspring; Ari-hiro literaly means to resemble a twisted thread. To hide Hua‘s son in the chips of the moon portions, is to give Hua‘s offspring a portion in the divine lineage. Representative of the restoration of this son not only in the returning waxing cycle occurs in the brother of Whiro, named Tura, another Hawaikian chief. This identifies Tura as Hua or father and son. Tura‘s son was born and continued to travel in Whiro‘s canoe after Tura remained at Aotea with his wife. Tura surrendered his immortality so his wife would survive her child‘s birth. His first white hair caused his wife to begin to mourn. To this day white hair is called, the Weeds of Tura. Giving his life so his wife will live represents an acknowledgement of the heavenly origin of the mother. Tura left Whiro who moved onto Wawau without him. This migration from Hawaiki, to Aotea, to Wawau appears then to be cyclical, returning again to Hawaiki. Therefore, the Moon Calendar, which contains expressions of the Hawaikian chiefs, Whiro, Turi and Tura, reminds seafaring wayfinders how to follow their own migration patterns. Confirmation of this is represented in the pre-Cook tradition of trade routes among the islands of Polynesia. Also the meaning of wawau in Tregear is to scrape. In the Moon Calender, Whiro leaves Aoteo, the Full Moon by travelling to Wawau, the Scraping, which represents waning which leads one back to the New Moon, represented by the Underworld island of Hawaiki. Our moon calendar sings from Hawaiki the scraping for the sacred yam. Consider, Turi, the war deity who stands with hand raised in the Great Sweeping of the stars, which corresponds with the Moon Cycle, calling upon the Great Fish offering to raise the tapu of the sacred canoe to embark safely on migration. After Turi, comes Tura, the one who sacrifices himself so that his wife may continue to participate in the life of her son. Turi works for Tangaroa, finding the sacred island and the sacred tree and Turi presents the heart of Uenuku‘s son in a food bundle for Uenuku to unknowingly eat. This son eaten by Uenuku in the food bundle under the mist of the rainbow is paralleled with the cook in the earth oven and the full moon glyph of motohi. Tura works with Whiro, who hides in their canoe chips, the dead son of Hua. Canoe chips are payment for canoe builders, like utu chants are payment for the raising of tapu restriction over the canoe. They also represent the portions of the moon cycle, which likens the moon itself as the sacred tree of Rata, being chopped and restored month after month. When Tangaroa makes Hina from a stone, the chips that fall become islands. ccxxxv Glyph two is likely an error, however, there may be an intended placement of the hand to the mouth in order to represent kai, to eat, as part of the ceremony of the sacred uhi yam feast. Tahitahi means to touch in Polyensia and Rapanui, tahitahi means to scrape with a sharp stone. Tari from TA/tahitahi + RI/rima = tari and means to carry. Tari is also the Rapanui‘s upper end of the sugar cane used for practice as a harmless weapon. The sparing tool, used also as a sweet source of nourishment is analygous to the use of the sacred uhi yam as a weapon to establish the sweatness of enlightenment in the spirit of those who share in the feast. Tare is a Rapanui spirit who visited homes with food gifts. Tare was partners with the Rapanui gift giving spirit named, Rapahago (shining fish?). The deities personify the uhi yam and the hi fish. ccxxxvi This may be another scribal error. RI from rima, the hand – the Screen or sacred barrier through which only the Tahunga priests were able to proceed. It indicated the most sacred portion of the chant approaching, here it was the Full Moon, Omotohi. ccxxxvii Tama – a shoot, a pole, the sun‘s rays, a group of people travelling in formation (Rapanui) or to listen attentively; tamahine – daughter. Tama-mata (poles-window) is the gate to the underworld. Consider Tane or Maui flying between this underworld gate represented by the bird seals (Mu and Weka) on the back of Hoa Hakanana‘ia in order to escape the underworld goddess of fire. When Hau Maka dreams of Rapa Nui, she finds Tama, the evil fish, likely representing the above of the dead, Ikaroa. ccxxxviii Hua Atua Hotu – hau: the fruit of the earth, scrotum, son, to grow well (Rapanui), to repeat (Churchill); also, mahua from MA/mahina + HUA = mahua, to heal; atua: lord, deity, good omen, good person (Rapanui, also etua); hotu: swelling or fruitful (Tregear). Mahua would be a literal reading and means to lift up, to raise up, to grow. Prior to Hua Atua Hotu is Maharu, the ninth day of the moon cycle of Easter Island (11th to 13th elsewhere in Polynesia). Maharu may be related to the Rapanui word maharo,

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which means amazement and mahanga means twins. Corresponding names in Polynesia for the moon Maharu are Mawharu and Owaru (Tregaer). These words correspond with eight in Polynesia and/or scraping or peeling. The moon cycle is represented in the lore as a scraping or peeling of portions of seven or eight. As the saying from Tregear under waru, ―Hina alone keeps seven, yes, eight balls in motion.‖ Though this may refer to the planets, sun and moon, the seven portions are also represented in the seven chips of the moon‘s quarter and the eighth is the halving of Hina, when she gives birth to the twins. Maharu in Tregaer also points to the plural marker, ma or maha, multiplying the rumblings, haru, of the Earthquake deity, Ru. Further study on the relationship between the number 8 and earthquake or thunder beings may be useful. ccxxxix Mata-iti: Little Hina combines with the mata eye from the first glyph to form the word for daughter, mataiti. Tangaroa (unrestricted), continues to raise the tapu restriction on the sacred meal, thus building up all who are invited to participate. In this case it is not only Hina, but her tribe, her people, those gathered singing her song. Tangaroa is the lord of the ocean and the moon. Shirres associates Tangaroa with Hina in the third stage of the Maori karakia ritual, which is the offering of food to the atua or deity (Shirres, M. 1996. Ibid. Website). Tangaroa also shares many common qualities with Maui as stealer of fire and maker of islands. Métraux states that he lands at Tonga-riki, the largest grave-site with 15 moai standing on the ahu platform. Tangaroa arrived there in the form of a seal. In the form of a man, this lord of the ocean is Tangaroa-mea (Métraux, 1971, P. 310). In one story he makes islands by throwing down stones from heaven (see 1). Therefore, the umu stones that kill the serpent of death also become symbols of the islands of life. Métraux‘s informant, Tepano, gave the account that Tangaroa was a half man, half seal. He came from Mangareva and the people of the island tried to cook him in an moari oven. When his flesh did not cook the people said, ―It was true, he was realy a king, he was Tangaroa and not a seal.‖ Métraux (1940). Ibid. P. 311. Tangaroa as half seal was King of the Sea and his brother, Teko-of-the-long-feet, was from the land and came to Te Pito te Henua looking for Tangaroa his brother. His feet made large steps and his head reached the sky. Puku-puhipuhi was the place Where-Teko-planted-his-digging-stick. Is this digging stick the maro stick covered with feathers and used in the chanting of the rongorongo boards? Perhaps it is a stick used to reach into the umu oven for the sacred yam. ccxl Raiti – the small Sun – after the Sacred Screen or RI was set up, words were often spoken in a softer tone to emphasize their sacredness. Here, the great star, our Sun, is called Little Sun, as a sign of affection and familiar respect. Perhaps the ‗small Sun‘ is the morning star, Venus, used with the Sun and Canopus to help guide the moon out of the Underworld. ccxli Maure rakau – sacred enclosure and tree. The Ti tree on the moon is used by Hina to make clothes for her children out of the Taro bark. Between these two moon on the Rapanui Moon Calendar is ina-ira. Ira was the son of Uenuku and was nourished on the heart of his mother. Such lore may represent Turtle Mountain in the Underworld as the heart of the first Mother. All life is produced and nourished through this heart, which rises as paradise out of the abyss. Ira also means a birth-mark throughout Polynesia or a spot. In Hindu lore, the mark or spot is the most sacred sign of enlightenment. The mark of Cain comes to mind. Irawaru (spot eight?) is the husband of Hina. When Maui turned Irawaru into a dog, Hina threw herself into the sea. Irawaru as Owa, meaning warning, as the deity of dogs, signifies the barking as a warning of human mortality. Hina jumps into the sea of death symbolic of the full moon waning that island of life might raise her children up from the New Moon and her incantation draw Tangaroa to send down half of paradise. Tangaroa was represented by a hollowed out rock. Hina as the Standing log. Related to Mauri, the day or days near the New Moon cycle (Tregear). The love triangle around the royal sister, Maurea, caused the burning of a Wharekura (temple). Mauri is defined as the heart and/or Guardian of Life (Tregear). Maure(a), then, is focused on the sacrifice of birth in the Full Moon, where the cooked umu offering is ready. The New Moon of Mauri is focused on the island of life. The Rapanui Moon Cycle of Hina is an answer of how to confront the realities of life and death. Life must be sacrificed for the offspring, while even in death there is a refuge. In fact, Tregaer identifies related moon days called, Mara‘i in Tahiti and Marangi in Roratonga. Related is the Marae, a city of refuge, a sacred oven or to be hospitable; Mara means a chip, a portion or a splinter, as does marama, the usual name for the moon itself. Marae-o-Hine is a pa or City of Refuge in Hawaii, where no war party was allowed to even step, much less kill, for the safety of defeated warriors. The Cities of Refuge were called, Puhonua in Hawaii and Tapua‘iga in Samoa. The turtle twins find refuge on this island to lament old wounds and to heal to new life. Mauri is the heart of the refuge of Hina in the New Moon, while the Maure is the oven paying utu for the sacred incantations that will purchase and secure that place of refuge. An important relationship can be

