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Coconut Milk’s Fat Breaking by Means of Ultrasound
Siti J. Iswarin and Beni Permadi
Abstract—The effects of ultrasound on coconut milk homogenization were studied. An ultrasonic generator was used to homogenize 100 mL of coconut juice with certain energy levels and exposure times. All samples were analyzed under microscope at 1000× magnification to determine the diameters of fat globules. It was found that ultrasonic treatment with high power level has an important effect on coconut milk homogenization and is an effective technique for the reduction of the fat globule size. Effect of reduction represents the symptom of cavitations phenomenon. Index Terms—Coconut milk, fat globules, homogenization, ultrasound.
with cow’s milk, coconut milk is economically feasible to replace cow’s milk in countries like Indonesia where it is rare [7,10]. In this paper we report our study on the homogenization processes of coconut milk using ultrasound. II. THEORETICAL BACKGROUND A. Oils and Fats Oils and fats are important to our body and are used to supply energy. Edible fats are originated from plants (also known as vegetable oils) and animals. The difference between animal and vegetable fats is that animal fats contain cholesterols while vegetable oils contain phytosterols. Another difference is the lower unsaturated fatty acids content in animal fats than those in vegetable oils. Based on their sources, oils and fats can be classified as : 1. Plant sources: a) seeds: corn oils, soy oils, peanut oils, sesame seed oils, etc. b) annual fruit meat and skin: olive oils and palm oils. c) annual plant seeds: coconut oils, cocoa butter, cohune, etc. 2. Animal sources: a) milk: milk fats. b) meat: lards, cow’s fats and their derivatives, oleo oil from oleo stock, swine tallow, and mutton tallow. c) fish: sardine oils, cod oils, whale blubber, etc. Chemically, oils and fats are composed of fatty acids and glycerol called triglycerides. Fats may be either solid or liquid at room temperature. The word “fats” is usually used to refer to fats that are solids at normal room temperature, while “oils” refers to fats that are liquids at normal room temperature. B. Physicochemical Properties of Oils and Fats Physical Characteristics There are 13 physical characteristics that can be used to classify oils and fats. They are: color, odor, flavor, solubility, melting point and polymorism, boiling point, softening point, slipping point, short melting point, density, refractive index, fire point, and turbidity point. The most important characteristics are the melting point, density, and the refractive index. Chemical Characteristics The important reactions of oils and fats are hydrolyses, IJENS
I. INTRODUCTION ATS is source of energy in food. A human may need 3,300 calories each day to have activities, which one-third of it is originated from fat. Edible fats can be found in animals and plants, such as cow’s milk, meat, coconut milk and seeds . Unprocessed fats will easily deteriorate. Cow’s milk and coconut milk at ambient room temperature of 25oC and atmospheric pressure of 1 atm will coagulate and be broken within 6 hours into cream, skim, and water components. In this process the phospholipids, proteins, and fat will separate. And homogenization is used to retard this process . Homogenization of cow’s milk and coconut milk will rearrange the density of milk constituents. Homogenization reduces the diameter of fat droplets to relatively uniform size. In addition, homogenization will increase the surface tension of the fat membrane . Food industries use ultrasound for homogenization process [4-6]. An experiment by Januri  showed fat break down by mean of a 40 kHz ultrasound. Ultrasound makes the solid part of the milk to dissolve uniformly to form emulsion suspension . Researches on animal milk have long been conducted. Those on coconut milk are yet to start. Ertugay et al.  used a 450-watt ultrasound generator to produce smaller fat droplets compared to a high pressure (200 bars) conventional method. Since coconut milk has comparable characteristics as food
Manuscript received December 12, 2011. This work was based on BP’s undergraduate thesis. S.J. Iswarin is with the Dept. of Physics, Brawijaya University, Malang 65145, Indonesia (phone: +62-341-575833; fax: +62-341-575834; e-mail: email@example.com). B. Permadi was an unduergraduate student of the Dept. of Physics, Brawijaya University, Malang 65145, Indonesia.
