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Date assigned:______________ Precalculus | Packer Collegiate Institute

Band:________

Sum and Difference Angles Formulae for Sine and Cosine Warm Up: 1. Using only addition and subtraction, can you use the numbers 0, 30, 45, 60, and 90 to form the following numbers? (You may use any number more than once. You do not have to use all numbers.) (a) 15 (b) 75 (c) 40

2. The function sin(θ ) is EVEN / ODD. Because of that, we can conclude that sin(−θ ) = ____________ . The function cos(θ ) is EVEN / ODD. Because of that, we can conclude that cos(−θ ) = ____________ .

3. Evaluate (a) sin

π π cos 3 4

(b) sin

π π cos − 3 4

4. Is the following true? (Check on your calculator) sin

7π 1 = 12 4

(

2+ 6

)

YES / NO

5. If sin α = −

4 and that α is in Quadrant IV, find the value of cos α and tan α exactly. 5

[Hint: We’ve done this before, though you may have forgotten it. Draw a picture!]

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Section 1: Giving You the Sum of Angles Formulae for Sine and Cosine Right now, I’m going to give you the sum and difference angle formulas for sine and cosine, however, we will prove them shortly. Given any two angles α and β [Greek letters pronounced “alpha” and “beta”]:

**sin(α + β ) sin(α ) cos( β ) + cos(α ) sin( β ) =
**

cos(α + β ) cos(α ) cos( β ) − sin(α ) sin( β ) =

Notice the sign change in the formula for cosine! They seem like they may be out of the blue, but they actually work and are true. See for yourself! Problems: Work these out using the sum of angles formula, and then check to see if it works on your calculator!

**sin(75o ) sin(____ + ____) = =
**

7π cos 12 = cos(____ + ____= )

Section 2: Working out the Difference of Angles Formulae for Sine and Cosine If you know the sum of angles formulae, you can derive the difference of angles formulae. Subtraction is just secretly addition of a negative number, right?

sin(α = sin((α ) + (− β )) − β)

cos(α= cos((α ) + (− β )) − β)

So go to it! Find the Difference of Angles Formulae for Sine and Cosine!

sin(α − β ) =

cos(α − β ) =

` 2

So there you go! You now have all the formulae together!

**= sin(α ± β ) sin(α ) cos( β ) ± cos(α ) sin( β )
**

cos(α ± β ) = α ) cos( β ) sin(α ) sin( β ) cos(

Problems: Work these out using the difference of angles formula, and then check to see if it works on your calculator!

**sin(15o ) sin(____ − ____) = =
**

π cos = cos(____ − ____= ) 12

Section 3: Seeing These Formulae in Action! 1. (a) Apply the difference of angles formula to cos 90o − θ

(

)

(b) Apply the difference of angles formula to sin 90o − θ

(

)

(c) What trig identity have you just proved?

2. Find the value of sin(85o ) cos(25o ) − cos(85o ) sin(25o ) exactly.

3. If we know sin α = of: (a) cos α

**2 4 and lies in Quadrant II, and sin β = − and lies in Quadrant III, find the exact values 5 5
**

(b) cos β (c) cos(α + β ) (d) cos(α − β )

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4. Establish the identity: = cot α cot β + 1

cos(α − β ) sin α sin β

5. Find tan(15o ) exactly (hint: See the problems in Section 2)

Home Enjoyment: Section 7.4 # 2, 10, 12, 13, 15, 17, 21, 24, 30, 31*, 32* [for *, do not do part (d)]

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Name:_______________________

Date assigned:______________ Precalculus | Packer Collegiate Institute Sum and Difference Angles Formulae for Tangent

Band:________

Warm Up: 6. Prove cos(α − β ) cos(α + β ) cos 2 α − sin 2 β =

7. Find tan(15o ) exactly

Section 1: We are going to prove the sum of angles formulae for sine and cosine! [Class Activity] Section 2: Sum and Difference Angle Formulae for Tangent 1. Prove that tan(α + β ) =

tan α + tan β 1 − tan α tan β

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2. Prove that tan(α − β ) =

tan α − tan β 1 + tan α tan β

3. We know that the basic tangent graph has a period of π , so tan(θ + π ) = (θ ) . We know this graphically and tan conceptually. Now prove it algebraically.

Home Enjoyment: Section 7.4#12, 15, 18, 20, 26, 35, 57, 61, 62, 63, 67, 70, 72*, 73*, 77* [*: see Example 9]

` 6

Name:_______________________

Date assigned:______________ Precalculus | Packer Collegiate Institute Double and Half Angle Trig Formulae

Band:________

Warm Up: 1 1. Find an alternative expression for sin(2θ )

2. Find an alternative expression for cos(2θ )

3. Find an alternative expression for tan(2θ )

Section 1: Okay, you did it already… double angle formulae are just a consequence of the sum of angles formulae! Okay, so you actually already just found the double angle trig formulae! Yay! Let’s just do a little more work with them… 1. Can you show that cos(2θ ) = 1 − 2 sin 2 (θ ) and = 2 cos 2 (θ ) − 1 ? cos(2θ )

