HONGE TREE BIOMASS IS CENTURIES OLD AT GIVING FUEL & ELECTRICITY TO INDIA'S PEOPLE

TREE “HONGE MARA”

Botanical name: Pongamia Pinnata. (Avenue tree, Kannada: Honge Hind, Bengali: Karanj) Honge oil is derived from the Pongamia pinnata, which is native to India. This is a nonedible oil which will not compete with food markets or contribute to rising food costs. The Honge Tree, is an elegant tree and useful in many ways. It is a very good shade tree as it gets thickly covered with shiny green leaves. It is a medium sized tree that generally attains a height of about 8 meters and a trunk diameter of more than 50 cm. Billions of trees exist all over India. It is the best substitute for Kerosene. A compact plantation can support a Biodiesel plant. The cost of the oil is highly competitive with other potential fuel oils. Most of the physical and chemical properties of honge oil are similar to those of diesel. Researchers in India have estimated that honge oil could completely replace India's consumption of petroleum-based fuels. There are environmental benefits: • It is a renewable resource; is carbon dioxide neutral and emits no sulphur. It also offers a way out of an imminent international carbon tax. • Honge Trees increases tree cover that, in turn, sequesters carbon dioxide. A liter of Honge oil is equivalent in performance to 1ltr=.26Gal of diesel. The effective cost of honge oil at $150 per tonne is in stark contrast to the $460 diesel.

Honge Biodiesels have many advantages. lt can be used in its pure form or can be blended with diesel to form different blends. It can be used in diesel engines with very little or no engine modifications. This is because it has properties similar to mineral diesel, usually nothing new to be invented to run engines. They are kinder on the engines, have a long shelf life and are biodegradable. They are cheap and renewable, they disperse profits, are safe to store [due to a high flash point], release no more carbon dioxide than the trees originally consumed and have cooler, clearer exhausts. And to the delight of many investigators the exhaust from an engine on biodiesel "smells of pop corn and french fries!"

Honge Flower USES:

Honge Seeds

Oil: A thick yellow-orange to brown oil is extracted from seeds. Yields of 25% of volume are possible using a mechanical expeller. The oil has a bitter taste and a disagreeable aroma, thus it is not considered edible and will not contribute to rises in competitive food markets. The oil of the Honge Tree can be used as a substitute for diesel. Sequesters carbon-dioxide: As mentioned, there are environmental benefits. Honge increases tree cover which, in turn, sequesters carbon-dioxide. It is a renewable resource; is carbon dioxide neutral and emits no sulphur; it also offers a way out of an imminent international carbon tax. As field fencing, the trees serve as wind-breaks and help conserve moisture. The planting of trees will also prevent soil erosion. Sustainability for rural villages: Improves quality of life for the low-income, rural villagers by establishing Honge Tree groves and by individual home owners planting a tree. If the seeds fallen from scattered trees are collected, and oil is extracted, a few million tons of oil will be available for cooking and lighting the lamps in rural area. It is a substitute for Kerosene. Also live stock can be fed by its fodder. http://www.himalayaninstitute.org/pdf/SeedsofHope.pdf Fodder and feed: The leaves are eaten by cattle and readily consumed by goats. Its fodder value is greatest in arid regions. The oil cake, remaining when oil is extracted from the seeds, is used as a poultry feed.

Fertilizer: It has a rich leathery evergreen foliage, that is a wonderful manure. Beautification: Trees can be planted along the highways, roads for beautification and to stop soil erosion. It is often planted as an ornamental and shade tree. Other uses : The oil is also used as a lubricant, water-paint binder, pesticide, and in soap making and tanning industries. The oil is known to have value in folk medicine for the treatment of rheumatism, as well as human and animal skin diseases. It is effective in enhancing the pigmentation of skin affected by leucoderma or scabies (ICFRE undated). Dried leaves are used as an insect repellent in stored grains. The oil cake, when applied to the soil, has pesticidal value; particularly against nematodes and also improve soil fertility. Wood : Honge is commonly used as fuel wood. Its wood is medium to coarse textured. However, it is not durable, is susceptible to insect attack, and tends to split when sown. Thus the wood is not considered a quality timber. The wood is used for cabinet making, cart wheels, posts, agricultural implements, tool handles and combs. PRODUCTION: Goal: Production of 1,000,000 Gal of oil per/yr From year-3 it yields pods and production is a mature average of 160kG per tree per year. From year-10, through its life of 100 years: Ten trees can yield 400 litres of oil, 1200 kg of fertilizer grade oil cake and 2500kg of biomass as green manure per year. *96,154 trees (10 yr and older) produces 1,000,000Gal of oil per/ yr *1 Tree= 40 liters oil/10.4Gal *936(+) Gal per/ tree for 90 year life span (production from 3yr-9yr) *481 Acres are needed for planting of 96, 154 Trees. You can plant 200 plants per acre in the formation of 5 m x 4 m. You can get yield of 25 to 40 kgs per tree with 30 to 35% oil content. One person can collect 180 kgs of seeds in 8 hours of a day. Seed collection season in India is from December to April