120101-8686 IJBAS-IJENS © February 2012 IJENS
10.0 . The application of ultrasonic waves will break the fat globules into smaller sizes with diameter ranges from 0.g. It also will increase the milk viscosity . The presence of water may cause changes in odor and flavor.0 . In general.5 . Coconut oil is composed of 84% triglycerides with three saturated fatty acids. and the unsaturated fatty acids are easier to absorb than the saturated fatty acids. The lower the melting point the easier the body absorbs them. non-fat contents. and 4% with one saturated fatty acid.000 to 3. and one-third of it originates from fats.5 – 2. Nutritional Value Fats are food constituent that play an important role to human as a source of energy.19. They may occur naturally in the fats as well as by introduction.0 .8. 12% with two saturated fatty acids.0.3.5 -9. Fats with melting temperatures of 36-38oC has a high absorbance value .0 . There are two types of emulsion known in food industry: oil in water (O/W) and water in oil (W/O). Nutritional comparison between coconut oil and cow’s milk is presented in Table I.5 Homogenization Homogenization is a technique used to stabilize fat emulsion in coconut milk (the milk is the medium) by restricting the coagulation and keeping suspended materials uniformly distributed.5 . Non-Fat Content Non-fat fractions that determined the value of the fats are th free fatty acids. E. Uniform size and distribution increase milk stability that in turn stopping emulsion to transform into cream . and linolenic acids which are unsaturated fats and 94% absorbable by human body.3 5. benzoate compounds). juice.24 million metric tons in 2011-2012. The coconut milk is juice made by pressing grated coconut meat.5% of world vegetable oil production with India being the largest market.4 0. It can be seen that the saturated fatty acids make up 90% of the fatty acid. This process will also change the odor and flavor. The intake and absorption of fats by human body are determined by their melting temperature and unsaturated fatty acid content. Coconut Oil Coconut fruits comprise of meat. anti oxidants. nickel. D. C. Production of coconut oil has topped 6. In hydrolyses. fats will transform to free fatty acids and glycerol with water as by product. linoleic. Homogenization is also employed to equalize the component structures. The distinctive rich taste of coconut is irreplaceable by any other substances of the 2 kind that makes the consumption of coconut milk steadily high.0 . Fats as Food The food value of fats is determined by three factors: nutritional value.0 7. salts.600 to 2. The quantity of milk produced depends of the maturity and freshness of the fruits.International Journal of Basic & Applied Sciences IJBAS-IJENS Vol: 12 No: 01 oxidation. and K are among those soluble materials in fat .400 calories for women and between 2. and husk. and the effects of non-fat content to body.52.22 million metric tons in 2010-2011 and is predicted to reach 6. Homogenization technique utilizes ultrasound of 20-30 kHz frequency. It is the primary source of fat in the diets of many people in tropical countries. The hydrogenation of fat in industry is generally aimed to saturate the double bonds of the carbon chain in the fats.9.8 5.0 0.5 44.5 1.0 µm .0 . The oxidation process will take place when fats are exposed to oxygen. For edible oils.0 13. The hydrogenation allows hydrogen molecules (H2) to react with the compounds of fats. TABLE II Some fatty acid found in coconut oil . The recommended daily intake of an adult ranges between 1. Coconut milk is an example of O/W emulsion and margarine is of W/O emulsion 120101-8686 IJBAS-IJENS © February 2012 IJENS IJENS . Fatty Acids Saturated: Caproic Caprilic Capric Lauric Myristic Palmitic Stearic Arachidic Unsaturated: Palmitoleic Oleic Linoleic Chemical Structure Portion (%) C5H11COOH C7H17COOH C9H19COOH C11H23COOH C13H27COOH C15H31COOH C17H35COOH C19H39COOH C15H29COOH C17H33COOH C17H31COOH 0. a saturated fat that elevates blood cholesterol levels by increasing the amount of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol that is also found in significant amounts in breast milk as well as cow’s milk . Contents Water Solids Fats Carbohydrate Egg white Minerals Coconut Milk (%) 86 14 5 5 4 1 Cow’s Milk (%) 88 12 4 5 5 3 Fatty acids composition in coconut oil is presented in Table II. Coconut oil can be produced from the dry or wet meat. and hydrogenation.1. TABLE I Nutritional contents of coconut oil and cow’s milk . the oils must be free from free fatty acids and low phosphate (H3PO4) contents before the reactions take place . However. Coconut oil contains a large portion of lauric acid. hydrolyses process is intentionally made in industry for specific purposes.2.5 4.0 .000 calories for men depending on age and physical activity level. which is 2. D.5 .0 1. The color and taste of the milk are attributed to the oil content of the milk. plant oils contain oleic. Vitamins A. preservatives (e.0. to recombine and adjust the density of the components in the milk.