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made between this Rapanui Moon Calendar and the migration of the Moriori to the secluded Chatham Islands 400 miles East of New Zealand. Look up Tregear‘s Maraenui, Kawa (see 22). See Hawaiki for sacred rakau or sacred trees in Polynesia. The tree of life in Polyensian paradise is said to produce the enlightened sons by its poroporo fruit (Tregear Hawaiki). ccxlii Matahiapo or Motohi. The full moon, the first-born offspring of Hina. Motohi or the full moon is the umu oven full of the sacrificial food of Hina as deity of nourishment or Pa. That is, her offering is her heart or the heart of her son hidden in the food, not actually, but implied in the regenerative life expressed in the food. The Indigenous philosophy regards seeds, plants, eggs and creatures as eternal spirits do to the Creator bestowing this gift of regeneration. It is that creative aspect or life force present in every rock, creature, element, that ties us all together to the Creator. The Tohunga priest, then, expresses the rite to make offering with rock, fire, water, plant and fish as if this offering was an aspect of the Creator. This offering then has the power or mana to raise the tapu or restriction from the wood of the canoe for the migration for example. The restriction from hazards at sea is also lifted. Consider the full moon as the island of life lifted up by the fish-hook of Hina. Notice the right side of the moon is the first waning half, which appears as a fishhook in the sky. By no coincidence, then, the word for right or right side, matau, is also the word for fish-hook. This hook that Hina baited with her own bird that flies to and fro, that waxes and wanes, for Tangaroa or Maui, enabled them to pull up Turtle Island, the island of life in the New Moon cycle. It is no coincidence that the word for left, mau, is also the side of the moon that fills from its second half to the Full Moon Cycle and that mau or maui also means life. Taken as a whole, the New Moon represents darkness, emptiness, a vast dark ocean with a fierce water monster and giant birds that consume humans. In a word, the New Moon represents death. The spirituality of Polynesia takes the first waxing day, Ohiro, as the thread of hope and wisdom that will enable freedom from death by climbing to Rangi, heaven. The water monster will be caught by Matau, the fish-hook on this first quarter of the right side or Matau of the moon cycle. The second quarter waxing from the left is called, Mau, the left or the life, since the water monster of death has been caught and is cooked by the stones of the full moon umu oven. The back of the water monster becomes the island of life. ccxliii Kata means to laugh. The tapairu fairies laughed as they saw Maui stuck in the other end of the goddess of death. This laughter woke up the goddess and Maui was killed. Here the man in the full moon umu oven, must be Maui wrapped in the seaweed umu for nourishment; stuck in Orongo while the tapairu laugh, sing and dance a victory celebration of the acquiring of the first egg. On the full moon face is Hina and her mallet used to pound the mulberry bark for clothes and rope fibres (Hau). She is married to Tiki, the first man. Tiki, the man-tree, or the tree of Hina, or Hina, the Standing Log of Timber, Ihungarupaea. From this portion of the rongorongo chant, this moon also has stripes carved across it: Hine-ahua – from the moon with stripes, where ahua means to heap up. Ahua is related to words for pregnancy and accent as a royal lineage or even an altar from a heaping up of stones. The sacred raised platforms are called ahu. Elsewhere in Polynesia they are called marae or pa. Hineahua was found floating on the waters of the deluge. At the end of the deluge an altar (ahu) was erected to honour the moon, Tane appeared as the true deity and forbid it. Elsewhere, the gods climb the altar and consume the moon (Tregear, Tuputupuwhenua). The sacred turtle rescues Hina at this holy mountain called, Mahikurangi. The deluge was caused by a refusal to give Ruatapu the sacred turtle. He killed all the tohunga priests in the deluge, only Paikea escaped. ccxliv Atutahi and Rangi are the mother and father of Hina. Atutahi is the star Canopus in the Constellation Carina, the Keel in Western Astronomy. In Polynesia, Atutahi is regarded as the most, or one of the most important stars. The Milky Way is the basket or great fish containing all souls. Atutahi sits outside of the Milky Way and as such is a guide for Hina to find her way back. Interestingly the glyph for Atutahi is turning back to Hina as if to beckon her on after the fall into the Ocean through the full moon. Rangi as the father of Hina is present in the small shrivelled Sun glyph. Remember, Tawhaki/Tavake climbs the rope to heaven or Rangi, when Tuna is descending from a drought in heaven. The drought shrivels Rangi just as the glyph defines through its syllables. What does this all mean? In order to save humanity from death, a great deluge of the living waters of Tane (Waiora). These waters come from an emptying of heavens lower levels to produce a drought in heaven. Hina‘s lament beckons half of heaven to fall to her assistance. After the moon fills, there is the opposite effect. Therefore, scraping gathered the yams, now scraping will peel them for consumption. In Polynesian lore, Rupe sweeps to gather Hina and her son as the full moon, then once they are in heaven or Rehua, he sweeps with the tahitahia broom the dust away and make Rehua spotless, thus, the New Moon. Hina‘s husband is Irawaru, eight spots or eight marks. The carving of eight

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moon quarters or eight spots purifies the moon of all spots at Rehua, the New Moon, or Tenth Heaven where Hina‘s heart‘s lament was heard. ccxlv 5 marama. There are five moons here, contrasted with the six above. Consider the Turtle, Honu or Ono as the sixth. ccxlvi Rangi and one day waning riko. Rangi and ngari mean the same as a canoe timing chant. Hina paddled her canoe to the moon. Her standing log is also considered a standing whetstone for Rata to sharpen his axe upon. The waning and waxing sections of the moon are considered the sacred sparks of this sharpening, or the fire stolen by Maui; they may also be the chips of Rata, hiding the dead son of Uenuku/Hua whose son‘s heart was also hidden in the meal of which he later ate. ccxlvii Maro – a sacred marking stick with feathers. tangaroa mihi is a chief who owned the man-eating monster, Kataore (laughing biter?), from Tikitapu (the forbidden), killed by rope snares in contrast to the three red-hot stones thrown from above by Tangaroa to produce the islands. This connection with the Chatham Islands is made more evident by the curious explorer named Kohu in the Tane canoe who returned to Hawaiki after finding the islands. Consider Tane as the Hine bird of Tangaroa flying to and fro until finding land. Kohu means mist or fog, related to Uenuku the rainbow whose misty land is a safe haven or refuge where no war party may enter. The Chatham Island explorer, Kohu‘s name, was used for the largest Chatham Island, Rangi Kohu (ReKohu). The use of Re or Rangi, then confirms the Maure or Marangi name as a refuge appointed by the deities of the sky or heaven. Kohu is the husband of Ika-roa (long fish or great fish), the Milky-Way and their children are Nga Whetu, the stars. The stones of Tangaroa that fall in the mouth of the great fish are likened to a sacrifice of the first fish from the umu oven used to secure safe migration journeys at the Sweeping of the Stars ceremony. This ceremony of the priests burning branch waved at the sun rays of dawn cooperates with these rays to gather the stars into Matariki, the Pleiades Constellation or the Waxing Moon, the heart of Rangi the sky. Completing the cycle at dusk would return the stars to their place on the belly of Rangi the sky, or the open umu oven of Ika-roa, the great fish sacrificed to secure the migration of souls after death to turtle island found by Hina and representing her compassionate heart. Another name for this umu oven is the kohu oven, since the burning rocks cause the water to become mist (kohu) and to boil the fish and sweet-potatoes inside. The relationship with Ika-roa is the misty appearance of the star clusters gathered there. ccxlviii Orongo tane – the calling bird who enables us to hear (orongo). The word Orongo in Polynesia is associated with Rongo, Oro and Koro. The three prior Rapanui moons are Tapume, Matua, Orongo and then wanes Orongo Tane. Perhaps to consecrate (tapu) in company with (me) the parent (matua) of the hearing place (Orongo) of the Sacred Crying Bird (Orongo Tane). The cry of first parent is a lament for falling from heaven and it is a great sign for his and her children to learn how to rise. Following Orongo Tane are the Rapanui moons: Mauri Nui, Mauri Keno, Mutu and then Tireo. This means the Great Heart (Mauri Nui), the Heart in death or in the dark land (Mauir Keno), the moon brought to an end (Mutu) and gaze in anticipation (Tireo). Mutuwhenua is the Maori term for the New Moon and can be translated as the end of the land. Mutu in Maori mythology as Tekau mutu, is the manner of counting from one to ten. The counting of Tawhaki (Rapanui‘s Tavake) involves the ten kumara roots of the blind woman and is related to the climbing of this thread to heaven after Tawhaki restores her sight in exchange for nine of her ten roots. Tireo and Hiro are the final moons, meaning anticipate or look out with hope for the thread of Ohiro (see 26 and 8). ccxlix Tireo, honu mahanga – the turtle twins appear in the stage of the moon on Rapanui called, Tireo. The word appears to be associated with Tiro, meaning to observe or to gaze. There are two perspectives of these hero twins. One is observing the waning cycle and lamenting the full moon, while the other is gazing at the waxing cycle and anticipating the full moon. This crier and the dancer have been images of global indigenous lore. Midway through the Moon Calendar is the Full Moon. It is the cook on the moon with the three stones of the Moari oven, representing the celebratory feast of the offering that removes the tapu from the sacred canoe, which now can embark on the migration of Rata or Whiro, Turi or Tura, or all of the deities migrations combined. Why? Because they all need the moon to travel on the ocean and since they were the original ancestors, their stories or mark have been left upon the moon Calendar. Opposite the moon cycle from the Full Moon is the New Moon. Yet, the Turtle stands before it. Therefore, at the New Moon, the symbol of darkness and the pit of death, there is a Turtle. This Turtle is the Island in the Underworld where Hina fell and gave birth to the Turtle Twins. In Mayan lore, the Great Goddess mural in Teotihuacan not only holds the same tree of life, but beneath her is a great mountain in the underworld which is her very own heart. From this heart she allows to flow all life. On the Moon Calendar then,