1

`

Do not read this hint unless you get really stuck… don’t read past this… don’t read past this… okay, if you really want to know… 2*theta is the same as theta+theta

7

**2. (a) What is the period of cos(2θ ) ? (b) What is the period of sin 2 (θ ) ? [Graph to see!]
**

y 1 x −3π 2 −π −π 2 −1 π 2 π 3π 2

(c) Let’s consider that what you graphed, sin 2 (θ ) , is a parent function. What graphical transformations does it undergo when you try to graph 1 − 2sin 2 θ ? (List the transformations in the order they should be performed)

**(d) Okay, now graph y = 1 − 2sin 2 θ . Does it look like what you expected?
**

y 1 x −3π 2 −π −π 2 −1 π 2 π 3π 2

3. (a) Without any of this fancy mumbojumbo, go back to our basic trigonometry and the unit circle. What is

cos(120o ) ?

(b) Now use the double angle formula to calculate cos(2 ⋅ 60o )

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**Section 2: Half-Angle Formulae
**

2 1. Use cos ( 2θ ) = 1 − 2 sin (θ ) to somehow prove: sin

1 − cos α α =± 2 2

2 cos ( 2θ ) 2. = 2 cos (θ ) − 1 to somehow prove: cos

1 + cos α α =± 2 2

3. Prove tan

1 − cos α α =± 1 + cos α 2

4. How do we determine the plus or minus?!?!?! Well, we have to see what quadrant the angle is in, and use ASTC to determine whether it is positive or negative… Like we always have done. (a) Find sin(165o ) using the half angle formula.

(b) Find sin(22.5o ) using the half angle formula.

(c) Find tan `

7π using the half angle formula. 8

9

Home Enjoyment: Section 7.5# 7, 8, 12, 19, 20, 22, 23, 25, 28, 43, 47, 48, 53, 56, 57, 86

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Name:_______________________

Date assigned:______________ Precalculus | Packer Collegiate Institute Solving Trig Equations, Part I

Band:________

Warm Up: 1. Write all the solutions to 2. Write all the solutions to sin(θ ) = −1 [in radians] 3. Write all the solutions to

sin(θ ) =

1 [in radians] 2

sin(θ ) = −

4 3

[in radians]

4. In radians, what are the periods of:

sin( x)

csc( x)

cos( x)

sec( x)

tan( x)

cot( x)

5. If we were only concerned with 0 ≤ θ < 2π , how many solutions would the following equations have: (a) sin(θ ) =

1 2

(b) sin(3θ ) =

1 2

(c) sin(7θ ) =

1 2

6. When graphed on 0 ≤ θ < 2π , how many periods do the following functions go through? (a) sin(θ ) (b) sin(3θ ) (c) sin(7θ )

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7. On your calculators in radian mode, graph the following functions on the window [0,2pi]x[-1.5,1.5]. How many solutions are there? 2 (a)

y1 = sin( x) y 2 = 1/ 2

_____ solutions

(b)

y1 = sin(3 x) y 2 = 1/ 2

_____ solutions

(c)

y1 = sin(7 x) y 2 = 1/ 2

_____ solutions

Section 1: Mixing Things Together My suggestion to solving trig equations like 2 sin(2θ +

π

3

) + 3 = θ < 2π is to use the “square substitution 0 on 0 ≤

method.” Rewrite the equation to look like 2 sin() + 3 = solve for all that satisfy the equation. 0 and

sin() = −

=

Now we replace with 2θ +

3 2

4π 5π = + 2π k (where k ∈ ) + 2π k and 3 3

π

3

2θ +

π

3

=

4π π 5π + 2π k and 2θ + = + 2π k 3 3 3 4π + 2π k 3 2π +πk 3

2θ= π + 2π k and 2θ =

θ =

π

2

θ + π k and=

But the original statement of the problem says we only care about 0 ≤ θ < 2π . Thus we know that:

π π 2π 2π θ = +π, , , +π

2 2 3 3

or in simplified form: θ =

π 3π 2π 5π

2 , 2 , 3 , 3

.

2

Estimate (without graphing) how many solutions

sin( 19θ ) =

1 2

has on

0 ≤ θ < 2π

. Then graph to find out if you were right.

Estimate:_____ True Value: _____. Clearly the number of solutions of the equation is based on the coefficient of funsies/for the math science journal, can you come up with a general formula for the number of solutions of number

**θ . As a possible extension/investigation for
**

1 2

on

sin(aθ ) =

0 ≤ θ < 2π

, based on the

a?

