PROJECT IN

MATH
Submitted by :

Jeevan Michael S. Manasan
Submitted to :

Ms.

FRACTION
Fractions
A fraction is a part of a whole

Slice a pizza, and you will have fractions:

1

/2

1

/4

3

/8

(One-Half)

(One-Quarter)

(Three-Eighths)

The top number tells how many slices you have The bottom number tells how many slices the pizza was cut into.

Numerator / Denominator
We call the top number the Numerator, it is the number of parts you have. We call the bottom number the Denominator, it is the number of parts the whole is divided into. Numerator Denominator

Equivalent Fractions
Some fractions may look different, but are really the same, for example:
4

/8

=

2

/4

=

1

/2

(Four-Eighths)

Two-Quarters)

(One-Half)

=

=

It is usually best to show an answer using the simplest fraction ( /2 in this case ). That is called Simplifying, or Reducing the Fraction

1

Similar Fractions – are fractionsthat have the same denominators. Ex. 2/5 , 8/5 , 3/5

Dissimilar Fractions – are fractions that have the different denominators. Ex. 4/5 , 3/4 , 2/3 Three Types of Fractions
Proper Fractions: The numerator is less than the denominator Examples: 1/3, 3/4, 2/7

Improper Fractions: The numerator is greater than (or equal to) the denominator Examples: 4/3,
11

/4, 7/7

Mixed Fractions:

A whole number and proper fraction together Examples: 1 1/3, 2 1/4, 16 2/5

Converting Improper Fractions to Mixed Fractions
To convert an improper fraction to a mixed fraction, follow these steps:    Divide the numerator by the denominator. Write down the whole number answer Then write down any remainder above the denominator.

Example: Convert 11/4 to a mixed fraction.
Divide:

11 ÷ 4 = 2 with a remainder of 3
Write down the 2 and then write down the remainder (3) above the denominator (4), like this:

2

3 4

Converting Mixed Fractions to Improper Fractions
To convert a mixed fraction to an improper fraction, follow these steps:    Multiply the whole number part by the fraction's denominator. Add that to the numerator Then write the result on top of the denominator.

Example: Convert 3 2/5 to an improper fraction.
Multiply the whole number by the denominator:

3 × 5 = 15
Add the numerator to that:

15 + 2 = 17
Then write that down above the denominator, like this:

17 5

Adding Fractions
There are 3 Simple Steps to add fractions:
 Step 1: Make sure the bottom numbers (the denominators) are the same  Step 2: Add the top numbers (the numerators), put the answer over

the denominator.
 Step 3: Simplify the fraction (if needed).

Example 1:
1 4 + 1 4

Step 1. The bottom numbers (the denominators) are already the same. Go straight to step 2. Step 2. Add the top numbers and put the answer over the same denominator:

1 4
Step 3. Simplify the fraction:

+

1 4

=

1+1 4

=

2 4

2 4
In picture form it looks like this:
1

=

1 2

/4

+

1

/4

=

2

/4

=

1

/2

... and do you see how 2/4 is simpler as 1/2 ? (see Equivalent Fractions.)

Example 2:
1 3 + 1 6

Step 1: The bottom numbers are different. See how the slices are different sizes?
1

/3

+

1

/6

=

?

We need to make them the same before we can continue, because we can't add them like that. The number "6" is twice as big as "3", so to make the bottom numbers the same we can multiply the top and bottom of the first fraction by 2, like this:

×2
1 3 2 6

=

×2
Important: you multiply both top and bottom by the same amount, to keep the value of the fraction the same
Now the fractions have the same bottom number ("6"), and our question looks like this:
2

/6

+

1

/6

The bottom numbers are now the same, so we can go to step 2.

Step 2: Add the top numbers and put them over the same denominator:

2 6
In picture form it looks like this:
2

+

1 6

=

2+1 6

=

3 6

/6

+

1

/6

=

3

/6

Step 3: Simplify the fraction:

3 6

=

1 2

In picture form the whole answer looks like this:
2

/6

+

1

/6

=

3

/6

=

1

/2

Subtracting Fractions
There are 3 simple steps to subtract fractions
 Step 1. Make sure the bottom numbers (the denominators) are the same  Step 2. Subtract the top numbers (the numerators). Put the answer over

the same denominator.
 Step 3. Simplify the fraction.

Example 1:
3 4 – 1 4

Step 1. The bottom numbers are already the same. Go straight to step 2. Step 2. Subtract the top numbers and put the answer over the same denominator:

3 4

1 4

=

3–1 4

=

2 4

Step 3. Simplify the fraction:

2 4

=

1 2

(If you are unsure of the last step see Equivalent Fractions.)

Example 2:
1 2 – 1 6

Step 1. The bottom numbers are different. See how the slices are different sizes? We need to make them the same before we can continue, because we can't subtract them like this:
1

/2

1

/6

=

?

To make the bottom numbers the same, multiply the top and bottom of the first fraction 1 ( /2) by 3 like this:

×3

1 2

=

3 6

×3
And now our question looks like this:
3

/6

1

/6

The bottom numbers (the denominators) are the same, so we can go to step 2.

Step 2. Subtract the top numbers and put the answer over the same denominator:

3 6

1 6

=

3–1 6

=

2 6

In picture form it looks like this:
3

/6

1

/6

=

2

/6

Step 3. Simplify the fraction:

2 6

=

1 3

Multiplying Fractions
Multiply the tops, multiply the bottoms.

There are 3 simple steps to multiply fractions
1. Multiply the top numbers (the numerators). 2. Multiply the bottom numbers (the denominators). 3. Simplify the fraction if needed.

Example:
1 2
Step 1. Multiply the top numbers:

×

2 5

1 2

×

2 5

=

1×2

=

2

Step 2. Multiply the bottom numbers:

1 2
Step 3. Simplify the fraction:

×

2 5

=

1×2 2×5

=

2 10

2 10

=

1 5

With Pizza
Here you can see it with pizza ...

... and do you see how two-tenths is simpler as one-fifth?

Dividing Fractions
Turn the second fraction upside down, then multiply.

There are 3 Simple Steps to Divide Fractions:
Step 1. Turn the second fraction (the one you want to divide by) upside-down (this is now a reciprocal). Step 2. Multiply the first fraction by that reciprocal Step 3. Simplify the fraction (if needed)

Example:
1 2 ÷ 1 6

Step 1. Turn the second fraction upside-down (it becomes a reciprocal):

1 6

becomes

6 1

Step 2. Multiply the first fraction by that reciprocal:

1 2
Step 3. Simplify the fraction:

×

6 1

=

1×6 2×1

=

6 2

6 2

=

3

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