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Hina‘s heart brings forth safety for the twins who would otherwise die in the Underworld. The imagery of Turtle Mountain as the heart of the divine Princess Hina in the Underworld, overlaps that of the Sacred Canoe of Rata breaking through the breakers of death; similarly the stone of Maui swallowed by the Underworld serpent defeats the power of death; also Tawhiki his brother speak to the blind woman with 10 sweet potatoes trying to find a way out of the Underworld. Tawhiki takes nine, as if a thief like Whiro, but then returns her sight. She points him to the mountain with three cords. The one on the left and right only swing back and forth (as the moving cycle of the Moon Calender). In fact, Tawhiki‘s companion is almost thrown to his death when he tries to climb them. However, the centre cord is grounded on the Mountain as enables Tawhiki to climb to heaven. Whiro appears as the two threads where heaven comes down so that we can rise up on the Hama thread with Tawhiki to heaven. Any one of these parallels by themselves might represent a mere coincidence, but taken together express a spiritual sophistication among the ancient Rapanui priests who weaved the entire spectrum of Polynesian mythology into the Moon Calendar of the Easter Island tablets. Confirming this mythological weaving is the finding of the Rongorongo chants of Maui‘s Ball Game and the Canoe of Rata elsewhere on the tablets also tied into the Moon Calendar when each word is correctly deciphered. ccl Hawaiian rock art: From Oahu and now in the Bishop Museum of Hawaii Resembles Easter Island birdmen without the beak, (Lee, 1992) ccli Coleman notes the Tongan Tangaloa made a wife by carving stone and throwing the chips in the sea to become the islands. As a bird he layed the cosmic egg, that broke on the waters to become earth and sky. Hina a rauriki was captured by an octopus; so rogo, tangaroa and turi fished it up and killed it. Tangaroa emerged from Po. He and Atea tried to claim Papa‘s first child. She cut the baby in half. Atea made the sun. Tangarao made the moon. Tagaro the Wise (creator)/ Tagaro the Foolish (destroyer). Tagaloa (Samoan) pulled a rock up from the ocean so his daughter Tuli could make a nest. Kanaloa – Hawaiian squid god and creator god – ruler of the dead. cclii Larousse also notes that Tangaroa-upao-vahu created the earth from rocks thrown into the void from the sky. From Tahiti, Ta‘aroa is born from a cosmic egg that breaks in two; where half of him become earth and half the sky. ccliii Tregear adds that Tangaroa threw down stones that became land. Tangaroa sent his daughter down as the bird Turi to find land after a deluge. She flew back and forth. When she found land he sent her down with a vine (rakau). Soon the first man (Ariari) was made of stones and fire with a mate. Tangaroa was seen in the moon and worshipped during May. Everyone was to stay indoors, and only men were permitted to touch the sacred tapu food. Tangaroa‘s share of offerings was red, (red taro, red fish, etc) and his children had golden hair (Anau keu a tangaroa, kua piri paa i tea o (the fair-haired of tangaroa were born from blazing light). Elsewhere ―Tangaroa is the root, he is the rock; taaroa is the light, taaroa is within‖ and deity of artisans. ccliv Englert notes in his Leyendas: Teko the Giant and another Tagaroa. In three steps Teko could arrive to Te Pito te henua, but he discouraged Tagaroa who wanted to travel there. On the fourth day, Tagaroa went. In three steps Teko went and said, ―Tagaroa, where are you?‖ There was no response. The giant went back to Hiva lamenting his brother. A seal arrived at Hanga-iti. A woman preparing her oven, went to wash her taropa basket. There is a seal. The husband and men noticed it was sleeping and put thin ropes around it and tied it to some rocks. Then they started hitting it. Tangaroa said, ―I am Ariki, I am Tangaroa, leave me be!‖ ―You lying seal‖ they continued and killed it, cut it up in pieces and cooked it, but it did not cook well, thus Hanga iti is called Haga tagaroa mea (close to Tonga-riki). They sent a piece to the people of Hanga Hoonu, it also di not cook well – they named the place Re‘e (Ko Re‘e). cclv Felbermayer, Fritz. Lieder Und Verse der Oster-Insel // Zeitschrift fur Ethnologie, Band 97 cclvi Shirres, M. (1996). Ibid. Website. I. To Become One with the Ancestors and Spiritual Powers – the Setting Up of the Rods. cclvii Jaussen‘s List from Chauvet (1935). Ibid. P.173. cclviii Guy, J. B. M. (1999). Peut-on se fonder sur le témoignage de Métoro pour déchiffrer les rongorongo? Journal de la Société des Océanistes. Vol. 108. No. 1. Pp. 125-132. P. 125. cclix Davletshin (2002). Ibid. P. 12. cclx Davletshin (2002). Ibid. P. 4. cclxi Krupa, V. (1973). ‗Tane in the Easter Island Script.‘ Asian and African. Bratislava. 9. Pp. 115-119. Krupa describes the glyph as the Sun or sky deity, Tane or aspects of the sky. In this case, to gather or sweep the stars, the sweeping tail of Tane would be the rays of the Sun.

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cclxii

Fischer (1997). Ibid. P. 414, 418. Most sources agree that the Sun glyph is Ra‘a. cclxiv Krupa (1971). Ibid. P. 8. cclxv Guy, Ibid. (1990). Routledge (p. 245), Anonymous website: http://web.archive.org/web/20060927085655/www.rongorongo.org/routldge/254.html cclxvi Fischer, (1997). Ibid. P. 335. (Routledge, 1914-15: Reel 2, notebook, p. 49r); Metraux, A. (1940). Ethnology of Easter Island. Bernice P. Bishop Museum Bulletin 160. Honolulu: Bishop Museum Press. P. 330. cclxvii Mètraux, A. (1971). Ethnology of Easter Island. Bishop Museum Bulletin 160, Honolulu. cclxviii Felbermayer, Fritz. Lieder Und Verse der Oster-Insel // Zeitschrift fur Ethnologie, Band 97. Found on website: http://www.nzetc.org/tm/scholarly/tei-GregKong-c1-49.html. cclxix The Rapanui-English Dictionary. Website: http://www.rongorongo.org/vanaga/a.html cclxx Tregear (1891). Ibid. Whiro, Maui. Hine-nui-te-po. cclxxi As well, a confirmation of the feathered cloak of Atua which appears like the nanaia breaking wave in the rongorongo moon calendar. Wave in Polynesian is teatea, related to Atea/Watea, the deity of daylight. Elsewhere in Polynesia, Atea is related to or interchanges with Rongo, Tangaroa, Papa and Rangi elsewhere in Polynesia (Tregear 1891). In Hawaii, he is called, Hakuakea (Atua-Akea), relating him to the waves of the song above. He is also married to Hina or Papa bringing forth together islands and ocean. In Mangaia, Vatea‘s home is called, the Thinland, Te Paparairai, the highest heaven, perhaps alluding to the thin rays of the Sun. Tregear (1891). Ibid. Tangaroa, Rangi, Rongo, Papa, Hina, Atea. cclxxii An exploration of the relationship between Atea/Watea/Wakea and Waka Hiro of Japan, Wakan Tanka of North America would also be useful in contrasting the development and interrelationship of Indigenous myth. Coleman, J. A. (2007). The Dictionary of Mythology – An A-Z of Themes, Legens and Heroes. Toronto: Arcturus Publishing Limited. cclxxiii Campbell, R. Chant 21. Cantos – Koro Rupa. cclxxiv http://www.nzetc.org/tm/scholarly/tei-GregKong-c1-49.html. From the Easter Island lament: Hirohiro te tangi/ a Ti-rau, a Ko-veri/ mo taina era ngaro era.../I oto noho ti aha no Timona,/ i tangi hokorua noo,/ rau a Ko-Veri-iti.../ Hiro-hiro te tangi..... cclxxv Shirres, M. (1996). Ibid. Website. Te Mate Whiro. The Manuscripts of Edward Shortland. Chant source from the Arawa chief, Ringori Te Ao. cclxxvi Scholars are in agreement that the glyph represents rakau, the night before the full moon. The smooth surface points out the syllable. Also, a contrast of names used for this night across Polynesia helps expound the meaning of this and all the moon nights of Rapanui. cclxxvii Scholars agree this glyph represents the Full Moon, Motohi. Jaussen‘s List uses tagata i te hare pure or ‗man in the prayer house‘. The Full Moon as ‗the cook in the sky‘ and ‗the man in the prayer house‘ and ‗Hina beating her tapa cloth‘ point to the sacred rites involved in Polynesian and Indigenous spirituality. It is as if the fish offering and/or the yam root are types of ‗eating of the gods‘ portions. To be pure, one must participate in the umu oven at the New Moon or Full Moon feast, where the first fish or first seasonal yam root becomes god or tangaroa by way of the most powerful incantation, the Falling of Hina moon calendar chant. Notice tangata is the man glyph used with the turtle twins and confirms the awareness of Jaussen‘s informant. cclxxviii Not only does the ‗o‘ transfer tell of priests who represented Rapanui mythology in their chants, an even more striking correlation points to the mythology originally designed to suit the Easter Island dialect itself and therefore the rongorongo tablets (see Maui‘s Ball Game, maui or moai). cclxxix Felbermayer, Fritz. Lieder Und Verse der Oster-Insel // Zeitschrift fur Ethnologie, Band 97 cclxxx Guy, J. B. M. (1999). Peut-on se fonder sur le témoignage de Métoro pour déchiffrer les rongorongo? Journal de la Société des Océanistes. Vol. 108. No. 1. Pp. 125-132. Pp. 125, 127. cclxxxi http://www.nzetc.org/tm/scholarly/tei-GreKong-c1-60.html cclxxxii Fischer, (1997). Ibid. Pp. 312-313. Routledge, Ibid, p. 248. Routledge‘s informant was named, Tomenika, and was considered the last know writer of rongorongo whose physical and mental health was waning due to leprosy and age. At one point Routledge confessed, ―(Tomenika) acknowledged the figures (of rongorongo) as his work, recited ‗He timo te ako-ako‘ and explained that some of the signs as having to do with ‗Jesus Christ.‘ The outlook was not promising.‖ p. 250. She expresses her final attempt to work with Tomenika to decipher the script on the night before he died, ―It was late afternoon on a day of unusual calm, everything in the lonely spot was perfectly still, the sea lay below like a sheet of glass, the sun as a
cclxiii