The smallest diameter obtained was 3.05 4.2oC ± 0. Such could increase the membrane surface tension upto 15 mN/M. Sound with frequencies below 20 Hz is infrasound.5 5. the oil is in dispersed phase.10 4. Membrane Recombination Recombined membrane sstructures are different from the orignal ones. Ltd. and 25 minutes.1.77 ± 0. I.5 4. II.44 ± 0. 120101-8686 IJBAS-IJENS © February 2012 IJENS IJENS . The numbers are plotted in Figure 2. whereas sound with frequencies above the upper human hearing threshold is categorized as the ultrasound.5 W.5 watts and 5 minutes.3. The breaking process usually is carried out in a high pressure machinary.1.15 µm. Apparatuses In the experiment we used an experiment type homogenizer Samro SRH6-100 (Shanghai Samro Homogenizer Co.11 3. The water acts as the dispersant.09 4.64 ± 0.80 ± 0. 10 minutes (I.05 4.44 ± 0. The presence of the envelopes will stabilize the droplets from coalescence (e. Ultrasonic waves are generated by means of piezoelectric materials that convert electrical signals into mechanical vibrations.5 W.07 4. The fat is wrapped by proteins and phosphors (adopted from Ketaren.46 ± 0.10 4.88 ± 0. Ultrasonic Exposures The coconut milk was divided into six groups.72 ± 0. and so on to get 125 vials of treated samples and five vials of the control sample.90 ± 0.44 ± 0. 2.08 4.6 oC to observe the coagulation process. 10 minutes.90 ± 0. One group of 100 mL was used as a control group.5 5.1. and 7. the globules must be broken to allow the fat to bind the introduced ingredients.600 mL of coconut milk was required for the experiments.74 ± 0. 1 The structure of fat in fresh milk. TABLE III Diameter of droplets (in µm) after treatments. The power used were 2.09 4.15 µm.4). C.76 ± 0.56 ± 0.11 4. and V. The meats were then grated and water was Table III shows a range of droplets diameter yielded after the treatments. 15 minutes (I. METHODS A.08 3. ….1. Fresh milk contains fats that are wrapped by proteins and phosphors (see Figure 1). All samples were then left in the room at a room temperature of 24. 20 minutes (I.88 ± 0. IV.g. B.1.08 4. I. Further labeling was given to the vials to be I. V. and the durations of exposure were 5 minutes. such as vitamins. 3.5 watts of ultrasound power for a period of 5 minutes (sample I. Proteins in fats form lipoprotein compounds that act as the envelope of the globules. The ultrasound power was insufficient to break down the droplets.0 W. 5.5 W.5. II.2.) that is capable of pumping a maximum pressure of 100 MPa and delivering power up to 750 watts .1. III.08 3.04 ± 0. and V. droplets to clump together). The portion of the spectrum that can stimulate human organs of hearing is called the audible sound that ranges from 20 Hz – 20 kHz.64 ± 0. IV.14 ± 0. The generated frequency depends on the frequency of the supplied signals.05 4.64 ± 0.1). and 25 minutes (I. The mixture was squeezed to extract the milk.3). Prior to the process the water content of the milk is reduced to upto 60%. Subsequent treatments gave an average of 10% decrease in diameter. This figure was just similar to the initial droplets diameter of 5. liquid.52 ± 0. 15 minutes.15 µm due to the high binding energy of the droplets. Each sample went through different treatments that varied the ultrasound power and exposure times.08 4.58 ± 0. 3 added into the grated meat with a ratio of 1:2. 