UNIT 4: CELL RESEARCH

Prokaryotic & Eukaryotic Cells
Fantastic Voyage Initial Research

PROKARYOTIC CELLS

• A Prokaryotic cell is simpler in design and smaller compared to a Eukaryote cell, and unlike the eukaryotes, they lack a nucleus. Prokaryotic cells typically exist in bacteria and archaea. They both have a similar structure. • They usually exist in single celled organisms. • The structure is made up of a gelatinous capsule surrounding a cell membrane and cell wall. • Flagella (long thread-like organelles which help the cell to travel) and pili (thin filaments which help bacteria to attach to specific receptors of human cell) are present in most prokaryotic cells, on the outside of the cells surface. • The cell wall contains Peptidoglycan, which prevents the cell from expanding and bursting from osmotic pressure. • Most of the nuclear DNA material in a prokaryotic cell is made up of a single chromosome called a nucleoid. It is an irregular shaped area in the cell. This is surrounded by a nuclear membrane.

EUKARYOTIC CELLS

• ‘Eukaryotic’ gets its name from the existence of a nucleus inside the cell. (True Nucleus) • Eukaryotic cells exist within all complex organisms such as plants, animals and fungi, and also in unicellular organisms such as slime moulds, protozoa and algae. • The cells contain complex structures inside a membrane - including a nucleus, which carries genetic material. • Much larger than Prokaryotic cells; approximately 15 times wider and 1000 times greater in volume. • Flagella helps the cell to move. The Flagella is more complex than in a prokaryotic cell. • • The cells contain a cytoskeleton made up of microtubules, microfilaments and intermediate filaments. This is part of what makes up the cell’s organization and shape. • The cells can exist either as a single celled organism or in multicellular organisms or colonies.

EUKARYOTIC CELLS
Animal Cell
• Type of Eukaryotic cell which makes up tissue in animals. • They do not have cell walls or chloroplasts. Lack of cell wall causes the cell to take on different shapes. They have smaller vacuoles than plant cells. (a vacuole is a membrane bound organelle existing in all plant and fungal cells.)

Plant Cell
• Plant Cells are another type of Eukaryotic cell. They have cell walls unlike animal cells. • They have a large vacuole in the centre surrounded by a membrane, which controls the movement of molecules between the cytosol and sap (fluids found in cells). •Plastids including chloroplasts contain chlorophyll which gives plants a green colour and enables photosynthesis to occur.

Fungal Cell
• Fungal cells have more in common with animal cells than plant cells. • They have a cell wall, of which chitin, a derivative of glucose, is the main component.

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