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globe of fire was nearing the horizon, while close at hand lay the old man gradually sinking, and carrying in his tired brain the last remains of a once-prized knowledge. In a fortnight he was dead.‖ cclxxxiii Tregear (1891). Ibid. Ihu. cclxxxiv Kaulins, A. (1981). An Astronomical Zodiac in the Script of Easter Island. 1st ed. Germany: Darmstadt, Diebrugerstr. P. 156. Website: http://www.andiskaulins.com/publications/easterisland/easter.htm. Berthin et al. (2006). P. 95. cclxxxv Mètraux, A.. ‗The Kings of Easter Island‘. JPS. Vol. 46. No. 182. Pp. 41-62. cclxxxvi Mètraux, Alfred. Ethnology of Easter Island. Bishop Museum Bulletin 160, Honolulu, 1971. cclxxxvii Sagen und ‹berlieferungen der Osterinsel / Fritz Felbermayer. N¸rnberg : Carl, c1971 cclxxxviii Jaussen‘s List from Chauvet (1935). Ibid. P. 173. Fischer (1997). Ibid. P. 615. cclxxxix Jaussen‘s list uses te tagata kai or ‗the eating man‘ in Chauvet (1935). Ibid. P. 173. Fischer (1997). Ibid. P. 615. ccxc Toia Mai: A big ornate war canoe was a symbol of the mana of the tribe, …But the ancient "Toia Mai" chant was then used to welcome visitors arriving by canoe at a riverside marae, to symbolically "draw them ashore." ccxci Te Tiriti: At Waitangi in 1840, after 20 years of ruinous inter-tribal musket wars, Maori signed sovereignty of their country over to Britain, in return for guarantees about their land and other possessions. But a giant land grab (E Pa To Hau) then took place when British capitalists and venal officials ignored this treaty for the next 120 years. ccxcii Mana Motuhake: Literally "separated prestige," or the authority and capacity to be autonomous. This is a political term created during post-Waitangi attempts (Hoia Ra Nga Waka Nei) by Maori groups to continue to control their own affairs or regain jurisdiction that had been removed or lost. ccxciii Te Tangi A Te Manu: This is an old karakia whose words have been incorporated into this modern poi song. It connects us to world of the atua by way of bird-calls, and then it focuses on the good news of the shining cuckoo's distinctive September bird-cry announcing the end of winter ...May the spirits give us a summer that is without storms or drought. Metaphorically ...May the spirits give us what the Treaty promises. ccxciv The Shining Cuckoo: The Pīpīwharauroa spends winter in the Solomon Islands and then flies down to New Zealand in late September to breed in our forests. It replaces the eggs in Grey Warblers' nests with its own eggs, and leaves those little birds to hatch and rear its chicks. ccxcv Guy (1990). Ibid. Pp 135–149. Rangimarie Turuki Rose Pere, Dr. (Working Paper No. 17). Nga Kawai Rangatira O Te Wheke Kamaatu (The Eight Noble Tentacles Of The Great Octopus of Wisdom). Consider including in the circle of those deciphering the Easter Island tablets, the living Indigenous elders and proteges throughout Polynesia whose ancestors carved a permanent seal of approval on their hearts through these tablets. This circle includes the vision and wisdom of Dr. Rose Pere. Her teaching of Te Wheke Kamaatu Mai I Te Toihanga O Nga Rangi Tuhaha, (the Octopus of Great Wisdom From the Uppermost Of The Far Flung Heavens), is this not a vision of the moon cycles themselves as expressed wisdom in their eight quarter tenticles and full moon head. Tregear‘s myth of Wheke Tapairu relate that she is indeed Queen of the Moon, yet broken to pieces to be food for the ponaturi birdmen as they perceive how the Eight Noble Tenticles of Wisdom are integrated into their hearts and lives. ccxcvi Rangi Marie Tutuki Rose Pere (2010). Facebook wall post responding to ccxcvii Berthin et al. (2006). P. 95. Figure 5: Marami Lunar Calendar and Proposed Translation; Guy, (1990) Ibid. p. 144. Berthin and Guy shed light on the possibility of the U/ure syllable usage: Guy argues from an ethnological perspective that the phallus or ure glyph is likely a resemblance from a male dolphin. Berthin uses the term ‗male verility‘ in semiotic fashion to describe the glyph. Moreover, Berthin describes the glyph attached to ra‘a, the Sun, as a bending silver cord, representing rangi, the sky, a confirmation of the syllables RA and NGI, used above, Berthin (2006). Ibid. P. 96. In line with Berthin‘s approach, a respect for the wisdom of these ancient sages afords the possibility that a syllabary works side-by-side with a semiotic/logographic system, not merely as a form of confirmation as with the Egyptians, but as a riddle scrambler that enables a deeper understanding of each sacred word. ccxcviii Pozdniakov et al. (2007). P. 8, 29. Glyph 44, a double of the ure glyph occurs mostly, though not exclusively in the final position of the glyphs as does its syllable ‗U‘. ccxcix Chauvet, S. (1935). L‘Ile de Paques et ses mysteres (Easter Island Mysteries). Paris. Editions ―Tel‖. Figs. 173-176. Répertoire des Signes Idéographiques Boustrophédon de L‘ile de Paques. Metero‘s Reading uses Kihikihi. The Jaussen List. Where the line with a four or five marks is Jaussen‘s mosses, the line with

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6 or more marks is Jausen‘s feathers. The feathers relates to hiro/ari from Guy, (1990). Ibid. Pp. 135-149, and hiro/ari glyphs with threads produce hiro/hau syllables. ccc Rjabchikov, S.V. (1998-2005). Website: http://rongorongo.chat.ru/glyphs2.htm. ccci Fischer (1997). Ibid. P. 619. Fischer confirms Barthel‘s moon 40 sign (with crescent arching left) as Hina, the moon goddess or mahina, the name of the moon. Where as, the moon 41 glyph (right arching) is the name for month, marama, also considered the moon specific to the 30-day calendar. Guy supplies, Mahina: Guy, Ibid. p. 144; Rjabchikov also uses Hina, Rjabchikov (1998-2005). Ibid. Webpage. cccii Jaussen‘s List uses kakarava, to lean or noi arurua, to bow in Chauvet (1935). Ibid. P.173. Berthin et al. (2006). Ibid. P. 95. Berthin‘s semiotic interpretation gives the leaning bird the meaning of ‗Tane Ordains‘. Given the use of the syllable TA from tahi, side-view + HI from Hianga, to stoop + NGA, produces tahi, to sweep or tahinga, the Sweeping Ceremony. Since Tane represents the rising Sun (Tregear gives the dawn as the Bright Road of Tane and dusk as the Long Road of Tangaroa), and the sun‘s rays are likenned to the broom that sweeps the ancestral stars in the Sweeping Ceremony, the use of Berthin‘s semiotic translation, ‗Tane Ordains‘ works with the syllables for tahinga above. ccciii Krupa, V. (1971). ‗Moon‘ in the Writing of Easter Island. Oceanic Linguistics 10 (1). Pp. 8. Krupa agrees with Barthel use of ‗hi‘, but applies a doubling to the syllable to produce the contextual line, ‗The rays (hihi) of the fair sun (ra‘a renga) are asleep (moe).‘ Fischer. (1997). Ibid. P. 617. Fischer expresses that Barthel‘s interpretation developed on the fish on a line glyph from ika (hanging fish or victim), to moroki (bait), and finally to hi, (the verb – to fish). Jaussen had yet to develop this understanding: Chauvet, Ibid. Jaussen‘s List and Guy, Ibid, pp. 140-141. Jaussen proposes that the ‗fish on a line‘ glyph is read as other fish glyphs without the line: ika, fish. De Maat proposes this fish produces the last syllable KA from ika, De Maat (2009). Ibid. P. 8. ccciv Guy, ibid. p. 144. Rjabchikov (1998-2005). Ibid. Webpage. Berthin et al. (2006). Ibid. P. 95. cccv Berthin et al. (2006). Ibid. Pp. 95-96. Berthin defines the diagnal lines as ‗obscurred...incomplete‘. Incomplete relates to the definition proposed above as ‗heaping‘ or ‗a stacking of separate or incomplete parts‘, producing hua. Any glyph with diagnal lines presents the hua syllable, HU, in the extended word the glyph forms. The syllabary exists along side complementary semiotic meanings. cccvi Pozdniakov et al. (2007). P. 8, 29. This scrotum glyph is found mainly in the final position of connected glyphs as does the syllable HU and U. cccvii Guy, Ibid. p. 144. Guy‘s mahina produces the same syllable MA from marama, both are terms for the moon. Notice that the moon name maure, offered by Thomson, Englert and Metreux, and identified by the ‗phallus glyph‘ by Guy, is attached to the moon glyph producing MA + URE, which bridges the gap between the 30 day moon count and the glyphs appearance. cccviii Berthin et al. Ibid. (2006). P. 95. Berthin gives the eye glyph as, ‗to see‘ or u‘iga, the above translation proposes the eye or window syllable, MA from mata. cccix Pozdniakov et al. (2007). P. 8, 29. The syllable MA is used in this decipherment usually as the first syllable in the glyph even when the second syllable is attached to the left. A reading from left to right occurs on the lines, but glyph words can be read from right to left, although the bottom centre is the first syllable. cccx Fischer (1997). Ibid. P. 615. Fischer and Barthel offer, ‗to eat‘, kai. The Rapanui word for to eat is ‗gau‘. See the tagata/tangata, man glyph listed in the significant word section. cccxi Most scholars agree that this sign represents Ra‘a, as well as, Jaussen‘s list. When it appears in the chant, RA, is the syllable used. cccxii Jaussen‘s list from Chauvet (1935). Ibid. P. 173. Berthin et al. Ibid. (2006). P. 95. In the moon chant‘s second verse, the arm is touching the mouth. Berthin offers the semiotic meaning as, ‗the feeding‘, supporting reference to the feast, the full belly of the food deity and in the case of this syllable RI, the use of the arm. RI from rianga, is the syllable appearing as a hand or arm used as a sign of the Sacred Screen or RI. Once this Screen is set up no curse can penitrate it and only the priest or the priest‘s servants are able to enter. The sign of the arm becomes a syllable due to its important use in the ritual and language of the priests. cccxiii Pozdniakov et al. (2007). Pp. 8, 29. Pozdniakov gives only three glyph options for the final syllable position, one being the arm glyph and one of the four choises in the interpreted writings is the syllable RI. This means the glyph and syllable are highly likely to be a match. cccxiv Berthin et al. (2006). P. 95. Ibid. Berthin applies the semiotic meaning, ‗seated‘, to the above syllable TA from tahi, side-view. Berthin confirms the meaning of one fragment of a glyph adds a new dimension