1986 ). Time to reach the coagulation was recorded.05 µm from the treatment of 2. composed of a spectrum of frequencies.5 W.04 ± 0.48 ± 0. and the protein is the natural emulsfier . The other groups were equally divided into volumes of 100mL each and labeled as samples I. Fat Breaking Fat is a reactive constituent in milk. It will react easily with proteins and phosphor.30 ± 0.05 4.09 4.22 ± 0. III.07 7. The largest diameter was 5.International Journal of Basic & Applied Sciences IJBAS-IJENS Vol: 12 No: 01 . Similar treatments went to samples number II.5).5 5. Exposure Time (mins) 5 10 15 20 25 Power (watts) 2. After the treatments. The coconut meats were first removed from the endocarp upon the opening of the fruit to obtain fresh meats.2. to the milk. Later. 20 minutes.04 5. Sample Preparation The coconut milk used in the experiments was extracted from matured coconut fruits. Ultrasonic Waves Sound is a mechanical wave resulted from an oscillation of pressure transmitted through a solid.12 ± 0. 4. the samples were again divided into smaller volumes and were put into five 20 mL-vials each.0 4. The diameter of the control group was 5.08 4. Coconut milk emulsion is stabilized by protiens that is absorbed in the oil-water layers. one group of 100 mL volume and five groups with 500 mL volume each.15 Other materials Lemak Phosphor Proteins Fig.2.07 4. Table IV shows the coagulation time.05 3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The observed droplet diameters after treatment were presented in Table III. To add other ingredients.4. I.14 ± 0.00 ± 0. Therefore sample number I received 2.2).44 ± 0. Recombination process involves homogenization that reduces the droplets diameter.05 5. …. the samples were brought under a microscope to measure the droplets’ diameter.07 3. or gas. E.
Charley. Johan Noor for his assistance in developing this manuscript.5 W 4.5 W 3. Fig. 2010.3 4. H.3 4. 5.7 4. Another breaking mechanism is due to the high frequency disturbance to the droplets. The ultrasonic processing of dairy products – An Exposure Time (mins) Fig.5 W 5. 1986. M. This process will in turn break down the droplets to smaller size.9 3.1) compared to those in Figure 2. This indicates that the power level is more dominant in breaking up the droplets than the duration of the exposure. M. CONCLUSION We found that ultrasonic wave can be used to prevent coconut milk coagulation and to reduce the droplet diameter.5 0 5 10 15 20 25 2. V.48 µm in 5 minutes and down to 3. Droplet Diameter (μm) 4. J... John Wiley and Sons..1 Ultrasonic transmitter Droplet Diameter (μm) 4.5 0 2 4 6 8 5 mins 10 mins 15 mins 20 mins 25 mins Ultrasound Power (watts) Fig. Our results 120101-8686 IJBAS-IJENS © February 2012 IJENS IJENS . Palmer.1 were consistent with results reported by Gordon and Pilosof . 2nd edition. ACKNOWLEDGMENT The authors would like to thank Dr. The milk droplets flow following the turbulence and are forced to collide each other and to hit the container wall (see Figure 5).3 5. REFERENCES     Ketaren. 1981. Lee.64 µm in 25 minutes.. M..1 3.7 3.International Journal of Basic & Applied Sciences IJBAS-IJENS Vol: 12 No: 01 4 5. S.1 3. 