HONGE TREE FARMING Honge oil is derived from the Pongamia pinnata tree, which is native to India. This is a non-edible oil, which will not compete with food markets or contribute to rising food costs. Billions of trees exist all over India. If the seeds fallen along road side are collected, and oil is extracted at village level expellers, a few million tons of oil will be available for cooking fuel and lighting the lamps in rural areas. It is the best substitute for Kerosine. A compact plantation can support a Biodiesel plant. The cost of the oil is highly competitive with other potential fuel oils. Most of the physical and chemical properties of honge oil are similar to those of diesel. Researchers in India have estimated that honge oil could completely replace India's consumption of petroleum-based fuels. There are environmental benefits: it is a renewable resource; is carbon-dioxide neutral and emits no sulphur. It also offers a way out of an imminent international carbon tax. Honge Trees increases tree cover which, in turn, sequesters carbon-dioxide. A liter of Honge oil is equivalent in performance to 1ltr=.26Gal of diesel. The effective cost of honge oil at $150 per tonne is in stark contrast to the $460 diesel. HONGE OIL CAN BE DIRECTLY IMPLEMENTED AS A FUEL SOURCE IN ENGINES Why Honge Tree Farms: • Honge Trees do not have to be re-grown yearly like other competing biomass crops. • Produce main ingredient for Biodiesel fuel (Do not have to purchase Oil) • Non-edible oil resource. (Non competing with food sources, which could drive up food costs and pricing) • Produces feedstock for cattle and poultry • Maintaining Farms Creates local jobs • Improves quality of life for the low-income, rural villagers; by small villages establishing Honge Tree groves and individuals planting a Tree. • There are environmental benefits: Honge increases tree cover which, in turn, sequesters carbon-dioxide. It is a renewable resource; is carbon-dioxide neutral and emits no sulphur. It also offers a way out of an imminent international carbon tax. • Other uses: Fertilizer, Beautification, Prevents soil Erosion, Used as a lubricant, Water-paint binder, Pesticide, and in soap making and tanning industries. Medicinal purposes; Treatment of rheumatism, as well as human and animal skin diseases, Ehances the pigmentation of skin affected by leucoderma or scabies (ICFRE undated), Dried leaves are used as an insect repellent in stored

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grains, The oil cake, when applied to the soil, has pesticidal value; particularly against nematodes and also improve soil fertility. Goal: Production of 1,000,000 Gal of oil per/yr From year-3 it yields pods and production is a mature average of 160kG per tree per year. From year-10, through its life of 100 years: Ten trees can yield 400 litres of oil, 1200 kg of fertilizer grade oil cake and 2500kg of biomass as green manure per year. 96,154 trees (10 yr and older) produces 1,000,000Gal of oil per/ yr 1 Tree= 40 liters oil/10.4Gal 936(+) Gal per/ tree for 90 year life span (production from 3yr-9yr) 481 Acres are needed for planting of 96, 154 Trees. You can plant 200 plants per acre in the formation of 5 m x 4 m. You can get yield of 25 to 40 kgs per tree with 30 to 35% oil content. One person can collect 180 kgs of seeds in 8 hours of a day. Seed collection season in India is from December to April EXPENSES: Cost of a seed: $1.50 Usd/per KG of seeds *Germination: 80 to 85% Maintenance p/acre = $300, i.e.: Maintenance, Irrigation, Fertilizer *(fodder from seeds)

To find out how you can obtain seeds to start your own Honge Biomass farm, please contact us:

Victor Garlington Director of Client Services 70CentsaGallon.com Ph:(941) 870 2306 Call us (Free) Internationally on Skype: Biodfuel70 Victor@70CentsaGallon.com Goto: http://www.70centsagallon.com/gpage1.html1.html To see video testimonials on EthosFR and start saving $ today on fuel!