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to the interpretation. Berthin provides more insights that extend the research of the above syllabary. Metissage calls for this external inquiry to offer fresh insights and vital in such difficult research. cccxv Pozdniakov et al. (2007). Pp. 8, 29. The syllable TA and the 380 glyph usually occur in the initial position. The glyph is also noted as rarely in the final position. cccxvi Pozdniakov et al. (2007). P. 8, 29. Though Pozdniakov does not quantify the TU syllable, the glyph appears as it should, usually in the initial position and rarely in the last. cccxvii It is on the moon that she pounds the tapa bark to make clothes for her children. The clothes enable the children to participate in worthy attire at the meal of the gods. In tattooing, it is likely pounding that caused the punctures on the skin of the youth. Therefore, the pounding of Hina‘s bark to make worthy covering for here children, is likened to the pounding of the tattoo, filled with the resin of the same pounded bark. cccxviii Tangaroa-haka ma, Lord of the ocean purifies; or tangata-haka ma, to become a pure man. cccxix Tahi in Rapa Nui is also the scraping of roots and statues. Tahae is a theif, which was Maui stealing the fire of the Underworld and snaring it at the house of the rising sun. cccxx This glyph for Orion, usually Tautohu, may also be Poaka, Rigel. Here it produces Pohi, the ball game, but with Tautoru would produce tauhi, the sprinkling. Perhaps this is the black dye of the Poporo berries being sprinkled onto the cuts from the tattoo. cccxxi Guy (2006). Ibid. cccxxii Tapairu means a princess or queen, a female ariki, fairest, a very sacred ancestor. Also the Octopus as the ariki‘s sacred food. The Myth tells that she became queen and first ancestor with her husband, Toa. Tapairu are little fairies that live in Po (the Polynesian Hades) as evil and in the sky as good. Eke-Tapairu is the Divine Octopus. Possibly there is a contrast between the sacred 8 eyed Maui, the eyes in the sky, the fairies in the sky and the Octopus. The eyes represent enlightenment, as does the top-knot of Taranga‘s hair, where her son, Maui was nourished. Then he was wrapped in thrown into the sea and wrapped in seaweed to be nourished by the ocean fairies. Thus the child, Poi, would be the Poi Taro food fermented as a white ball paste from the Taro root. The white elixor of immortality is commonly associated with the swinging ball offering of incesnse tossed in the fire, or white fermented sap or root used in sacred meal rites. This occurs in ancient Maya and Polynesia. Tarawa means to lay across, as Orion‘s Belt and possibly refering to the belt as the Maui, the life, laying across the Top Knot, the Sacred Hair of Taranga. The Hair is the Seaweed, as the waters have fallen over this sacred hair in Hindu myth. Tara also means the fork in the tree, the spear, as presented in glyph number 3. The meaning draws out Maui as a Star, or the horns – that is Tara, to throw out rays, as Morning Star. This is a net, a snare for catching birds. Maui is the one who noosed the Sun, Tane/Tavake. Taro or Tara is a solemn prayer, and incantation, a sacred rite of cutting hair. cccxxiii In Rapanui, Maungu, is mountain (Rapanui Dictionary), what the brothers of Maui made when they stabbed the fish on Maui‘s mountain. Mountain in Maori, Maunga, has a second syllable related to ngahaehae (torn in strips). Maui represented as bark is torn in stripes to be blended as rope with the topknot of his mother Taranga (see below). The entire image represents the food torn and divided from the Maori oven with the corresponding flame stollen by Maui from the pathway of the Underworld. cccxxiv Ponga/Poha = PO (ball, Orion) + NGA (to breathe/ PO + HA (four) = mythic hero who captured the heart of Princess Puhiou/ seaweed basket. Rimu = Seaweed. Maui is wrapped inside. The top is now open, possibly representing Maui wrapped up tight, possibly with a mouth open to be fed by the sea fairies, as the myth relates. Maui kills the water monster Tuna-roa to use his blood to bring about the red wood of the Rimu tree. Maui is wrapped in the midst of the seaweed. cccxxv The propping up of the sky myth involves the rending apart of Rangi from Papa, the parents of all the gods. The gods wish to separate them in order to allow sunlight to nourish all living things. Tu, Tane, Tangaroa and Rongo wish to separate their parents, but Tawhiri wants them to remain together. Tu-whakaheke-tangata defeating the lord of tempests, Tawhiri, while Tane, Tangaroa and Rongo prop up the sky. Tu is angered by their lack of support and attacks them also. Nuku-tawhiti and Kui the blind, hid in the ground during the great deluge (Tuputupuwhenua – another name for Nuku). Tane, Maui or Tawhaki stole nine of her ten taro. She guides them to the rope of heaven and they heal her blindness. When coming out of the ground death will occur. At Orongo during the beginning of the Egg Hunt, Vega rises to initiate the tattooing ceremony. Vega is called Veri hariu, the great worm. This great worm is Nuku coming out of the ground. Orion has been hide by the sun for seven days in June; the Tangata-manu are being tattooed or carved by the pathways of Nuku (reflected in the caves, see figure in Introduction). There is much singing,

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celebrating enlightenment by these passage rites. The war (tau‘a) against Uenuku is won by the stealing of poporo fruit. These berries are used for the black dye of the tattooing. The war at Rarotonga against Uenuku is lost in the darkness and mist after the killing of his children, the wounding of his youngest, Rongo-ua-roa, and the new birth of Ruatapu at Aotea. Rarotonga is the house of Hine-nui-te-po, hauled up by the hook of Maui as the island for humanity. After Rangi and Papa are separated by Tane mahuta, Tane is defeated by Tawhiri. Rongo and Haumia-tiketike hide in the bossom of papa. Tangaroa also retreats to the sea and he wounds Rangi by piercing his hip through with a spear. Wound, Rangi begets with Papa, the generation of the deformed. Their names are Tane-pepeke, Tane-tuturi, Upoko-nui, Tane-te-wai-ora, etc.. Are these the birds with broken wings, such as, Mu and Weka? They represent the generation of the deformed, the Bird-men swimming until they are enlightened by the first egg. Then they are reported to swim with superhuman speed and rise back to Orongo. Haumia-tikitiki became god of wild roots (fernroot) and Rongo-ma-Tane became god of cultivated roots (yam, sweetpotato). The legends tie in the feasting, tattooing and egg hunt ceremonies, together with the landforms, sacred sites and statues of Rapa Nui. cccxxvi Tangaroa is in one myth, where Maui attempt to steal fire from Tangaroa. Maui wins the battle, kills Tangaroa and takes the fire, later reviving the deity back. Tangata from taha (side) + nga (breath) + ta (tattoo point) = Tangata – man. Tawaka – from side/mouth/reed means parallel ridges as in tattooing. Here we have a man as the reason for tattooing beside the very thin glyph. The purpose of tattooing is like the Easter Island fast. One must be used to eating less to prepare for the inevitable famines that occur in such small habitats. Since, as noted above, the tattooing ritual marks the man or woman for life with their own blood, perhaps the tree that speaks, the Rongorongo tablet, sacred as it is, is a mere sign of the one who must speak with service, honour, pain and the legendary story of their own life. The meaning of the chant is to bring dance and joy to season the solemnness and pain of the tattooing rite. cccxxvii Several of these glyphs state directly or play on a form of facial tattooing. Weroku = to be quenched. Perhaps the previous glyph, Ma, to cleanse or purify, together with wero-tonga produces the knife of tattooing pierces and purifies the person participating in the ceremony of tattooing. Matenga = three, from the three legs, also means thigh, death and numb or pain (matengatenga). A myth states that one is pierced through both thighs or scattered like the stars as shards in a dry riverbed, possibly a play on the pain of tattooing in this chant and this glyph. A myth states that one is pierced through both thighs, possibly a play on the pain of tattooing in this chant and this glyph. But the piercing of the side of Zeus occurred to rescue Dionysus when his mother Selene was killed. And Dionysus was torn apart and reasenmbled like the shards in the dry river of Polynesian myth. Here the stars are gathered in Pleiades, from Sirus or Po, to Tara or Orion to the Life of Maui, or Pleiades. Dionysus is called the Born-Twice – and as Morning Star, the Black-foot have Scarface, Mistaken for Morning Star, when ceremony purifies him. cccxxviii Huhuti = to pull up as a tree out of the ground. Other words associated with pierce are huhu and pu and also point to a boiling up of water. Here it could mean a boiling up of blood from a tattoo piercing. Myth has it that this uprooted tree exposed the hole for Hina to peer through from Heaven. This tree of life represented in this glyph is called, Akaulea, the speaking tree, in a lake with three outlets (as the previous glyph plays on). This speaking tree is a personification of Maui, the Real Tree Centre. This lake is the fourth Heaven, where Hina, the moon bathes in the living water of Tane, Waiora. Waiora is also the term for the space between links of tattooing. Perhaps we see hear a link between the person being tattooed or bathed in ceremonial cleansing and the sacred myths. Hina may not merely have been a person, but a rite of initiation or the first one who took that rite by which the birdmen follow, the prime example – the First Mother. Tattooing, then, is not a mere decoration, it is a sign, a mark, drawn with a personal sacrifice of blood. The mark is permanent, representing a lifelong perseverance through certain rite of passage. Parallels may be the North American Plains Aboriginal Sundance, or the Jewish circumcision rite. Also, the speaking tree, Akaulea, is pierced in the side as Zeus to carry Dionysus. And the three legged myths are common, particularly of the 9 crows that represented 9 of the 10 Suns that were shot down in Chinese myth. The branch of Zeus, then, Dionysus, is considered a third leg, since he is growing from his thigh. cccxxix Iwikau from iwi (bone) + ka (reed) = very thin or a needle. cccxxx The Blackfoot Sun Dance ritual has four days of fasting from food and water. Waiting until the point of death is a universal indigenous sacred rite. And here in Polynesia it is coupled with the tattooing rite. Taringa is to hang, to accompany as Mercury accompanies the Sun. The child of the Topknot, Maui Potiki, is accompanying his Mother (as next glyph signifies), Taraka or Taranga. Raka may also be meant as scratching the parallel furrows in tattooing and digging up the ground, or in case of tattooing little drops of