5 An illustration on how the turbulence flow in the medium will allow the milk droplet to collide each other and hit the wall.9 4. The disturbance will induce the droplets to shake in similar frequency of the ultrasounic wave. The slopes of the curve are less steep (correction factor of ± 0. The mechanical process of the droplet breakage is by continuous disturbance to the coconut milk that allows turbulence flow (see Figure 4). It is shown that the droplet diameter was reduced by 18%.5 5. The graphs reveal the expected decrease in the diameter as a function of the exposure time... 4 Wave propagation in the medum. R. The curve colour indicates the ultrasonic exposure time.7 4.7 3. The graphs reveal the expected decrease in the diameter upon the increase of the ultrasonic power level. USA. Minyak dan Lemak Pangan. B. S. Jakarta (in Bahasa Indonesia). UIPress.3 5. The droplets diameter is determined by the exposure time as well as the power of the wave. Food Science. The curve colour indicates the ultrasonic power. and Zisu. 2 Relation of droplet diameter to the ultrasound power exposed to the droplets. The continuous disturbance will cause turbulence flow in the medium that prevents coagulation. Figure 3 depicts the curves of the droplets diameter as a function of exposure time. 1982. The Science of Food.5 4. Kentish. The future works would deal with the use of the ultrasound in milk components separation processes. 3 Relation of droplet diameter to the ultrasound exposure time.. Cetakan Pertama. Macmillan. Bhaskaracharya. which in turn break the droplets into smaller size. The turbulence flow will inhibit the coagulation of the milk. The Ultrasonic wave is also capable of homogenizing the resulted droplet diameter size.5 4.5 W 7W Fig. From Figures 2 and 3 one could extract the information that the power increment will reduce the diameter of the droplets down to 4. Singapore.9 4. Ashokkumar.9 3.5 5. Bernion..
1990. Inc. F. of Physics.R.1007/s11483-010-9161-4. Ertugay. Chemat. Ultrasonics Sonochemistry. Januri. Shanghai.G. 1970. Applications of ultrasound in food technology: Processing.. Product.M. Application of High-Intensity Ultrasounds to Control the Size of Whey Proteins Particles. 90(2-3): 147-168. Processing. 2004. e-Huma. West Sussex... preservation and extraction... 7(1): 16-19. Woodroof: Production. 5(3): 203-210. Sci. DOI: 10. Food Processing Technology Principles and Practice. 2011. 2nd ed... Coconut Food Products and Based. Hegde. M. Treatment on Milk Homogenization and Particle Size Distribution on Fat. Ltd.G. SHR6-100. 1992. Anim. Brawijaya University.F. A. Dairy Sci. Turk. 2010.. M.E. 2005. A. B. Ellis Horworth.. High Pressure Homogenizer Operating Instructions. 18(4): 813–835. JIACM. 28: 303-308.K. Food Industry’s Manual. Coconut Oil – Ideal Fat next only to Mother’s Milk (Scanning Coconut’s Horoscope). F. Z. 2006.. USA. Gordon L. 1993. DOI: 10. US. L. Sarjana Thesis. Wetsport Connecticut.1051/dst/2009044. Dept. Jakarta (in Bahasa Indonesia). PJ.M.. Technol. Scabo Pub. PT Gramedia Pustaka Utama. M. Khan. Analisis Serapan Susu Sapi terhadap Gelombang Ultrasonik. Cancel. China-Samro. pp: 162-179.. Shanghai Samro Homogenizer Co. J. Ranken and Kill. and Sengul M. 5           120101-8686 IJBAS-IJENS © February 2012 IJENS IJENS . Malang (in Bahasa Indonesia). England. Fellows.International Journal of Basic & Applied Sciences IJBAS-IJENS Vol: 12 No: 01 overview. Food Biophysics. Winarno. In J.. Sengul. and Pilosof. China. Vet. Kimia Pangan dan Gizi. AVI Publishing Co.
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