12

`

Another example problem is to solve tan 2 (2θ ) = 1 for (a) all values of θ , and for (b) 0 ≤ θ < 2π . Again, we use the “square substitution method”:

**tan 2 () = 1 tan() = 1 or tan() = −1 3π π = k or = π k for k ∈ [recall the period of tangent is π , not 2π ] +π + 4 4 3π π 2θ = or 2θ = k +πk +π 4 4 π π 3π π θ = k or θ = k + + 8 2 8 2
**

Thus, we have our solution for part (a). Now for our solution to part (b):

θ=

π π

8 8 ,

+

π π

2 8 ,

+π,

π

8

+

3π 3π 3π π 3π 3π 3π , , + , +π, + 2 8 8 2 8 8 2

or in simplified form:

θ=

**π 5π 9π 13π 3π 7π 11π 15π
**

8 , 8 , 8 , 8 , 8 , 8 , 8 , 8

Problems: Solve each equation on the interval 0 ≤ θ < 2π 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

2sin θ + 3 = [Sullivan 7.7 #7] 2 2 4 cos θ = 1 [Sullivan 7.7 #9] 1 tan 2 θ = [Sullivan 7.7 #10] 3 2 4 cos θ − 3 = [Sullivan 7.7 #12] 0 sin(3θ ) = −1 [Sullivan 7.7 #13]

**θ tan = 3 [Sullivan 7.7 #14] 2 3θ 7. sec = −2 [Sullivan 7.7 #17] 2
**

8. 9.

2θ cot 3

= − 3 [Sullivan 7.7 #18]

sin(3θ +

π

18

)= 1 [Sullivan 7.7 #28]

10. tan

θ π + = 1 [Sullivan 7.7 #29] 2 3

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Name:_______________________

Date assigned:______________ Precalculus | Packer Collegiate Institute Solving Trig Equations, Part II

Band:________

Warm Up/Section 1: Quadratic Trig Equations Solve the following in radians. 1. Solve (calculator permitted): tan(θ ) = 5

2. Solve all possible solutions by factoring (you may use your calculator on part (d): (a) 2 −4−5 = 0 (b) cos 2 θ − 4 cos θ − 5 = 0

(c) cos 2 (3θ ) − 4 cos(3θ ) − 5 = 0

(d) tan 2 θ − 4 tan θ − 5 = 0

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3.

Solve 3 cos θ + 3 =sin 2 θ for 0 ≤ θ < 2π 2

4. Solve cos(2θ ) + 3 =cos θ for 0 ≤ θ < 2π 5

5. Solve cos 2 θ + sin θ = 0 ≤ θ < 2π 2 for

` 15

Section 2: Solving Trig Equations using Trig Identities 1. (a) Does sin θ cos θ look like it reminds you of some identity? Hopefully yes! Write the identity here: ______________________________________ (b) Solve sin θ cos θ = −

1 for 0 ≤ θ < 2π 2

2. Solve sin θ + cos θ =0 ≤ θ < 2π . 1 for Hint: Try messing around for 3 or 4 minutes. If you are still stuck, look at the hint below. 3

3

Here’s a hint… Square both sides of the original statement. Do you see what nice thing will happen? However, you have to be

careful squaring things! Recall if we have the equality same thing?

**a = 2 , and we square both sides, we get a 2 = 4 . Are the two equalities the
**

16

`

Section 3: Problems Many of the problems above are example problems in Section 7-8 of Sullivan. If you need to review the solutions, you may look there! 1. Find all solutions to sin 2 θ − sin θ − 1 = to the nearest tenth degree . If you need a hint, look at the footnote. 4 0

2. Use your calculators to estimate the solution(s) rounded to the tenth radian: 5sin θ + θ = 3

Sullivan Section 7-8#5, 8, 11, 12, 16, 17, 23, 26, 29, 35, 41, 47, 53, 54

4

`

This is not factorable. Le sigh. What’s another surefire way to find the solution(s) to a quadratic?

17

Name:_______________________

Date assigned:______________ Precalculus | Packer Collegiate Institute Thinking about Trig Equations (Conceptually)

Band:________

What I noticed in previous classes is that sometimes you were missing solutions. So to warm up, we’re going to decide how many solutions we ought to have, when we have a restricted domain. The trick to this is to quickly imagine the problem graphically! We are going to estimate the solutions to the trig equations on 0 ≤ θ < 2π (a) In your mind, imagine what you’d graph to solve sin(θ ) = 0.5 . How many solutions are there are on 0 ≤ θ < 2π ? (b) In your mind, imagine what you’d graph to solve sin(2θ ) = 0.5 . How many solutions are there are on 0 ≤ θ < 2π ? (c) In your mind, imagine what you’d graph to solve sin(7θ ) = 0.5 . How many solutions are there are on 0 ≤ θ < 2π ?

(d) In your mind, imagine what you’d graph to solve sin(9θ ) = −1 . How many solutions are there are on 0 ≤ θ < 2π ?

(e) In your mind, imagine what you’d graph to solve tan(θ ) = −3 . How many solutions are there are on 0 ≤ θ < 2π ?

(f) In your mind, imagine what you’d graph to solve tan(4θ ) = −3 . How many solutions are there are on 0 ≤ θ < 2π ?

(g) A slight change of pace. Take the first step to alter cos 2 (θ ) = 0.5 into two equations.

(h) Take the first step to alter cos 2 (2θ ) = 0.5 into two equations.

(i) How many solutions does cos 2 (5θ ) = −0.5 have on 0 ≤ θ < 2π ?

How many solutions are there to cos 2 (θ ) = 0.5 on 0 ≤ θ < 2π ?

How many solutions are there to cos 2 (2θ ) = 0.5 on 0 ≤ θ < 2π ?

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