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blood. The play on the sacred tree may connect in this glyph with a pacific-rim ritual of hanging from a sacred tree suspended by the ankles, also seen in the Finland Edda legends. The ancient Inca did the same as a form of penance. Perhaps the hole on top Rano Raraku was used to place a tree (made of reeds?) where this ceremony took place. This is an Egyptian ritual . Egyptian myth mirrors the Polynesian with a head chopped off that sprouts a tree (Tuna). cccxxxi Taraka or Taranga from ta/taaa (to cut the roots to fell a tree) + raka/rakau (tree) = the Mother of Maui. Here we have the sacred tree not uprooted this time, but felled at the roots. The sacred tree of Hawaiki is where the bread-fruit grows, where the mythological reptile, Moo, tricks the man who then falls. One Polynesian myth states that the dead hang from the pua tree near the sacred lake. Perhaps aluded to here is Rata cutting the tree down with the woodland fairies flying around the tree. Some sacred tree rites include a falling to the ground tied by the ankles. The rope would be tight on impact and the ground softened to reduce injury. Here, may have been a form of fasting to purify oneself from personal faults. Perhaps Rata is felling the tree of the funerary rite of passage through the Underworld to the rising Sun, which he used to gather our bones. As the ―i‖ glyph of the Maya is represented by a bird picking at the eye of a dog. That is, death is captured by the Osiris symbol. Hina pulls the tree up by the roots, the first Mother of Maui, has a miraculous birth with a divine Sun. Since Maui is Divine, she is Immaculate and falls out of Heaven into the sea of people. As Taranga, her Son is cut at the roots. He is killed, but being Divine, he is only divided now between heaven and earth. The top of the tree goes to heaven, with its fruits and the bottom, the roots, stay on earth, hidden as the roots of life, food for those who will become grafted in the vine. cccxxxii Shirres, M. (1996). Ibid. Website. Karakia – the Words of the Ancestors. cccxxxiii In the context of those who lived on Easter Island, it should be no surprise that they chose a nest glyph to name the Earth, since the earth they live on is a mere nest, and they are the birdpeople. The glyph seems to relate their jumping off of the volcano Rano Kao often to their death on this Island Paradise in the distant ocean (Plato). Maui, the deity of life, calls his own Mother, Taraka Oneone, Life‘s Mother Earth. If Maui nooses the Sun, the rope is the hair of his Mother, the rays of the Sun, and he falls over the Earth with her. The glyph relates to this jumping off, like the Birdmen off the volcano, Rano Kao. Plato spoke of an Island Paradise to the East that people lived long and died only by jumping off the cliffs to their death. The ancient priests of Polynesia must have carried on certain ancient traditions that overlap here and there. The mythery religion sages are a possible source to weave this web in history to help sort out the origin of Polynesian lore and migrations. Volcano, as puia, and hi, to stoop, produce puhi, meaning topknot where Maui was nourished by the wisdom of his mother. Hiti or Tahiti also means the Sunrise People. It may also mean, to go to the side of a mountain. Ancient Mediteranean myth speaks of the twin mountains; one of sunrise and one of sunset. To go to the Sunrise Mountain means to become enlightened or eternal. The Underworld cave or laborinth is traveled by the Sun. Only the mirror can protect the soul that ventures there, so the Sun will see its own reflection – just as the Japanese myth plays out. Only the cord can save you there, as in Greek lore. It is the word on the tablets, full of sap, life, blood, it becomes a solid tree, a Human Being, that Fourth Prop Required to anchor the one of the other three, as was needed to climb the cord to heaven in Polynesian myth. The twin mountains are faced by the Ihi twins who sit back to back in the Falling of Hina chapter. One laments the death symbolized in the western mountain of the Sunset, the other anticipates or rejoices the birth and new life of the sunrise of the Eastern Mountain, Tahiti. He is the twin carved in Hawaii with the object in his mouth. This represents the Eating of the God. The disk is the Sun of God, the cave of death is humanity, who when consuming the Sun, then rise to new life. This is Maui‘s Ball Game, the Cathcing of the Sun in the Cat‘s Cradle game, where Maui nooses the Sun. The Ti Tree itself has leaves called, hitau, in which Rata‘s father, Wahieroa, hid the breadfruit to bring this mystical food to Polynesia. From Hitau, along with tau, the word offers rich meaning concernng a perch, nest or resting place for a bird. It also means the season of breadfruit or the place where a god is seen. The roots of this tree were edible and in Eastern Polynesia, the Ti plant had a very sweet stem juice. Whiti means to jump, leap, to traverse a river or a loop. The two kupua hills of Polynesian mythology called, Paliuli (Black Cliffs) and Pali-kea (White Cliffs), clash together just as the twin mountains of Greek mythology. In fact, to the Greeks, the dove‘s tail feather was clipped as it passed as a sign that Odysseus‘ ship could pass. It did so, only loosing a single board, its rudder. The Polynesian myth has the bird Tane loosing its tail feathers through the arch of blue stones in the sky. The Blue Stone represents the High Priest, the arch of feathers represents the Rising Sun – together it is the High Priest that died and rose from the dead. It is also represented by a Peacocks tail, which adds the dimension of several heads amidst a

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central medium/mediator, as the Minora. Consider the peacock tail feather as the pillar with a skull atop and a representation of a lineage of ancestors who have died and whom are prayed for toward an eternal rest or regeneration. The twin mountains each have two pillars, or props of heaven, standing before a central cave or laborinth to the Underworld. This is the path, snake or river of the Sun‘s journey from setting to rising. The blue stones crash together when the sun sets and rises, since the blue sky reappears and disappears everyday. To escape the final judgement represented by the clashing blue stones or mountains one must follow the bird of peace, Tane/Tavake the sacred bird, across the Bright Red Road of Tane. However, we will suffer the loss of our rudder, we cannot be self guided to regeneration, but follow the divine guide as Hina followed Atutahi in heaven. This guide offers a feminine side to the same deity represented by Maui, Rata, Tane and Nganaoa. Each is paralleled with the Sun in some aspect. cccxxxiv Panga from PA (deity of food consumption marked by large stomach) + NGA/GA (breathe) = a riddle. Pagaha‘a = name of a tattoo design on the cheeks. Kupega-hura is a small oval net. Tuku-kupega is a fishing technique with a net. Tuku-huri/Tukuturi = to sit on ones heels. Ka tuku = sit still! Tupatupa from tuku + papa = to carry. Papa from PA/paki, a wing + PA/paki, a wing = to place in a row on a flat surface. Papaga = to order. The net itself appears in the location of sitting on heels and makes sense in terms of the command to sit still while being tattooed. Tattooing is a serious rite of passage that requires the deep meditation that sitting on ones heels might represent. The three birds sit in a row together at while carrying the flame snared in the net. Maui is shapeshifting with the stolen fire to escape from Wahuika, the Fire Goddess. Papapa from PAPA (2 wings) + PA (deity of food consumption) = a calabash container, a net. Papa as the Earth with a flame on it marks the legend of Maui snaring or stealing the fire from the underworld and setting the Earth on fire. (Noosing the Sun, then, and steeling the fire from the Underworld are one in the same mythological event).Tanga from TA/tane (bird deity) + NGA (breathe) = to assemble (as in dashing down a net to gather fish). Perhaps Maui is the bark of the sacred tree, his skin is peeled and wrapped in the topknot of Taranga‘s hair, as in myth and the next glyph, and placed in the sea, mixed with the edible seaweed. The myths may tie into a feast of the Maori oven and the breadfruit tree. On the Canadian West Coast, the sacred boy is placed in the center of a tree, there he dies and is revived. He is also tied to a tree that is burned, the sap runs down and covers his skin, sawing him from the fire, but rendering him stuck. The flacks fall off and are uses with his skin and bread to feed a dying boy who is revived. In Polynesia, the hero is wrapped up by the snake and his brothers burn the house down. The snake perishes and the boy survives inside the charred wrap of the snake. It is a wrapping of his mother‘s sacred hair that is used to toss Maui into the sea after he is born premature (like Dionysus). He is then wrapped up in seaweed, an edible portion, by the sea fairies who feed him. Tama-nui-te-rangi, the divine ancestor canoe, then raises Maui. Therefore, when Maui nooses the Sun, he is taken to the Underworld with that Sun, however, he is revived in the Canoe of the Ancestors and becomes their food and they feed him. cccxxxv Maui-tikitiki-a-Taranga from tikitiki (topknot) + Tane (the bird Tane or Tavake) = Maui placed in the topknot of his mother, Taranga. Notice there is a little flame on this glyph and the next. When Maui stole fire from Mahuika, she chased him through the depth and then he transformed into a hawk and she continued to chase him. Possibly, when his mother, Taranga, hid him in her topknot he had the fire with him. Then she put him in the water represented by the fish with a flame on its tail in the next glyph. Then he turned into the hawk, represented by the bird suit on the fish. There is noticeable contrast between Maui placed in a topknot by his mother into the sea, and the Hebraic story of the mother of Moses placing her son in a reed basket in the river Nile. In both cases, the vegetation is useful to save the child, it is edible and it can be used for writing the word of God – thus to be consumed. cccxxxvi Shirres, M. (1996). Ibid. Website. Traditional Images. cccxxxvii The rei-miro tablet that this chant is on was to be worn by a leading woman in the community. It may well be a teaching resource to learn how to sing, dance, read and write the rongorongo glyphs and legends. Pohiri and Powhiri relate to weaving or spinning thread round and round, to choose and to separate corn from a husk. cccxxxviii Krupa (1971). Ibid. p.2. Krupa suggests Maui as a deity on the tablets providing Barthel‘s character 40 is truly Hina (see the Moon Calendar above). Kaulins, A. (1981). An Astronomical Zodiac in the Script of Easter Island: [Honolulu Tablet B. 3622]. Website: http://www.lexiline.com/lexiline/lexi24.htm. Last updated on March 11, 2004. Kaulins points out the tattoos of this symbol were present on the left cheek

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and left breast, in mid chest and stomach of Rapanui women (p. 21). In defining this glyph from the contextual word for left side, mau/maui, and the word for life across Polyesia, then expanding to Maui, it became possible to decipher the Reimiro tablet. The moon cycle glyphs also worked on this tablet. The ball-game of Maui is represented also in the next glyph, where the Sun Maui, is playing with the ball of the Earth. The trickster uses this irony to meet with us at a purely human level, the emotional, the hidden and mysterious side of us that we would only trust to our One True Creator. cccxxxix Felbermayer, Fritz. Lieder Und Verse der Oster-Insel // Zeitschrift fur Ethnologie, Band 97 cccxl Campbell, R.. Cantos 14. P. 146. cccxli Campbell, R.. Cantos 16: Te Reva Rapanui – The Bannar of Rapanui. cccxlii Maui itself comes from Mau – to carry. In one myth, Maui carries up White Island after getting burned on the shoulders by this volcano. The Greek Atlas is paralleled here, more than likely, by those who knew the Greek story. Looking at the nest glyph above, consider Maui as the Sun about to rise upon the Eastern Tahiti Mountain. This nest also compares with a girdle, making Maui the Breadfruit of Wahieroa‘s loins, proving Maui the one and same as Rata, the fruit of Wahieroa‘s Loins. To eat the god is thus implied, since Wahieroa brought the Breadfruit in his loins to feed the Maori. Rata spoke of the deity, Ngangaoa, stuck inside the calabash, freed by Rata on the condition he protect the Sacred Canoe from water monsters. In doing so, he saved Rata‘s parents from the mouth of a whale. This not only suggests the Ngangaoa is just another aspect of Maui, but that the Bark of Egyptian myth, which needs protection in the Underworld, is intendedly one and the same Canoe of Rata and Tamarereti – the Canoe of Stars of the Ancestors. cccxliii Inaika from Hina (possibly a moon sliver inside the fish) + ika (the fish) = Hina the fish and sister of Maui. Maui and the fish may be Ika-a-Maui for the fish of Maui, referring to an Island that he raised up with his jaw as a fishhook. cccxliv The use of wa as the first syllable could come from a load in a canoe, but fits elsewhere as a maori oven glyph. This is another brother of Maui (see conclusion). cccxlv Guy, J. B. M. (1985). On a Fragment of the ‗Tahua‘ Tablet. The Journal of the Polynesian Society. Vol. 94. No. 4. Pp. 367-388. cccxlvi Guy (1985). Ibid. P. 367. cccxlvii Guy (1985). Ibid. P. 379. cccxlviii Tuwaerore – mother of trees (Rimu, Kahikatea and tanehaha) by Tane. The Rimu is red inside and myth has it absorb the blood of Tuna-roa, killed by Maui. Tutuwaewae, Ku-ula (Tu-ura), Ku-kau-akahi (Tu-tau-atahi: Tu stands alone) are names of the deity. cccxlix In early Polynesia there is a legend of Tua-nui-te-ra (Tregear. 1891. Tuanui) who travelled with captain Turi in the Aotea canoe from the ancient ancestral homeland of Hawaiki to New Zealand. Tua-nui was thrown overboard for disobeying Turi, the leading Chief of the migration canoe. When they reached the new land, they recognized the footprints of Tuanui who had one foot deformed. This legend appears to confirm the translation of Tua-nui-te-ra due to one foot of the glyph appearing deformed. The philosophy regards Tua as the one who, though he transgressed, arrived at the new land first because he was willing to carry the flame of enlightenment. Such a use of mythology to emphasize this sacred writing system is verified throughout the translation of these tablets. cccl Guy offers that the heads of glyph 200 and 300 are plausible free variants along with glyph 445 in relation to 695 (Guy. 1985. P. 380). These glyphs appear as free variants as is the case with glyphs that occur in like chants across the Grand Tradition of Text H, P, Q and A. Variance in the naming of the deity Tu and/or in the placing of a variety of deities or deified ancestors is the plausibly purpose for the open or free variance in these glyphs. cccli These chips of Tane are also called the Ribs of Tane. Such wood chips as they fly, serve as great fuel, since they are saturated with sap, which burns like oil. A rib of Tane, then, may be alluded to as Iva or Hina. The wing used to fish up land by Maui, then, relates to Tane and Hina. Also, Hawaiki from hawa, (chipped or broken) + iki (to pull up…a fish). Hiki, means to fly, to lift up as a child in arms. Again the Easter Island tablet is revealing a sources of ancient Polynesian lore that opens up a new window of history in the region. ccclii Shirres (1996). Ibid. Website: Maori Theology. cccliii Shirres (1996). Ibid. Website: Maori Theology. cccliv Rata is dismantling the tree without permission. Perhaps his father comes from the tree – therein rest his fathers bones, carried to the underworld. Rata is just the branch. He must learn the chant of the

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woodland fairies to give the proper homage. As the branch he must not consider himself cut off, orphaned, for in the realm of the fairy spirits (the birdmen), Rata is part of the spiritual tree as are all people. If you cut this tree to make a canoe, you must know that it is a mediator, a reminder of your connection to the land of your ancestors. They are ascending and descending the tree that reaches heaven. In Text Q, Rata is a mere chip, a rib of Tane, the wing of Tane as bate for the Underworld Taniwha. He is a Rib of the First Man, Tiki, and First Woman, Hina. ccclv Wolfe (1945). Ibid. 30. Thomson, W. J. (1889). Te pito te henua or Easter Island. Smithsonian Report. Pp. 447-552. ccclvi Here lie the bones of Wahieroa, these bones are the pathway of the canoe. The canoe and bones are a pathway, a medium to the heavens. Stand the canoe erect and as it rots stand a stone in its place as an eternal pathway to heaven. So goes the chant: E ara rakau e! E ara rakau e! E ara inano e. E kopukopu te tini o kupolu. E matakitaki, kareko! Oo. (see above). The ancestors bones, that is, the spiritual pathway bears a considerable likeness to the Hebrew legend of Jacobs ladder. Not the Jacob‘s ladder of contemporary philosophy that is used by an individual to find their own way to heaven, but the ladder where heaven itself was sending its messengers ascending and descending possibly with the gifts of the resurrection banquet (our own flesh and the feast). The tree must be restored from the top down. Indigenous cultures would expect such influence from the Creator and all expressions of that spiritual Life Force or mana, where Western thought has to wrestle with letting go of control to perceive the healing power the Great Spirit longs to work in our waning ecosystems. ccclvii Shirres (1996). Ibid. Website: The Karakia for the canoe. Shirres also includes Tuuaatuaa i te orooro which is a karakia with fragments of the canoe of Rata chant indicated here in boldface: He hohou rongo. Tuuaatuuaa. I te orooro, i te oromea, i tukituki ai koe, i taitaia ai koe, oi kiri Tangaroa. Tere te nuku nei, tere angaia. Tuutaria ki tenei maanuka, tuutaria ki teenei ngahoa. Kaapiti hono. Purua too taringa kia turi, kia hoi. Kei whakarongo koe ki te koorero iti. Ko te koorero iti, ko tahu-huna ko tahu-rere, ko te hauaitu. Rere mai te maramara (Fly chips together to renew the tree Rata felled inappropriately with this karakia incantation) koi hopiri, koi hotau. Rere mai te mangamanga, koi hopiri, koi hotau. Torotika! E tuu te maota, hee! Tuutakina i te iwi. Tuutakina i te toto. Tuutakina i te kiko. Tuutakina i te uaua. Tuutakina kia uu. Tuutakina kia mau. Teenei te rangi ka tuutaki. Teenei te rangi ka ruruku. Teenei te papa ka wheuka. E Rangi e, awhitia. E papa e, awhitia. Naau ka awhi, ka awhi. Naau ka aaka, ka aaka. Naau ka toro, ka toro. Tupu he toka whenua, tupu he toka Mata-te-raa. Na wai i hoomai? Na te pakanga i hoomai. Na te riri i hoomai. Na ngaa taangata i hoomai. I hoomai ki a wai? I hoomai ki te kikokiko. Kei te kikokiko, kei te tini honohono, he manawa ka irihia nei e Tuu-matauwenga. E Tuu-ka-riri, e Tuu-kanguha, e Tuu-ka-aaritarita! E tuu i te korikori, e tuu i te whetaa (waving and brandishing, standing firm in the waves, standing firm in the brandishing – reference to feeding the hau warparty rite), e tuu i te whaiao, e tuu i te ao maarama. Ko maiea. Maiea ngaa atua. Maiea ngaa patu. Maiea ngaa taangata. Ko maiea. He Hohou Rongo. Tuatua i te orooro i te oromea i tukitukia ai koe i aitaia ai koe Ooi Kiritangaroa: tere te nuku nei tere angaia tutaria ki tenei manuka, Tutaria ki teenei ngahoa kapiti hono. Purua to taringa kia turi kia hoi kei whakarongo koe ki te korero iti ko te korero iti ko tahu-hunu ko tahu-rere ko te hau-aitu. Rere mai te maramara koiho piri koiho tau, rere mai te mangamanga, koi ho piri, koi ho tau torotiki e tu te maota hee; - tutakina i te iwi, tutakina i te toto tutakina i te Kiko tutakina i te uaua tutakina kia uu tutakina kia mau tenei te rangi ka tutaki tenei te rangi ka tutaki tenei te rangi ka ruruku tenei te Papa ka weuka (on of the many patterns). E rangi e awitiia nau kawi kawi nau ka aka ka aka nau ka toro ka toro, tupu he toka wenua tupu he toka mata-tera. na wai i ho mai na te Pakanga i ho mai, na te riri i ho mai, na nga tangata i ho mai, i ho mai kia wai i ho mai ki te kikokiko kei te kikokiko kei te tini honohono he manawa ka irihia nei e Tuu-matau wenga. E Tuukariri e Tuukanguha e tuu karitarita e tu i te korikori e tu i te wetaa e tu i te waiao e tu i te Aomarama ko mai ea, maiea nga atua, maiea nga patu, maiea nga tangata Ko Maieea. ccclviii Taylor, R. (1855). Te Ika a Maui, on New Zealand and its Inhabitants. Wertheim & Macintoch. ccclix Shirres (1996). Ibid. Website: The Introductory Rite – the Setting Up of the Rods. ccclx Shirres (1996). Ibid. Website: Haapai ake au i taku – a karakia for the canoe. ccclxi Shirres (1996). Ibid. Website: The Karakia for the canoe. ccclxii The use of these glyphs from Text H, P and Q may be related to the previous text, as these glyphs are taken from the middle of the tablet. However, Text A bears glyph 1 as ‗ngata‘ – desire from NGA, breathe + TA/taha, side = human (possibly Tangaroa – deity of the sea and spouse of Hina). Then there is a dash

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attaching this glyph to Hine. Possibly, these first two glyphs of Text A are an abbreviation of a much larger beginning of the Rata story. ccclxiii Ihiihi/toko/tara, rays of the Sun (Tregear. 1891.). Rangi-tokano – a Moriori deity who pushes his father, Rangi apart from his mother. Rahi: great, broad – as in broad pathway for the canoe. Myth: Rahirahinga – temples of the forehead where hanging down from deity (rays of Sun). Rangi-whakanohinohi – the highest heaven. ccclxiv New Zealand‘s Maori rely on their deceased ancestors as spirit mediums to protect their land through the conduit of a canoe grave marker stood on end, called a ‗Standing Up Rod.‘ This is how this chant can be understood as a funerary chant to offer spiritual power to the dead. Here lie the bones of Wahieroa, these bones are the pathway of the canoe. The canoe and bones are a pathway, a medium to the heavens. Stand the canoe erect and as it rots stand a stone in its place as an eternal pathway to heaven. So goes the chant: E ara rakau e! E ara rakau e! E ara inano e. E kopukopu te tini o kupolu. E matakitaki, kareko! Oo. (see above). The ancestors‘ bones, that is, the spiritual pathway bears a considerable likeness to the Hebrew legend of Jacobs ladder. They, the birdmen, are carrying the first egg, the recipe of new life. In merely one tenth of the verses we find a representation of the depths and heights of any funerary prayer. This leads to an inquiry about the use of minimalism in viewing non-Western philosophy and spirituality during colonial expansion. What are the ancient Indigenous sages ready to teach us if we open our eye, ears and hearts? ccclxv An implement for digging, if in water, then possibly a paddle. The idea of breaking the waves, of rising and falling as a team of rowers is apparent in these past two glyphs. Koko also means rotten. Combined with the next glyph, here are the rotten bones of Wahieroa. Such a comment should instil a just anger in Rata‘s company of warriors. If they love Wahieroa, then their resolve to avenge him would be like flint. It is as if the rotten bones that fell from the sky and turned into stone are a heavenly call and permanent reminder. Koko is also a pendent for the ear, which may lead us to the actual appearance of the glyph. The glyph may be the noose used by Rata around Matuku. A related word is Kohuhu, well spring, which may be the fountain which Matuku was leaning into when caught in the noose. The stones of Wahieroa, heated with vengeance could be the kohu maori oven which cooks the kohurangi (a bread-like food plant). Where are the fish for this canoe casting ceremony? Kohuhu also means slipknot. It was such a slipknot used by Kahukura (the Rainbow deity) to ‗free‘ the fish from the fairies. Legend states that Rainbow‘s slipknot freed the fish long enough to stall the fairies until sunrise. Then they noticed Kahukura and fled, leaving him with their fish and fish net. Here is the source of Polynesian fish net technology. Is this kohuhu slipknot, where the fish are freed, not the same kohuhu fountain on the ocean floor where all fish are born? Possibly, they are born when Rata (Laka) the table of the ocean floor breaks and releases them. Here is where Moari‘s fishhook descends to catch the largest fish and source of land and life for humanity. Rangiriri is the fountain on the ocean floor producing all fish (Tregear. 1891. Rangiriri). At this well spring, Rata's enemy that killed his father stuck his head and there Rata noosed him. (Thus Rata is an aspect of Maui who noosed the Sun in the well of the Underworld). This Sacred Well is the hole where the Sun rises to Rangi, the Sky. Harihari – from Ha, breath and ri (ringa), hand or arm – a song to pull rowers together. Notice the word for canoe in the related chant is rakau. The trees are indeed the canoe, which is the erected pathway of the bones, or the medium of the ancestors. Consider the birds of Kupolu and the similar Polynesian words kupu, meaning head or well, kupenga, meaning net and upurangi, meaning the source of a stream. Here is a link between the fairies that build Rata‘s canoe and the fairies that give Kahukaru the net. When Maui stole the fire he escaped as a fish and then turned into the birds. Hina also fell and swam then rose up again to the full moon. Here are the first examples of our spiritual evolution. We are fish through our baptism – as the Polynesian children received. Then we also become the birdmen when we leap from our Island nest. Birdmen build the canoe to fly through this pathway, or medium to the heavens. Hapainga – from Hapai, to raise up. Rangi's morning rays, or supports of enlightenment are the cause of our singing. The song is an powerful incantation that releases the deceased from the Underworld, thus retreaving their bones. Rata is called upon as a medium of the canoe. The Easter Islanders are giving this canoe to him. Therefore, it can be used as a medium to receive his influence. Who is Rata? In parallel Polynesian myth, Rata, or in this case Lata, is the table at the ocean floor, the Table of Laka. Perhaps Rata (Laka), combined with his underworld title, Raro, represents all those who together with their ancestors must bend their knee to death, as if stuck as a table on the ocean floor. Maui breaks this table and draws up the great fish, Pimoe, and in another legend, he draws up land for humans to thrive. I would suggest this myth represents death in the

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depths and eternal life on land brought to us from on high. When the birdmen, or fairies, see or recognize Rata at the rising of the Sun, they scatter. That is, as the human enlightened ones, they recognize the divine at the judgement and are sensitive to their own unworthiness. They scatter from their own meal of fish when faced with the table of Rata. Rata then uses their own net to capture fish before the river runs dry at the last day. The mythology speaks of this when it tells of the constellation Pleiades that hides in the River but is smashed and scattered when the river runs dry. The fairies that scatter is the Pleiades constellation. But in the end they are gathered again and become like the Sun that exposed them. World mythology speaks of this spiritual battle between the birds and the fish, the Yin and the Yang, the elect and the unwise and it speaks of the assembling of the enlightened ones, the stars into the Pleiades or Moon to restore the Second Eye of the Cosmos to the Brightness of the Sun. Here we are not reminded of an unbalanced merely transcendent God, rather there is also a certain immanense among us that these priests of old bear with a mystical, wonderful and strikingly enlightening witness. ccclxvi The Underworld powerful Ru was then tossed up by Maui and stuck on the belly of the sky where he rotted. His bones fell and as the stones across the land, represented perhaps by the Easter Island moai and akin to the Setting Up of Rods and Pure rituals. This canoe is the pathway of Tane that the Woodland fairies carried suspended in the air on a pathway to the sea. The Moai of Easter Island are the pathway of the ancestors. ccclxvii Tarara – T, Tu and ara, path and ra, sun – proclaim. Also, Tarara is an invocation (harangua) at a ceremonial dance. Tuara means to assist and Tararahia is a large kind of eel. It was the giant eel or serpent that entered Rata‘s canoe and was destroyed. Egypt marks the serpent as the first Eye of Ra, the all seeing judge. ccclxviii Fischer (1997). Ibid. Pp. 611, 615. Fischer describes the fusing of glyphs as confirming a reading of the glyphs from the bottom up. Taken a step further, variable glyph fusing demonstrates the use of syllables within the rongorongo. ccclxix Tregear, E. (1891). Moari-Polynesian Comparative Dictionary. London: Lyon and Blair, Lambton Quay. Easter Island linguistics involves a dialectic bridge to the broader Polynesian island groups, such as, the Moari, Hawaii, Tahiti, etc.. ccclxx The Rapanui-English Dictionary. Website: http://www.rongorongo.org/vanaga/a.html The moriori carved images on their trees similar to those found on the tablets of Rapanui. ccclxxii Barthel, T. (1974). The Eigth Land, the Polynesian Discovery and Settlement of Easter Island. Honolulu: Press of Hawaii. Martin, A. (Trans. from German). Englert, S. (1970). Island at the Centre of the World. Mulloy, W. (Trans. & Ed.). New York: Charles Scribner‘s Sons. Krupa, V. (1971). ‗Moon‘ in the Writing of Easter Island. Oceanic Linguistics 10 (1). Pp. 1-10. Guy, J.B.M. (1990). ‗On the Lunar Calendar of Tablet Mamari‘. Journal de la Société des Océanistes 91:2. 135-186. doi:10.3406/jso.1990.2882. http://www.netaxs.com/~trance/mamari.html. Berthin, G. G. & Berthin, M. E. (2006). Astronomical Unity and Poetic Metaphor in the Rongorongo Lunar Calendar. Applied Semiotics 8: 18. 85-98. ccclxxiii Métraux, A. (1940). Ethnology of Easter Island. Bernice P. Bishop Musuem Bulliten 160. ccclxxiv As much as 20% of the syllables and the rongorongo corpus is deciphered. After reaching these interpretations (open for unbiased and serious criticism), the author estimates 90% of the corpus will eventually be understood as this mythical broader Polynesian methodology unfolds. As well, the approach to understand the corpus from an Indigenous World-view sheds light on a greater understanding of the context of ancient Mayan and ancient Egyption, which are currently 90% deciphered. Such a development of Indigenous literary context across the disciplines presents itself as a platform for intercultural dialogue essential for further developing a tried and true foundation from Indigenous philosophy towards ecological responsibility across the globe. Keeping in mind, as great as restoring our Earth would be, it is just as great to give those who are marginalized a voice. Indignous voices have expressed that inroads in facing such monumental tasks present themselves from time to time with signs and portents the Creator provides to enable a timely and necessary Shift or Great Turning in human history. To reach this cross-roads you will hear the lamenting pipes of a little one clearly signing in tune a dirge of devotion and the final inquiry, ―Will you also not dance?‖ ccclxxv Alfred Métraux. 1940. Ethnology of Easter Island. Bernice P. Bishop Museum – Bulletin 160. Honolulu. (Reprinted 1971)

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